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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Cristina Possas, Reinaldo Menezes Martins, Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira, Akira Homma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jordam William Pereira-Silva, Valdinete Alves do Nascimento, Heliana Christy Matos Belchior, Jéssica Feijó Almeida, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Felipe Gomes Naveca, Claudia María Ríos-Velásquez
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is considered the main Zika virus (ZIKV) vector, and is thought to be responsible for the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil. Zika positive Ae. aegypti males collected in the field suggest that vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV may occur. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that venereal transmission of ZIKV by Ae. aegypti can occur under laboratory conditions. METHODS: Ae. aegypti collected in the city of Manaus, confirmed as negative for Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya virus by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (AaM3V- strain), were reared under laboratory conditions and used for the experiments...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro de Paula Ferreira, Renato Pereira de Souza, Mariana Sequetin Cunha, Adriana Luchs, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido
BACKGROUND: A number of Zika virus (ZIKV) sequences were obtained using Next-generation sequencing (NGS), a methodology widely applied in genetic diversity studies and virome discovery. However Sanger method is still a robust, affordable, rapid and specific tool to obtain valuable sequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and robust Sanger sequencing protocol targeting ZIKV relevant genetic regions, as envelope protein and nonstructural protein 5 (NS5)...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Harry C Evans, Simon L Elliot, Robert W Barreto
Classical biological control has been used extensively for the management of exotic weeds and agricultural pests, but never for alien insect vectors of medical importance. This simple but elegant control strategy involves the introduction of coevolved natural enemies from the centre of origin of the target alien species. Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Paula Monalisa Nogueira, Nágila Francinete Secundino, Eric Fabrício Marialva, Cláudia Maria Ríos-Velásquez, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia umbratilis, the vector for Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America, has been found naturally infected with L. guyanensis only in areas north of the Negro and Amazon rivers. While populations of this sand fly species are also found in areas south of these rivers, these populations have never been reported to be infected and/or transmitting L. guyanensis. However, no studies on the corresponding host-parasite interactions are available. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the interaction between Lu...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Camila Tita Nogueira, Mayara Lúcia Del Cistia, Ana Carolina Urbaczek, Márcia Mg Jusi, Angela Maria Arenas Velásquez, Rosângela Zacarias Machado, Henrique Ferreira, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Hélio Langoni, Paulo Inácio da Costa, Márcia As Graminha
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if left untreated. Infected dogs are important reservoirs of the disease, and thus specific identification of infected animals is very important. Several diagnostic tests have been developed for canine VL (CVL); however, these tests show varied specificity and sensitivity. The present study describes the recombinant protein rLc36, expressed by Leishmania infantum, as potential antigen for more sensitive and specific diagnosis of CVL based on an immunoenzymatic assay. The concentration of 1...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jéssica Sepulveda Boechat, Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Ana Caroline de Sá Machado, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes Oliveira, Anna Barreto Fernandes Figueiredo, Vanessa Brito de Souza Rabello, Karoline Benevides de Lima Silva, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Tânia Maria Pacheco Schubach, Sandro Antonio Pereira
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is caused by species of the genus Sporothrix. From 1998 to 2015, 4,703 cats were diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Even after the description of the Sporothrix species, the characterisation of feline isolates is not performed routinely. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the clinical isolates from cats at the species level and correlate them with the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cats...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Camilla Nunes Dos Reis Trindade, Petra Bell, André Teixeira-Ferreira, Jonas E Perales, Rossiane C Vommaro, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are the most important components of the normal human gut microbiome, but are also major opportunistic pathogens that are responsible for significant mortality, especially in the case of bacteraemia and other severe infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses. Up to now, several virulence factors have been described that might explain the involvement of B. fragilis in these infections. The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) has been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis and symbiosis in gram-negative bacteria, by releasing soluble proteins and other molecules...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jansen Fernandes Medeiros, Gilberto Fontes, Vilma Lopes do Nascimento, Moreno Rodrigues, Jacob Cohen, Edmar Vaz de Andrade, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Marilaine Martins
BACKGROUND: The human filarial worm Mansonella ozzardi is highly endemic in the large tributaries of the Amazon River. This infection is still highly neglected and can be falsely negative when microfilariae levels are low. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the frequency of individuals with M. ozzardi in riverine communities in Coari municipality, Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Different diagnostic methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), blood polycarbonate membrane filtration (PCMF), Knott's method (Knott), digital thick blood smears (DTBS) and venous thick blood smears (VTBS) were used to compare sensitivity and specificity among the methods...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Priscila Marques de Macedo, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Marcos de Abreu Almeida, Rowena Alves Coelho, Hugo Boechat Andrade, Ana Beatriz Teixeira Brandão Camello Ferreira, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America and the leading fungal cause of mortality in non-immunosuppressed individuals in Brazil. However, HIV/PCM co-infection can increase the clinical severity in these co-infected patients. This co-infection is rarely reported in the literature mainly because of the different epidemiological profiles of these infections. Furthermore, PCM is a neglected and non-notifiable disease, which may underestimate the real importance of this disease...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jorge Castro-Garza, Miriam Lorena Luévano-Martínez, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Jaime Gosálvez, José Luis Fernández, Martha Imelda Dávila-Rodríguez, Catalina García-Vielma, Silvia González-Hernández, Elva Irene Cortés-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen, which may either block cellular defensive mechanisms and survive inside the host cell or induce cell death. Several studies are still exploring the mechanisms involved in these processes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the genomic instability of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages and compare it with that of uninfected macrophages. METHODS: We analysed the possible variations in the genomic instability of Mycobacterium-infected macrophages using the DNA breakage detection fluorescence in situ hybridisation (DBD-FISH) technique with a whole human genome DNA probe...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Elena Aguilera, Javier Varela, Elva Serna, Susana Torres, Gloria Yaluff, Ninfa Vera de Bilbao, Hugo Cerecetto, Guzmán Alvarez, Mercedes González
