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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146158/poor-sensitivity-of-rapid-tests-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-to-the-hepatitis-b-virus-implications-for-field-studies
#1
Helena Medina Cruz, Leticia de Paula Scalioni, Vanessa Salete de Paula, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Kycia Maria Rodrigues do Ó, Flavio Augusto Pádua Milagres, Marcelo Santos Cruz, Francisco Inácio Bastos, Priscila Pollo Flores, Erotildes Leal, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups...
January 19, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146157/identification-of-circo-like-virus-brazil-genomic-sequences-in-raw-sewage-from-the-metropolitan-area-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-evidence-of-circulation-two-and-three-years-after-the-first-detection
#2
Silvana Beres Castrignano, Teresa Keico Nagasse-Sugahara, Patrícia Garrafa, Telma Alves Monezi, Karina Medici Barrella, Dolores Ursula Mehnert
BACKGROUND: Two novel viruses named circo-like virus-Brazil (CLV-BR) hs1 and hs2 were previously discovered in a Brazilian human fecal sample through metagenomics. CLV-BR hs1 and hs2 possess a small circular DNA genome encoding a replication initiator protein (Rep), and the two genomes exhibit 92% nucleotide identity with each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep protein showed that CLV-BRs do not cluster with circoviruses, nanoviruses, geminiviruses or cycloviruses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for CLV-BR genomes in sewage and reclaimed water samples from the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, to verify whether the first detection of these viruses was an isolated finding...
January 19, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177050/achievement-of-constitutive-fluorescent-plexsy-egfp-leishmania-braziliensis-and-its-application-as-an-alternative-method-for-drug-screening-in-vitro
#3
Matheus Silva E Bastos, Luciana Ângelo de Souza, Thiago Souza Onofre, Abelardo Silva, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto
BACKGROUND: Gene reporter-fluorescent cells have emerged as alternative method for drug screening. OBJECTIVE: Achievement of constitutive expression of fluorescent protein GFP by Leishmania braziliensis as alternative method for drug screening. METHODS: L. braziliensis-GFP was generated using Leishmania tarentolae pLEXSY-egfp for constitutive expression of GFP. Fluorescent cells were selected and subjected to standardisation tests of anti-promastigote and anti-intracellular amastigote assays...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177049/n-acetyl-cysteine-inhibits-liver-oxidative-stress-markers-in-balb-c-mice-infected-with-leishmania-amazonensis
#4
Juciano Gasparotto, Alice Kunzler, Mario Roberto Senger, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Salvatore Giovanni de Simone, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Nauana Somensi, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Floriano Paes Silva, Daniel Pens Gelain
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitosis caused by several species of the genus Leishmania. These parasites present high resistance against oxidative stress generated by inflammatory cells. OBJECTIVES: To investigate oxidative stress and molecular inflammatory markers in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis and the effect of antioxidant treatment on these parameters. METHODS: Four months after infection, oxidative and inflammatory parameters of liver, kidneys, spleen, heart and lungs from BALB/c mice were assessed...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177048/use-of-fluorescent-oligonucleotide-probes-for-differentiation-between-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-and-paracoccidioides-lutzii-in-yeast-and-mycelial-phase
#5
Thales Domingos Arantes, Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Eduardo Bagagli
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) associated with Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) using oligonucleotides labeled with non-radioactive fluorophores is a promising technique for detection and differentiation of fungal species in environmental or clinical samples, being suitable for microorganisms which are difficult or even impossible to culture. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to standardise an in situ hybridisation technique for the differentiation between the pathogenic species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, by using species-specific DNA probes targeting the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) of the rRNA gene...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177047/linalool-a-piper-aduncum-essential-oil-component-has-selective-activity-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-trypomastigote-forms-at-4%C3%A2-c
#6
Luz Helena Villamizar, Maria das Graças Cardoso, Juliana de Andrade, Maria Luisa Teixeira, Maurilio José Soares
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES: In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS: PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177046/stable-expression-of-mycobacterium-bovis-antigen-85b-in-auxotrophic-m-bovis-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#7
Caroline Rizzi, Ana Carolina Peiter, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas, Karen Silva Leal, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Sibele Borsuk, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, responsible for causing major losses in livestock. A cost effective alternative to control the disease could be herd vaccination. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has a limited efficacy against bovine TB, but can improved by over-expression of protective antigens. The M. bovis antigen 85B demonstrates ability to induce protective immune response against bovine TB in animal models. However, current systems for the construction of recombinant BCG expressing multiple copies of the gene result in strains of low genetic stability that rapidly lose the plasmid in vivo...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177045/maxadilan-simile-expression-in-nyssomyia-neivai-a-sandfly-vector-in-an-endemic-region-of-brazil-and-its-immunogenicity-in-patients-with-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis
#8
Juliana Aires, Claudio Casanova, Sebastian Vernal, Margarida Nascimento, Sandra Rodrigues, Ethan A Lerner, Ana Maria Roselino
BACKGROUND: Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177044/comparison-of-lamp-and-pcr-for-molecular-mass-screening-of-sand-flies-for-leishmania-martiniquensis-infection
#9
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Hirotomo Kato, Ranchana Yeewa, Amontip Muengpan, Raxsina Polseela, Saovanee Leelayoova
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177043/performance-of-a-molecular-assay-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-dna-in-clinical-specimens-multicenter-study-in-brazil
