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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301186/the-role-of-error-processing-in-the-contextual-interference-effect-during-the-training-of-perceptual-cognitive-skills
#1
David P Broadbent, Joe Causer, A Mark Williams, Paul R Ford
The contextual interference (CI) effect refers to the learning benefits that occur from a random compared with blocked practice order. In this article, the cognitive effort explanation for the CI effect was examined by investigating the role of error processing. In 2 experiments, a perceptual-cognitive task was used in which participants anticipated 3 different tennis skills across a pretest, 3 practice sessions, and retention test. During practice, the skills were presented in either a random or blocked practice order...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301185/embodied-memory-allows-accurate-and-stable-perception-of-hidden-objects-despite-orientation-change
#2
Jing Samantha Pan, Ned Bingham, Geoffrey P Bingham
Rotating a scene in a frontoparallel plane (rolling) yields a change in orientation of constituent images. When using only information provided by static images to perceive a scene after orientation change, identification performance typically decreases (Rock & Heimer, 1957). However, rolling generates optic flow information that relates the discrete, static images (before and after the change) and forms an embodied memory that aids recognition. The embodied memory hypothesis predicts that upon detecting a continuous spatial transformation of image structure, or in other words, seeing the continuous rolling process and objects undergoing rolling observers should accurately perceive objects during and after motion...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301184/the-phonological-unit-of-japanese-kanji-compounds-a-masked-priming-investigation
#3
Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino
Using the masked priming paradigm, we examined which phonological unit is used when naming Kanji compounds. Although the phonological unit in the Japanese language has been suggested to be the mora, Experiment 1 found no priming for mora-related Kanji prime-target pairs. In Experiment 2, significant priming was only found when Kanji pairs shared the whole sound of their initial Kanji characters. Nevertheless, when the same Kanji pairs used in Experiment 2 were transcribed into Kana, significant mora priming was observed in Experiment 3...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287761/familiarity-speeds-up-visual-short-term-memory-consolidation
#4
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Existing long-term memory (LTM) can boost the number of retained representations over a short delay in visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, it is unclear whether and how prior LTM affects the initial process of transforming fragile sensory inputs into durable VSTM representations (i.e., VSTM consolidation). The consolidation speed hypothesis predicts faster consolidation for familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli. Alternatively, the perceptual boost hypothesis predicts that the advantage in perceptual processing of familiar stimuli should add a constant boost for familiar stimuli during VSTM consolidation...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287760/abstract-feature-codes-the-building-blocks-of-the-implicit-learning-system
#5
Katharina Eberhardt, Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287759/beyond-scene-gist-objects-guide-search-more-than-scene-background
#6
Kathryn Koehler, Miguel P Eckstein
Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287758/cerebral-hemodynamics-during-scene-viewing-hemispheric-lateralization-predicts-temporal-gaze-behavior-associated-with-distinct-modes-of-visual-processing
#7
Mark Mills, Mohammed Alwatban, Benjamin Hage, Erin Barney, Edward J Truemper, Gregory R Bashford, Michael D Dodd
Systematic patterns of eye movements during scene perception suggest a functional distinction between 2 viewing modes: an ambient mode (characterized by short fixations and large saccades) thought to reflect dorsal activity involved with spatial analysis, and a focal mode (characterized by long fixations and small saccades) thought to reflect ventral activity involved with object analysis. Little neuroscientific evidence exists supporting this claim. Here, functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) was used to investigate whether these modes show hemispheric specialization...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263639/predicted-action-consequences-are-perceptually-facilitated-before-cancellation
#8
Daniel Yon, Clare Press
Models of action control suggest that predicted action outcomes are "cancelled" from perception, allowing agents to devote resources to more behaviorally relevant unexpected events. These models are supported by a range of findings demonstrating that expected consequences of action are perceived less intensely than unexpected events. A key assumption of these models is that the prediction is subtracted from the sensory input. This early subtraction allows preferential processing of unexpected events from the outset of movement, thereby promoting rapid initiation of corrective actions and updating of predictive models...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263638/training-the-face-strategic-practice-as-a-means-to-regulate-affect-induced-facial-muscle-contractions
#9
Julia Kozlik, Roland Neumann
Recently, it has been shown that the activation of affect-induced emotional reactions (i.e., manual approach/avoidance movements) can be modulated by strategic practice. The present study explored whether this modulation would also apply to affect-induced facial muscle contractions, which have been discussed to be relatively inflexibly linked to the processing of affective stimuli. In 2 experiments, participants conducted 2 different categorization tasks on positive and negative pictures of facial expressions (Experiment 1) or emotional scenes (Experiment 2) which were randomly framed in different colors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263637/the-effect-of-simultaneous-text-on-the-recall-of-noise-degraded-speech
#10
Irina Grossman, Ramesh Rajan
Written and spoken language utilize the same processing system, enabling text to modulate speech processing. We investigated how simultaneously presented text affected speech recall in babble noise using a retrospective recall task. Participants were presented with text-speech sentence pairs in multitalker babble noise and then prompted to recall what they heard or what they read. In Experiment 1, sentence pairs were either congruent or incongruent and they were presented in silence or at 1 of 4 noise levels...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263636/articulatory-information-helps-encode-lexical-contrasts-in-a-second-language
#11
Miquel Llompart, Eva Reinisch
