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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589359/grasp-planning-for-object-manipulation-without-simulation-of-the-object-manipulation-action
#1
Oliver Herbort, Wladimir Kirsch, Wilfried Kunde
When an object is grasped, the grasp is usually adapted to upcoming object manipulations. We tested the hypothesis that grasp planning for object manipulation is based on simulations of body movements that could implement intended object manipulations. The simulation of body movements requires to map the desired object movement onto body movements at some stage of the planning process. Hence, manipulating this mapping should affect simulations and ultimately grasp selections. This hypothesis was tested in five experiments, in which participants grasped a circular knob and used it to rotate a pointer to various targets...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589358/overt-spatial-attention-modulates-multisensory-selection
#2
Anne Jensen, Simon Merz, Charles Spence, Christian Frings
In daily life, signals from the different senses are often integrated to enhance multisensory perception. However, an important, yet currently still controversial, topic concerns the need for attention in this integration process. To investigate this question, we turned to the processing of multisensory distractors. Note that multisensory target processing is typically confounded with attention as people attend to the stimuli that they respond to. We therefore designed a multisensory flanker task in which the target and distractor stimuli were both multisensory and the congruency between the features (auditory and visual) was varied orthogonally...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589357/full-body-ownership-illusion-elicited-by-visuo-vestibular-integration
#3
Nora Preuss, H Henrik Ehrsson
Vestibular signals allow us to maintain balance and orient ourselves in space. However, the possible contribution of the vestibular sense to the perception of the body as one's own (body ownership) remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate how vestibular information contributes to the experience of body ownership using multisensory integration. We conducted 3 studies using a "full-body ownership illusion" induced by virtual reality technology and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS); the latter is a technique that allows for the selective stimulation of vestibular afferents...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589356/inhibition-of-irrelevant-response-codes-is-affected-by-matching-target-distractor-modalities
#4
Malte Möller, Susanne Mayr, Axel Buchner
Lateralized responses to central targets are facilitated when distractors are presented ipsilaterally (congruent trials) compared with contralaterally (incongruent trials) to the response. This accessory Simon effect is explained by assuming that distractors generate a spatial code that conforms to, or conflicts with, the response. The effect typically diminishes as the distractor-target interval increases. However, it is unclear whether irrelevant spatial codes passively decay or are actively inhibited. Given that inhibition takes time to develop, its operation may reverse the Simon effect-indicated by impaired performance in congruent compared with incongruent trials-when the distractor is presented prior to the target...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589355/saccadic-eye-movements-smear-spatial-working-memory
#5
Matthew S Peterson, Shane P Kelly, Eric J Blumberg
Why do saccades interfere with spatial working memory? One possibility is that attention and saccades are tightly coupled, and performing a saccade momentarily removes attention from spatial working memory, degrading the memory representation. This cannot be the entire explanation, because saccades cause greater interference than do covert attentional shifts (Lawrence, Myerson, & Abrams, 2004). In addition, this saccadic degradation is limited to spatial but not object, configural, or verbal representations...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589354/binding-lies-flexible-retrieval-of-honest-and-dishonest-behavior
#6
Christina U Pfeuffer, Roland Pfister, Anna Foerster, Franziska Stecher, Andrea Kiesel
Telling a consistent lie across multiple occasions poses severe demands on memory. Two cognitive mechanisms aid with overcoming this difficulty: associations between a question and its corresponding response and associations between a question and its previous intentional context (in this case: honest vs. dishonest responding). Here, we assessed whether intentional contexts such as an honest versus dishonest mindset modulate the retrieval of stimulus-response associations. In an item-specific priming paradigm, participants classified stimuli either honestly or dishonestly during a prime and a later probe...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589353/individual-differences-in-perceptual-sensitivity-and-representation-of-facial-signals-of-trustworthiness
#7
Elisa Baccolo, Viola Macchi Cassia
