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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372098/emotion-specific-priming-effects-with-marginally-perceptible-facial-expression-primes-evidence-from-the-leave-one-out-paradigm
#1
Dirk Wentura, Michaela Rohr
Priming studies investigating the processing of emotional faces under conditions of limited awareness have shown that people can extract more than just valence from masked faces. However, previous results have been inconsistent with regard to the degree of differentiation among negative expressions. Some results have suggested a relevance differentiation (i.e., anger differentiated from fear or sadness) and some have suggested differentiation by arousal (i.e., sadness differentiated from fear or anger); others have not suggested any differentiation beyond valence...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335413/practice-related-optimization-of-dual-task-performance-efficient-task-instantiation-during-overlapping-task-processing
#2
Torsten Schubert, Tilo Strobach
We compared the effects of extended dual-task practice in a task situation of the psychological refractory period (PRP) type with the effects of single-task practice. The experiments tested the assumption that performance of Task 2 in the PRP task improves more rapidly with dual-task practice than with single-task practice, which points to a preponed instantiation of Task 2 during dual-task processing in working memory and to the acquisition of dual-task coordination skills. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that such dual-task coordination skills can be acquired under conditions of less-complex tasks with no more than four stimulus-response mappings in Task 2, independently on the compatibility of the mappings...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335412/baseball-s-sight-audition-farness-effect-safe-when-umpiring-baserunners-judging-precedence-of-competing-visual-versus-auditory-events
#3
R Chandler Krynen, Michael K McBeath
Baseball umpires judge force-outs at first-base by comparing the sound of ball-mitt contact to the sight of foot-base contact. This study examines if distant observer judgments of the temporal order of visual versus auditory events are biased due to the slow speed of sound, or if judgments made from farther away systematically compensate for acoustic delays of sound. Seventy and 81 participants observed videos projected onto a gymnasium wall from 0, 100, or 200 feet, and made multisensory precedence judgments regarding which cue occurred first, visual ("safe") or auditory ("out")...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299126/pimping-inhibition-anodal-tdcs-enhances-stop-signal-reaction-time
#4
Maximilian A Friehs, Christian Frings
The stop-signal task (SST) is assumed to reliably measure response inhibition; specifically, in this task participants sometimes have to withhold a response according to the onset of a sudden cue. The response-stopping process is estimated by a stochastic model that delivers the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT; Verbruggen & Logan, 2009), that is, the latency to inhibit prepotent responses. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) plays a key role in goal directed cognitive control in general and particularly an increased activation has been associated with better SST performance (that is with shorter SSRT)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299125/can-auditory-objects-be-subitized
#5
Katherine L Roberts, Nicola J Doherty, Elizabeth A Maylor, Derrick G Watson
In vision, humans have the ability to mentally "tag" approximately 4 objects, allowing us to monitor, attend, and interact with them. As a consequence, we can rapidly and accurately enumerate up to 4 objects-a process known as subitizing. Here, we investigate whether a similar ability exists for tagging auditory stimuli and find that only 2 or 3 auditory stimuli can be enumerated with high accuracy. We assess whether this high accuracy indicates the existence of an auditory subitizing mechanism, and if it is influenced by factors known to influence visual subitizing...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265022/frequency-of-prospective-use-modulates-instructed-task-set-interference
#6
Peter S Whitehead, Tobias Egner
Recent studies have demonstrated that keeping an instructed task set in working memory (WM) for prospective use can interfere with behavior on an intervening task that employs shared stimuli-the prospective task-set-interference effect. One open question is whether people have strategic control over prospective task-set interference based on their expectations of whether task instructions will have to be implemented or recalled. To answer this question, we conducted two experiments that varied the likelihood with which a set of prospective task instructions would have to be implemented or recalled...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211593/how-feature-relationships-influence-attention-and-awareness-evidence-from-eye-movements-and-eeg
#7
Aimee Martin, Stefanie I Becker
