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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095006/can-the-structure-of-motor-variability-predict-learning-rate
#1
David Barbado Murillo, Carla Caballero Sánchez, Janice Moreside, Francisco J Vera-García, Francisco J Moreno
Recent studies show that motor variability is actively regulated as an exploration tool to promote learning in reward-based tasks. However, its role in learning processes during error-based tasks, when a reduction of the motor variability is required to achieve good performance, is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that error-based learning not only depends on exploration but also on the individuals' ability to measure and predict the motor error. Previous studies identified a less auto-correlated motor variability as a higher ability to perform motion adjustments...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095005/identifying-stimuli-that-cue-multiple-responses-triggers-the-congruency-sequence-effect-independent-of-response-conflict
#2
Daniel H Weissman, Katelyn M Colter, Lauren D Grant, Patrick G Bissett
According to most accounts of executive control, resisting distraction requires enhancing task-relevant processing, reducing task-irrelevant processing, or both. Consistent with this view, the congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks-a putative measure of distraction-is often smaller after highly distracting incongruent trials than after less distracting congruent trials. Competing accounts of executive control, however, differ on which aspect of an incongruent trial triggers this congruency sequence effect (CSE)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080115/reaching-into-response-selection-stimulus-and-response-similarity-influence-central-operations
#3
Tim Wifall, Aaron T Buss, Thomas A Farmer, John P Spencer, Eliot Hazeltine
To behave adaptively in complex and dynamic environments, one must link perception and action to satisfy internal states, a process known as response selection (RS). A largely unexplored topic in the study of RS is how interstimulus and interresponse similarity affect performance. To examine this issue, we manipulated stimulus similarity by using colors that were either similar or dissimilar and manipulated response similarity by having participants move a mouse cursor to locations that were either close together or far apart...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080114/oculomotor-and-linguistic-processing-effects-in-reading-dynamic-horizontally-scrolling-text
#4
Hannah Harvey, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Simon P Liversedge, Robin Walker
Two experiments are reported investigating oculomotor behavior and linguistic processing when reading dynamic horizontally scrolling text (compared to reading normal static text). Three factors known to modulate processing time in normal reading were investigated: Word length and word frequency were examined in Experiment 1, and target word predictability in Experiment 2. An analysis of global oculomotor behavior across the 2 experiments showed that participants made fewer and longer fixations when reading scrolling text, with shorter progressive and regressive saccades between these fixations...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080113/higher-order-cognitive-control-in-dual-tasks-evidence-from-task-pair-switching
#5
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Iring Koch
In the present study, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with a novel task-pair switching logic which enabled us to isolate performance costs occurring at the global level of task-pairs. In Experiment 1, in which we used conceptually overlapping responses for Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2), we generated 3 task-pairs by combining 1 of 3 visual tasks (T1) with an auditory task (T2). In addition to worse performance after a short SOA than a long SOA (i.e., PRP effect), we found impaired performance in n - 1 task-pair switches as compared to n - 1 task-pair repetitions (i...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080112/beyond-trial-by-trial-adaptation-a-quantification-of-the-time-scale-of-cognitive-control
#6
Bart Aben, Tom Verguts, Eva Van den Bussche
The idea that adaptation to stimulus or response conflict can operate over different time scales takes a prominent position in various theories and models of cognitive control. The mechanisms underlying temporal variations in control are nevertheless poorly understood, which is partly due to a lack of appropriate empirical measures. Inspired by reinforcement learning models, we developed a method to quantify the time scale of control behaviorally, by computing trial-by-trial effects that go beyond the preceding trial...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080111/generalized-movement-representation-in-haptic-perception
#7
Lucile Dupin, Vincent Hayward, Mark Wexler
