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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185597/urgent-call-for-action-avoiding-spread-and-re-urbanisation-of-yellow-fever-in-brazil
#1
EDITORIAL
Cristina Possas, Reinaldo Menezes Martins, Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira, Akira Homma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185596/single-shot-of-17d-vaccine-may-not-confer-life-long-protection-against-yellow-fever
#2
Pedro Fc Vasconcelos
The yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used since the 1930s to prevent YF, which is a severe infectious disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), and mainly transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes from the genera Aedes and Haemagogus . Until 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the administration of a vaccine dose every ten years. A new recommendation of a single vaccine dose to confer life-long protection against YFV infection has since been established. Recent evidence published elsewhere suggests that at least a second dose is needed to fully protect against YF disease...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185595/first-evidence-of-zika-virus-venereal-transmission-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#3
Jordam William Pereira-Silva, Valdinete Alves do Nascimento, Heliana Christy Matos Belchior, Jéssica Feijó Almeida, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Felipe Gomes Naveca, Claudia María Ríos-Velásquez
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is considered the main Zika virus (ZIKV) vector, and is thought to be responsible for the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil. Zika positive Ae. aegypti males collected in the field suggest that vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV may occur. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that venereal transmission of ZIKV by Ae. aegypti can occur under laboratory conditions. METHODS: Ae. aegypti collected in the city of Manaus, confirmed as negative for Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya virus by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (AaM3V- strain), were reared under laboratory conditions and used for the experiments...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185594/simple-protocol-for-population-sanger-sequencing-for-zika-virus-genomic-regions
#4
Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro de Paula Ferreira, Renato Pereira de Souza, Mariana Sequetin Cunha, Adriana Luchs, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido
BACKGROUND: A number of Zika virus (ZIKV) sequences were obtained using Next-generation sequencing (NGS), a methodology widely applied in genetic diversity studies and virome discovery. However Sanger method is still a robust, affordable, rapid and specific tool to obtain valuable sequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and robust Sanger sequencing protocol targeting ZIKV relevant genetic regions, as envelope protein and nonstructural protein 5 (NS5)...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211110/evaluation-of-melanin-production-by-sporothrix-luriei
#5
Ingrid Ludmilla Rodrigues Cruz, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes
There is a paucity of studies on the cell biology of Sporothrix luriei, the less common of the pathogenic Sporothrix species worldwide. The production of DHN-melanin, eumelanin, and pyomelanin were evaluated on the mycelial and yeast forms of the S. luriei ATCC 18616 strain. The mycelial form of this species produced only pyomelanin, which protected the fungus against environmental stressors such as ultraviolet light, heat, and cold. The yeast form was unable to produce any of the tested melanin types. The lack of melanin in the parasitic form of S...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211109/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-hepatitis-a-virus-in-suspected-yellow-fever-cases-in-brazil
#6
Liliane C Conteville, Ana Maria B de Filippis, Rita Maria R Nogueira, Marcos César L de Mendonça, Ana Carolina P Vicente
Using a metagenomic approach, we identified hepatitis A virus among cases of acute febrile illnesses that occurred in 2008-2012 in Brazil suspected as yellow fever. These findings reinforce the challenge facing routine clinical diagnosis in complex epidemiological scenarios.