Many everyday tasks require selecting relevant objects in the visual field while ignoring irrelevant information. A widely held belief is that attention is tuned to the exact feature value(s) of a sought-after target object (e.g., color, shape). In contrast, subsequent studies have shown that attentional orienting (capture) is often determined by the relative feature(s) that the target has relative to other irrelevant items surrounding (e.g., redder, larger). However, it is unknown whether conscious awareness is also determined by relative features...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211592/when-stimulus-driven-control-settings-compete-on-the-dominance-of-categories-as-cues-for-control
#8
Julie M Bugg, Abhishek Dey
Stimulus-driven or reactive control refers to the modulation of attention poststimulus onset via retrieval of learned control settings associated with task stimuli. The present study asked which stimulus-driven control setting "wins" the competition when more than 1 is available to guide attention. Utilizing an item-specific proportion congruence manipulation in a picture-word Stroop task, 7 experiments examined competition between item-level and category-level control settings. In Experiment 1, category-level control dominated as evidenced by transfer of control to unique 50% congruent items (exemplars) from biased (33% or 67% congruent) animal categories...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307268/orthographic-and-phonological-priming-effects-in-the-same-different-task
#9
Sachiko Kinoshita, Michael Gayed, Dennis Norris
Masked priming tasks have been used widely to study early orthographic processes-the coding of letter position and letter identity. Recently, using masked priming in the same-different task Lupker, Nakayama, and Perea (2015a) reported finding a phonological priming effect with primes presented in Japanese Katakana, and English target words presented in the Roman alphabet, and based on this finding, suggested that previously reported effects in the same-different task in the literature could be based on phonology rather than orthography...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272462/simultaneous-tracking-of-coevolving-distributional-regularities-in-speech
#10
Xujin Zhang, Lori L Holt
Speech processing depends upon mapping variable acoustic speech input in a manner that reflects the long-term regularities of the native language. Yet, these mappings are flexible such that introduction of short-term distributional regularities in speech input, like those arising from foreign accents or talker idiosyncrasies, leads to rapid adjustments in the effectiveness of acoustic dimensions in signaling phonetic categories. The present experiments investigate whether the system is able to track simultaneous short-term distributional statistics present in speech input or if, instead, the global regularity jointly defined by these distributions dominates...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265023/how-to-detect-the-invisible-investigating-the-role-of-the-extrageniculate-pathways-in-the-salience-based-progression-of-attention-using-moving-s-cone-items
#11
Raphaël Mizzi, George A Michael
Visual attention progresses from the most to the least salient item until a target is found. We explored whether and how the extrageniculate pathways participate in this progression when salience is built on motion signals. Because there is a disynaptic extrageniculate pathway that conveys motion signals to the cortex and because recent studies suggest that motion-related attentional effects rely not on motion per se but on motion-energy (i.e., objectless spatiotemporal changes), we used the S-cone isolation technique to make the search display invisible to the extrageniculate pathways...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247049/opening-the-window-size-of-the-attentional-window-dominates-perceptual-load-and-familiarity-in-visual-selection
#12
Adam T Biggs, Bradley S Gibson
Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 1995) claims that visual selection is determined both by the perceptual demands a display imposes and by the perceptual resources an observer has available for processing. This theory is often tested by examining distractor interference in modified flanker tasks, which separate potential target locations from distractor locations and allow researchers to measure distractor processing. Although this task has provided significant insight into cognitive processing, it may also be an example of how a given task obscures potentially important experimental factors...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221955/the-kinematics-not-the-orientation-of-an-action-influences-language-processing
#13
Sophie-Anne Beauprez, Christel Bidet-Ildei
Consistent with the embodied view of cognition, several studies have shown a link between action and the processing of action verbs. However, it is largely unknown how action properties can influence semantic activation during word processing. On the basis of the observation of point-light display (PLDs), the present study addressed this issue. Through four experiments, we assessed whether kinematics and orientation, which are two crucial characteristics of human action, can influence the link between action and language...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160504/more-than-skin-deep-integration-of-skin-based-and-musculoskeletal-reference-frames-in-localization-of-touch
#14
Renata Sadibolova, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
