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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221955/the-kinematics-not-the-orientation-of-an-action-influences-language-processing
#1
Sophie-Anne Beauprez, Christel Bidet-Ildei
Consistent with the embodied view of cognition, several studies have shown a link between action and the processing of action verbs. However, it is largely unknown how action properties can influence semantic activation during word processing. On the basis of the observation of point-light display (PLDs), the present study addressed this issue. Through four experiments, we assessed whether kinematics and orientation, which are two crucial characteristics of human action, can influence the link between action and language...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211593/how-feature-relationships-influence-attention-and-awareness-evidence-from-eye-movements-and-eeg
#2
Aimee Martin, Stefanie I Becker
Many everyday tasks require selecting relevant objects in the visual field while ignoring irrelevant information. A widely held belief is that attention is tuned to the exact feature value(s) of a sought-after target object (e.g., color, shape). In contrast, subsequent studies have shown that attentional orienting (capture) is often determined by the relative feature(s) that the target has relative to other irrelevant items surrounding (e.g., redder, larger). However, it is unknown whether conscious awareness is also determined by relative features...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211592/when-stimulus-driven-control-settings-compete-on-the-dominance-of-categories-as-cues-for-control
#3
Julie M Bugg, Abhishek Dey
Stimulus-driven or reactive control refers to the modulation of attention poststimulus onset via retrieval of learned control settings associated with task stimuli. The present study asked which stimulus-driven control setting "wins" the competition when more than 1 is available to guide attention. Utilizing an item-specific proportion congruence manipulation in a picture-word Stroop task, 7 experiments examined competition between item-level and category-level control settings. In Experiment 1, category-level control dominated as evidenced by transfer of control to unique 50% congruent items (exemplars) from biased (33% or 67% congruent) animal categories...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160504/more-than-skin-deep-integration-of-skin-based-and-musculoskeletal-reference-frames-in-localization-of-touch
#4
Renata Sadibolova, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
The skin of the forearm is, in one sense, a flat 2-dimensional (2D) sheet, but in another sense approximately cylindrical, mirroring the 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric shape of the arm. The role of frames of reference based on the skin as a 2D sheet versus based on the musculoskeletal structure of the arm remains unclear. When we rotate the forearm from a pronated to a supinated posture, the skin on its surface is displaced. Thus, a marked location will slide with the skin across the underlying flesh, and the touch perceived at this location should follow this displacement if it is localized within a skin-based reference frame...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091640/surface-curvature-from-kinetic-depth-can-affect-lightness
#5
Lindsay M Peterson, Daniel J Kersten, Damien J Mannion
The light reaching the eye confounds the proportion of light reflected from surfaces in the environment with their illumination. To achieve constancy in perceived surface reflectance (lightness) across variations in illumination, the visual system must infer the relative contribution of reflectance to the incoming luminance signals. Previous studies have shown that contour and stereo cues to surface shape can affect the lightness of sawtooth luminance profiles. Here, we investigated whether cues to surface shape provided solely by motion (via the kinetic depth effect) can similarly influence lightness...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091639/the-paddle-effect-in-the-pong-task-is-not-due-to-blocking-ability-of-the-observer
#6
Wladimir Kirsch, Wilfried Kunde
When participants try to block a moving ball on a screen by means of a manually controlled paddle, their perception of the ball's speed is altered as a function of the paddle size and thus of their blocking performance. In particular, the ball appears to move slower the larger the paddle is. This paddle effect was investigated in several studies and has become a prominent example for influences of observers' ability to act on perception. Three experiments were conducted to test for this action-related explanation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091638/effects-of-lexical-ambiguity-on-perception-a-test-of-the-label-feedback-hypothesis-using-a-visual-oddball-paradigm
#7
Olessia Jouravlev, Alexander Taikh, Debra Jared
We used a visual oddball paradigm to investigate whether a shared verbal label makes two objects belonging to different conceptual categories less perceptually distinct. In Experiment 1, the critical images shared a label as well as some perceptual features (orange, referring to the color and the fruit), and in Experiment 2, the critical images shared a label but no perceptual features (bat, referring to the animal and the sports equipment). In both experiments comparison images were similar to each of the critical images but they did not share a label...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091637/tactile-confusions-of-the-fingers-and-toes
