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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716306/the-sound-field-of-a-rotating-dipole-in-a-plug-flow
#1
Zhao-Huan Wang, Ivan V Belyaev, Xiao-Zheng Zhang, Chuan-Xing Bi, Georgy A Faranosov, Earl H Dowell
An analytical far field solution for a rotating point dipole source in a plug flow is derived. The shear layer of the jet is modelled as an infinitely thin cylindrical vortex sheet and the far field integral is calculated by the stationary phase method. Four numerical tests are performed to validate the derived solution as well as to assess the effects of sound refraction from the shear layer. First, the calculated results using the derived formulations are compared with the known solution for a rotating dipole in a uniform flow to validate the present model in this fundamental test case...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716305/word-final-schwa-is-driven-by-intonation-the-case-of-bari-italian
#2
Martine Grice, Michelina Savino, Timo B Roettger
In order to convey pragmatic functions, a speaker has to select an intonation contour (the tune) in addition to the words that are to be spoken (the text). The tune and text are assumed to be independent of each other, such that any one intonation contour can be produced on different phrases, regardless of the number and nature of the segments they are made up of. However, if the segmental string is too short, certain tunes-especially those with a rising component-call for adjustments to the text. In Italian, for instance, loan words such as "chat" can be produced with a word final schwa when this word occurs at the end of a question...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716304/unknown-beaked-whale-echolocation-signals-recorded-off-eastern-new-zealand
#3
Giacomo Giorli, Kimberly T Goetz, Julien Delarue, Emily Maxner, Katie A Kowarski, Steven Bruce Martin, Craig McPherson
The echolocation signals of most beaked whale species are still unknown. In fact, out of the 22 species comprising the family Ziphiidae, only the echolocation pulses for 7 species have been clearly described. This study describes two distinct beaked whale echolocation signals recorded in the Cook Strait region using passive acoustic technology. These signals differ from previously described Ziphiid species clicks. A description of the time-frequency characteristics of the two signals is provided. Understanding the characteristics of these signals is necessary to correctly identify species from their echolocation signals and enables future monitoring of beaked whales using passive acoustics techniques...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716303/differences-in-common-psychoacoustical-tasks-by-sex-menstrual-cycle-and-race
#4
Dennis McFadden, Edward G Pasanen, Mindy M Maloney, Erin M Leshikar, Michelle H Pho
The psychoacoustical literature contains multiple reports about small differences in performance depending upon the sex and phase of the menstrual cycle of the subjects. In an attempt to verify these past reports, a large-scale study was implemented. After extensive training, the performance of about 75 listeners was measured on seven common psychoacoustical tasks. For most tasks, the signal was a 3.0-kHz tone. The initial data analyses failed to confirm some past outcomes. Additional analyses, incorporating the limited information available about the racial background of the listeners, did confirm some of the past reports, with the direction and magnitude of the differences often diverging for the White and Non-White listeners...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716302/effect-of-audibility-on-better-ear-glimpsing-as-a-function-of-frequency-in-normal-hearing-and-hearing-impaired-listeners
#5
Baljeet Rana, Jörg M Buchholz
Better-ear glimpsing (BEG) is an auditory phenomenon that helps understanding speech in noise by utilizing interaural level differences (ILDs). The benefit provided by BEG is limited in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners by reduced audibility at high frequencies. Rana and Buchholz [(2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(2), 1192-1205] have shown that artificially enhancing ILDs at low and mid frequencies can help HI listeners understanding speech in noise, but the achieved benefit is smaller than in normal-hearing (NH) listeners...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716301/level-dominance-effect-and-selective-attention-in-a-dichotic-sample-discrimination-task
#6
Alison Y Tan, Bruce G Berg
Differences in individual listening patterns are reported for a dichotic sample discrimination task. Seven tones were drawn from normal distributions with means of 1000 or 1100 Hz on each trial. Even-numbered tones (2, 4, and 6) and odd-numbered tones (1, 3, 5, and 7) were drawn, respectively, from distributions with a 50-Hz and 200-Hz standard deviation. Task difficulty was manipulated by presenting odd and even tones at different intensities. In easy conditions, high and low informative tones were presented at 70 dB and 50 dB, respectively...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716300/arrays-of-rectangular-subcritical-speech-bands-intelligibility-improved-by-noise-vocoding-and-expanding-to-critical-bandwidths
#7
Richard M Warren, James A Bashford, Peter W Lenz
