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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221054/the-common-good-phenomenon-why-similarities-are-positive-and-differences-are-negative
#1
Hans Alves, Alex Koch, Christian Unkelbach
Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114772/a-linguistic-signature-of-psychological-distancing-in-emotion-regulation
#2
Erik C Nook, Jessica L Schleider, Leah H Somerville
Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080127/are-you-early-or-late-temporal-error-monitoring
#3
Başak Akdoğan, Fuat Balcı
Temporal judgments regarding a target interval typically produce a nearly normally distributed reproduction times centered on the target with substantial variance. This phenomenon indicates that the majority of our temporal judgments are deviations from the target times, which are assumed to originate from the underlying timing uncertainty. Although humans were found to adapt their decisions in response to timing uncertainty, we do not know if they can accurately judge the direction and degree of their temporal errors...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#4
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080125/valence-in-context-asymmetric-reactions-to-realized-gains-and-losses
#5
Abigail B Sussman
The current research documents a novel pattern of preferences across nominally equivalent outcomes. When evaluating the outcome of completed experiences, people are sensitive to the magnitude of component (i.e., gross) gains and losses rather than responding solely to the net outcomes. However, people do not consistently favor outcomes that minimize losses (a pattern consistent with loss aversion), nor those that maximize gains (a pattern consistent with a positivity bias). Instead, preferences are context dependent...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080124/statistical-learning-of-parts-and-wholes-a-neural-network-approach
#6
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977227/charting-the-expansion-of-strategic-exploratory-behavior-during-adolescence
#7
Leah H Somerville, Stephanie F Sasse, Megan C Garrad, Andrew T Drysdale, Nadine Abi Akar, Catherine Insel, Robert C Wilson
Although models of exploratory decision making implicate a suite of strategies that guide the pursuit of information, the developmental emergence of these strategies remains poorly understood. This study takes an interdisciplinary perspective, merging computational decision making and developmental approaches to characterize age-related shifts in exploratory strategy from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 149 12-28-year-olds who completed a computational explore-exploit paradigm that manipulated reward value, information value, and decision horizon (i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893239/face-blind-for-other-race-faces-individual-differences-in-other-race-recognition-impairments
#8
Lulu Wan, Kate Crookes, Amy Dawel, Madeleine Pidcock, Ashleigh Hall, Elinor McKone
We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134548/public-perception-and-communication-of-scientific-uncertainty
#9
Stephen B Broomell, Patrick Bodilly Kane
Understanding how the public perceives uncertainty in scientific research is fundamental for effective communication about research and its inevitable uncertainty. Previous work found that scientific evidence differentially influenced beliefs from individuals with different political ideologies. Evidence that threatens an individual's political ideology is perceived as more uncertain than nonthreatening evidence. The authors present 3 studies examining perceptions of scientific uncertainty more broadly by including sciences that are not politically polarizing...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134547/social-affiliation-in-same-class-and-cross-class-interactions
#10
Stéphane Côté, Michael W Kraus, Nichelle C Carpenter, Paul K Piff, Ursula Beermann, Dacher Keltner
Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134546/the-accuracy-of-less-natural-bounds-explain-why-quantity-decreases-are-estimated-more-accurately-than-quantity-increases
#11
Pierre Chandon, Nailya Ordabayeva
Five studies show that people, including experts such as professional chefs, estimate quantity decreases more accurately than quantity increases. We argue that this asymmetry occurs because physical quantities cannot be negative. Consequently, there is a natural lower bound (zero) when estimating decreasing quantities but no upper bound when estimating increasing quantities, which can theoretically grow to infinity. As a result, the "accuracy of less" disappears (a) when a numerical or a natural upper bound is present when estimating quantity increases, or (b) when people are asked to estimate the (unbounded) ratio of change from 1 size to another for both increasing and decreasing quantities...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134545/generalization-from-newly-learned-words-reveals-structural-properties-of-the-human-reading-system
#12
Blair C Armstrong, Nicolas Dumay, Woojae Kim, Mark A Pitt
