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Journal of the National Medical Association

Ha-Sung Kong, Gap-Hwan Park
BACKGROUND: This study is focused on a rapid and safe transfer when there are many people who need rescuing in unapproachable location. Generally, a stretcher, a basket or a mesh drawing is used to transfer injured people or survivors in the emergency rescue, however, it turned out that it takes long time to transfer a number of people with a stretcher and it is difficult to transfer injured people safely with a basket or a mesh drawing. It would expect to transfer many people who need rescuing promptly and harmlessly...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Jamie A Mitchell, Vicki Johnson-Lawrence, Ed-Dee G Williams, Roland Thorpe
This study represents an effort to contribute to the limited body of research on biopsychosocial contextual factors that influence or contribute to mobility limitations for older African American men. Specifically, we were interested in examining associations between socio-demographic, physical and emotional health experiences with mobility limitations. A secondary analysis of 1666 older African American men was performed to investigate socio-demographic, mental and physical health correlates to a specific measures of mobility limitation...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Minnjuan Flournoy-Floyd, Kasim Ortiz, Leonard Egede, Jim C Oates, Trevor D Faith, Edith M Williams
BACKGROUND: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder with significant disparate impact on African American women. The current study sought to highlight how the Peer Approaches to Lupus Self-management (PALS) intervention worked bi-directionally wherein both women with SLE leading the disease self-management program (mentors), and those participants who served as mentees, were empowered toward greater disease self-efficacy. METHODS: Data was captured for this study in two formats from the seven mentors participating in the pilot study: 1) mentor logs and 2) mentor interviews with the principle investigator...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Anna L Chien, Ji Qi, Radhika Grandhi, Noori Kim, Sabrina Sisto Alessi César, Tamia Harris-Tryon, Min Soo Jang, Omolara Olowoyeye, Diane Kuhn, Sherry Leung, Barbara M Rainer, Flora Poon, Jean Suh, Nancy Cheng, Ginette A Okoye, Sewon Kang
BACKGROUND: African-Americans are less affected by photoaging than lighter skin individuals. Although scales for photoaging have been developed for Caucasians and Asians, no scale exists for African-Americans. AIM: To develop a photonumeric scale for photoaging and to determine factors that contribute to photoaging in African-Americans. METHODS: Five participants' photographs were selected as standards to create a 9-point photonumeric scale (0 = none, 8 = most severe)...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Joshua R Hirsch, George Waits, Yabing Li, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Heart age is an estimate of the age of a person's cardiovascular system given their cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The difference between a person's chronological age and heart age (excess heart age) represents their added CVD risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine racial differences in excess heart age and whether race impacts the association between excess heart age and CVD mortality. METHODS: This analysis included 5110 participants (2449 non-Hispanic white, 1287 non-Hispanic black, and 1374 Mexican-American) from the NHANES III who were free of CVD...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Aisha Nnoli, Neil S Seligman, Kevin Dysart, Jason K Baxter, Samir K Ballas
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of maternal and fetal complications. There are limited data on the outcome of the treatment of VOCs with opioids in relation to neonatal complications during pregnancy. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of women with SCD from January 1999 to December 2008. Women with SCD were identified by ICD-9 codes and matched 2:1 to a control group of women on methadone for opioid dependence...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Kenneth D Royal
BACKGROUND: Social and cultural outcomes are critically important in medical education. A large medical school located in the United States implemented a learning community model intended to promote social and cultural growth among its medical students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree to which medical students from the same peer cohort were socially connected across racial and sex groups. METHODS: Because most assessments involving social and cultural outcomes involve self-reported data of a personal nature, the possibility of social desirability bias is increased...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Elizabeth Linton, Arielle L Langer, Jeffrey Glassberg
Analyses of administrative and large data sources in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) can answer questions not suitable for prospective study but have been hampered by lack of validated methods to adjust for individual comorbidities and lack of baseline utilization data over time. We sought to develop a database to characterize inpatient SCD care across New York State and generate a re-weighted sickle-cell specific Charlson Comorbidity index (S-CCI) for use in future large data SCD research. We identified 18,541 individual SCD patients admitted to New York State hospitals between 2005 and 2013 from the SPARCS database...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Kaixian Zhang, Qianqian Yuan, Shuguang Zhu, Daheng Xu, Zhe An
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prevalent cancer with high global incidence and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. CRC screening is important for early cancer detection and prevention. Most premalignant adenomas can be identified and removed before they become malignant. Colonoscopy plays a vital role in reducing the risk for developing CRC. Although screening programs with colonoscopy have been implemented in many countries and considered beneficial for a number of people, this technique is generally associated with anxiety, embarrassment, pain, and discomfort, resulting in lack of adherence to the recommended screening guidelines...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Melishia Bansa, Darryl Brown, Daniela DeFrino, Nicholas Mahoney, Alexandria Saulsberry, Monika Marko-Holguin, Joshua Fogel, Tracy R G Gladstone, Benjamin W Van Voorhees
