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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733674/correlation-of-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-asynchrony-across-stimuli-and-tasks-new-constraints-on-temporal-renormalization-theory
#1
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733673/learned-suppression-for-multiple-distractors-in-visual-search
#2
Bo-Yeong Won, Joy J Geng
Visual search for a target object occurs rapidly if there were no distractors to compete for attention, but this rarely happens in real-world environments. Distractors are almost always present and must be suppressed for target selection to succeed. Previous research suggests that one way this occurs is through the creation of a stimulus-specific distractor template. However, it remains unknown how information within such templates scale up with multiple distractors. Here we investigated the informational content of distractor templates created from repeated exposures to multiple distractors...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733672/exploring-the-contribution-of-motivation-and-experience-in-the-postpubescent-own-gender-bias-in-face-recognition
#3
Peter J Hills, J Michael Pake, Jack R Dempsey, Michael B Lewis
The own-gender bias in face recognition has been hypothesized to be the result of extensive experience with own-gender faces, coupled with a motivation to process own-group faces more deeply than other-group faces. We test the effect of experience and motivation in four experiments employing standard old/new recognition paradigms. In Experiment 1, no own-gender recognition bias was observed following an attractiveness-rating encoding task regardless of school type (single- or mixed-sex). Experiment 2, which used a distinctiveness-rating encoding task, did find a significant own-gender bias for all groups of participants...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733671/visual-working-memory-is-more-tolerant-than-visual-long-term-memory
#4
Mark W Schurgin, Jonathan I Flombaum
Human visual memory is tolerant, meaning that it supports object recognition despite variability across encounters at the image level. Tolerant object recognition remains one capacity in which artificial intelligence trails humans. Typically, tolerance is described as a property of human visual long-term memory (VLTM). In contrast, visual working memory (VWM) is not usually ascribed a role in tolerant recognition, with tests of that system usually demanding discriminatory power-identifying changes, not sameness...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723008/to-compute-lightness-illumination-is-not-estimated-it-is-held-constant
#5
Alan L Gilchrist
The light reaching the eye from a surface does not indicate the black-gray-white shade of a surface (called lightness) because the effects of illumination level are confounded with the reflectance of the surface. Rotating a gray paper relative to a light source alters its luminance (intensity of light reaching the eye) but the lightness of the paper remains relatively constant. Recent publications have argued, as had Helmholtz (1866/1924), that the visual system unconsciously estimates the direction and intensity of the light source...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723007/a-recursive-bayesian-updating-model-of-haptic-stiffness-perception
#6
Bing Wu, Roberta L Klatzky
Stiffness of many materials follows Hooke's Law, but the mechanism underlying the haptic perception of stiffness is not as simple as it seems in the physical definition. The present experiments support a model by which stiffness perception is adaptively updated during dynamic interaction. Participants actively explored virtual springs and estimated their stiffness relative to a reference. The stimuli were simulations of linear springs or nonlinear springs created by modulating a linear counterpart with low-amplitude, half-cycle (Experiment 1) or full-cycle (Experiment 2) sinusoidal force...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723006/object-based-target-templates-guide-attention-during-visual-search
#7
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708384/the-least-costs-hypothesis-a-rational-analysis-approach-to-the-voluntary-symbolic-control-of-attention
#8
Joseph R Pauszek, Bradley S Gibson
Here we propose a rational analysis account of voluntary symbolic attention control-the Least Costs Hypothesis (LCH)-that construes voluntary control as a decision between intentional cue use and unguided search. Consistent with the LCH, the present study showed that this decision is sensitive to variations in cue processing efficiency. In Experiment 1, observers demonstrated a robust preference for using "easy-to-process" arrow cues but not "hard-to-process" spatial word cues to satisfy an easy visual search goal; Experiment 2 showed that this preference persisted even when the temporal costs of cue processing were neutralized...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708383/a-note-by-any-other-name-intonation-context-rapidly-changes-absolute-note-judgments
#9
Stephen C Van Hedger, Shannon L M Heald, Sophia Uddin, Howard C Nusbaum
Absolute pitch (AP) judgments, by definition, do not require a reference note, and thus might be viewed as context independent. Here, we specifically test whether short-term exposure to particular intonation contexts influences AP categorization on a rapid time scale and whether such context effects can change from moment to moment. In Experiment 1, participants heard duets in which a "lead" instrument always began before a "secondary" instrument. Both instruments independently varied on intonation (flat, in-tune, or sharp)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708382/can-vigilance-tasks-be-administered-online-a-replication-and-discussion
#10
Victoria L Claypoole, Alexis R Neigel, Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, James L Szalma
Recently, experimental studies of vigilance have been deployed using online data collection methods. This data collection strategy is not new to the psychological sciences, but it is relatively new to basic research assessing vigilance performance, as studies in this area of research tend to collect data in the laboratory or in the field. The present study partially replicated the results of a newly developed online vigilance task (Thomson, Besner, & Smilek, 2016). A sample of 130 participants completed the semantic vigilance task created by Thomson et al...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708381/do-we-know-what-we-need-preference-for-feedback-about-accurate-performances-does-not-benefit-sensorimotor-learning
#11
Flavio Henrique Bastos, Go Tani, Ricardo Drews, Stephan Riek, Welber Marinovic
Previous research on skill acquisition has shown that learners seem to prefer receiving knowledge of results (KR) about those trials in which they have performed more accurately. In the present study, we assessed whether this preference leads to an advantage in terms of skill acquisition, transfer, and retention of their capacity to extrapolate the motion of decelerating objects during periods of visual occlusion. Instead of questionnaires, we adopted a more direct approach to investigate learners' preferences for KR...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708380/reconceptualizing-perceptual-load-as-a-rate-problem-the-role-of-time-in-the-allocation-of-selective-attention