The extraction of spatial information by touch often involves exploratory movements, with tactile and kinesthetic signals combined to construct a spatial haptic percept. However, the body has many tactile sensory surfaces that can move independently, giving rise to the source binding problem: when there are multiple tactile signals originating from sensory surfaces with multiple movements, are the tactile and kinesthetic signals bound to one another? We studied haptic signal combination by applying the tactile signal to a stationary fingertip while another body part (the other hand or a foot) or a visual target moves, and using a task that can only be done if the tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080110/spoken-words-can-make-the-invisible-visible-testing-the-involvement-of-low-level-visual-representations-in-spoken-word-processing
#8
Markus Ostarek, Falk Huettig
The notion that processing spoken (object) words involves activation of category-specific representations in visual cortex is a key prediction of modality-specific theories of representation that contrasts with theories assuming dedicated conceptual representational systems abstracted away from sensorimotor systems. In the present study, we investigated whether participants can detect otherwise invisible pictures of objects when they are presented with the corresponding spoken word shortly before the picture appears...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080109/the-dynamic-range-of-response-set-activation-during-action-sequencing
#9
Lawrence P Behmer, Matthew J C Crump
We show that theories of response scheduling for sequential action can be discriminated on the basis of their predictions for the dynamic range of response set activation during sequencing, which refers to the momentary span of activation states for completed and to-be-completed actions in a response set. In particular, theories allow that future actions in a plan are partially activated, but differ with respect to the width of the range, which refers to the number of future actions that are partially activated...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918184/brain-responses-to-regular-and-octave-scrambled-melodies-a-case-of-predictive-coding
#10
Eitan Globerson, Roni Granot, Idan Tal, Yuval Harpaz, Maor Zeev-Wolf, Abraham Golstein
Melody recognition is an online process of evaluating incoming information and comparing this information to an existing internal corpus, thereby reducing prediction error. The predictive-coding model postulates top-down control on sensory processing accompanying reduction in prediction error. To investigate the relevancy of this model to melody processing, the current study examined early magnetoencephalogram (MEG) auditory responses to familiar and unfamiliar melodies in 25 participants. The familiar melodies followed and primed an octave-scrambled version of the same melody...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893274/perceptual-adaptation-of-vowels-generalizes-across-the-phonology-and-does-not-require-local-context
#11
Kateřina Chládková, Václav Jonáš Podlipský, Anastasia Chionidou
Listeners usually understand without difficulty even speech that sounds atypical. When they encounter noncanonical realizations of speech sounds, listeners can make short-term adjustments of their long-term representations of those sounds. Previous research, focusing mostly on adaptation in consonants, has suggested that for perceptual adaptation to take place some local cues (lexical, phonotactic, or visual) have to guide listeners' interpretation of the atypical sounds. In the present experiment we investigated perceptual adaptation in vowels...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893273/spontaneous-rereading-within-sentences-eye-movement-control-and-visual-sampling
#12
Sarah J White, Laura M T Lantz, Kevin B Paterson
Three experiments examine the role of previously read text in sentence comprehension and the control of eye movements during spontaneous rereading. Spontaneous rereading begins with a regressive saccade and involves reinspection of previously read text. All 3 experiments employed the gaze-contingent change technique to modulate the availability of previously read text. In Experiment 1, previously read text was permanently masked either immediately to the left of the fixated word (beyond wordn) or more than 1 word to the left (beyond wordn-1)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893272/action-effects-are-coded-as-transitions-from-current-to-future-stimulation-evidence-from-compatibility-effects-in-tracking
#13
Wilfried Kunde, Constantin Schmidts, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort
There is ample evidence that motor actions are stored in terms of, and controlled by, the sensory effects that these actions produce. At present it is unclear, though, whether action control is governed by intended sensory changes (e.g., the transition from darkness to brightness when switching on a light) or only by intended sensory end states (e.g., the light being on). The present study explored the role of sensory changes for action control. To address this issue, participants engaged in a spatial tracking task...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893271/visual-search-for-conjunctions-of-physical-and-numerical-size-shows-that-they-are-processed-independently
#14
Kenith V Sobel, Amrita M Puri, Thomas J Faulkenberry, Taylor D Dague