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211108/detection-of-occult-hepatitis-b-in-serum-and-oral-fluid-samples
#7
Moyra Machado Portilho, Leticia Cancella Nabuco, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, José Henrique Pilotto, Geane Lopes Flores, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
In occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) can be detected in serum samples; however, oral fluid collection for detection of HBV DNA has not yet been explored, despite the availability of collection devices. Serum and oral fluid samples from 45 hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients were collected for the amplification of the HBV polymerase gene. HBV DNA was detected in five serum and four oral fluid samples (the detection limit for oral fluid was 1.656 log IU/mL in paired serum)...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211107/trypanosoma-janseni-n-sp-trypanosomatida-trypanosomatidae-isolated-from-didelphis-aurita-mammalia-didelphidae-in-the-atlantic-rainforest-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-integrative-taxonomy-and-phylogeography-within-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-clade
#8
Camila Madeira Tavares Lopes, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Márcio Galvão Pavan, Mirian Cláudia De Souza Pereira, André Luiz R Roque
BACKGROUND: Didelphis spp. are a South American marsupial species that are among the most ancient hosts for the Trypanosoma spp. OBJECTIVES: We characterise a new species (Trypanosoma janseni n. sp.) isolated from the spleen and liver tissues of Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The parasites were isolated and a growth curve was performed in NNN and Schneider's media containing 10% foetal bovine serum...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211106/trypanosoma-cruzi-strain-tciv-infects-raccoons-from-illinois
#9
Cailey Vandermark, Elliott Zieman, Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen, Cheryl Davis, Francisco Agustín Jiménez
BACKGROUND: The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES: Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60), raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3), and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes)...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211105/assessing-the-risk-zones-of-chagas-disease-in-chile-in-a-world-marked-by-global-climatic-change
#10
Valentina Tapia-Garay, Daniela P Figueroa, Ana Maldonado, Daniel Frías-Laserre, Christian R Gonzalez, Alonso Parra, Lucia Canals, Werner Apt, Sergio Alvarado, Dante Cáceres, Mauricio Canals
BACKGROUND: Vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi appears to be interrupted in Chile; however, data show increasing incidence of Chagas' disease, raising concerns that there may be a reemerging problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the actual risk in a changing world it is necessary to consider the historical vector distribution and correlate this distribution with the presence of cases and climate change. METHODS: Potential distribution models of Triatoma infestans and Chagas disease were performed using Maxent, a machine-learning method...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211104/surveillance-of-seroepidemiology-and-morbidity-of-chagas-disease-in-the-negro-river-brazilian-amazon
#11
José Rodrigues Coura, Angela Cv Junqueira, João Marcos Bb Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region was previously regarded as an enzootic disease of wild animals. More recently, in situations where humans have penetrated the wild ecotope or where triatomines and/or wild animals (marsupials) have invaded human homes resulting in disease transmission, Chagas disease has come to be regarded as an anthropozoonosis. We found that the highest incidence of infection due to Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas disease occurred among piassaba fibre gatherers and their families...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211103/characterisation-of-a-rare-reassortant-human-g10p-14-rotavirus-strain-detected-in-honduras
#12
Osbourne Quaye, Sunando Roy, Kunchala Rungsrisuriyachai, Mathew D Esona, Ziqian Xu, Ka Ian Tam, Dina J Castro Banegas, Gloria Rey-Benito, Michael D Bowen
BACKGROUND: Although first detected in animals, the rare rotavirus strain G10P[14] has been sporadically detected in humans in Slovenia, Thailand, United Kingdom and Australia among other countries. Earlier studies suggest that the strains found in humans resulted from interspecies transmission and reassortment between human and bovine rotavirus strains. OBJECTIVES: In this study, a G10P[14] rotavirus genotype detected in a human stool sample in Honduras during the 2010-2011 rotavirus season, from an unvaccinated 30-month old boy who reported at the hospital with severe diarrhea and vomiting, was characterised to determine the possible evolutionary origin of the rare strain...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211102/can-sexual-transmission-support-the-enzootic-cycle-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#13
Adriano Rios, Marcelle Ribeiro, Alessandro Sousa, Fernando Pimentel, Luciana Hagström, Rafael Andrade, Rozeneide M Alves, Ana de Cássia Rosa, Antônio Rl Teixeira, Nadjar Nitz, Mariana M Hecht
