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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Marcos de Almeida, Henry Bishop, Fernanda S Nascimento, Blaine Mathison, Richard S Bradbury, Alexandre da Silva
BACKGROUND Human trichinellosis is a foodborne parasitic zoonotic disease caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat infected with nematode larvae of the genus Trichinella. In the USA, sporadic cases and outbreaks caused by the consumption of wild game meat infected with Trichinella have been reported. The current methods for diagnosis such as serology and microscopy are not specific, may result in false negative results, and cannot differentiate encapsulated Trichinella larvae to species level. The molecular protocols currently available for the differentiation of all encapsulate Trichinella species prevalent in North America have some limitations such as the inability to identify and resolve the presence of several Trichinella species in a single test...
October 29, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Tassia Cristina Bello de Vasconcelos, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury, Andreza Pain Marcelino, Guilherme L Werneck
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health challenge in South America, and dogs are its main urban reservoir. OBJECTIVE Validation of the canine Dual-path Platform immunoassay for canine visceral leishmaniasis (DPP® CVL) for a sample set composed of 1446 dogs from different Brazilian endemic areas. METHODS A well-defined reference standard by means of parasitological culture, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology was used. Animals were classified as asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, or symptomatic...
October 29, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Amariles de Sousa Borba, Daniele Freitas Henriques, Eliana Vieira Pinto da Silva, Fernando Neto Tavares, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Clístenes Lima Guimarães, Lívia Carício Martins, Talita Antônia Furtado Monteiro, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
This study showed that laboratory markers of recent infection by dengue, Zika or chikungunya arboviruses were detected in the biological samples of approximately one-third of patients with encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis or Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a surveillance programme in Piauí state, Brazil, between 2015-2016. Fever and myalgia had been associated with these cases. Since in non-tropical countries most infections or parainfectious diseases associated with the nervous system are attributed to herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and Campylobacter jejuni, the present findings indicate that in tropical countries, arboviruses may now play a more important role and reinforce the need for their surveillance and systematic investigation in the tropics...
October 29, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Izabel Letícia Cavalcante Ramalho, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Deborah Nunes Melo Braga, Anne Carolinne Bezerra Perdigão, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Fernanda de Bruycker Nogueira, Kiliana Nogueira Farias da Escóssia, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes
BACKGROUND The first dengue cases in Brazil with laboratory confirmation occurred in the northern region of the country, with the isolation of two serotypes, dengue virus 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-4. In Ceará, the introduction of DENV-4 was reported during a DENV-1 epidemic in 2011, with only two isolations. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to characterise the first DENV-4 epidemic in the state of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS The study population was composed of patients with suspected dengue that were reported to health care units from January to December 2012...
October 18, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Bruno L Travi, Guadalupe Miró
A pivotal strategy to decrease the risk of visceral leishmaniasis in humans is to control the infection and disease progression in dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi). Immunotherapy is a viable approach to treat sick dogs because cell-mediated immunity is the principal defense mechanism against L. infantum. Domperidone is an immune-stimulatory drug increasingly used in veterinary medicine as a prophylactic or immunotherapeutic agent. Domperidone treatment has shown to prevent overt disease or improve the clinical condition of infected dogs...
October 18, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Aline Luciano Horta, Vivian Paulino Figueiredo, Ana Luisa Junqueira Leite, Guilherme de Paula Costa, Ana Paula de Jesus Menezes, Camila de Oliveira Ramos, Tamiles Caroline Fernandes Pedrosa, Frank Silva Bezerra, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, André Talvani
BACKGROUND The infection led by Trypanosoma cruzi persists in mammalian tissues causing an inflammatory imbalance. Carvedilol (Cv), a non-selective beta blocker drug indicated to treat heart failure and antihypertensive has shown to promote antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties which might improve the inflammation induced by T. cruzi. OBJECTIVES Evaluate the role of Cv on the inflammatory response of C57BL/6 mice acutely infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. METHODS Animals were infected with the Colombian strain of T...
