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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985013/contrast-sensitivity-indicates-processing-level-of-visual-illusions
#1
James M Brown, Bruno G Breitmeyer, Ralph G Hale, Richard W Plummer
A nearly linear contrast response function (CRF) is found in the lower level striate cortex whereas a steep, nonlinear increase at lower contrasts that gradually increases toward response saturation for higher contrasts is found in the higher level extrastriate cortex. This change of CRFs along the ventral cortical pathway indicates a shift from stimulus- and energy-dependent coding at lower levels to percept- and information-dependent coding at higher levels. The increase of nonlinearity at higher levels optimizes the extraction of perceptual information by amplifying responses to the ubiquitous low-contrast inputs in the environment...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975099/characterizing-individual-variation-in-the-strategic-use-of-attentional-control
#2
Jessica L Irons, Andrew B Leber
Goal-directed attentional control can substanially aid visual search, but only if it is recruited in an effective manner. Previously we found that strategies chosen to control attention vary considerably across individuals, and we proposed that effort avoidance may lead some individuals to choose suboptimal strategies. Here we present a more thorough analysis of individual differences in attentional control strategies. We used the adaptive choice visual search, which provides a method to quantify an individual's attentional control strategy in a dynamically changing, unconstrained environment...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975098/a-preference-for-visual-speed-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#3
Tom C A Freeman, Maria O Cucu, Laura Smith
Does the preference for visual speed extend to motion perception when the eye moves? Current evidence from psychophysics and neuroscience is limited to small patches of image motion and stationary fixation. Active observers, however, are more likely to use large patches of retinal flow and extraretinal signals accompanying eye movement to judge motion. We therefore investigated whether speed remains a primary dimension during smooth pursuit using a "discrimination-contour" technique. Our results showed that observers struggled most when trying to discriminate pursued stimuli that traveled at the same speed but moved over different distances and durations...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975097/attentional-modulation-of-hierarchical-ensemble-coding-for-the-identities-of-moving-faces
#4
Bin Chen, Guomei Zhou
Observers can accurately compute summary statistics from a set of similar objects, which is referred to as ensemble coding. Few studies have investigated whether ensemble coding can be modulated by attention (i.e., whether attention can be selectively deployed to exclude irrelevant items from the ensemble coding of relevant items), and no studies have tested whether this coding represents the average of a relevant subset, the average of an irrelevant subset, or the average of the entire set. The present study employed an adapted paradigm of the multiple object tracking (MOT) task in which participants viewed multiple moving target faces and were asked to indicate whether a subsequent test face was one of the preceding targets...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975096/when-specific-action-biases-meet-nonspecific-preparation-event-repetition-modulates-the-variable-foreperiod-effect
#5
Robert Langner, Michael B Steinborn, Simon B Eickhoff, Lynn Huestegge
Preparing for the moment of action speeds up reaction time (RT) performance even if the particular response is unknown beforehand. When the preparatory interval, or foreperiod (FP), varies unpredictably between trials, responses usually become faster with increasing FP length. This variable-FP effect has been demonstrated to partly originate from trial-to-trial sequential effects of FP length, which are asymmetric as they occur mainly in short-FP but not in long-FP trials. In two experiments, we examined whether and how event-specific biases arising from previous target processing and responding affect both variable-FP and sequential FP effects...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975095/pitch-perception-in-music-do-scoops-matter
#6
Pauline Larrouy-Maestri, Peter Q Pfordresher
Studies of musical pitch perception typically treat pitches as if they are stable within a tone. Although pitches are represented this way in notation, performed tones are rarely stable, particularly in singing, which is arguably the most common form of melody production. This paper examines how brief dynamic changes at the beginnings and endings of sung pitches, a.k.a. "scoops," influence intonation perception. Across three experiments, 110 participants evaluated the intonation of four-tone melodies in which the third tone's tuning could vary within the central steady-state (the asymptote), or by virtue of scoops at the beginning and/or end of the tone...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975094/incremental-learning-in-word-production-tracing-the-fate-of-non-selected-alternative-picture-names
