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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557497/you-said-you-would-the-predictability-of-other-s-behavior-from-their-intentions-determines-predictive-biases-in-action-perception
#1
Matthew Hudson, Patric Bach, Toby Nicholson
The perception of an action is shifted farther along the observed trajectory if the observer has prior knowledge of the actor's intention. This intention-action prediction effect is explained by predictive perception models, wherein sensory input is interpreted in light of expectancies. This study altered the precision of the prediction by varying the predictability of the action from the intention, to increase/decrease the predictive perceptual bias. Participants heard an actor state an intention ("I'll take it"/"I'll leave it") before the actor reached or withdrew from an object, thus confirming or contradicting the intention...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557496/perceptual-surprise-aides-inhibitory-motor-control
#2
Jan R Wessel
Neurophysiological studies of cortico-motor excitability have shown that unexpected sounds are followed by motor inhibition. In a recent study, Leiva, Parmentier, Elchlepp, and Verbruggen (2015) derived a prediction from these findings: unexpected, task-irrelevant sounds should increase the ability to withhold motor responses in a Go/NoGo task. Contrary to that prediction, they found that playing unexpected sounds before NoGo-stimuli decreased the likelihood of successful motor inhibition. However, we here argue that the relative timing of unexpected events relative to NoGo-related motor activity is key...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557495/working-memory-load-and-the-retro-cue-effect-a-diffusion-model-account
#3
Peter Shepherdson, Klaus Oberauer, Alessandra S Souza
Retro-cues (i.e., cues presented between the offset of a memory array and the onset of a probe) have consistently been found to enhance performance in working memory tasks, sometimes ameliorating the deleterious effects of increased memory load. However, the mechanism by which retro-cues exert their influence remains a matter of debate. To inform this debate, we applied a hierarchical diffusion model to data from 4 change detection experiments using single item, location-specific probes (i.e., a local recognition task) with either visual or verbal memory stimuli...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557494/identifying-the-locus-of-compatibility-based-backward-crosstalk-evidence-from-an-extended-prp-paradigm
#4
Markus Janczyk, Sandra Renas, Moritz Durst
The backward crosstalk effect (BCE) in dual tasking means that characteristics of Task 2 of 2 subsequently performed tasks influence Task 1 performance. This observation indicates that certain features of the second response are already activated to some degree before the first response is selected. Therefore, the BCE challenges bottleneck models, which assume that Task 2 response selection does not begin until Task 1 response selection is finished. Instead, an extended model with a capacity-unlimited response activation stage prior to the bottleneck as the locus of the BCE was suggested...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557493/are-goal-states-represented-during-kinematic-imitation
#5
Geoff G Cole, Mark A Atkinson, Antonia D C D'Souza, Timothy N Welsh, Paul A Skarratt
A number of studies have shown that observation of another person's actions can modulate one's own actions, such as when 2 individuals cooperate in order to complete a joint task. However, little is known about whether or not direct matching of specific movements is modulated by the goals of the actions observed. In a series of 7 experiments, we employed an action observation paradigm in which 2 coactors sat opposite each other and took turns to reach out to targets presented on a shared workspace. Importantly, coactors performed either the same goal at the reached-to location or a different goal...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557492/decision-making-training-reduces-the-attentional-blink
#6
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, K G Garner, Paul E Dux
Practice or training on a particular task often yields gains for the trained task; however, the extent to which these benefits generalize to other stimuli/tasks is contentious. It has been suggested that behavioral decision-making/response selection training may enhance temporal visual attention, as measured using the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Here, we show that AB can indeed be reduced through response selection training, which requires repeatedly performing a speeded decision-making task. Training gains garnered by this approach transferred to distinct AB measures, but not to unrelated measures of visual search and multitasking ability...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557491/the-average-facial-expression-of-a-crowd-influences-impressions-of-individual-expressions
#7
Sarah Griffiths, Gillian Rhodes, Linda Jeffery, Romina Palermo, Markus F Neumann
People can accurately assess the "mood of a crowd" by rapidly extracting the average intensity of all the individual expressions, when the crowd consists of a set of faces comprising different expressions of the same individual. Here, we investigate the processes involved when people judge the expression intensity of individual faces that appear in the context of a more naturalistic crowd of different individuals' faces. We show that judgments of the intensity of happy and angry expressions for individual faces are biased toward the group mean expression intensity, even when the faces are all different individuals...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557490/combined-effects-of-form-and-meaning-based-predictability-on-perceived-clarity-of-speech
#8
Carine Signoret, Ingrid Johnsrude, Elisabet Classon, Mary Rudner
The perceptual clarity of speech is influenced by more than just the acoustic quality of the sound; it also depends on contextual support. For example, a degraded sentence is perceived to be clearer when the content of the speech signal is provided with matching text (i.e., form-based predictability) before hearing the degraded sentence. Here, we investigate whether sentence-level semantic coherence (i.e., meaning-based predictability), enhances perceptual clarity of degraded sentences, and if so, whether the mechanism is the same as that underlying enhancement by matching text...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557489/beyond-opponent-coding-of-facial-identity-evidence-for-an-additional-channel-tuned-to-the-average-face
#9
Linda Jeffery, Nichola Burton, Stephen Pond, Colin W G Clifford, Gillian Rhodes
Face identity can be represented in a multidimensional space centered on the average. It has been argued that the average acts as a perceptual norm, with the norm coded implicitly by balanced activation in pairs of channels that respond to opposite extremes of face dimensions (two-channel model). In Experiment 1 we used face identity aftereffects to distinguish this model from a narrow-band multichannel model with no norm. We show that as adaptors become more extreme, aftereffects initially increase sharply and then plateau...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504525/introspection-of-subjective-feelings-is-sensitive-and-specific
