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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154636/optimal-task-sets-override-attentional-capture-by-rare-cues
#1
Josef G Schönhammer, Dirk Kerzel
Many studies converge on the conclusion that spatially irrelevant precues do not capture attention when cue and target features do not match. However, a recent study reported that rare onset cues captured attention even though observers searched for a nonmatching color target. Hence, attentional capture by rare onsets cues might be cognitively impenetrable (Folk & Remington, 2015). Although we replicated these findings (Experiment 1), we hypothesized that capture by rare onset cues can be prevented when the target display promotes a stronger task-set for the target or suppression of the cue features (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#2
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154634/the-contribution-of-perceptual-factors-and-training-on-varying-audiovisual-integration-capacity
#3
Jonathan M P Wilbiks, Benjamin J Dyson
The suggestion that the capacity of audiovisual integration has an upper limit of 1 was challenged in 4 experiments using perceptual factors and training to enhance the binding of auditory and visual information. Participants were required to note a number of specific visual dot locations that changed in polarity when a critical auditory stimulus was presented, under relatively fast (200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]) and slow (700-ms SOA) rates of presentation. In Experiment 1, transient cross-modal congruency between the brightness of polarity change and pitch of the auditory tone was manipulated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154633/disentangling-inhibition-based-and-retrieval-based-aftereffects-of-distractors-cognitive-versus-motor-processes
#4
Tarini Singh, Ruth Laub, Jan Pablo Burgard, Christian Frings
Selective attention refers to the ability to selectively act upon relevant information at the expense of irrelevant information. Yet, in many experimental tasks, what happens to the representation of the irrelevant information is still debated. Typically, 2 approaches to distractor processing have been suggested, namely distractor inhibition and distractor-based retrieval. However, it is also typical that both processes are hard to disentangle. For instance, in the negative priming literature (for a review Frings, Schneider, & Fox, 2015) this has been a continuous debate since the early 1980s...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154632/auditory-over-visual-advantage-of-sensorimotor-synchronization-in-6-to-7-year-old-children-but-not-in-12-to-15-year-old-children-and-adults
#5
Yan Mu, Yingyu Huang, Chao Ji, Li Gu, Xiang Wu
The superiority of the auditory over visual modality in sensorimotor synchronization-a fundamental ability to coordinate movements with external rhythms-has long been established, whereas recent metronome synchronization work showed that synchronization of a visual bouncing ball was not less stable than synchronization of auditory tones in adults. The present study examined synchronization to isochronous sequences composed of auditory tones, visual flashes, or a bouncing ball in 6- to 7-year-old children, 12- to 15-year-old children, and 19- to 29-year-old adults...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154631/alertness-and-cognitive-control-testing-the-early-onset-hypothesis
#6
Darryl W Schneider
Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154630/automatic-imitation-of-multiple-agents-simultaneous-or-random-representation
#7
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
Research has shown that the observation of another's movement activates the corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, it is largely unknown how activation of these shared representations is influenced by the number of observed agents. In recent work, we have studied automatic imitation while participants saw 2 hands of which either one hand or both hands made a movement. These studies found that 2 hands produced a stronger imitative response than a single hand when the hands made an identical movement but not when they made different movements...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154629/emergent-perception-of-gaze-direction-across-time
#8
Diana Mihalache, Laurel A Gaeddert, Timothy D Sweeny
To determine where another person is looking, the visual system engages a process of emergent integration, pooling information across space from both the head and eyes. Gaze is dynamic, however, and in order to achieve a temporally stabilized metric of a person's direction of attention, this integrative process might also occur across time. Here, we tested and confirmed this prediction. Even when seen separately and in succession, the rotation of a head attracted the perceived gaze of a pair of eyes. This integration depended on temporal continuity-attraction decayed with longer delays between the face parts and prolonged viewing of the head reduced integration...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154628/the-bandwidth-of-vwm-consolidation-varies-with-the-stimulus-feature-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#9
Renning Hao, Mark W Becker, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu, Taosheng Liu
Our previous work suggests that 2 colors can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) in parallel without a loss of memory precision, whereas consolidation of 2 orientations is performed in a strictly serial manner. Those experiments compared VSTM performance for simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. However, there is still controversy about whether the bandwidth for consolidation is determined by the type of information. To further investigate this issue, here we measured electroencephalography while participants attempted to consolidate 1, 2 or 4 simultaneously presented colors (Experiment 1) or orientations (Experiment 2) under limited presentation times...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154627/distinct-kinematic-markers-of-demonstration-and-joint-action-coordination-evidence-from-virtual-xylophone-playing
#10
Luke McEllin, Günther Knoblich, Natalie Sebanz