A previous study [Warren, Bashford, and Lenz (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141, EL222-EL227] reported that arrays of subcritical width rectangular speech bands can produce near ceiling sentence intelligibility. The present study used noise-vocoded subcritical band speech arrays with analysis bandwidths of 4%, 2%, 1%, or 0.5% of center frequency. Intelligibility decreased when analysis and noise carrier bandwidths were matched. However, expanding carrier noise bandwidths to a critical bandwidth of 1/3-octave (26%) produced array intelligibilities either equaling or substantially exceeding that of the original speech band arrays...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716299/objective-detection-and-time-frequency-localization-of-components-within-transient-signals
#8
Isabella Reinhold, Maria Sandsten, Josefin Starkhammar
An automatic component detection method for overlapping transient pulses in multi-component signals is presented and evaluated. The recently proposed scaled reassignment technique is shown to have the best achievable resolution for closely located Gaussian shaped transient pulses, even in heavy disruptive noise. As a result, the method automatically detects and counts the number of transients, giving the center times and center frequencies of all components with considerable accuracy. The presented method shows great potential for applications in several acoustic research fields, where coinciding Gaussian shaped transients are analyzed...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716298/hearing-thresholds-for-underwater-sounds-of-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina-at-the-water-surface
#9
Ronald A Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, John M Terhune
High-amplitude impulsive sounds produced by pile driving and airguns may result in hearing damage in nearby seals. By swimming at the water surface, seals may reduce their exposure to underwater sound, as sound pressure levels (SPLs) are often lower just below the surface than deeper in the water column. Seals can make physiological adjustments such that they can switch between having maximum sensitivity for either aerial or underwater sounds. This could mean that hearing sensitivity for underwater sounds is lower when swimming at the water surface (when hearing may be focused on aerial sounds) than when swimming at depth...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716297/defect-imaging-for-plate-like-structures-using-diffuse-field
#10
Takahiro Hayashi
Defect imaging utilizing a scanning laser source (SLS) technique produces images of defects in a plate-like structure, as well as spurious images occurring because of resonances and reverberations within the specimen. This study developed defect imaging by the SLS using diffuse field concepts to reduce the intensity of spurious images, by which the energy of flexural waves excited by laser can be estimated. The experimental results in the different frequency bandwidths of excitation waves and in specimens with different attenuation proved that clearer images of defects are obtained in broadband excitation using a chirp wave and in specimens with low attenuation, which produce diffuse fields easily...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716296/rapid-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech-and-its-transfer-to-an-unfamiliar-talker
#11
Xin Xie, Kodi Weatherholtz, Larisa Bainton, Emily Rowe, Zachary Burchill, Linda Liu, T Florian Jaeger
How fast can listeners adapt to unfamiliar foreign accents? Clarke and Garrett [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3647-3658 (2004)] (CG04) reported that native-English listeners adapted to foreign-accented English within a minute, demonstrating improved processing of spoken words. In two web-based experiments that closely follow the design of CG04, the effects of rapid accent adaptation are examined and its generalization is explored across talkers. Experiment 1 replicated the core finding of CG04 that initial perceptual difficulty with foreign-accented speech can be attenuated rapidly by a brief period of exposure to an accented talker...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716295/noise-robust-speech-triage
#12
Anthony L Bartos, Tomas Cipr, Douglas J Nelson, Petr Schwarz, John Banowetz, Ladislav Jerabek
A method is presented in which conventional speech algorithms are applied, with no modifications, to improve their performance in extremely noisy environments. It has been demonstrated that, for eigen-channel algorithms, pre-training multiple speaker identification (SID) models at a lattice of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) levels and then performing SID using the appropriate SNR dependent model was successful in mitigating noise at all SNR levels. In those tests, it was found that SID performance was optimized when the SNR of the testing and training data were close or identical...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716294/sequential-inversion-of-self-noise-using-adaptive-particle-filter-in-shallow-water
#13
Liankun Bo, Jinyu Xiong, Shuqing Ma
The geoacoustic inversion based on a horizontal towed array sonar receiving tow-ship noise has demonstrated a promising technique for the parameter inversion in shallow water. In order to characterize the evolution of parameters in the time-varying environment, the adaptive particle filter for the sequential inversion is presented in this paper. The inversion problem is formulated as a dynamic and nonlinear process in the Bayesian framework, due to the fact that the self-noise is recorded sequentially in space and time...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716293/investigating-the-stability-of-frequency-dependent-locally-reacting-surface-boundary-conditions-in-numerical-acoustic-models
