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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225899/comparison-of-four-molecular-approaches-to-identify-candida-parapsilosis-complex-species
#1
Leonardo Silva Barbedo, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225898/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-the-vaccine-era-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Mari Tuyama, Jessica Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica Schlackman, Jane W Marsh, Maria C Rebelo, Elaine O Cerqueira, Márcio Nehab, Fabíola Kegele, Getúlio F Carmo, Dominique Ca Thielmann, Paulo F Barroso, Lee H Harrison, David E Barroso
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#3
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225896/diagnosis-of-human-herpes-virus-1-and-2-hhv-1-and-hhv-2-use-of-a-synthetic-standard-curve-for-absolute-quantification-by-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#4
Lyana Rodrigues Pinto Lima, Amanda Perse da Silva, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Vanessa Salete de Paula
The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225895/tuberculosis-associated-factors-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-of-the-rdrio-genotype
#5
Eloise Brasil Moraes, Letícia Slompo, Amanda Juliane Finardi, Heloisa Paro Pedro da Silveira, Luciana Ruiz, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Virginia Bodelão Richini, Philip Suffys, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Ricardo Cavalcanti, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias Baptista
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a disease that affects many countries around the world, including Brazil. Recently, a subtype of Latin American-Mediterranean family strain was identified and characterised by RDRio. The strain has been associated with different characteristics of the disease. OBJECTIVES: In the present study we investigated the association of epidemiological, clinical, radiological and bacteriological variables with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by RDRioMycobacterium tuberculosis strain in large regions of São Paulo...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225894/chronic-chagas-cardiomyopathy-a-review-of-the-main-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-the-efficacy-of-aetiological-treatment-following-the-benznidazole-evaluation-for-interrupting-trypanosomiasis-benefit-trial
#6
Anis Rassi, José Antonio Marin, Anis Rassi
Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most frequent and most severe manifestation of chronic Chagas disease, and is one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in Latin America. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, it may involve several mechanisms, including parasite-dependent myocardial damage, immune-mediated myocardial injury (induced by the parasite itself and by self-antigens), and microvascular and neurogenic disturbances. In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327794/seasonality-of-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-and-leishmania-dna-detection-in-vector-species-in-an-area-with-endemic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Lara Saraiva, Camila Gonçalves Leite, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Luiz Otávio Alves de Carvalho, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Felipe Dutra Rego, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, José Dilermando Andrade
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327793/insights-into-cytochrome-bc1-complex-binding-mode-of-antimalarial-2-hydroxy-1-4-naphthoquinones-through-molecular-modelling
#8
Ana Carolina Rennó Sodero, Bárbara Abrahim-Vieira, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Pedro Geraldo Pascutti, Célia Rs Garcia, Vitor Francisco Ferreira, David Rodrigues da Rocha, Sabrina Baptista Ferreira, Floriano Paes Silva
BACKGROUND: Malaria persists as a major public health problem. Atovaquone is a drug that inhibits the respiratory chain of Plasmodium falciparum, but with serious limitations like known resistance, low bioavailability and high plasma protein binding. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to perform molecular modelling studies of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones analogues of atovaquone on the Qo site of P. falciparum cytochrome bc1 complex (Pfbc1) to suggest structural modifications that could improve their antimalarial activity...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327792/vegetation-loss-and-the-2016-oropouche-fever-outbreak-in-peru
#9
Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Luis E Escobar
BACKGROUND: Oropouche virus causes Oropouche fever, an arboviral disease transmitted mainly by midges of the genus Culicoides and Culex mosquitoes. Clinical presentation of Oropouche fever in humans includes fever, headache, rash, myalgia, and in rare cases spontaneous bleeding and aseptic meningitis. Landscape change has been proposed as a driver of Oropouche fever emergence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the landscape epidemiology of the Oropouche fever outbreak that began in April 2016 in Cusco, Peru...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#10
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327790/association-of-nr1i2-gene-polymorphisms-and-time-of-progression-to-aids
#11
Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Carolina Fialho Menti, Jéssica Louise Benelli, Maria Cristina Cotta Matte, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Sabrina Esteves de Matos Almeida, Marilu Fiegenbaum
BACKGROUND: The time of progression towards AIDS can vary greatly among seropositive patients, and may be associated with host genetic variation. The NR1I2 (PXR) gene, a ligand-activated transcription factor, regulates the transcription immune pathway genes and can therefore be targets of viral replication mechanisms influencing time of progression to AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3814057, rs6785049, rs7643645, and rs2461817 in the NR1I2 (PXR) gene with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected patients...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327789/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-a-group-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-active-tuberculosis-in-porto-alegre-southern-brazil
#12
Cintia Costi, Tarciana Grandi, Maria Laura Halon, Márcia Susana Nunes Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da Silva, Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Carla Adriane Jarczewski, Christian Niel, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327788/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-serogroup-c-meningococcal-disease-vaccination-program-in-brazil-and-its-regions-a-population-based-study-2001-2013
#13
Camile de Moraes, José Cássio de Moraes, Gabriela Drummond Marques da Silva, Elisabeth Carmen Duarte
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal C conjugate (MenC) vaccine was introduced as part of the Brazilian National Immunisation Program in 2010 for children < 1 year of age. OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to evaluate the impact of this vaccination strategy. METHODS: An observational, mixed ecological and analytical study was conducted, based on time series panel data from surveillance records (2001-2013). FINDINGS: A total of 37,538 of meningococcal disease cases were recorded during the study period...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327787/overexpression-of-mir-484-and-mir-744-in-vero-cells-alters-dengue-virus-replication
#14
Juan Camilo Castrillón-Betancur, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
BACKGROUND: Dengue is considered one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Although miRNAs possess antiviral activity against many mammalian-infecting viruses, their involvement in Dengue virus (DENV) replication remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of miR-484 and miR-744 in DENV infection and to examine whether DENV infection alters the expression of both miRNAs...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#15
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327785/ultrastructural-alterations-in-schistosoma-mansoni-juvenile-and-adult-male-worms-after-in-vitro-incubation-with-primaquine
#16
Reem Osama A Kamel, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar Bayaumy
BACKGROUND: Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES: This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225907/characterisation-of-iunh-gene-knockout-strain-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Anne Drumond Villela, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues, Antônio Frederico Michel Pinto, Priscila Lamb Wink, Zilpa Adriana Sánchez-Quitian, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225906/the-current-status-of-the-lutzomyia-longipalpis-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-species-complex
#18
Nataly A Souza, Reginaldo P Brazil, Alejandra S Araki
Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225905/comparison-of-four-molecular-approaches-to-identify-candida-parapsilosis-complex-species
#19
Leonardo Silva Barbedo, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225904/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-the-vaccine-era-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#20
Mari Tuyama, Jessica Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica Schlackman, Jane W Marsh, Maria C Rebelo, Elaine O Cerqueira, Márcio Nehab, Fabíola Kegele, Getúlio F Carmo, Dominique Ca Thielmann, Paulo F Barroso, Lee H Harrison, David E Barroso
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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