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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Qiaoxi Zhu, Philip Coleman, Ming Wu, Jun Yang
Pressure matching (PM) and planarity control (PC) methods can be used to reproduce local sound with a certain orientation at the listening zone, while suppressing the sound energy at the quiet zone. In this letter, regularized PM and PC, incorporating coarse error estimation, are introduced to increase the robustness in non-ideal reproduction scenarios. Facilitated by this, the interaction between regularization, robustness, (tuned) personal audio optimization, and local directional performance is explored...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Robert Allen Fox, Ewa Jacewicz
Vowel space area (VSA) calculated on the basis of corner vowels has emerged as a metric for the study of regional variation, speech intelligibility and speech development. This paper gives an evaluation of the basic assumptions underlying both the concept of the vowel space and the utility of the VSA in making cross-dialectal and sound change comparisons. Using cross-generational data from 135 female speakers representing three distinct dialects of American English, the first step was to establish that the vowel quadrilateral fails as a metric in the context of dialect variation...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Seung Kyung Kim, Meghan Sumner
This study employs an auditory-visual associative priming paradigm to test whether non-emotional words uttered in emotional prosody (e.g., pineapple spoken in angry prosody or happy prosody) facilitate recognition of semantically emotional words (e.g., mad, upset or smile, joy). The results show an affective priming effect between emotional prosody and emotional words independent of lexical carriers of the prosody. Learned acoustic patterns in speech (e.g., emotional prosody) map directly to social concepts and representations, and this social information influences the spoken word recognition process...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Keunhwa Lee, Woojae Seong, Seongil Kim
This paper proposes a roll-angle estimation method for the triplet towed array using the oceanic ambient noise recorded in the mid-frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. Here, the dominance of oceanic surface-generated noises such as wind-driven and shipping noises is expected. The ratio between the approximated phase parts of the noise-coherence function regarding the triplet hydrophones is used for the roll estimation. Advantage of this technique is that explicit input regarding the oceanic environment is not required, especially for an ocean with an azimuthally uniform noise field or dominant noise sources at the end-fire direction of the horizontal array...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Richard L Freyman, Patrick M Zurek
This study describes the contributions to auditory image position of an interaural time delay (ITD) cue at onset relative to subsequent ITDs during the ongoing part of a stimulus. Test stimuli were trains of 1-ms binaural noise bursts; lateral position was measured with a wideband acoustic pointer that subjects adjusted to match the intracranial position of test stimuli. In different conditions the ongoing part of the stimulus (the bursts following the first one) either had a consistent ITD (the same ITD on each ongoing burst), or had alternating leading and lagging components with ITDs that opposed one another...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yiping Wang, Chengqi Guo, Chengjian Peng, Chenguang Yu
A hybrid numerical approach was used on a three-dimensional cavity at a non-zero inclination angle of the upstream section to reveal the mechanism of self-oscillation and the characteristics of far-field sound field. In this hybrid approach, the unsteady flow physics was captured by a compressible large eddy simulation, and the far-field sound field was calculated by the FW-H integral equation, with the noise source provided by near-field calculation. The mechanism of self-oscillation was revealed based on the instantaneous flow field structure and the pressure inside the cavity...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Eric M Strohm, Lauren A Wirtzfeld, Gregory J Czarnota, Michael C Kolios
High frequency ultrasound backscatter signals from sea urchin oocytes were measured using a 40 MHz transducer and compared to numerical simulations. The Faran scattering model was used to calculate the ultrasound scattered from single oocytes in suspension. The urchin oocytes are non-nucleated with uniform size and biomechanical properties; the backscatter from each cell is similar and easy to simulate, unlike typical nucleated mammalian cells. The time domain signal measured from single oocytes in suspension showed two distinct peaks, and the power spectrum was periodic with minima spaced approximately 10 MHz apart...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Margaret E L Renwick, Rachel M Olsen
The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Gloriana Chaverri, Oscar E Quirós
Bats can actively adjust their echolocation signals to specific habitats and tasks, yet it is not known if bats also modify their calls to decrease atmospheric attenuation. Here the authors test the hypothesis that individuals emit echolocation calls ideally suited to current conditions of temperature and humidity. The authors recorded two species, Molossus molossus and Molossops temminckii, in the field under different conditions of humidity and temperature. For each species, two calls were analyzed: the shorter frequency modulated (FM) signals that bats emitted as they approached the recording microphone, and the longer constant frequency (CF) calls emitted thereafter...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Viet Tra, Jaeyoung Kim, Sheraz Ali Khan, Jong-Myon Kim
Incipient defects in bearings are traditionally diagnosed either by developing discriminative models for features that are extracted from raw acoustic emission (AE) signals, or by detecting peaks at characteristic defect frequencies in the envelope power spectrum of the AE signals. Under variable speed conditions, however, such methods do not yield the best results. This letter proposes a technique for diagnosing incipient bearing defects under variable speed conditions, by extracting features from different sub-bands of the inherently non-stationary AE signal, and then classifying bearing defects using a weighted committee machine, which is an ensemble of support vector machines and artificial neural networks...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Shigeto Kawahara