#7
Franziska Kurtz, Herbert Schriefers, Andreas Mädebach, Jörg D Jescheniak
Picture naming studies have shown that alternative picture names become phonologically coactivated even when they are eventually not produced (e.g., dog when poodle is produced and vice versa). The authors investigated whether this pattern is shaped by recent experience. Specifically, they tested whether the phonological coactivation of an alternative name is attenuated, when speakers consistently only use one particular name in a large number of naming episodes. In 3 picture-word interference experiments, the authors measured the phonological coactivation of basic-level alternative names during subordinate-level naming (Experiments 1 and 3) and of subordinate-level alternative names during basic-level naming (Experiment 2)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939047/intrinsic-whole-number-bias-in-humans
#8
Santiago Alonso-Díaz, Steven T Piantadosi, Benjamin Y Hayden, Jessica F Cantlon
Humans have great difficulty comparing quotients including fractions, proportions, and probabilities and often erroneously isolate the whole numbers of the numerators and denominators to compare them. Some have argued that the whole number bias is a compensatory strategy to deal with difficult comparisons. We examined adult humans' preferences for gambles that differed only in numerosity, and not in factors that influence their expected value (probabilities and stakes). Subjects consistently preferred gambles with more winning balls to ones with fewer, even though the probabilities were mathematically identical, replicating prior results...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927269/large-continuous-perspective-change-with-noncoplanar-points-enables-accurate-slant-perception
#9
Xiaoye Michael Wang, Mats Lind, Geoffrey P Bingham
Perceived slant has often been characterized as a component of 3D shape perception for polyhedral objects. Like 3D shape, slant is often perceived inaccurately. Lind, Lee, Mazanowski, Kountouriotis, and Bingham (2014) found that 3D shape was perceived accurately with perspective changes ≥ 45°. We now similarly tested perception of 3D slant. To account for their results, Lind et al. (2014) developed a bootstrap model based on the assumption that optical information yields perception of 3D relief structure then used with large perspective changes to bootstrap to perception of 3D Euclidean structure...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847973/spectral-contrast-effects-produced-by-competing-speech-contexts
#10
Lei Feng, Andrew J Oxenham
The long-term spectrum of a preceding sentence can alter the perception of a following speech sound in a contrastive manner. This speech context effect contributes to our ability to extract reliable spectral characteristics of the surrounding acoustic environment and to compensate for the voice characteristics of different speakers or spectral colorations in different listening environments to maintain perceptual constancy. The extent to which such effects are mediated by low-level "automatic" processes, or require directed attention, remains unknown...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733674/correlation-of-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-asynchrony-across-stimuli-and-tasks-new-constraints-on-temporal-renormalization-theory
#11
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733673/learned-suppression-for-multiple-distractors-in-visual-search
#12
Bo-Yeong Won, Joy J Geng
Visual search for a target object occurs rapidly if there were no distractors to compete for attention, but this rarely happens in real-world environments. Distractors are almost always present and must be suppressed for target selection to succeed. Previous research suggests that one way this occurs is through the creation of a stimulus-specific distractor template. However, it remains unknown how information within such templates scale up with multiple distractors. Here we investigated the informational content of distractor templates created from repeated exposures to multiple distractors...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733672/exploring-the-contribution-of-motivation-and-experience-in-the-postpubescent-own-gender-bias-in-face-recognition
#13
Peter J Hills, J Michael Pake, Jack R Dempsey, Michael B Lewis
The own-gender bias in face recognition has been hypothesized to be the result of extensive experience with own-gender faces, coupled with a motivation to process own-group faces more deeply than other-group faces. We test the effect of experience and motivation in four experiments employing standard old/new recognition paradigms. In Experiment 1, no own-gender recognition bias was observed following an attractiveness-rating encoding task regardless of school type (single- or mixed-sex). Experiment 2, which used a distinctiveness-rating encoding task, did find a significant own-gender bias for all groups of participants...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733671/visual-working-memory-is-more-tolerant-than-visual-long-term-memory
