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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504525/introspection-of-subjective-feelings-is-sensitive-and-specific
#1
Laurence Questienne, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504524/healthy-aging-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-taking-in-motor-decision-making
#2
Matteo Valsecchi, Jutta Billino, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Healthy aging is associated with changes in both cognitive abilities, including decision-making, and motor control. Previous research has shown that young healthy observers are close to optimal when they perform a motor equivalent of economic decision-making tasks that are known to produce suboptimal decision patterns. We tested both younger (age 20-29) and older (age 60-79) adults in such a task, which involved rapid manual aiming and monetary rewards and punishments contingent on hitting different areas on a touch screen...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#3
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493726/anticipatory-coarticulation-and-the-minimal-planning-unit-of-speech
#4
Qiang Liu, Alan H Kawamoto, Katherine K Payne, Genvieve N Dorsey
One of the most persistent arguments against the segment as the minimal planning unit is that the seemingly ubiquitous, thus, presumed obligatory, nature of anticipatory coarticulation (AC) effects favors the syllable or a larger unit. By contrast, we present the results of 3 experiments showing that AC is not ubiquitous, but graded and variable based on (a) phonological availability and (b) the specific criterion to initiate articulation adopted by a speaker. We further argue that phonological encoding is parallel...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481566/stimulus-expectation-prolongs-rather-than-shortens-perceived-duration-evidence-from-self-generated-expectations
#5
Teresa Birngruber, Hannes Schröter, Emanuel Schütt, Rolf Ulrich
Previous studies have suggested that unexpected stimuli are perceived as being longer than expected ones (e.g., the temporal oddball effect). These studies manipulated stimulus expectation mostly via stimulus repetitions and stimulus probabilities. However, these manipulations might affect duration judgments not only through the modulation of stimulus expectation. Therefore, the present study introduces a novel paradigm to isolate the effect of stimulus expectation on perceived duration from repetition and probability effects...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481565/audiovisual-integration-in-social-evaluation
#6
Mila Mileva, James Tompkinson, Dominic Watt, A Mike Burton
Our social evaluation of other people is influenced by their faces and their voices. However, rather little is known about how these channels combine in forming "first impressions." Over 5 experiments, we investigate the relative contributions of facial and vocal information for social judgments: dominance and trustworthiness. The experiments manipulate each of these sources of information within-person, combining faces and voices giving rise to different social attributions. We report that vocal pitch is a reliable source of information for judgments of dominance (Study 1), but not trustworthiness (Study 4)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447850/links-between-temporal-acuity-and-multisensory-integration-across-life-span
#7
Ryan A Stevenson, Sarah H Baum, Juliane Krueger, Paul A Newhouse, Mark T Wallace
The temporal relationship between individual pieces of information from the different sensory modalities is one of the stronger cues to integrate such information into a unified perceptual gestalt, conveying numerous perceptual and behavioral advantages. Temporal acuity, however, varies greatly over the life span. It has previously been hypothesized that changes in temporal acuity in both development and healthy aging may thus play a key role in integrative abilities. This study tested the temporal acuity of 138 individuals ranging in age from 5 to 80...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447849/a-large-scale-horizontal-vertical-illusion-produced-with-small-objects-separated-in-depth
#8
Zhi Li, Frank H Durgin
We conducted two experiments (total N = 81) to investigate the basis for the large-scale horizontal-vertical illusion (HVI), which is typically measured as 15%-20% and has previously been linked to the presence of a ground plane. In a preliminary experiment, vertical rods of similar angular extents that were either large (4.5-7.5 m) and far, or small (0.9-1.5 m) and near, were matched to horizontal extents in a virtual environment by adjustment of horizontal gaps or rods. Large/far objects showed a larger HVI (∼13%) than did small objects (∼7%), as has been shown before, but the horizontal gap normally used to measure the large-scale HVI was not the source of the larger bias...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447848/spatial-biases-in-motion-extrapolation-for-manual-interception
#9
Sinéad A Reid, Joost C Dessing
The exact mechanisms by which humans control the manual interception of moving targets are currently unknown. Here, the authors explored the behaviors associated with the spatial control for manual interception. The examined task required controlling a cursor to intercept moving targets on a touch screen. They explored the effects of target motion direction, curvature and occlusion on manual interception. They observed occlusion-dependent spatial errors and arrival times for curved and diagonal trajectories (larger errors and earlier arrival of the finger at its final position with longer occlusion)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447847/the-speed-of-voluntary-and-priority-driven-shifts-of-visual-attention
#10
Michael Jenkins, Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question how fast spatial attention moves between different visual objects remains debated. We used electrophysiological measures to determine the speed of voluntary and visually guided shifts of attention. Participants shifted attention from a known benchmark object (T1) to a benchmark-defined target object (T2) in tasks where these shifts had to be controlled endogenously and tasks where they could be guided by visible stimulus attributes (target features or arrow cues). To track the speed of these attention shifts, we measured event-related potential (ERP) markers of attentional object selection (N2pc components)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447846/attentional-state-modulates-the-effect-of-an-irrelevant-stimulus-dimension-on-perception
#11
Björn Herrmann, Ingrid S Johnsrude
Covariations of acoustic features provide redundancy in rapidly changing soundscapes: Hearing one feature enables a listener to infer another if these 2 features normally covary. However, it is unknown whether situational demands affect the degree to which covariations influence perceptual inferences. We exploited a perceptual interdependency between modulation rate and frequency and examined, in 6 experiments, whether challenging situations would alter the degree to which people rely on frequency information to make decisions about modulation rate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447845/time-course-of-motor-affordances-evoked-by-pictured-objects-and-words
#12