The present study examined whether obtaining additional articulatory information about the sounds of a difficult second-language contrast (English /ε/-/æ/ for German speakers) could help nonnative listeners to encode a lexical distinction between novel words containing these two categories. Novel words (e.g., tenzer-tandek) were trained with different types of input and their recognition was tested in a visual-world eye-tracking task. In Experiment 1, a baseline group was exposed to the words audio-only during training, whereas another group additionally saw videos of the speaker articulating the target words...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263635/global-ensemble-texture-representations-are-critical-to-rapid-scene-perception
#12
Timothy F Brady, Anna Shafer-Skelton, George A Alvarez
Traditionally, recognizing the objects within a scene has been treated as a prerequisite to recognizing the scene itself. However, research now suggests that the ability to rapidly recognize visual scenes could be supported by global properties of the scene itself rather than the objects within the scene. Here, we argue for a particular instantiation of this view: That scenes are recognized by treating them as a global texture and processing the pattern of orientations and spatial frequencies across different areas of the scene without recognizing any objects...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263634/what-have-we-learned-from-two-decades-of-object-substitution-masking-time-to-update-object-individuation-prevails-over-substitution
#13
Stephanie C Goodhew
Object-substitution masking (OSM) refers to when the delayed disappearance of a sparse mask that spatially surrounds but does not overlap the target impairs target perception. Two major theoretical accounts have been offered to explain OSM: the object-substitution account, which stipulates that masking occurs when a separate mask representation replaces the target, and the object-updating account, which espouses that masking is the product of a single representation initially containing information about the target that is modified to reflect the mask...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263633/auditory-hindsight-bias-fluency-misattribution-versus-memory-reconstruction
#14
Philip A Higham, Greg J Neil, Daniel M Bernstein
We report 4 experiments investigating auditory hindsight bias-the tendency to overestimate the intelligibility of distorted auditory stimuli after learning their identity. An associative priming manipulation was used to vary the amount of processing fluency independently of prior target knowledge. For hypothetical designs, in which hindsight judgments are made for peers in foresight, we predicted that judgments would be based on processing fluency and that hindsight bias would be greater in the unrelated- compared to related-prime context (differential-fluency hypothesis)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263632/the-stroop-incongruity-effect-congruity-relationship-reaches-beyond-the-stroop-task
#15
Tatiana Hatukai, Daniel Algom
Stroop objects are defined by the existence of a logical relationship, congruity or incongruity, between their constituent dimensions. The Stroop effect is the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent stimuli with respect to one of these dimensions. However, the pair of Stroop generating dimensions does not exhaust all dimensions of the object. In this study, we examined performance with respect to a third non-Stroop dimension of an otherwise Stroop object, a dimension that is unrelated to those generating the Stroop effect...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263631/out-of-your-sight-out-of-my-mind-knowledge-about-another-person-s-visual-access-modulates-spontaneous-visuospatial-perspective-taking
#16
Martin Freundlieb, Natalie Sebanz, Ágnes M Kovács
Accumulating evidence suggests that humans spontaneously adopt each other's visuospatial perspective (VSP), but many aspects about the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knowledge about another's visual access systematically modulates spontaneous VSP-taking. In a spatial compatibility task, a participant and a confederate sat at a 90°angle to each other, with visual stimuli being aligned vertically for the participants and horizontally for the confederate...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263630/individual-differences-in-automatic-semantic-priming
#17
Sally Andrews, Steson Lo, Violet Xia
This research investigated whether masked semantic priming in a semantic categorization task that required classification of words as animals or nonanimals was modulated by individual differences in lexical proficiency. A sample of 89 skilled readers, assessed on reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling ability, classified target words preceded by brief (50 ms) masked primes that were either congruent or incongruent with the category of the target. Congruent primes were also selected to be either high (e...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263629/auditory-spectral-versus-spatial-temporal-order-judgment-threshold-distribution-analysis
#18
Leah Fostick, Harvey Babkoff
Some researchers suggested that one central mechanism is responsible for temporal order judgments (TOJ), within and across sensory channels. This suggestion is supported by findings of similar TOJ thresholds in same modality and cross-modality TOJ tasks. In the present study, we challenge this idea by analyzing and comparing the threshold distributions of the spectral and spatial TOJ tasks. In spectral TOJ, the tones differ in their frequency ("high" and "low") and are delivered either binaurally or monaurally...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263628/frozen-in-time-concurrent-task-performance-interferes-with-temporal-shifts-of-attention
#19
Troy A W Visser
It is well known that the requirement to perform a concurrent task interferes with many aspects of perception and cognition. Evidence suggests that this interference extends to spatial shifts of attention, which appear to be reduced in efficiency when they must be performed while processing related to another task is ongoing. Here, the authors investigate whether concurrent tasks also interfere with shifts of temporal attention-that is, with the ability to shift attention to an expected time of stimulus onset...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263627/action-properties-of-object-images-facilitate-visual-search
#20
Michael A Gomez, Jacqueline C Snow
There is mounting evidence that constraints from action can influence the early stages of object selection, even in the absence of any explicit preparation for action. Here, we examined whether action properties of images can influence visual search, and whether such effects were modulated by hand preference. Observers searched for an oddball target among 3 distractors. The search arrays consisted either of images of graspable "handles" ("action-related" stimuli), or images that were otherwise identical to the handles but in which the semicircular fulcrum element was reoriented so that the stimuli no longer looked like graspable objects ("non-action-related" stimuli)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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