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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076471/genomic-information-on-multidrug-resistant-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-isolated-from-a-brazilian-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Danielle F Lima, Renata Wf Cohen, Géssica A Rocha, Rodolpho M Albano, Elizabeth A Marques, Robson S Leão
Alarmingly, the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been increasing among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). During a previous molecular characterisation of MRSA isolates obtained from patients with CF from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, one isolate was identified as the ST398 clone, a livestock-associated (LA) MRSA. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of an LA-MRSA ST398 clone isolated from a patient with CF.
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076470/first-description-of-leishmania-viannia-infection-in-evandromyia-saulensis-pressatia-sp-and-trichophoromyia-auraensis-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-a-transmission-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-acre-state-amazon-basin-brazil
#2
Thais de Araujo-Pereira, Daniela de Pita-Pereira, Mariana Côrtes Boité, Myllena Melo, Taiana Amancio da Costa-Rego, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Constança Britto
Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076469/scoring-clinical-signs-can-help-diagnose-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-area-in-brazil
#3
Kleverton Ribeiro da Silva, Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça, Kellen Matuzzy Silva, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento, Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Flaviane Alves de Pinho, Manoel Barral-Netto, Aldina Maria Prado Barral, Maria do Socorro Pires E Cruz
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076468/phenotypic-diversity-and-selection-maintain-leishmania-amazonensis-infectivity-in-balb-c-mouse-model
#4
Benoît Espiau, Virginia Vilhena, Armelle Cuvillier, Aldina Barral, Gilles Merlin
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076467/the-search-for-novel-insecticide-targets-in-the-post-genomics-era-with-a-specific-focus-on-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#5
Michelle Ngai, Mary Ann McDowell
Insects are considered pests globally, implicated in the destruction of agricultural fields and transmission of pathogens that cause deadly human diseases, such as dengue, Zika and malaria. The diversity of the insecticide arsenal has remained stagnant for decades, but the recent rise of insecticide resistance fueled the discovery of novel modes of action, and the power of genomics has reinvigorated this search. This review discusses the importance of comparative and functional insect genomics in the identification of potential gene targets for an insecticidal mode of action with low off-target toxicity...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925020/susceptibility-of-phytomonas-serpens-to-calpain-inhibitors-in-vitro-interference-on-the-proliferation-ultrastructure-cysteine-peptidase-expression-and-interaction-with-the-invertebrate-host
#6
Simone Santiago Carvalho de Oliveira, Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Aline Dos Santos Garcia-Gomes, Inês Correa Gonçalves, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Rubem Figueiredo Menna-Barreto, Angela Hampshire de Carvalho Santos Lopes, Claudia Masini D'Avila-Levy, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Marta Helena Branquinha
A pleiotropic response to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was detected in the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Ultrastructural studies revealed that MDL28170 caused mitochondrial swelling, shortening of flagellum and disruption of trans Golgi network. This effect was correlated to the inhibition in processing of cruzipain-like molecules, which presented an increase in expression paralleled by decreased proteolytic activity. Concomitantly, a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase was detected in the parasite extract, the activity of which was repressed by pre-incubation of parasites with MDL28170...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925019/entering-and-exiting-behaviour-of-the-phlebotomine-sand-fly-lutzomyia-longiflocosa-diptera-psychodidae-in-rural-houses-of-the-sub-andean-region-of-colombia
#7
Raúl Hernando Pardo, Erika Santamaría, Olga Lucia Cabrera
The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925018/time-trends-and-changes-in-the-distribution-of-malaria-cases-in-the-brazilian-amazon-region-2004-2013
#8
Isac da Sf Lima, Oscar Mm Lapouble, Elisabeth C Duarte
Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API) was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878214/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-essential-oil-of-lippia-sidoides-verbenaceae-and-monoterpenes-on-chagas-disease-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#9
Marcela B Figueiredo, Geovany A Gomes, Jayme M Santangelo, Emerson G Pontes, Patricia Azambuja, Elói S Garcia, Mário G de Carvalho
The aim of this study was to identify the composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides (EOLS), a typical shrub commonly found in the dry northeast of Brazil, popularly known as "alecrim-pimenta". Additionally, we investigated the nymphicidal, ovicidal, phagoinhibitory and excretion effects of EOLS, its major constituent thymol and its isomer carvacrol, on fourth instar nymphs and eggs of Rhodnius prolixus, the Chagas' disease vector. The nymphicidal and ovicidal activity of thymol, carvacrol, and EOLS was assessed by tests using impregnated Petri dishes...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849221/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-among-bolivian-immigrants-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#10
Expedito Ja Luna, Celia R Furucho, Rubens A Silva, Dalva M Wanderley, Noemia B Carvalho, Camila G Satolo, Ruth M Leite, Cassio Silveira, Lia Mb Silva, Fernando M Aith, Nivaldo Carneiro, Maria A Shikanai-Yasuda
With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982304/anopheles-fauna-of-coastal-cayenne-french-guiana-modelling-and-mapping-of-species-presence-using-remotely-sensed-land-cover-data
#11
Antoine Adde, Isabelle Dusfour, Emmanuel Roux, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Little is known about the Anopheles species of the coastal areas of French Guiana, or their spatiotemporal distribution or environmental determinants. The present study aimed to (1) document the distribution of Anopheles fauna in the coastal area around Cayenne, and (2) investigate the use of remotely sensed land cover data as proxies of Anopheles presence. To characterise the Anopheles fauna, we combined the findings of two entomological surveys that were conducted during the period 2007-2009 and in 2014 at 37 sites...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982303/genetic-diversity-of-leptospira-in-northwestern-colombia-first-report-of-leptospira-santarosai-as-a-recognised-leptospirosis-agent
#12
Ronald Guillermo Peláez Sanchez, Juan Álvaro Lopez, Martha María Pereira, Margarita Arboleda Naranjo, Piedad Agudelo-Flórez
The region of Antioquia in northeastern Colombia has the highest number of reported leptospirosis cases in the country. It also shows high seroprevalence indexes in the general population and socio-environmental conditions favourable for the transmission of the disease between humans and animals. In this study, 25 Leptospira isolates from Colombia's Antioquia department were identified to the species level as L. santarosai (12), L. interrogans (9) and L. meyeri (4) using phylogenetic analysis of the Amidohydrolase gene...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982302/successful-application-of-virtual-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-against-antimalarial-molecular-targets
#13
Renata Rachide Nunes, Marina Dos Santos Costa, Bianca Dos Reis Santos, Amanda Luisa da Fonseca, Lorena Sales Ferreira, Rafael Cesar Russo Chagas, Alisson Marques da Silva, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, Alex Gutterres Taranto
The main challenge in the control of malaria has been the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of drug-resistant Plasmodium sp. has raised the need for new antimalarial drugs. Molecular modelling techniques have been used as tools to develop new drugs. In this study, we employed virtual screening of a pyrazol derivative (Tx001) against four malaria targets: plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, falcipain-II, and PfATP6. The receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were established for each molecular target...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849220/surveillance-of-antiviral-resistance-markers-in-argentina-detection-of-e119v-neuraminidase-mutation-in-a-post-treatment-immunocompromised-patient
#14
Andrea Pontoriero, Martín Avaro, Estefania Benedetti, Mara Russo, Andrea Czech, Natalia Periolo, Ana Campos, Ana Zamora, Elsa Baumeister
Although vaccines are the best means of protection against influenza, neuraminidase inhibitors are currently the main antiviral treatment available to control severe influenza cases. One of the most frequent substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) protein of influenza A(H3N2) viruses during or soon after oseltamivir administration is E119V mutation. We describe the emergence of a mixed viral population with the E119E/V mutation in the NA protein sequence in a post-treatment influenza sample collected from an immunocompromised patient in Argentina...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849219/genomic-and-phylogenetic-evidence-of-viper-retrotransposon-domestication-in-trypanosomatids