#14
Stephen Oxnard
Numerical acoustic modeling enables simulation of sound propagation through bounded space. Recent research directed to refining Finite Difference Time Domain solutions for acoustic prediction has focused on emulating sound wave-surface interaction. Locally reacting surface properties are a popular choice for deriving boundary conditions that incorporate surface absorption properties. However, implementation of these boundary conditions, using the methods described in prevalent literature, is demonstrated here as unstable for complex room geometries...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716292/comparison-of-passive-acoustic-soniferous-fish-monitoring-with-supervised-and-unsupervised-approaches
#15
Tzu-Hao Lin, Yu Tsao, Tomonari Akamatsu
Passive acoustics has been used to investigate behavior and relative abundances of soniferous fish. However, because of noise interferences, it remains challenging to accurately analyze acoustic activities of soniferous fish. This study proposes a multi-method approach, which combines rule-based detector, periodicity-coded non-negative matrix factorization, and Gaussian mixture models. Although the three methods performed well when used to detect croaker choruses in quiet conditions, inconsistent results are observed in noisy conditions...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716291/echolocation-click-source-parameters-of-australian-snubfin-dolphins-orcaella-heinsohni
#16
Mafalda de Freitas, Joshua N Smith, Frants H Jensen, Kristian Beedholm, Peter T Madsen
The Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) is endemic to Australian waters, yet little is known about its abundance and habitat use. To investigate the feasibility of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for snubfin dolphins, biosonar clicks were recorded in Cygnet Bay, Australia, using a four-element hydrophone array. Clicks had a mean source level of 200 ± 5 dB re 1 μPa pp, transmission directivity index of 24 dB, mean centroid frequency of 98 ± 9 kHz, and a root-mean-square bandwidth of 31 ± 3 kHz...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716290/boundary-layer-noise-subtraction-in-hydrodynamic-tunnel-using-robust-principal-component-analysis
#17
Sylvain Amailland, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Charles Pézerat, Romuald Boucheron
The acoustic study of propellers in a hydrodynamic tunnel is of paramount importance during the design process, but can involve significant difficulties due to the boundary layer noise (BLN). Indeed, advanced denoising methods are needed to recover the acoustic signal in case of poor signal-to-noise ratio. The technique proposed in this paper is based on the decomposition of the wall-pressure cross-spectral matrix (CSM) by taking advantage of both the low-rank property of the acoustic CSM and the sparse property of the BLN CSM...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716289/numerical-and-analytic-modelling-of-elastodynamic-scattering-within-polycrystalline-materials
#18
A Van Pamel, G Sha, M J S Lowe, S I Rokhlin
The elastodynamic behavior of polycrystalline cubic materials is studied through the fundamental propagation properties, the attenuation and wave speed, of a longitudinal wave. Predictions made by different analytical models are compared to both numerical and experimental results. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulation which provides a full-physics solution to the scattering problem. The three main analytical models include the Far-Field Approximation (FFA), the Self-Consistent Approximation (SCA) to the reference medium, and the herein derived Second Order Approximation (SOA)...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716288/the-noise-susceptibility-of-various-speech-bands
#19
Sarah E Yoho, Frédéric Apoux, Eric W Healy
The degrading influence of noise on various critical bands of speech was assessed. A modified version of the compound method [Apoux and Healy (2012) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1078-1087] was employed to establish this noise susceptibility for each speech band. Noise was added to the target speech band at various signal-to-noise ratios to determine the amount of noise required to reduce the contribution of that band by 50%. It was found that noise susceptibility is not equal across the speech spectrum, as is commonly assumed and incorporated into modern indexes...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716287/pre-sabine-room-acoustic-design-guidelines-based-on-human-voice-directivity
#20
Barteld N J Postma, Sebastien Jouan, Brian F G Katz
With the work of Wallace C. Sabine on the lecture hall of the Fogg Art Museum and concert hall of Boston Symphony Hall, a foundation for the field of architectural acoustics as a science was laid between 1895 and 1900. Prior to that, architects employed various notions in acoustic design. Previous studies by the authors have reviewed 18th and 19th century design guidelines that were based on the quantification of the perception threshold between direct sound and first order reflections, with these guidelines being followed in the design of several rooms with acoustical demands...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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