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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Kurt Steinmetzger, Stuart Rosen
In normal hearing, complex tones with pitch-related periodic envelope modulations are far less effective maskers of speech than aperiodic noise. Here, it is shown that this masker-periodicity benefit is diminished in noise-vocoder simulations of cochlear implants (CIs) and further reduced with real CIs. Nevertheless, both listener groups still benefitted significantly from masker periodicity, despite the lack of salient spectral pitch cues. The main reason for the smaller effect observed in CI users is thought to be an even stronger channel interaction than in the CI simulations, which smears out the random envelope modulations that are characteristic for aperiodic sounds...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Felipe Orduña-Bustamante, F Arturo Machuca-Tzili, Roberto Velasco-Segura
The bias errors of transmission tube measurements are evaluated using an empty test tube condition, implying full sound transmission, normal-incidence sound transmission loss (nSTL) = 0, and two narrow tube elements presenting a theoretically known sound transmission loss (which includes modeling of thermo-viscous losses), varying in frequency around moderate non-zero nSTL levels, and approaching insulation levels more typically found in applications. Results show that the different reference conditions are virtually equivalent in presenting negligible amounts of bias error within the corresponding measurement uncertainties, typically within ±1 dB, in the full 6000 Hz measurement frequency range in this particular case...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yongwei Li, Junfeng Li, Masato Akagi
Motivated by the source-filter model of speech production, analysis of emotional speech based on the inverse-filtering method has been extensively conducted. The relative contribution of the glottal source and vocal tract cues to perception of emotions in speech is still unclear, especially after removing the effects of the known dominant factors (e.g., F 0 , intensity, and duration). In this present study, the glottal source and vocal tract parameters were estimated in a simultaneous manner, modified in a controlled way and then used for resynthesizing emotional Japanese vowels by applying a recently developed analysis-by-synthesis method...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Erica L Morley, Thorin Jonsson, Daniel Robert
Acoustic communication is an important component of courtship in Drosophila melanogaster. It takes the form of courtship song produced by males through the unilateral extension and vibration of a wing. Following the paradigm of sender-receiver matching, song content is assumed to match tuning in the auditory system, however, D. melanogaster audition is nonlinear and tuning dependent upon signal amplitude. At low stimulus amplitudes or in the absence of sound the antenna is tuned into song frequency, but as amplitude increases the antenna's resonance is shifted up by hundreds of Hertz...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Omid Yousefian, R D White, Yasamin Karbalaeisadegh, H T Banks, Marie Muller
This work proposes a power law model to describe the attenuation of ultrasonic waves in non-absorbing heterogeneous media with randomly distributed scatterers, mimicking a simplified structure of cortical bone. This paper models the propagation in heterogeneous structures with controlled porosity using a two-dimensional finite-difference time domain numerical simulation in order to measure the frequency dependent attenuation. The paper then fits a phenomenological model to the simulated frequency dependent attenuation by optimizing parameters under an ordinary least squares framework...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yurii A Ilinskii, Evgenia A Zabolotskaya, Benjamin C Treweek, Mark F Hamilton
A theoretical framework in Lagrangian coordinates is developed for calculating the acoustic radiation force on an elastic sphere in a soft elastic medium. Advantages of using Lagrangian coordinates are that the surface of the sphere is fixed in the reference frame, and nonlinearity appears only in the stress tensor. The incident field is a time-harmonic compressional wave with arbitrary spatial structure, and there is no restriction on the size of the sphere. Bulk and shear viscosities are taken into account with complex wavenumbers...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Maëva Garnier, Lucie Ménard, Boris Alexandre
This study investigates the hypothesis that speakers make active use of the visual modality in production to improve their speech intelligibility in noisy conditions. Six native speakers of Canadian French produced speech in quiet conditions and in 85 dB of babble noise, in three situations: interacting face-to-face with the experimenter (AV), using the auditory modality only (AO), or reading aloud (NI, no interaction). The audio signal was recorded with the three-dimensional movements of their lips and tongue, using electromagnetic articulography...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Nicolas Wallaert, Léo Varnet, Brian C J Moore, Christian Lorenzi
The effect of the number of modulation cycles ( N ) on frequency-modulation (FM) detection thresholds (FMDTs) was measured with and without interfering amplitude modulation (AM) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, using a 500-Hz sinusoidal carrier and FM rates of 2 and 20 Hz. The data were compared with FMDTs for normal-hearing (NH) listeners and AM detection thresholds (AMDTs) for NH and HI listeners [Wallaert, Moore, and Lorenzi (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. 139 , 3088-3096; Wallaert, Moore, Ewert, and Lorenzi (2017)...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Bharat B Tripathi, Sambandam Baskar, François Coulouvrat, Régis Marchiano
Recently Ram, Geva, and Sadot [J. Fluid Mech. 768 , 219-235 (2015)] showed, experimentally, the formation of a secondary Mach stem generated from the reflection of the primary Mach stem in the aerodynamic regime. Such a phenomenon has never been observed, either experimentally or numerically, in the framework of weak acoustic shocks. In this work, the formation of a secondary Mach stem is observed from the reflection of acoustic shock waves on a convex-concave boundary giving rise to a complex five-shock pattern...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jeffrey M Knowles, Allison J Doupe, Michael S Brainard
Discrimination between spoken words composed of overlapping elements, such as "captain" and "captive," relies on sensitivity to unique combinations of prefix and suffix elements that span a "uniqueness point" where the word candidates diverge. To model such combinatorial processing, adult female zebra finches were trained to discriminate between target and distractor syllable sequences that shared overlapping "contextual" prefixes and differed only in their "informative" suffixes...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Elaine Moran
Editor's Note: Readers of this journal are encouraged to submit news items on awards, appointments, and other activities about themselves or their colleagues. Deadline dates for news and notices are 2 months prior to publication.