#15
Adriana Ludwig, Marco Aurelio Krieger
Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812602/a-non-hepatotropic-parasite-infection-increases-mortality-in-the-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure-murine-model-possible-roles-for-il-5-and-il-6
#16
Marco A De León-Nava, Carolina Álvarez-Delgado, Luis Donis-Maturano, Joselin Hernández-Ruiz, Aaron N Manjarrez-Reyna, Edgar Cruz-Avilés, Sonia Leon-Cabrera, Jorge Morales-Montor, José M Fragoso, Galileo Escobedo
We evaluated the effects of a non-hepatotropic parasite infection (Taenia crassiceps) on the outcome of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice. Uninfected and T. crassiceps infected mice orally received either 300 mg/kg acetaminophen or water as vehicle (n = 5 per group). Survival analysis, hepatocyte necrosis, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, CYP2E1 protein, interleukin (IL-) 5, and IL-6 were assessed for all groups. All infected mice died within 16 h after exposure to acetaminophen (Tc+APAP group), whereas only one-third of uninfected animals exposed to acetaminophen (APAP group) died...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812601/pyriproxyfen-and-the-microcephaly-epidemic-in-brazil-an-ecological-approach-to-explore-the-hypothesis-of-their-association
#17
Maria de Fatima P Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner V de Souza, Antônio da Cruz G Mendes, Tereza M Lyra, Ricardo Aa Ximenes, Thália Vb Araújo, Cynthia Braga, Demócrito B Miranda-Filho, Celina Mt Martelli, Laura C Rodrigues
The microcephaly epidemic in Brazil generated intense debate regarding its causality, and one hypothesised cause of this epidemic, now recognised as congenital Zika virus syndrome, was the treatment of drinking water tanks with pyriproxyfen to control Aedes aegypti larvae. We present the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by Fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers of the affected newborns in the metropolitan region of Recife in Pernambuco, the state in Brazil where the epidemic was first detected...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812600/analysis-of-e2-gene-integrity-in-hpv16-and-hpv58-viruses-isolated-from-women-with-cervical-pathology
#18
María Del R González-Losa, Marylin Puerto-Solis, Juan Tenorio Ruiz, Ariel I Rosado-López, Oscar Hau-Aviles, Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera, Isidro Cisneros-Cutz, Laura Conde-Ferráez
Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into human cells accompanied by the disruption of the viral genome has been described as a prerequisite for cancer development. This study aimed to investigate E2 gene integrity of HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from infected women with cervical lesions. Forty-two HPV16- and 31 HPV58-positive samples were analysed. E2 integrity was assumed when all fragments covering the E2 gene were amplified with specific polymerase chain reaction primers. Overall, in 59% of the samples, at least one fragment was not amplified in HPV16- (57%) and HPV58-positive samples (61%)...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812599/molecular-evidence-of-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-colorectal-tumours-from-cuban-patients
#19
Yudira Soto, Celia Maria Limia, Licet González, Bienvenido Grá, Olga Marina Hano, Pedro Ariel Martínez, Vivian Kourí
The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58)...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812598/draft-genome-sequences-of-four-achromobacter-ruhlandii-strains-isolated-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#20
Elenice Ra Rodrigues, Géssica A Rocha, Alex G Ferreira, Robson S Leão, Rodolpho M Albano, Elizabeth A Marques
Achromobacter species are being increasingly isolated from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients. Recent reports indicate that Achromobacter ruhlandii is a potential human pathogen in cystic fibrosis-related infections. Here we report the draft genome of four A. ruhlandii strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients in Brazil. This report describes A. ruhlandii as a potential opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis and provides a framework to for additional enquires into potential virulence factors and resistance mechanisms within this species...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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