Daniel N Bub, Michael E J Masson, Ragav Kumar
Correspondence effects based on the relationship between the left/right position of a pictured object's handle and the hand used to make a response, or on the size of the object and the nature of a grip response (power/precision), have been attributed to motor affordances evoked by the object. Effects of this nature, however, are readily explained by the similarity in the abstract spatial coding of the features that define the stimulus and response, without recourse to object-based affordances. We propose that in the task context of making reach-and-grasp actions, pictured objects may evoke genuine, limb-specific action constituents...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447844/frontal-theta-band-oscillations-predict-error-correction-and-posterror-slowing-in-typing
#13
Çığır Kalfaoğlu, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Performance errors are associated with robust behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) effects. However, there is a debate about the nature of the relationship between these effects and implicit versus explicit error awareness. Our aim was to study the relationship between error related electrophysiological effects, such as spectral perturbations in fronto-medial theta band oscillations (FMT), and error awareness in typing. Typing has an advantage as an experimental paradigm in that detected errors are quickly and habitually signaled by the participant using backspace, allowing separation of detected from undetected errors without interruption in behavior...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425733/contingent-capture-is-weakened-in-search-for-multiple-features-from-different-dimensions
#14
Dan Biderman, Natalie Biderman, Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Can observers maintain more than 1 attentional set and search for 2 features in parallel? Previous studies that relied on attentional capture by irrelevant distractors to answer this question focused on features from the same dimension and specifically, on color. They showed that 2 separate color templates can guide attention selectively and simultaneously. Here, the authors investigated attentional guidance by 2 features from different dimensions. In three spatial-cueing experiments, they compared contingent capture during single-set versus dual-set search...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425732/distractor-probability-changes-the-shape-of-the-attentional-template
#15
Joy J Geng, Nicholas E DiQuattro, Jonathan Helm
Theories of attention commonly refer to the "attentional template" as the collection of features in working memory that represent the target of visual search. Many models of attention assume that the template contains a veridical representation of target features, but recent studies have shown that the target representation is "shifted" away from distractor features in order to optimize their distinctiveness and facilitate visual search. Here, we manipulated the probability of target-similar distractors during a visual search task in 2 groups, and separately measured the contents of the attentional template...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425731/changes-in-perception-action-tuning-over-long-time-scales-how-children-and-adults-perceive-and-act-on-dynamic-affordances-when-crossing-roads
#16
Elizabeth E O'Neal, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lucas J Franzen, Pooya Rahimian, Junghum Paul Yon, Joseph K Kearney, Jodie M Plumert
This investigation examined developmental change in how children perceive and act on dynamic affordances when crossing roads on foot. Six- to 14-year-olds and adults crossed roads with continuous cross-traffic in a large-screen, immersive pedestrian simulator. We observed change both in children's gap choices and in their ability to precisely synchronize their movement with the opening of a gap. Younger children were less discriminating than older children and adults, choosing fewer large gaps and more small gaps...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414501/spelling-ability-selectively-predicts-the-magnitude-of-disruption-in-unspaced-text-reading
#17
Aaron Veldre, Denis Drieghe, Sally Andrews
We examined the effect of individual differences in written language proficiency on unspaced text reading in a large sample of skilled adult readers who were assessed on reading comprehension and spelling ability. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing a low or high frequency target word, presented with standard interword spacing, or in one of three unsegmented text conditions that either preserved or eliminated word boundary information. The average data replicated previous studies: unspaced text reading was associated with increased fixation durations, a higher number of fixations, more regressions, reduced saccade length, and an inflation of the word frequency effect...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414500/location-coding-account-versus-affordance-activation-account-in-handle-to-hand-correspondence-effects-evidence-of-simon-like-effects-based-on-the-coding-of-action-direction
#18
Antonello Pellicano, Iring Koch, Ferdinand Binkofski
An increasing number of studies have shown a close link between perception and action, which is supposed to be responsible for the automatic activation of actions compatible with objects' properties, such as the orientation of their graspable parts. It has been observed that left and right hand responses to objects (e.g., cups) are faster and more accurate if the handle orientation corresponds to the response location than when it does not. Two alternative explanations have been proposed for this handle-to-hand correspondence effect: location coding and affordance activation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414499/executive-and-perceptual-distraction-in-visual-working-memory
#19
Richard J Allen, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch
The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory paradigm, and manipulating executive load using simple or more demanding secondary verbal tasks. Across 7 experiments varying in presentation format, timing, stimulus set, and distractor number, we observed clear disruptive effects of executive load and visual distraction, but relatively minimal evidence supporting an interactive relationship between these factors...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414498/neighing-barking-and-drumming-horses-object-related-sounds-help-and-hinder-picture-naming
#20
Andreas Mädebach, Stefan Wöhner, Marie-Luise Kieseler, Jörg D Jescheniak
The study presented here investigated how environmental sounds influence picture naming. In a series of four experiments participants named pictures (e.g., the picture of a horse) while hearing task-irrelevant sounds (e.g., neighing, barking, or drumming). Experiments 1 and 2 established two findings, facilitation from congruent sounds (e.g., picture: horse, sound: neighing) and interference from semantically related sounds (e.g., sound: barking), both relative to unrelated sounds (e.g., sound: drumming). Experiment 3 replicated the effects in a situation in which participants were not familiarized with the sounds prior to the experiment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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