The size congruity effect refers to the interaction between numerical magnitude and physical digit size in a symbolic comparison task. Though this effect is well established in the typical 2-item scenario, the mechanisms at the root of the interference remain unclear. Two competing explanations have emerged in the literature: an early interaction model and a late interaction model. In the present study, we used visual conjunction search to test competing predictions from these 2 models. Participants searched for targets that were defined by a conjunction of physical and numerical size...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893270/a-link-between-attentional-function-effective-eye-movements-and-driving-ability
#15
Andrew K Mackenzie, Julie M Harris
The misallocation of driver visual attention has been suggested as a major contributing factor to vehicle accidents. One possible reason is that the relatively high cognitive demands of driving limit the ability to efficiently allocate gaze. We present an experiment that explores the relationship between attentional function and visual performance when driving. Drivers performed 2 variations of a multiple-object tracking task targeting aspects of cognition including sustained attention, dual-tasking, covert attention, and visuomotor skill...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893269/submentalizing-or-mentalizing-in-a-level-1-perspective-taking-task-a-cloak-and-goggles-test
#16
Jane R Conway, Danna Lee, Mobin Ojaghi, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
It has been proposed that humans possess an automatic system to represent mental states ('implicit mentalizing'). The existence of an implicit mentalizing system has generated considerable debate however, centered on the ability of various experimental paradigms to demonstrate unambiguously such mentalizing. Evidence for implicit mentalizing has previously been provided by the 'dot perspective task,' where participants are slower to verify the number of dots they can see when an avatar can see a different number of dots...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893268/domain-general-mechanisms-for-speech-segmentation-the-role-of-duration-information-in-language-learning
#17
Rebecca L A Frost, Padraic Monaghan, Tomoko Tatsumi
Speech segmentation is supported by multiple sources of information that may either inform language processing specifically, or serve learning more broadly. The Iambic/Trochaic Law (ITL), where increased duration indicates the end of a group and increased emphasis indicates the beginning of a group, has been proposed as a domain-general mechanism that also applies to language. However, language background has been suggested to modulate use of the ITL, meaning that these perceptual grouping preferences may instead be a consequence of language exposure...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841453/auditory-compensation-for-head-rotation-is-incomplete
#18
Tom C A Freeman, John F Culling, Michael A Akeroyd, W Owen Brimijoin
Hearing is confronted by a similar problem to vision when the observer moves. The image motion that is created remains ambiguous until the observer knows the velocity of eye and/or head. One way the visual system solves this problem is to use motor commands, proprioception, and vestibular information. These "extraretinal signals" compensate for self-movement, converting image motion into head-centered coordinates, although not always perfectly. We investigated whether the auditory system also transforms coordinates by examining the degree of compensation for head rotation when judging a moving sound...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831722/contributions-of-perceptual-and-motor-experience-of-an-observed-action-to-anticipating-its-result
#19
Yin-Hua Chen, Pei-Hong Lee, Yu-Wen Lu, Shih-Kuei Huang, Nai-Shing Yen
To gain deeper insight into respective contributions of perceptual and motor experience of an observed action to anticipating its result, we examined the perceptual anticipation of players with different action roles in striking sports. Baseball pitchers and batters at both advanced and intermediate levels were asked to make a decision about whether to swing the bat when viewing a series of videos showing incomplete sequences of a model pitcher throwing a strike or a ball. The results revealed that first 100 ms of ball flight could discriminate advanced batters from intermediate pitchers and batters (with no difference between intermediate pitchers and batters)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831721/body-posture-differentially-impacts-on-visual-attention-towards-tool-graspable-and-non-graspable-objects
#20
Ettore Ambrosini, Marcello Costantini
Viewed objects have been shown to afford suitable actions, even in the absence of any intention to act. However, little is known as to whether gaze behavior (i.e., the way we simply look at objects) is sensitive to action afforded by the seen object and how our actual motor possibilities affect this behavior. We recorded participants' eye movements during the observation of tools, graspable and ungraspable objects, while their hands were either freely resting on the table or tied behind their back. The effects of the observed object and hand posture on gaze behavior were measured by comparing the actual fixation distribution with that predicted by 2 widely supported models of visual attention, namely the Graph-Based Visual Saliency and the Adaptive Whitening Salience models...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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