One of the most important sources of social information is the human face, on whose appearance we easily form social judgments: Adults tend to attribute a certain personality to a stranger based on minimal facial cues, and after a short exposure time. Previous studies shed light on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the ability to discriminate facial properties conveying social signals, but the underlying processes supporting individual differences remain poorly understood. In the current study, we explored whether differences in sensitivity to facial cues to trustworthiness and in representing such cues in a multidimensional space are associated with individual variability in social attitude, as measured by the extraversion/introversion dimension...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570321/habituation-of-oculomotor-capture-by-sudden-onsets-stimulus-specificity-spontaneous-recovery-and-dishabituation
#8
Francesca Bonetti, Massimo Turatto
Previous studies have confirmed that visual onsets are very powerful in attracting our gaze. The reflexive saccades triggered by sudden onsets have a high adaptive value because they ensure a rapid inspection of potentially appetitive or dangerous events. Here we showed, however, that such exogenously driven saccades are rapidly attenuated as the exposure to the same irrelevant onset progresses. Crucially, we found that such decrement in oculomotor capture conforms to several key features of habituation, an ancestral and widespread form of learning, consisting in a response reduction to a repeated irrelevant stimulation...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570320/the-limits-of-super-recognition-an-other-ethnicity-effect-in-individuals-with-extraordinary-face-recognition-skills
#9
Sarah Bate, Rachel Bennetts, Nabil Hasshim, Emma Portch, Ebony Murray, Edwin Burns, Gavin Dudfield
In the last decade there has been increasing interest in super-recognizers, who have an extraordinary ability to recognize faces. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these individuals are subject to the same biases in face recognition as typical perceivers. The most renowned constraint reported to date is the other-ethnicity effect, whereby people are better at recognizing faces from their own, compared with other, ethnicities. If super-recognizers also show this bias, it is possible that they are no better at other-ethnicity face recognition than typical native perceivers-a finding that would have important theoretical and practical implications...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570319/asymmetric-discrimination-of-nonspeech-tonal-analogues-of-vowels
#10
Matthew Masapollo, T Christina Zhao, Lauren Franklin, James L Morgan
Directional asymmetries reveal a universal bias in vowel perception favoring extreme vocalic articulations, which lead to acoustic vowel signals with dynamic formant trajectories and well-defined spectral prominences because of the convergence of adjacent formants. The present experiments investigated whether this bias reflects speech-specific processes or general properties of spectral processing in the auditory system. Toward this end, we examined whether analogous asymmetries in perception arise with nonspeech tonal analogues that approximate some of the dynamic and static spectral characteristics of naturally produced /u/ vowels executed with more versus less extreme lip gestures...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570318/intentional-binding-is-unrelated-to-action-intention
#11
Wladimir Kirsch, Wilfried Kunde, Oliver Herbort
The present study examined the role of voluntary motor commands in the subjective temporal attraction between an action and its sensory consequence termed as intentional binding. Participants either pressed a key voluntarily or involuntarily while seeing a rotating clock hand. The key press was followed by a short beep tone in some blocks of trials. Then, the position of the clock hand at action or tone occurrence was judged. Trials in which key presses and tones occurred separately provided baseline measures...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489097/dynamic-sources-of-evidence-supporting-confidence-judgments-and-error-detection
#12
Lucie Charles, Nick Yeung
Our decisions are accompanied by a subjective sense of confidence about whether the choices we have made are correct or erroneous. We investigate the information on which these confidence judgments are based, and how they relate to the decision itself, by studying how fluctuations in perceptual information influence decisions and second-order metacognitive evaluations of confidence and accuracy. Human participants judged which of two dynamically changing stimuli contained more dots, under instructions emphasizing either speed or accuracy...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475025/stimulus-based-and-task-based-attention-modulate-auditory-stream-segregation-context-effects
#13
Breanne D Yerkes, David M Weintraub, Joel S Snyder
Previous studies have shown that perceptual segregation increases after listening to longer tone sequences, an effect known as buildup. More recently, an effect of prior frequency separation (Δ ƒ ) has been discovered: presenting tone sequences with a small Δ ƒ biases following sequences with an intermediate Δ ƒ to be segregated into two separate streams, whereas presenting context sequences with a large Δ ƒ biases following sequences to be integrated into one stream. Here we investigated how attention and task demands influenced these effects of prior stimuli by having participants perform one of three tasks during the context: making streaming judgments on the tone sequences, detecting amplitude modulation in the tones, and performing a visual task while ignoring the tones...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475024/perceiving-faces-too-much-too-fast-face-specificity-in-response-caution
#14
Kristina Meyer, Florian Schmitz, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt
Faces are a major source of information in social interaction. The ability to perceive and interpret faces thus carries paramount importance in people's social lives. However, this crucial ability is not yet fully understood. Individual differences studies show that the speed and accuracy of face cognition (including perception and memory/recognition), the two facets targeted when measuring cognitive performance, are relatively independent traits. Unlike accuracy data, individual differences in reaction times (RTs) measured in perceptual decision tasks with or without memory load using faces and objects, do not show face-specific variance...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372098/emotion-specific-priming-effects-with-marginally-perceptible-facial-expression-primes-evidence-from-the-leave-one-out-paradigm
#15
Dirk Wentura, Michaela Rohr
Priming studies investigating the processing of emotional faces under conditions of limited awareness have shown that people can extract more than just valence from masked faces. However, previous results have been inconsistent with regard to the degree of differentiation among negative expressions. Some results have suggested a relevance differentiation (i.e., anger differentiated from fear or sadness) and some have suggested differentiation by arousal (i.e., sadness differentiated from fear or anger); others have not suggested any differentiation beyond valence...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596438/is-there-a-shape-to-the-attention-spotlight-computing-saliency-over-proto-objects-predicts-fixations-during-scene-viewing
#16
Yupei Chen, Gregory J Zelinsky
Attention controls the selective routing of visual inputs for classification. This "spotlight" of attention has been assumed to be a Gaussian, but here we propose that this routing occurs in the form of a shape. We show that a model of attention control that spatially averages saliency values over proto-objects (POs), fragments of feature-similar visual space, is better able to predict the fixation density maps and scanpaths made during the free viewing of 384 natural scenes by 12 participants than comparable saliency models that do not consider shape...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596437/evidence-for-second-order-singleton-suppression-based-on-probabilistic-expectations
#17
Bo-Yeong Won, Mary Kosoyan, Joy J Geng
Decades of research in attention have shown that salient distractors (e.g., a color singleton) tend to capture attention. However, in most studies, singleton distractors are just as likely to be present as absent. We therefore have little knowledge of how probabilistic expectations of the salient distractor's occurrence and features affect suppression. In three experiments, we explored this question by manipulating the frequency of a singleton distractor and the variability of its color within a search display...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596436/how-are-object-shape-axes-defined-evidence-from-mirror-image-confusions
#18
Thitaporn Chaisilprungraung, Joseph German, Michael McCloskey
A central goal in research on visual perception is to understand how the visual system represents the shapes of objects. According to many theorists, axes defined on the basis of object geometry provide a coordinate system for representing the locations and orientations of object parts. An important question that has received little attention concerns how object axes are defined-that is, what aspects of object geometry determine how axes are assigned to shapes? We evaluated 2 hypotheses. According to the elongated-part hypothesis, axes are defined on the basis an object's most elongated part, such that, for example, the principal axis for a hatchet would coincide with the long axis of the hatchet's handle...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596435/serial-dependence-in-timing-perception
#19
Warrick Roseboom
Recent sensory history affects subsequent experience. Behavioral results have demonstrated this effect in two forms: repeated exposure to the same sensory input produces negative aftereffects wherein sensory stimuli like those previously experienced are judged as less like the exposed stimulation, while singular exposures can produce positive aftereffects wherein judgments are more like previously experienced stimulation. For timing perception, there is controversy regarding the influence of recent exposure-both singular and repeated exposure produce apparently negative aftereffects-often referred to as temporal recalibration and rapid temporal recalibration, respectively...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596434/sensitivity-to-configural-information-and-expertise-in-visual-word-recognition
#20
Alan C-N Wong, Yetta Kwailing Wong, Kelvin F H Lui, Terri Y K Ng, Vince S H Ngan
Holistic processing has been regarded as a marker of perceptual expertise for many object categories. However, visual word processing, a common form of perceptual expertise in the population, is traditionally considered part-based instead of holistic, and whether it involves holistic processing remains inconclusive. In 4 experiments, we examined a well-known yet less studied indicator of holistic word processing-observers' sensitivity to changes in configural information of objects. A paradigm was designed with 2 crucial elements: specific requirement to process configural information within a word and an inversion manipulation...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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