#10
Laurence Questienne, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504524/healthy-aging-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-taking-in-motor-decision-making
#11
Matteo Valsecchi, Jutta Billino, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Healthy aging is associated with changes in both cognitive abilities, including decision-making, and motor control. Previous research has shown that young healthy observers are close to optimal when they perform a motor equivalent of economic decision-making tasks that are known to produce suboptimal decision patterns. We tested both younger (age 20-29) and older (age 60-79) adults in such a task, which involved rapid manual aiming and monetary rewards and punishments contingent on hitting different areas on a touch screen...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#12
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493726/anticipatory-coarticulation-and-the-minimal-planning-unit-of-speech
#13
Qiang Liu, Alan H Kawamoto, Katherine K Payne, Genvieve N Dorsey
One of the most persistent arguments against the segment as the minimal planning unit is that the seemingly ubiquitous, thus, presumed obligatory, nature of anticipatory coarticulation (AC) effects favors the syllable or a larger unit. By contrast, we present the results of 3 experiments showing that AC is not ubiquitous, but graded and variable based on (a) phonological availability and (b) the specific criterion to initiate articulation adopted by a speaker. We further argue that phonological encoding is parallel...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481566/stimulus-expectation-prolongs-rather-than-shortens-perceived-duration-evidence-from-self-generated-expectations
#14
Teresa Birngruber, Hannes Schröter, Emanuel Schütt, Rolf Ulrich
Previous studies have suggested that unexpected stimuli are perceived as being longer than expected ones (e.g., the temporal oddball effect). These studies manipulated stimulus expectation mostly via stimulus repetitions and stimulus probabilities. However, these manipulations might affect duration judgments not only through the modulation of stimulus expectation. Therefore, the present study introduces a novel paradigm to isolate the effect of stimulus expectation on perceived duration from repetition and probability effects...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481565/audiovisual-integration-in-social-evaluation
#15
Mila Mileva, James Tompkinson, Dominic Watt, A Mike Burton
Our social evaluation of other people is influenced by their faces and their voices. However, rather little is known about how these channels combine in forming "first impressions." Over 5 experiments, we investigate the relative contributions of facial and vocal information for social judgments: dominance and trustworthiness. The experiments manipulate each of these sources of information within-person, combining faces and voices giving rise to different social attributions. We report that vocal pitch is a reliable source of information for judgments of dominance (Study 1), but not trustworthiness (Study 4)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447850/links-between-temporal-acuity-and-multisensory-integration-across-life-span
#16
Ryan A Stevenson, Sarah H Baum, Juliane Krueger, Paul A Newhouse, Mark T Wallace
The temporal relationship between individual pieces of information from the different sensory modalities is one of the stronger cues to integrate such information into a unified perceptual gestalt, conveying numerous perceptual and behavioral advantages. Temporal acuity, however, varies greatly over the life span. It has previously been hypothesized that changes in temporal acuity in both development and healthy aging may thus play a key role in integrative abilities. This study tested the temporal acuity of 138 individuals ranging in age from 5 to 80...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447849/a-large-scale-horizontal-vertical-illusion-produced-with-small-objects-separated-in-depth
#17
Zhi Li, Frank H Durgin
We conducted two experiments (total N = 81) to investigate the basis for the large-scale horizontal-vertical illusion (HVI), which is typically measured as 15%-20% and has previously been linked to the presence of a ground plane. In a preliminary experiment, vertical rods of similar angular extents that were either large (4.5-7.5 m) and far, or small (0.9-1.5 m) and near, were matched to horizontal extents in a virtual environment by adjustment of horizontal gaps or rods. Large/far objects showed a larger HVI (∼13%) than did small objects (∼7%), as has been shown before, but the horizontal gap normally used to measure the large-scale HVI was not the source of the larger bias...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447848/spatial-biases-in-motion-extrapolation-for-manual-interception
#18
Sinéad A Reid, Joost C Dessing
The exact mechanisms by which humans control the manual interception of moving targets are currently unknown. Here, the authors explored the behaviors associated with the spatial control for manual interception. The examined task required controlling a cursor to intercept moving targets on a touch screen. They explored the effects of target motion direction, curvature and occlusion on manual interception. They observed occlusion-dependent spatial errors and arrival times for curved and diagonal trajectories (larger errors and earlier arrival of the finger at its final position with longer occlusion)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447847/the-speed-of-voluntary-and-priority-driven-shifts-of-visual-attention
#19
Michael Jenkins, Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question how fast spatial attention moves between different visual objects remains debated. We used electrophysiological measures to determine the speed of voluntary and visually guided shifts of attention. Participants shifted attention from a known benchmark object (T1) to a benchmark-defined target object (T2) in tasks where these shifts had to be controlled endogenously and tasks where they could be guided by visible stimulus attributes (target features or arrow cues). To track the speed of these attention shifts, we measured event-related potential (ERP) markers of attentional object selection (N2pc components)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447846/attentional-state-modulates-the-effect-of-an-irrelevant-stimulus-dimension-on-perception
#20
Björn Herrmann, Ingrid S Johnsrude
Covariations of acoustic features provide redundancy in rapidly changing soundscapes: Hearing one feature enables a listener to infer another if these 2 features normally covary. However, it is unknown whether situational demands affect the degree to which covariations influence perceptual inferences. We exploited a perceptual interdependency between modulation rate and frequency and examined, in 6 experiments, whether challenging situations would alter the degree to which people rely on frequency information to make decisions about modulation rate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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