October 18, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Renata Monteiro-Maia, Paloma Rezende Correa, Periela da Silva Sousa-Vasconcelos, Rosa Teixeira de Pinho, Leila Mendonça-Lima
The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine comprises a family of genetically different strains derived by the loss of genomic regions (RDs) and other mutations. In BCG Moreau, loss of RD16 inactivates rv3405c * , encoding a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates the expression of Rv3406, an alkyl sulfatase. To evaluate the impact of this loss on the BCG and host cell viability and the cytokine profile, THP-1 cells were infected with BCG Moreau (harbouring the empty vector) and a complemented strain carrying a functional copy of rv3405c...
October 11, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Ana Carolina Aor, Thaís P Mello, Leandro S Sangenito, Beatriz B Fonseca, Sonia Rozental, Viviane F Lione, Venício F Veiga, Marta H Branquinha, André Ls Santos
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum is a ubiquitous, emerging and multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen with still rather unknown virulence mechanisms. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: The cellular basis of the in vitro interaction between fungi and host cells/tissues is the determinant factor for the development of a successful in vivo infection. Herein, we evaluated the interaction of S. apiospermum conidia with lung epithelial (A549), lung fibroblast (MRC-5) and RAW 264.7 macrophages by light and scanning/transmission electron microscopy...
October 8, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Judith I Keller, Justin O Schmidt, Anna M Schmoker, Bryan A Ballif, Lori Stevens
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is highly prevalent in Latin America, and vector control is the most effective control strategy to date. We have previously shown that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a valuable tool for identifying triatomine vector blood meals. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine blood meal detection ability as a function of method [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs. LC-MS/MS], time since feeding, and the effect of molting in mouse-fed triatomine insect vectors targeting hemoglobin and albumin proteins with LC-MS/MS and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE)-based PCR...
August 27, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Yao-Ting Huang, Wei-Yao Chuang, Bing-Ching Ho, Zong-Yen Wu, Rita C Kuo, Mengwei Ko, Po-Yu Liu
Raoultella planticola is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of bacteremia, biliary tract infections, and urinary tract infections. Moreover, increasing antimicrobial resistance in the organism poses a potential threat to public health. In spite of its importance as a human pathogen, the genome of R. planticola remains largely unexplored and little is known about its virulence factors. Although lipopolysaccharides has been detected in R. planticola and implicated in the virulence in earlier studies, the genetic background is unknown...
August 27, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/0074-0276140228].
August 27, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Karine Pedreira Padilha, Maria Eduarda Barreto Resck, Octávio Augusto Talyuli da Cunha, Rayane Teles-de-Freitas, Stéphanie Silva Campos, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Luana Cristina Farnesi, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
BACKGROUND: Zika has emerged as a new public health threat after the explosive epidemic in Brazil in 2015. It is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The knowledge of physiological, behavioural and biological features in virus-infected vectors may help the understanding of arbovirus transmission dynamics and elucidate their influence in vector capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the behaviour of Ae...
August 23, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Henrique S Costa, Marcia Maria O Lima, Pedro Henrique S Figueiredo, Patrícia M Martinelli, Elizabeth Rs Camargos, Ana Thereza Chaves, Maria Carmo Pereira Nunes, Manoel Otavio C Rocha
BACKGROUND: Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been shown to be lower in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) than in patients with non-dilated chagasic cardiomyopathy. However, its prognostic value was not established in patients with ChC. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with ChC (50 ± 7 years, New York Heart Association "NYHA" I-III); were evaluated by echocardiography, exercise testing, and blood analysis. Serum BDNF levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay sandwich...
August 20, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Anna Clara Milesi Galdino, Thaís Pereira de Mello, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Marta Helena Branquinha, Ana Maria Bolognese, José Columbano Neto, Maryam Roudbary
Biofilm formation is the preferred mode of growth lifestyle for many microorganisms, including bacterial and fungal human pathogens. Biofilm is a strong and dynamic structure that confers a broad range of advantages to its members, such as adhesion/cohesion capabilities, mechanical properties, nutritional sources, metabolite exchange platform, cellular communication, protection and resistance to drugs (e.g., antimicrobials, antiseptics, and disinfectants), environmental stresses (e.g., dehydration and ultraviolet light), host immune attacks (e...