#14
Mark W Schurgin, Jonathan I Flombaum
Human visual memory is tolerant, meaning that it supports object recognition despite variability across encounters at the image level. Tolerant object recognition remains one capacity in which artificial intelligence trails humans. Typically, tolerance is described as a property of human visual long-term memory (VLTM). In contrast, visual working memory (VWM) is not usually ascribed a role in tolerant recognition, with tests of that system usually demanding discriminatory power-identifying changes, not sameness...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723008/to-compute-lightness-illumination-is-not-estimated-it-is-held-constant
#15
Alan L Gilchrist
The light reaching the eye from a surface does not indicate the black-gray-white shade of a surface (called lightness) because the effects of illumination level are confounded with the reflectance of the surface. Rotating a gray paper relative to a light source alters its luminance (intensity of light reaching the eye) but the lightness of the paper remains relatively constant. Recent publications have argued, as had Helmholtz (1866/1924), that the visual system unconsciously estimates the direction and intensity of the light source...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723006/object-based-target-templates-guide-attention-during-visual-search
#16
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708384/the-least-costs-hypothesis-a-rational-analysis-approach-to-the-voluntary-symbolic-control-of-attention
#17
Joseph R Pauszek, Bradley S Gibson
Here we propose a rational analysis account of voluntary symbolic attention control-the Least Costs Hypothesis (LCH)-that construes voluntary control as a decision between intentional cue use and unguided search. Consistent with the LCH, the present study showed that this decision is sensitive to variations in cue processing efficiency. In Experiment 1, observers demonstrated a robust preference for using "easy-to-process" arrow cues but not "hard-to-process" spatial word cues to satisfy an easy visual search goal; Experiment 2 showed that this preference persisted even when the temporal costs of cue processing were neutralized...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708383/a-note-by-any-other-name-intonation-context-rapidly-changes-absolute-note-judgments
#18
Stephen C Van Hedger, Shannon L M Heald, Sophia Uddin, Howard C Nusbaum
Absolute pitch (AP) judgments, by definition, do not require a reference note, and thus might be viewed as context independent. Here, we specifically test whether short-term exposure to particular intonation contexts influences AP categorization on a rapid time scale and whether such context effects can change from moment to moment. In Experiment 1, participants heard duets in which a "lead" instrument always began before a "secondary" instrument. Both instruments independently varied on intonation (flat, in-tune, or sharp)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708382/can-vigilance-tasks-be-administered-online-a-replication-and-discussion
#19
Victoria L Claypoole, Alexis R Neigel, Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, James L Szalma
Recently, experimental studies of vigilance have been deployed using online data collection methods. This data collection strategy is not new to the psychological sciences, but it is relatively new to basic research assessing vigilance performance, as studies in this area of research tend to collect data in the laboratory or in the field. The present study partially replicated the results of a newly developed online vigilance task (Thomson, Besner, & Smilek, 2016). A sample of 130 participants completed the semantic vigilance task created by Thomson et al...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708381/do-we-know-what-we-need-preference-for-feedback-about-accurate-performances-does-not-benefit-sensorimotor-learning
#20
Flavio Henrique Bastos, Go Tani, Ricardo Drews, Stephan Riek, Welber Marinovic
Previous research on skill acquisition has shown that learners seem to prefer receiving knowledge of results (KR) about those trials in which they have performed more accurately. In the present study, we assessed whether this preference leads to an advantage in terms of skill acquisition, transfer, and retention of their capacity to extrapolate the motion of decelerating objects during periods of visual occlusion. Instead of questionnaires, we adopted a more direct approach to investigate learners' preferences for KR...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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