When performing joint actions, people modulate instrumental actions to provide additional information for a coactor (Pezzulo, Donnarumma, & Dindo, 2013). Similarly, demonstrators adjust instrumental actions to make them more informative for novice learners (Brand, Baldwin, & Ashburn, 2002). It is unknown whether the kinematic modulations performed to facilitate prediction in joint action coordination and the modulations performed to transmit information about the structure of novel actions are unique, or whether a general type of modulation can take on multiple functions...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154626/attentional-effect-on-contrast-appearance-from-enhancement-to-attenuation
#11
Liu-Fang Zhou, Simona Buetti, Shena Lu, Yong-Chun Cai
Does attention alter appearance? Recent studies have shown that an exogenous cue tends to increase the perceived contrast of a low-contrast stimulus. In the present study we systematically studied the attentional effect over a wide range of contrast levels (15% to 60%). Besides replicating the enhancement at lower contrast levels with higher comparative tasks (Experiment 1), the data revealed a cue-induced attenuation in apparent contrast at higher contrast levels with lower comparative tasks (Experiment 2) and same/different judgment task (Experiment 3)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154625/time-based-expectancy-in-temporally-structured-task-switching
#12
Stefanie Aufschnaiter, Andrea Kiesel, Gesine Dreisbach, Dorit Wenke, Roland Thomaschke
In many situations, people have to switch between different tasks. Previous research has shown that task switching leads to relatively slow responses and high error rates. In many real-life task-switching contexts, tasks are not randomly distributed over time, but the temporal distribution of tasks carries information. Often the delay before a task predicts to some degree which task it will be, like when a longer browser loading time for a website makes the search for an alternative more likely. The present study investigated whether and how humans adapt to such temporal regularities...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154624/task-demands-determine-comparison-strategy-in-whole-probe-change-detection
#13
Rob Udale, Simon Farrell, Chris Kent
Detecting a change in our visual world requires a process that compares the external environment (test display) with the contents of memory (study display). We addressed the question of whether people strategically adapt the comparison process in response to different decision loads. Study displays of 3 colored items were presented, followed by 'whole-display' probes containing 3 colored shapes. Participants were asked to decide whether any probed items contained a new feature. In Experiments 1-4, irrelevant changes to the probed item's locations or feature bindings influenced memory performance, suggesting that participants employed a comparison process that relied on spatial locations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154623/cognitive-control-over-prospective-task-set-interference
#14
Peter S Whitehead, Tobias Egner
Recent studies have demonstrated that maintaining task-sets in working memory (WM) for prospective implementation can interfere with performance on an intervening task when the same stimulus requires incompatible responses in the ongoing versus the prospective task. This prospective task-set interference effect has previously been conceptualized as an obligatory process, resulting from instruction-based reflexivity (IBR). However, the extent to which strategic control can be exerted over interference in ongoing behavior from prospective task-sets held in WM has heretofore not been tested directly...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154622/how-does-not-left-become-right-electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-dynamic-conflict-bound-negation-processing-account
#15
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154621/sensory-constraints-on-perceptual-simulation-during-sentence-reading
#16
Xuefei Gao, Ting Jiang
Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154620/seeing-it-both-ways-using-a-double-cuing-task-to-investigate-the-role-of-spatial-cuing-in-level-1-visual-perspective-taking
#17
John Michael, Thomas Wolf, Clément Letesson, Stephen Butterfill, Joshua Skewes, Jakob Hohwy
Previous research using the dot-perspective task has produced evidence that humans may be equipped with a mechanism that spontaneously tracks others' gaze direction and thereby acquires information about what they can see. Other findings, however, support the alternative hypothesis that a spatial-cuing mechanism underpins the effect observed in the dot-perspective task. To adjudicate between these hypotheses, we developed a double-cuing version of Posner's (1980) spatial-cuing paradigm to be implemented in the dot-perspective task, and conducted 3 experiments in which we manipulated stimulus-onset asynchrony, as well as secondary task demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058943/a-re-examination-of-bias-in-human-randomness-perception
#18
Paul A Warren, Umberto Gostoli, George D Farmer, Wael El-Deredy, Ulrike Hahn
Human randomness perception is commonly described as biased. This is because when generating random sequences humans tend to systematically under- and overrepresent certain subsequences relative to the number expected from an unbiased random process. In a purely theoretical analysis we have previously suggested that common misperceptions of randomness may actually reflect genuine aspects of the statistical environment, once cognitive constraints are taken into account which impact on how that environment is actually experienced (Hahn & Warren, Psychological Review, 2009)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035075/whatever-you-do-don-t-look-at-the-evaluating-guidance-by-an-exclusionary-attentional-template
#19
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035074/biased-guessing-in-a-complete-identification-visual-working-memory-task-further-evidence-for-mixed-state-models
#20
Robert M Nosofsky, Jason M Gold
Research is reported that provides evidence for a significant role of mixed states and guessing processes in tasks of visual working memory (VWM). Subjects engaged in a complete-identification VWM task. The stimulus set consisted of 16 colors roughly equally spaced around a color circle. On each trial, a memory-set drawn from the colors was briefly presented, followed by a location probe. Subjects attempted to reproduce the color of the probed item by clicking on the appropriate response button of a discrete color wheel...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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