July 26, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Danielle Mann, Flávia Marinho Sant'Anna, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Solange Cesar Cavalcante, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Despite the increase in the number of cases of TB and HIV, few cases of CTB have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe CTB cases among patients with HIV infection from a cohort with tuberculosis. METHODS: We describe a series of 15 CTB and HIV cases, based on secondary data from 2000 to 2016. Diagnosis was based on isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture or clinical response to anti-tuberculous treatment associated with positive smear or histopathologic findings from affected skin or an adjacent lymph node...
July 26, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Douglas de Souza Moreira, Ana Paula Duarte, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Rosiane Aparecida da Silva-Pereira, Alvaro José Romanha, Sergio Schenkman, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta
Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a conserved protein with an essential role in translation elongation. Using one and two-dimensional western blotting, we showed that the eIF5A protein level was 2-fold lower in benznidazole (BZ)-resistant (BZR and 17LER) Trypanosoma cruzi populations than in their respective susceptible counterparts (BZS and 17WTS). To confirm the role of eIF5A in BZ resistance, we transfected BZS and 17WTS with the wild-type eIF5A or mutant eIF5A-S2A (in which serine 2 was replaced by alanine)...
July 26, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Roberto Cardoso Ilacqua, Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Eduardo Sterlino Bergo, Jan E Conn, Maria Anice Mubeb Sallum, Gabriel Zorello Laporta
The Malaria Frontier Hypothesis (MFH) is the current model for predicting malaria emergence in the Brazilian Amazon. It has two important dimensions, 'settlement time' and 'malaria incidence', and its prediction are: malaria incidence peaks five years after the initiation of human settlement and declines towards zero after an estimated 10 years. Although MFH is currently accepted, it has been challenged recently. Herein, we described a novel method for estimating settlement timeline by using remote sensing technology integrated in an open-software geographic information system...
July 23, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Guilherme L Werneck, Alejandro E Macias, Cesar Mascarenas, Laurent Coudeville, David Morley, Vincent Recamier, Mariana Guergova-Kuras, Esteban Puentes-Rosas, Nicolas Baurin, Myew-Ling Toh
Dengue remains an unmet public health burden. We determined risk factors for dengue in-hospital mortality in Brazil. Of 326,380 hospitalised dengue cases in 9-45-year-old individuals, there were 971 deaths. Risk of dying was 11-times higher in the presence of underlying common comorbidities (renal, infectious, pulmonary disease and diabetes), similar to the risk of dying from severe dengue and much higher with the combination. Ensuring access to integrated dengue preventative measures in individuals aged ≥ 9 years including those with comorbidities may help achieve the WHO objective of 50% reduction in mortality and 25% reduction in morbidity due to dengue by 2020...
July 23, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Olga Lucía Cabrera, Erika Santamaría, Raúl Hernando Pardo
INTRODUCTION: Behavioural effects of insecticides on endophagic phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania are poorly understood mainly because of the lack of an experimental hut (EH) in which to study them. OBJECTIVE: To build an EH to evaluate the effects of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) on Lutzomyia longiflocosa. METHODS: The study had two phases: (1) Laboratory experiments using tunnel tests to select the traps for the EH; and (2) EH construction and evaluation of the effects of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin LLINs on L...
July 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Matías Hernández, Susana Wicz, Miguel H Santamaría, Ricardo S Corral
BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of curcumin (Cur), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, are increasingly considered to have beneficial effects on the progression of Chagas heart disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral therapy with Cur on T. cruzi-mediated cardiovasculopathy in acutely infected mice and analyse the in vitro response of parasite-infected human microvascular endothelial cells treated with this phytochemical...
July 16, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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