#8
Kelda Manser-Smith, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R Longo
Recent research has shown systematic patterns of confusions between digits of the hands and feet. The present study addressed whether such confusions arise from early somatosensory maps or higher level body representations. As the glabrous and hairy skin of the hands and feet have distinct representations in somatosensory cortex, an effect arising from early somatotopic maps may show distinct patterns on each skin surface. In contrast, if the effect arises from higher level body representations which represent the digits as volumetric units, similar patterns should be apparent regardless of which side of the digit is touched...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091636/mapping-the-dynamic-allocation-of-temporal-attention-in-musical-patterns
#9
Brian K Hurley, Lauren K Fink, Petr Janata
Many environmental sounds, such as music or speech, are patterned in time. Dynamic attending theory, and supporting empirical evidence, suggests that a stimulus's temporal structure serves to orient attention to specific moments in time. One instantiation of this theory posits that attention synchronizes to the temporal structure of a stimulus in an oscillatory fashion, with optimal perception at salient time points or oscillation peaks. We examined whether a model consisting of damped linear oscillators succeeds at predicting temporal attention behavior in rhythmic multi-instrumental music...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091635/temporal-constraints-in-the-use-of-auditory-action-effects-for-motor-optimization
#10
Bence Neszmélyi, János Horváth
For quick ballistic movements the possibility of making online adjustments is limited. However, when the same action (e.g., pressing a button) is repeated multiple times, trial-by-trial adjustments are possible: Previous studies found that participants utilized auditory effects as feedback to optimize the applied force for such tone eliciting actions. In the current study, it was examined whether this action-effect-related motor adaptation also occurred if a delay was inserted between the action and its auditory effect...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091634/visual-working-memory-supports-perceptual-stability-across-saccadic-eye-movements
#11
Deborah A Cronin, David E Irwin
Vision is suppressed during saccadic eye movements. To create a stable perception of the visual world we must compensate for the gaps in visual input caused by this suppression. Some theories of perceptual stability, such as the Saccade Target Object Theory (McConkie & Currie, 1996), propose that stability relies on object correspondence across saccades. According to these views, the visual system encodes features of the saccade target into visual working memory (VWM) before a saccade is made. After the saccade, participants attempt to locate those features within a small region near the fovea...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091633/the-effects-of-attention-and-adaptation-duration-on-the-motion-aftereffect
#12
Laura K Bartlett, Erich W Graf, Wendy J Adams
The motion aftereffect (MAE) is the perception of illusory motion following extended exposure to a moving stimulus. The MAE has been used to probe the role of attention in motion processing. Many studies have reported that MAEs are reduced if attention is diverted from the adaptation stimulus, but others have argued that motion adaptation is independent of attention. We explored several factors that might modulate the attention-adaptation relationship and therefore explain apparent inconsistencies, namely (a) adaptation duration, (b) motion type: translating versus complex, and (c) response bias...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058821/everything-is-illuminated-prismatic-adaptation-lowers-visual-detection-threshold-in-normal-subjects
#13
Irene Ronga, Pietro Sarasso, Carlotta Fossataro, Adriana Salatino, Francesca Garbarini, Raffaella Ricci, Marco Neppi-Modona
Prismatic adaptation (PA) results from repeated ballistic movements of the dominant arm toward visual targets while wearing prisms shifting the visual field laterally (visuomotor prismatic training [VPT]). Following PA, subjects' pointing movements are deviated contralaterally to prismatic shift (aftereffect). The question of whether spatial attention is also biased in the same direction remains controversial in the scientific literature. To investigate the effect of PA on spatial attention, we asked healthy participants to perform a visual detection threshold task before and after VPT with left- and right-deviating prisms and visuomotor training without prisms...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035559/can-research-participants-comment-authoritatively-on-the-validity-of-their-self-reports-of-mind-wandering-and-task-engagement-a-replication-and-extension-of-seli-jonker-cheyne-cortes-and-smilek-2015
#14
Matt E Meier