Connectionist accounts of quasiregular domains, such as spelling-sound correspondences in English, represent exception words (e.g., pint) amid regular words (e.g., mint) via a graded "warping" mechanism. Warping allows the model to extend the dominant pronunciation to nonwords (regularization) with minimal interference (spillover) from the exceptions. We tested for a behavioral marker of warping by investigating the degree to which participants generalized from newly learned made-up words, which ranged from sharing the dominant pronunciation (regulars), a subordinate pronunciation (ambiguous), or a previously nonexistent (exception) pronunciation...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134544/conscious-visual-memory-with-minimal-attention
#13
Yair Pinto, Annelinde R Vandenbroucke, Marte Otten, Ilja G Sligte, Anil K Seth, Victor A F Lamme
Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask or a new scene), so that subjects have to rely on working memory (WM), which has limited capacity, to detect the change. Before such interference, however, a much larger capacity store, called fragile memory (FM), which is easily overwritten by newly presented visual information, is present...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134543/repeated-evaluative-pairings-and-evaluative-statements-how-effectively-do-they-shift-implicit-attitudes
#14
Benedek Kurdi, Mahzarin R Banaji
Six experiments, involving a total of 6,492 participants, were conducted to investigate the relative effectiveness of repeated evaluative pairings (REP; exposure to category members paired with pleasant or unpleasant images), evaluative statements (ES; verbally signaling upcoming pairings without actual exposure), and their combination (ES + REP) in shifting implicit social and nonsocial attitudes. Learning modality (REP, ES, and ES + REP) was varied between participants and implicit attitudes were assessed using an Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134542/time-on-your-hands-perceived-duration-of-sensory-events-is-biased-toward-concurrent-actions
#15
Daniel Yon, Rosanna Edey, Richard B Ivry, Clare Press
Perceptual systems must rapidly generate accurate representations of the world from sensory inputs that are corrupted by internal and external noise. We can typically obtain more veridical representations by integrating information from multiple channels, but this integration can lead to biases when inputs are, in fact, not from the same source. Although a considerable amount is known about how different sources of information are combined to influence what we perceive, it is not known whether temporal features are combined...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134541/true-happiness-the-role-of-morality-in-the-folk-concept-of-happiness
#16
Jonathan Phillips, Julian De Freitas, Christian Mott, June Gruber, Joshua Knobe
Recent scientific research has settled on a purely descriptive definition of happiness that is focused solely on agents' psychological states (high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction). In contrast to this understanding, recent research has suggested that the ordinary concept of happiness is also sensitive to the moral value of agents' lives. Five studies systematically investigate and explain the impact of morality on ordinary assessments of happiness. Study 1 demonstrates that moral judgments influence assessments of happiness not only for untrained participants, but also for academic researchers and even in those who study happiness specifically...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054817/imagining-wrong-fictitious-contexts-mitigate-condemnation-of-harm-more-than-impurity
#17
John S Sabo, Roger Giner-Sorolla
Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054816/two-paths-to-blame-intentionality-directs-moral-information-processing-along-two-distinct-tracks
#18
Andrew E Monroe, Bertram F Malle
There is broad consensus that features such as causality, mental states, and preventability are key inputs to moral judgments of blame. What is not clear is exactly how people process these inputs to arrive at such judgments. Three studies provide evidence that early judgments of whether or not a norm violation is intentional direct information processing along 1 of 2 tracks: if the violation is deemed intentional, blame processing relies on information about the agent's reasons for committing the violation; if the violation is deemed unintentional, blame processing relies on information about how preventable the violation was...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#19
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054814/entrainment-to-an-auditory-signal-is-attention-involved
#20
Richard Kunert, Suzanne R Jongman
Many natural auditory signals, including music and language, change periodically. The effect of such auditory rhythms on the brain is unclear however. One widely held view, dynamic attending theory, proposes that the attentional system entrains to the rhythm and increases attention at moments of rhythmic salience. In support, 2 experiments reported here show reduced response times to visual letter strings shown at auditory rhythm peaks, compared with rhythm troughs. However, we argue that an account invoking the entrainment of general attention should further predict rhythm entrainment to also influence memory for visual stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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