#12
Zhi Li, Keyun Xin, Wei Li, Yanzhe Li
In the literature about allocation of selective attention, a widely studied question is when will attention be allocated to information that is clearly irrelevant to the task at hand. The present study, by using convergent evidence, demonstrated that there is a trade-off between quantity of information present in a display and the time allowed to process it. Specifically, whether or not there is interference from irrelevant distractors depends not only on the amount of information present, but also on the amount of time allowed to process that information...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708379/audiovisual-semantic-interactions-between-linguistic-and-nonlinguistic-stimuli-the-time-courses-and-categorical-specificity
#13
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
We examined the time-courses and categorical specificity of the crossmodal semantic congruency effects elicited by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on the processing of visual pictures (Experiment 1) and printed words (Experiment 2). Auditory cues were presented at 7 different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) with respect to the visual targets, and participants made speeded categorization judgments (living vs. nonliving). Three common effects were observed across 2 experiments: Both naturalistic sounds and spoken words induced a slowly emerging congruency effect when leading by 250 ms or more in the congruent compared with the incongruent condition, and a rapidly emerging inhibitory effect when leading by 250 ms or less in the incongruent condition as opposed to the noise condition...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708378/the-affordance-of-catchability-in-running-to-intercept-fly-balls
#14
Dees B W Postma, Koen A P M Lemmink, Frank T J M Zaal
How do outfielders control their locomotor behavior in running to catch fly balls? This question has been the topic of many empirical studies. It is interesting that a little addressed but highly relevant issue in this regard is that of the influence of perceived catchability on locomotor control. We examined what factors determine catchability and whether catchability can be reliably perceived. We had participants run to catch fly balls that could either be catchable or uncatchable. Participants performed two tasks...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708377/regularity-and-dimensional-salience-in-temporal-grouping
#15
Jon B Prince, Tim Rice
How do pitch and duration accents combine to influence the perceived grouping of musical sequences? Sequence context influences the relative importance of these accents; for example, the presence of learned structure in pitch exaggerates the effect of pitch accents at the expense of duration accents despite being irrelevant to the task and not attributable to attention (Prince, 2014b). In the current study, two experiments examined whether the presence of temporal structure has the opposite effect. Experiment 1 tested baseline conditions, in which participants (N = 30) heard sequences with various sizes of either pitch or duration accents, which implied either duple or triple groupings (accent every two or three notes, respectively)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708376/familiar-size-effects-on-reaction-time-when-congruent-is-better
#16
Carmen Fisher, Irene Sperandio
Familiar size is known to influence our perception of object's size and distance. In this study, we examined whether or not simple RTs (RTs) are also affected by prior knowledge of objects' size. In a series of experiments, participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible to briefly presented images of familiar objects, equated for luminance and retinal size. The effects of familiar size and object animacy on RTs were investigated under natural (Experiment 1) and reduced (Experiment 2) viewing conditions...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708375/a-physiologically-based-nonhomogeneous-poisson-counter-model-of-visual-identification
#17
Jeppe H Christensen, Bo Markussen, Claus Bundesen, Søren Kyllingsbæk
A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are mutually confusable and hard to see. The model assumes that the visual system's initial sensory response consists in tentative visual categorizations, which are accumulated by leaky integration of both transient and sustained components comparable with those found in spike density patterns of early sensory neurons...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708374/surface-filling-in-and-contour-interpolation-contribute-independently-to-kanizsa-figure-formation
#18
Siyi Chen, Stefan Glasauer, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
To explore mechanisms of object integration, the present experiments examined how completion of illusory contours and surfaces modulates the sensitivity of localizing a target probe. Observers had to judge whether a briefly presented dot probe was located inside or outside the region demarcated by inducer elements that grouped to form variants of an illusory, Kanizsa-type figure. From the resulting psychometric functions, we determined observers' discrimination thresholds as a sensitivity measure. Experiment 1 showed that sensitivity was systematically modulated by the amount of surface and contour completion afforded by a given configuration...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697991/grasping-at-laws-speed-accuracy-trade-offs-in-manual-prehension
#19
Robert D McIntosh, Mark Mon-Williams, James R Tresilian
Most of human performance is subject to speed-accuracy trade-offs. For spatially constrained aiming, the trade-off is often said to take the specific form of Fitts' law, in which movement duration is predicted from a single factor combining target distance and target size. However, efforts to extend this law to the three-dimensional context of reaching to grasp (prehension) have had limited success. We suggest that there are potentially confounding influences in standard grasping, and we introduce a novel task to regularize the direction of approach and to eliminate the influences of nearby surfaces...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683718/redundancy-gain-in-the-simon-task-does-increasing-relevant-activation-reduce-the-effect-of-irrelevant-activation
#20
Victor Mittelstädt, Jeff Miller
In the present study, we tested the idea that relevant and irrelevant location-based activations are combined when selecting a response in the Simon task. For this purpose, we manipulated the strength of the relevant activation by using single versus redundant relevant stimuli to indicate the correct response. Assuming that relevant and irrelevant activations are summed during the decision process, the Simon effect should be reduced in the presence of the stronger relevant activation produced by redundant stimuli...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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