The skin of the forearm is, in one sense, a flat 2-dimensional (2D) sheet, but in another sense approximately cylindrical, mirroring the 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric shape of the arm. The role of frames of reference based on the skin as a 2D sheet versus based on the musculoskeletal structure of the arm remains unclear. When we rotate the forearm from a pronated to a supinated posture, the skin on its surface is displaced. Thus, a marked location will slide with the skin across the underlying flesh, and the touch perceived at this location should follow this displacement if it is localized within a skin-based reference frame...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091639/the-paddle-effect-in-the-pong-task-is-not-due-to-blocking-ability-of-the-observer
#15
Wladimir Kirsch, Wilfried Kunde
When participants try to block a moving ball on a screen by means of a manually controlled paddle, their perception of the ball's speed is altered as a function of the paddle size and thus of their blocking performance. In particular, the ball appears to move slower the larger the paddle is. This paddle effect was investigated in several studies and has become a prominent example for influences of observers' ability to act on perception. Three experiments were conducted to test for this action-related explanation...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091637/tactile-confusions-of-the-fingers-and-toes
#16
Kelda Manser-Smith, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
Recent research has shown systematic patterns of confusions between digits of the hands and feet. The present study addressed whether such confusions arise from early somatosensory maps or higher level body representations. As the glabrous and hairy skin of the hands and feet have distinct representations in somatosensory cortex, an effect arising from early somatotopic maps may show distinct patterns on each skin surface. In contrast, if the effect arises from higher level body representations which represent the digits as volumetric units, similar patterns should be apparent regardless of which side of the digit is touched...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091636/mapping-the-dynamic-allocation-of-temporal-attention-in-musical-patterns
#17
Brian K Hurley, Lauren K Fink, Petr Janata
Many environmental sounds, such as music or speech, are patterned in time. Dynamic attending theory, and supporting empirical evidence, suggests that a stimulus's temporal structure serves to orient attention to specific moments in time. One instantiation of this theory posits that attention synchronizes to the temporal structure of a stimulus in an oscillatory fashion, with optimal perception at salient time points or oscillation peaks. We examined whether a model consisting of damped linear oscillators succeeds at predicting temporal attention behavior in rhythmic multi-instrumental music...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091635/temporal-constraints-in-the-use-of-auditory-action-effects-for-motor-optimization
#18
Bence Neszmélyi, János Horváth
For quick ballistic movements the possibility of making online adjustments is limited. However, when the same action (e.g., pressing a button) is repeated multiple times, trial-by-trial adjustments are possible: Previous studies found that participants utilized auditory effects as feedback to optimize the applied force for such tone eliciting actions. In the current study, it was examined whether this action-effect-related motor adaptation also occurred if a delay was inserted between the action and its auditory effect...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091634/visual-working-memory-supports-perceptual-stability-across-saccadic-eye-movements
#19
Deborah A Cronin, David E Irwin
Vision is suppressed during saccadic eye movements. To create a stable perception of the visual world we must compensate for the gaps in visual input caused by this suppression. Some theories of perceptual stability, such as the Saccade Target Object Theory (McConkie & Currie, 1996), propose that stability relies on object correspondence across saccades. According to these views, the visual system encodes features of the saccade target into visual working memory (VWM) before a saccade is made. After the saccade, participants attempt to locate those features within a small region near the fovea...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091633/the-effects-of-attention-and-adaptation-duration-on-the-motion-aftereffect
#20
Laura K Bartlett, Erich W Graf, Wendy J Adams
The motion aftereffect (MAE) is the perception of illusory motion following extended exposure to a moving stimulus. The MAE has been used to probe the role of attention in motion processing. Many studies have reported that MAEs are reduced if attention is diverted from the adaptation stimulus, but others have argued that motion adaptation is independent of attention. We explored several factors that might modulate the attention-adaptation relationship and therefore explain apparent inconsistencies, namely (a) adaptation duration, (b) motion type: translating versus complex, and (c) response bias...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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