BACKGROUND: The current chemotherapy for Chagas disease is based on monopharmacology with low efficacy and drug tolerance. Polypharmacology is one of the strategies to overcome these limitations. OBJECTIVES: Study the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of associations of benznidazole (Bnz) with three new synthetic T. cruzi-triosephosphate isomerase inhibitors, 2, 3, and 4, in order to potentiate their actions. METHODS: The in vitro effect of the drug combinations were determined constructing the corresponding isobolograms...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Romina Valente, Maria Del Rosario Robles, Graciela T Navone, Julia I Diaz
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Debora Afonso Silva Rocha, Leandro Figueira Reis de Sa, Ana Carolina Cartagenes Pinto, Maria de Lourdes Junqueira, Emiliana Mandarano da Silva, Ronaldo Mohana Borges, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
BACKGROUND: Candida glabrata ranks second in epidemiological surveillance studies, and is considered one of the main human yeast pathogens. Treatment of Candida infections represents a contemporary public health problem due to the limited availability of an antifungal arsenal, toxicity effects and increasing cases of resistance. C. glabrata presents intrinsic fluconazole resistance and is a significant concern in clinical practice and in hospital environments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterise the azole resistance mechanism presented by a C...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Yves Jackson, Drenusha Vieira de Mello Pula, Axel Finckh, Carlo Chizzolini, François Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Chronic cardiomyopathy occurs in 20-40% of the patients with Chagas disease. Autoimmune mechanisms may contribute to its pathogenesis. We diagnosed several cases of systemic autoimmune diseases among Bolivian migrants in Geneva with a high prevalence of Chagas disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis of a clinical association between systemic autoimmune diseases and Chagas disease, particularly with the development of cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively searched the medical records of all Bolivian patients visiting Geneva University Hospitals between 2012 and 2015 for diagnosis of Chagas disease or systemic autoimmune diseases...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Luana Cristina Farnesi, Christine Silveira Barbosa, Luciana Ordunha Araripe, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti as a vector of multiple human pathogens has generated a growing number of studies on the physiology and behaviour of its blood-feeding females. The activity of oviposition is one of the critical elements contributing to the expansion of Ae. aegypti's populations. Although there is a vast literature about oviposition behaviour, significant specific knowledge about egg viability and female fertility under light and dark conditions is still lacking...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Guedes, Beatriz Rocha Simões Dias, Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Petersen, Kercia Pinheiro Cruz, Niara de Jesus Almeida, Daniela Rodrigues Andrade, Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Valéria de Matos Borges, Patricia Sampaio Tavares Veras
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected diseases, is a serious public health problem in many countries, including Brazil. Currently available treatments require long-term use and have serious side effects, necessitating the development of new therapeutic interventions. Because translocator protein (TSPO) levels are reduced in Leishmania amazonensis-infected cells and because this protein participates in apoptosis and immunomodulation, TSPO represents a potential target for Leishmania chemotherapy...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Ericka Lima Almeida, Angela Cristina Rapela Medeiros, Roberto Pereira Werkhäuser, Joanna Lucia de Almeida Alexandre, Bruna Santos Lima Figueiredo Sá, Eduardo Henrique Gomes Rodrigues, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho
Several studies have described the use of non-invasive collection methods, mostly based on the detection of parasite DNA, for diagnosis. However, no Leishmania specimens have been isolated from saliva. Here, we report the first isolation of Leishmania braziliensis from the saliva of humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis but without lesions on their mucosa. The isolates were obtained from salivary fluid inoculated in hamsters and were tested by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Seven samples from 43 patients suspected of having the disease were identified for in vivo culture...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Arthur da Costa Rasinhas, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Fernanda Cunha Jácome, Raphael Leonardo, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Ortrud Monika Barth, Debora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira
The lack of an experimental animal model for the study of dengue pathogenesis is a limiting factor for the development of vaccines and drugs. In previous studies, our group demonstrated the susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection by dengue virus (DENV) 1 and 2, and the virus was successfully isolated in several organs. In this study, BALB/c mice were experimentally infected intravenously with DENV-4, and samples of their saliva were collected. Viral RNA extracted from the saliva samples was subjected to qRT-PCR, with a detection limit of 0...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
João Ramalho Ortigão-Farias, Tatiana Di-Blasi, Erich Loza Telleria, Ana Carolina Andorinho, Thais Lemos-Silva, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão, Antônio Jorge Tempone, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö
BACKGROUND The insect chitinase gene family is composed by more than 10 paralogs, which can codify proteins with different domain structures. In Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, a chitinase cDNA from adult female insects was previously characterized. The predicted protein contains one catalytic domain and one chitin-binding domain (CBD). The expression of this gene coincided with the end of blood digestion indicating a putative role in peritrophic matrix degradation...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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