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Emmanuelle C Leroy, Karolin Thomisch, Jean-Yves Royer, Olaf Boebel, Ilse Van Opzeeland
Evaluation of the performance of computer-based algorithms to automatically detect mammalian vocalizations often relies on comparisons between detector outputs and a reference data set, generally obtained by manual annotation of acoustic recordings. To explore the reproducibility of these annotations, inter- and intra-analyst variability in manually annotated Antarctic blue whale (ABW) Z-calls are investigated by two analysts in acoustic data from two ocean basins representing different scenarios in terms of call abundance and background noise...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Patchouly N Banks, James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow, Mark J Xitco
Studies have demonstrated that dolphins can maintain continuous auditory or echolocation vigilance for up to 5 to 15 days when provided with continuous primary reinforcement (i.e., food reward after each correct detection). The goals of this study were to examine whether dolphins could perform an 8-h echolocation vigilance task featuring variable reinforcement schedules, where correct responses were intermittently rewarded, and variable acoustic secondary reinforcement (feedback) patterns. Three dolphins were trained to echolocate simulated targets and press a response paddle upon detecting echoes...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stephen E Keith, Gilles A Daigle, Michael R Stinson
This study was developed to estimate wind turbine low frequency and infrasound levels at 1238 dwellings in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. In field measurements, spectral peaks were identifiable for distances up to 10 km away from wind turbines at frequencies from 0.5 to 70 Hz. These measurements, combined with onsite meteorology, were in agreement with calculations using Parabolic Equation (PE) and Fast Field Program (FFP). Since onsite meteorology was not available for the Health Canada study, PE and FFP calculations used Harmonoise weather classes and field measurements of wind turbine infrasound to estimate yearly averaged sound pressure levels...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Arturo Moncada-Torres, Suyash N Joshi, Andreas Prokopiou, Jan Wouters, Bastian Epp, Tom Francart
Different computational models have been developed to study the interaural time difference (ITD) perception. However, only few have used a physiologically inspired architecture to study ITD discrimination. Furthermore, they do not include aspects of hearing impairment. In this work, a framework was developed to predict ITD thresholds in listeners with normal and impaired hearing. It combines the physiologically inspired model of the auditory periphery proposed by Zilany, Bruce, Nelson, and Carney [(2009). J...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Valtteri Hongisto, David Oliva, Laura Rekola
Sound insulation in a building façade plays a key role in the control of road-traffic noise. Façade performance can be described using various internationally standardized single-number quantities (SNQs) with different frequency weightings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how 25 different SNQs explain the subjective ratings of spectrally different road-traffic sounds transmitted through a façade. Forty-three participants took part in a psychoacoustic laboratory experiment. The task was to evaluate five spectrally different road-traffic sound types transmitted through 12 simulated façade constructions...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
P Ted Christopher, Kevin J Parker
Recent work has established an analytical formulation of broadband fields which extend in the axial direction and converge to a narrow concentrated line. Those unique (needle) fields have their origins in an angular spectrum configuration in which the forward propagating wavenumber of the field ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>k</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>z</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ) is constant across any <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Caicai Zhang, Jing Shao, Si Chen
Human listeners perceive speech sounds relative to acoustic cues in context. In this study the authors examined how congenital amusia, a pitch-processing disorder, affects perceptual normalization of lexical tones according to the distribution of F 0 cues in context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 16 controls were tested on the effects of shifting F 0 level in four types of contexts on tone perception: nonspeech, reversed speech, semantically anomalous speech, and meaningful speech contexts. Performance of controls replicated previous studies, showing contrastive changes of tone perception according to the shifted F 0 level of anomalous and meaningful contexts, which were native speech contexts with phonological cues to estimate a talker's tone space...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Abigail Anne Kressner, Adam Westermann, Jörg M Buchholz
Listening to speech in an environment with reverberation can be challenging for both the normal and impaired auditory system. However, it has been shown for both normal- and impaired-hearing listeners that it is the late reflections that are responsible for degrading intelligibility, whereas early reflections actually aid intelligibility by increasing the effective signal-to-noise ratio. Contrastingly, studies conducted with cochlear implant (CI) recipients have suggested that CI recipients have almost no tolerance for reverberation and that they are negatively impacted by both early and late reflections...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Léa Bouffaut, Richard Dréo, Valérie Labat, Abdel-O Boudraa, Guilhem Barruol
As a first step to Antarctic blue whale (ABW) monitoring using passive acoustics, a method based on the stochastic matched filter (SMF) is proposed. Derived from the matched filter (MF), this filter-based denoising method enhances stochastic signals embedded in an additive colored noise by maximizing its output signal to noise ratio (SNR). These assumptions are well adapted to the passive detection of ABW calls where emitted signals are modified by the unknown impulse response of the propagation channel. A filter bank is computed and stored offline based on a priori knowledge of the signal second order statistics and simulated colored sea-noise...
August 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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