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi circulates in sylvatic habitats, mainly through blood-feeding triatomines, although other routes also contribute to its dispersion. Sexual transmission of T. cruzi is an understudied topic, especially among wild mammals. Because of the difficulties inherent to field work, experimentally infected mice are frequently used to evaluate the transmission of T. cruzi. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the sexual transmission of T. cruzi in acutely infected mice...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211248/draft-genome-of-the-emerging-pathogen-kocuria-marina-isolated-from-a-wild-urban-rat
#14
Shih Keng Loong, Kim-Kee Tan, Nurhafiza Zainal, Wai Hong Phoon, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Sazaly AbuBakar
Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii) caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211247/immunoproteomics-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-red-blood-cell-membrane-fractions
#15
Fernanda J Cabral, Luciana G Vianna, Marcia M Medeiros, Bianca Cechetto Carlos, Rosimeire D Martha, Nadia Maria Silva, Luiz Hildebrando P da Silva, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Gerhard Wunderlich
BACKGROUND: The surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) has been widely investigated because of the molecular complexity and pathogenesis mechanisms involved. Asymptomatic individuals are important in the field because they can perpetuate transmission as natural reservoirs and present a challenge for diagnosing malaria because of their low levels of circulating parasites. Recent studies of iRBC antibody recognition have shown that responses are quantitatively similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but no studies have characterised the plasmodial proteins targeted by this response...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211246/elisa-based-assay-of-immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-against-mammalian-cell-entry-1a-mce1a-protein-a-novel-diagnostic-approach-for-leprosy
#16
Filipe R Lima, Iukary Takenami, Maurílio Al Cavalcanti, Lee W Riley, Sérgio Arruda
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. Because leprosy diagnosis is complex and requires professional expertise, new tools and methodologies are needed to detect cases in early stages and prevent transmission. The M. leprae genome contains mce1A, which encodes a putative mammalian cell entry protein (Mce1A). We hypothesised that the presence of Mce1A on the cell surface could be detected by the host's immune system...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211245/low-dose-systemic-or-intralesional-meglumine-antimoniate-treatment-for-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-results-in-low-lethality-low-incidence-of-relapse-and-low-late-mucosal-involvement-in-a-referral-centre-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2001-2013
#17
Lucia Regina Brahim, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Liliane de Fátima Antônio, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Luiz Eduardo de Carvalho Paes, Ananda Dutra da Costa, Iracema Forni Vieira, Cristina Maria Giordano Dias, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Duque, Mauro Celio de Almeida Marzochi, Armando de Oliveira Schubach
BACKGROUND: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a non-lethal parasitic disease that presents with cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) clinical forms. ATL treatment aims at healing the lesions and preventing the development of the late mucosal form. Systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) therapy with 10-20 mg Sb5+/kg/day is the first choice of treatment. However, alternative therapies using 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day or intralesional (IL) MA are the usual regimens at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211244/dengue-serotype-specific-immune-response-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#18
Chelsea T Smartt, Dongyoung Shin, Barry W Alto
BACKGROUND: Dengue viruses (DENV) are considered one of the most important emerging pathogens and dengue disease is a global health threat. The geographic expansion of dengue viruses has led to co-circulation of all four dengue serotypes making it imperative that new DENV control strategies be devised. OBJECTIVES: Here we characterize dengue serotype-specific innate immune responses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using DENV from Puerto Rico (PR). METHODS: Ae...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211243/evidence-of-hidden-leprosy-in-a-supposedly-low-endemic-area-of-brazil
#19
Fred Bernardes, Natália Aparecida de Paula, Marcel Nani Leite, Thania Loyola Cordeiro Abi-Rached, Sebastian Vernal, Moises Batista da Silva, Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, John Stewart Spencer, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade
OBJECTIVES: Show that hidden endemic leprosy exists in a municipality of inner São Paulo state (Brazil) with active surveillance actions based on clinical and immunological evaluations. METHODS: The study sample was composed by people randomly selected by a dermatologist during medical care in the public emergency department and by active surveillance carried out during two days at a mobile clinic. All subjects received a dermato-neurological examination and blood sampling to determine anti-PGL-I antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211242/potentially-pathogenic-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-isolated-from-dental-units-and-emergency-combination-showers
#20
Esteban Castro-Artavia, Lissette Retana-Moreira, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Elizabeth Abrahams-Sandí
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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