#10
Mirela Verza, Karen Barros Schmid, Regina Bones Barcellos, Natali Linck, Graziele Lima Bello, Daniel Scapin, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Márcia Susana Nunes Silva, Claudia Wollheim, Martha Gabriela Celle Rivero, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Leonides Rezende, Martha Maria Oliveira, Elis Regina Dalla Costa, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
BACKGROUND: In high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, there are few data on the performance of new molecular commercialised assays developed locally. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a new molecular commercialised assay for TB diagnosis (Detect-TB) in three laboratories. METHODS: A total of 302 sputum samples from an equal number of patients with presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) were submitted for routine smear microscopy, culture, and Detect-TB assay at three different sites in Brazil (the cities of Caxias do Sul, São Paulo and Canoas)...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177042/microbial-control-of-arthropod-borne-disease
#11
Miguel A Saldaña, Shivanand Hegde, Grant L Hughes
Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125134/bio-efficacy-physical-integrity-community-usage-and-washing-practices-of-mosquito-nets-treated-with-icon-maxx-long-lasting-insecticidal-treatment-in-india
#12
Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Kasinathan Gunasekaran, Kilakootil Narayanan Vijayakumar, Purushothaman Jambulingam
BACKGROUND: New brands of potential long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and LLIN treatment kits require field evaluation before they are used in a vector control programme. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy, usage, washing practice and physical integrity of nets treated with LLIN treatment kit, ICON MAXX in a phase III field trial in Odisha state, India. METHODS: A total of 300 polyester nets treated with ICON MAXX and 140 polyester nets treated conventionally with lambda-cyhalothrin CS 2...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076471/genomic-information-on-multidrug-resistant-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-isolated-from-a-brazilian-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Danielle F Lima, Renata Wf Cohen, Géssica A Rocha, Rodolpho M Albano, Elizabeth A Marques, Robson S Leão
Alarmingly, the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been increasing among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). During a previous molecular characterisation of MRSA isolates obtained from patients with CF from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, one isolate was identified as the ST398 clone, a livestock-associated (LA) MRSA. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of an LA-MRSA ST398 clone isolated from a patient with CF.
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076470/first-description-of-leishmania-viannia-infection-in-evandromyia-saulensis-pressatia-sp-and-trichophoromyia-auraensis-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-a-transmission-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-acre-state-amazon-basin-brazil
#14
Thais de Araujo-Pereira, Daniela de Pita-Pereira, Mariana Côrtes Boité, Myllena Melo, Taiana Amancio da Costa-Rego, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Constança Britto
Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076469/scoring-clinical-signs-can-help-diagnose-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-area-in-brazil
#15
Kleverton Ribeiro da Silva, Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça, Kellen Matuzzy Silva, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento, Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Flaviane Alves de Pinho, Manoel Barral-Netto, Aldina Maria Prado Barral, Maria do Socorro Pires E Cruz
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076468/phenotypic-diversity-and-selection-maintain-leishmania-amazonensis-infectivity-in-balb-c-mouse-model
#16
Benoît Espiau, Virginia Vilhena, Armelle Cuvillier, Aldina Barral, Gilles Merlin
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076467/the-search-for-novel-insecticide-targets-in-the-post-genomics-era-with-a-specific-focus-on-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#17
Michelle Ngai, Mary Ann McDowell
Insects are considered pests globally, implicated in the destruction of agricultural fields and transmission of pathogens that cause deadly human diseases, such as dengue, Zika and malaria. The diversity of the insecticide arsenal has remained stagnant for decades, but the recent rise of insecticide resistance fueled the discovery of novel modes of action, and the power of genomics has reinvigorated this search. This review discusses the importance of comparative and functional insect genomics in the identification of potential gene targets for an insecticidal mode of action with low off-target toxicity...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925020/susceptibility-of-phytomonas-serpens-to-calpain-inhibitors-in-vitro-interference-on-the-proliferation-ultrastructure-cysteine-peptidase-expression-and-interaction-with-the-invertebrate-host
#18
Simone Santiago Carvalho de Oliveira, Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Aline Dos Santos Garcia-Gomes, Inês Correa Gonçalves, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Rubem Figueiredo Menna-Barreto, Angela Hampshire de Carvalho Santos Lopes, Claudia Masini D'Avila-Levy, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Marta Helena Branquinha
A pleiotropic response to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was detected in the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Ultrastructural studies revealed that MDL28170 caused mitochondrial swelling, shortening of flagellum and disruption of trans Golgi network. This effect was correlated to the inhibition in processing of cruzipain-like molecules, which presented an increase in expression paralleled by decreased proteolytic activity. Concomitantly, a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase was detected in the parasite extract, the activity of which was repressed by pre-incubation of parasites with MDL28170...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925019/entering-and-exiting-behaviour-of-the-phlebotomine-sand-fly-lutzomyia-longiflocosa-diptera-psychodidae-in-rural-houses-of-the-sub-andean-region-of-colombia
#19
Raúl Hernando Pardo, Erika Santamaría, Olga Lucia Cabrera
The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925018/time-trends-and-changes-in-the-distribution-of-malaria-cases-in-the-brazilian-amazon-region-2004-2013
#20
Isac da Sf Lima, Oscar Mm Lapouble, Elisabeth C Duarte
Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API) was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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