Previous experimental studies showed that in Japanese, vowels are longer after shorter onset consonants; there is durational compensation within a CV-mora. In order to address whether this compensation occurs in natural speech, this study re-examines this observation using the Corpus of Spontaneous Japanese. The results, which are based on more than 200 000 CV-mora tokens, show that there is a negative correlation between the onset consonant and the following vowel in terms of their duration. The statistical significance of this negative correlation is assessed by a traditional correlation analysis as well as a bootstrap resampling analysis, which both show that it is unlikely that the observed compensation effect occurred by chance...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Dayi Ou, Cheuk Ming Mak
A combined approach based on finite element method and genetic algorithm (FEM-GA) is proposed for optimizing the natural frequencies of plate structures. This approach can identify the optimal boundary conditions so that the plate's natural frequencies can be adjusted simultaneously to their corresponding target values. In this approach, the natural frequencies of plates with arbitrary boundary conditions are calculated by FEM, while GA is employed for searching the optimal solutions of the multiple-objective optimization problem...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Satoru Gotoh, Mikio Tohyama, Tammo Houtgast
This paper describes the effect of two types of temporal permutations of the speech waveform on speech intelligibility. Using an overlap-add procedure with triangular-shaped windows for frame lengths of 1/8 to 2048 ms, the temporal order of the speech samples within each frame was subjected to either of two types of permutations: time-reversal or randomization. For both permutations, speech intelligibility tests expectantly show 100% intelligibility for the very short frame lengths containing only a few speech samples...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Woomin Jung, Stephen J Elliott, Jordan Cheer
This paper describes practical integration of the remote microphone technique with a head-tracking device in a local active noise control system. The formulation is first reviewed for the optimized observation filter and nearfield pressure estimation. The attenuation performance and stability of an adaptive active headrest system combined with the remote microphone technique are then studied. The accuracy of the nearfield estimation and the effect of the head-tracking on the control performance are investigated in real-time experiments...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stefanie Jannedy, Melanie Weirich
The results of the quantification of the acoustic differences between German /ç/ and /ʃ/ in three speaker groups with varying contrast realizations are presented. Data for two speaker groups were collected in Berlin and Kiel, where the contrast is still realized. Data for a third group were collected in Berlin from speakers of Hood German-a youth-style multiethnolect spoken by adolescents in multilingual and multicultural neighborhoods of Berlin-where the contrast has weakened or is even lost. A forced choice perception test showed that listeners reliably differentiate these two fricatives in minimal pairs produced by the speakers from Berlin and Kiel, but fail to do so for the productions of the Hood German speakers...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Lisa Lucks Mendel, Sungmin Lee, Monique Pousson, Chhayakanta Patro, Skylar McSorley, Bonny Banerjee, Shamima Najnin, Masoumeh Heidari Kapourchali
A corpus of recordings of deaf speech is introduced. Adults who were pre- or post-lingually deafened as well as those with normal hearing read standardized speech passages totaling 11 h of .wav recordings. Preliminary acoustic analyses are included to provide a glimpse of the kinds of analyses that can be conducted with this corpus of recordings. Long term average speech spectra as well as spectral moment analyses provide considerable insight into differences observed in the speech of talkers judged to have low, medium, or high speech intelligibility...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Emmanuel Ponsot, Patrick Susini, Sabine Meunier
The mechanisms underlying global loudness judgments of rising- or falling-intensity tones were further investigated in two magnitude estimation experiments. By manipulating the temporal characteristics of such stimuli, it was examined whether judgments could be accounted for by an integration of their loudest portion over a certain temporal window associated to a "decay mechanism" downsizing this integration over time for falling ramps. In experiment 1, 1-kHz intensity-ramps were stretched in time between 1 and 16 s keeping their dynamics (difference between maximum and minimum levels) unchanged...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stefano Picotti, José M Carcione
The acoustic behavior of porous media can be simulated more realistically using a stress-strain relation based on the Cole-Cole model. In particular, seismic velocity dispersion and attenuation in porous rocks is well described by mesoscopic-loss models. Using the Zener model to simulate wave propagation is a rough approximation, while the Cole-Cole model provides an optimal description of the physics. Here, a time-domain algorithm is proposed based on the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical approximation of the fractional derivative involved in the time-domain representation of the Cole-Cole model, while the spatial derivatives are computed with the Fourier pseudospectral method...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Georgina Brown, Jessica Wormald
This paper demonstrates how the Y-ACCDIST system, the York ACCDIST-based automatic accent recognition system [Brown (2015). Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK], can be used to inspect sociophonetic corpora as a preliminary "screening" tool. Although Y-ACCDIST's intended application is to assist with forensic casework, the system can also be exploited in sociophonetic research to begin unpacking variation. Using a subset of the PEBL (Panjabi-English in Bradford and Leicester) corpus, the outputs of Y-ACCDIST are explored, which, it is argued, efficiently and objectively assess speaker similarities across different linguistic varieties...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Aaron M Gunderson, Aubrey L España, Philip L Marston
Far field sound scattering from underwater elastic spheres and finite cylinders is considered over the full range of scattering angles. Three models for the frequency response of the scattered field are evaluated: a hybrid finite element/propagation simulation for a finite cylinder with broadside illumination, an approximate solution for the finite cylinder, and the exact solution for a sphere. The cylinder models are shown to give comparable results, attesting to the strength of the finite cylinder approximate solution...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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