Seli, Jonker, Cheyne, Cortes, and Smilek (2015) found that, through retrospective confidence reports, participants can distinguish the validity of their mind wandering reports during a sustained attention ("metronome response") task. In addition, some participants were better able to make this distinction than others. Here, I sought to replicate both the within- and between-subjects' effects of confidence judgments on thought probe validity. To this end, I executed a preregistered close replication of Seli et al...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024226/perceptual-biases-during-cued-task-switching-relate-to-decision-process-differences-between-children-and-adults
#15
Joel E Martinez, Michael L Mack, Jessie-Raye Bauer, Mary Abbe Roe, Jessica A Church
Previous work suggests that children engage preparatory processing differently than adults in cued task switching. One potential consequence is that they are differentially biased by visual properties of the stimuli, for example, target-choice similarity. We tested this possibility in 215 children and young adults ranging from 6 to 27 years of age. Participants played a cue-target game with varying levels of working memory and attentional demand where they matched multidimensional stimuli according to a cued dimension...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024224/the-role-of-temporal-integration-in-auditory-stream-segregation
#16
Júlia Simon, István Winkler
Grouping distinct, temporally separated sounds is assumed to follow Gestalt principles, such as similarity or proximity. In the auditory streaming paradigm, the probability of perceiving all sounds as part of the same repeating pattern (the integrated percept) increases when the interstimulus interval (ISI) is increased from medium to long intervals. However, ISIs shorter than 50 ms have not been systematically explored. Here we show that below ca. 60-ms intervals the direction of the effect of ISI on perception is reversed compared to longer ISIs: Decreasing the ISI increases the probability of the integrated percept...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024223/failure-generates-impulsivity-only-when-outcomes-cannot-be-controlled
#17
Benjamin James Dyson, Jukka Sundvall, Lewis Forder, Sophia Douglas
Verbruggen, Chambers, Lawrence, and McLaren (2017) recently challenged the view that individuals act with greater caution following the experience of a negative outcome by showing that a gambled loss resulted in faster reaction time (RT) on the next trial. Over three experiments, we replicate and establish the boundary conditions of this effect in the context of a simple game (rock, paper, scissors [RPS]). Choice responding against unexploitable opponents replicated the link between failure and faster responding...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985013/contrast-sensitivity-indicates-processing-level-of-visual-illusions
#18
James M Brown, Bruno G Breitmeyer, Ralph G Hale, Richard W Plummer
A nearly linear contrast response function (CRF) is found in the lower level striate cortex whereas a steep, nonlinear increase at lower contrasts that gradually increases toward response saturation for higher contrasts is found in the higher level extrastriate cortex. This change of CRFs along the ventral cortical pathway indicates a shift from stimulus- and energy-dependent coding at lower levels to percept- and information-dependent coding at higher levels. The increase of nonlinearity at higher levels optimizes the extraction of perceptual information by amplifying responses to the ubiquitous low-contrast inputs in the environment...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975099/characterizing-individual-variation-in-the-strategic-use-of-attentional-control
#19
Jessica L Irons, Andrew B Leber
Goal-directed attentional control can substanially aid visual search, but only if it is recruited in an effective manner. Previously we found that strategies chosen to control attention vary considerably across individuals, and we proposed that effort avoidance may lead some individuals to choose suboptimal strategies. Here we present a more thorough analysis of individual differences in attentional control strategies. We used the adaptive choice visual search, which provides a method to quantify an individual's attentional control strategy in a dynamically changing, unconstrained environment...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975098/a-preference-for-visual-speed-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#20
Tom C A Freeman, Maria O Cucu, Laura Smith
Does the preference for visual speed extend to motion perception when the eye moves? Current evidence from psychophysics and neuroscience is limited to small patches of image motion and stationary fixation. Active observers, however, are more likely to use large patches of retinal flow and extraretinal signals accompanying eye movement to judge motion. We therefore investigated whether speed remains a primary dimension during smooth pursuit using a "discrimination-contour" technique. Our results showed that observers struggled most when trying to discriminate pursued stimuli that traveled at the same speed but moved over different distances and durations...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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