BACKGROUND: This study explored the implementation of Chicago Urban Resiliency Building (CURB), a randomized clinical trial designed as an Internet-based primary care depression prevention intervention for urban African American and Latino adolescents. METHODS: We utilized a mixed methods analysis to explore four aims. First, we estimated the percent of at-risk adolescents that were successfully screened. Second, we examined clinic site factors and performance. Third, primary care providers (n = 10) and clinic staff (n = 18) were surveyed to assess their knowledge and attitudes about the intervention...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
David B Miller, Jamie L Cage, Amy S Nowacki, Brielle Jackson, Charles S Modlin
Health literacy remains a key factor in the continuance of health disparities in our society as health related quality of life can be negatively affected by limited health literacy. This study explores how limited health literacy among minority men, attending a community health fair, correlates with their health related quality of life. Findings reflect that minority men who possess lower levels of health literacy experience lower self-reported quality of life. Directions for healthcare providers, community health educators and future research approaches are provided...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Adaora M Chima, Rahul Koka, Benjamin Lee, Tina Tran, Onyebuchi U Ogbuagu, Howard Nelson-Williams, Michael Rosen, Michael Koroma, John B Sampson
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity are major causes of death in low-resource countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workforce scarcities present in these locations result in poor perioperative care access and quality. These scarcities also limit the capacity for progressive development and enhancement of workforce training, and skills through continuing medical education. Newly available low-cost, in-situ simulation systems make it possible for a small cadre of trainers to use simulation to identify areas needing improvement and to rehearse best practice approaches, relevant to the context of target environments...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Aldina Mesic, Lydia Franklin, Alev Cansever, Fiona Potter, Anika Sharma, Anita Knopov, Michael Siegel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to discern the relationship between state-level structural racism and Black-White disparities in police shootings of victims not known to be armed. METHODS: Using a Poisson regression, we evaluated the effect of structural racism on differences between states in Black-White disparities in fatal police shootings involving victims not known to be armed during the period from January 1, 2013 through June 30, 2017. We created a state racism index, which was comprised of five dimensions: (1) residential segregation; and gaps in (2) incarceration rates; (3) educational attainment; (4) economic indicators; and (5) employment status...
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Melissa Clarke, Edwin C Chapman, Doris Browne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
William B Lawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Padmanabha Nandan, Arun Kumar Nayanatara, Roopesh Poojary, K Bhagyalakshmi, M Nirupama, Rekha D Kini
PURPOSE: Obesity in females is an emerging health problem. The consumption of MSG has been considered as a risk factor for obesity. The tastemakers in Chinese and fast foods, such as fish sauce and soy sauce, contain very high levels of glutamate. The deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of co-administration of Vitamin D on body weight control in MSG-induced obese rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups equally...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Tahereh Nosratzehi, Fateme Arbabi-Kalati, Hamed Hamishehkar, Sudabeh Bagheri
INTRODUCTION: Lichen planus is a prevalent chronic mucocutaneous condition, whose exact pathogenesis has not been elucidated yet and its standard treatment at present involves the use of local corticosteroids. Curcumin is a colored material extracted from Curcuma longa plant species and is used as an appetizer and for medical purposes. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-cancerous properties. In the present study, the effect of mucoadhesive pastes containing curcumin and local corticosteroids was evaluated for the treatment of erosive lichen planus lesions...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Shukrat O Salisu-Olatunji, Funmilade O Adepoju, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is one of the ten countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally and is experiencing an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (DR-TB) among patients screened at the TB clinic of a tertiary institution in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria. METHODS: A review of records of 840 patients with suspected drug-resistant TB was carried out from Gene Xpert test clinic register at a tertiary health facility from November 2013 to April 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Mohammad Reza Akbari, Ali Ahmadi, Shiva Mirkalantari, Jafar Salimian
BACKGROUND: Regarding to the importance of cholera in Iran and the potential advantages of egg yolk antibody (IgY) for immunotherapy, the aim of this study was to produce IgY antibody against V. cholerae Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and determine its potential for V. cholerae treatment. METHODS: LPS was prepared, and the Anti-V. cholerae LPS IgY was purified from egg yolk and serially diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), mixed with V. cholerae and then gavaged into several groups of suckling mice...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Aynur Amanzholkyzy, Rose E Nurgalieva, Arystan Zh Dosimov, Edgaras Stankevicius, Ayman T Kaldybaeva
BACKGROUND (OBJECTIVES): The objective of the article is studying the connection of VDR gene polymorphisms with bone tissue mineral density and biochemical marker of 25-PO vitamin D in adolescents of both ethnic groups, living in Western Kazakhstan Region. METHODS: The study included 110 relatively healthy children aged 13-18 years of Aktobe, the representatives of Kazakh ethnic group e 66 (Kazakh children) and Slavonic e 44 (Russian children). The groups were formed according to BTMD data, ethnic affiliation and according to content of vitamin D and gene polymorphism of vitamin D (VDR)...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
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