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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893239/face-blind-for-other-race-faces-individual-differences-in-other-race-recognition-impairments
#1
Lulu Wan, Kate Crookes, Amy Dawel, Madeleine Pidcock, Ashleigh Hall, Elinor McKone
We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797555/correction-to-payne-et-al-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior" by B. Keith Payne, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi and Chris Loersch (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Oct], Vol 145[10], 1269-1279). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-46925-002.) The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736136/how-target-lure-similarity-shapes-confidence-judgments-in-multiple-alternative-decision-tasks
#3
Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736135/action-versus-state-orientation-moderates-the-impact-of-executive-functioning-on-real-life-self-control
#4
Max Wolff, Klaus-Martin Krönke, John Venz, Anja Kräplin, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael N Smolka, Thomas Goschke
Self-control is commonly assumed to depend on executive functions (EFs). However, it is unclear whether real-life self-control failures result from deficient EF competencies or rather reflect insufficient conflict-induced mobilization of executive control, and whether self-control depends more critically on function-specific EF competencies or general executive functioning (GEF), that is, common competencies that underlie all EFs. Here we investigated whether failure-related action versus state orientation, a personality trait related to the conflict-induced mobilization of cognitive control, moderates the effect of general and function-specific control competencies on self-control...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736134/how-does-not-responding-to-appetitive-stimuli-cause-devaluation-evaluative-conditioning-or-response-inhibition
#5
Zhang Chen, Harm Veling, Ap Dijksterhuis, Rob W Holland
In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond (either no-go cues or the absence of cues; no-go stimuli). Change in evaluations of no-go stimuli was compared to change in evaluations of both go stimuli and of stimuli not presented in the task (untrained stimuli)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736133/the-order-of-disorder-deconstructing-visual-disorder-and-its-effect-on-rule-breaking
#6
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Disorderly environments are linked to disorderly behaviors. Broken windows theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), an influential theory of crime and rule-breaking, assumes that scene-level social disorder cues (e.g., litter, graffiti) cause people to reason that they can get away with breaking rules. But what if part of the story is not about such complex social reasoning? Recent research suggests that basic visual disorder cues may be sufficient to encourage complex rule-breaking behavior. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted a set of experiments (Experiments 1-3) in which we identified basic visual disorder cues that generalize across visual stimuli with a variety of semantic content...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736132/minimal-conditions-of-motor-inductions-of-approach-avoidance-states-the-case-of-oral-movements
#7
Sascha Topolinski, Lea Boecker
The minimal conditions to elicit affective responses via approach-avoidance movements were explored by using oral movements (total N = 1,363). To induce oral movements, words were construed whose consonants (and vowels) wandered either from front to back of the mouth (e.g., PEKA, inward, like swallowing, approach) or from back to front (e.g., KEPA, outward, like spitting, avoidance). Participants preferred inward over outward consonant wanderings when reading only 2 phonemes (e.g., PEKA vs. KEPA), single letters (e...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736131/the-road-to-heaven-is-paved-with-effort-perceived-effort-amplifies-moral-judgment
#8
Yochanan E Bigman, Maya Tamir
If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736130/competing-while-cooperating-with-the-same-others-the-consequences-of-conflicting-demands-in-co-opetition
#9
Florian Landkammer, Kai Sassenberg
Numerous studies comparing the effects of competition and cooperation demonstrated that competition is detrimental on the social level. However, instead of purely competing, many social contexts require competing while cooperating with the same social target. The current work examined the consequences of such "co-opetition" situations between individuals. Because having to compete and to cooperate with the same social target constitutes conflicting demands, co-opetition should lead to more flexibility, such as (a) less rigid transfer effects of competitive behavior and (b) less rigidity/more flexibility in general...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736129/noninvasive-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-the-inhibition-of-motivated-responding
#10
Nicholas J Kelley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of appetitive tendencies, and recent evidence suggests that stimulation to increase right frontal cortical activity helps to inhibit approach-motivated responses. The current experiment paired an approach-avoidance joystick task with transcranial DC stimulation to test the effects of brain stimulation on the inhibition of both approach and avoidance response tendencies. Anodal stimulation over the right/cathodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (compared to the opposite pattern of stimulation or sham stimulation) caused participants to initiate motive-incongruent movements more quickly, thereby suggesting a shared neural mechanism for the self-control of both approach- and avoidance-motivated impulses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709969/anticipated-ambiguity-prolongs-the-present-evidence-of-a-return-trip-effect
#11
Sam J Maglio, Cherrie Y N Kwok
Every event that can occupy a span of time can also warp how long that duration feels. No shortage of factors configures such duration estimates, yet they remain largely confined to events experienced in the present moment. Might future events similarly impact duration? The present investigation leverages a phenomenological return trip effect, which documents subjectively longer outbound journeys relative to identical inbound journeys, to inform this question. Through this lens, the focal event (that which will transpire at the destination) can be decoupled from the focal duration (the span of time between the present moment and arrival at that destination)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690515/the-roles-of-perceptual-and-conceptual-information-in-face-recognition
#12
Linoy Schwartz, Galit Yovel
The representation of familiar objects is comprised of perceptual information about their visual properties as well as the conceptual knowledge that we have about them. What is the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual information to object recognition? Here, we examined this question by designing a face familiarization protocol during which participants were either exposed to rich perceptual information (viewing each face in different angles and illuminations) or with conceptual information (associating each face with a different name)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684646/experience-theory-or-how-desserts-are-like-losses
#13
Jolie M Martin, Martin Reimann, Michael I Norton
Although many experiments have explored risk preferences for money, few have systematically assessed risk preferences for everyday experiences. We propose a conceptual model and provide convergent evidence from 7 experiments to suggest that, in contrast to a typical "zero" reference point for choices on money, reference points for choices of experiences are set at more extreme outcomes, leading to concave utility for negative experiences but convex utility for positive experiences. As a result, people are more risk-averse for negative experiences such as disgusting foods-as for monetary gains-but more risk-seeking for positive experiences such as desserts-as for monetary losses...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656758/polluting-black-space
#14
Courtney M Bonam, Hilary B Bergsieker, Jennifer L Eberhardt
Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632379/reflexive-intergroup-bias-in-third-party-punishment
#15
Daniel A Yudkin, Tobias Rothmund, Mathias Twardawski, Natasha Thalla, Jay J Van Bavel
Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Alhough the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632378/impaired-generalization-of-speaker-identity-in-the-perception-of-familiar-and-unfamiliar-voices
#16
Nadine Lavan, Sophie K Scott, Carolyn McGettigan
In 2 behavioral experiments, we explored how the extraction of identity-related information from familiar and unfamiliar voices is affected by naturally occurring vocal flexibility and variability, introduced by different types of vocalizations and levels of volitional control during production. In a first experiment, participants performed a speaker discrimination task on vowels, volitional (acted) laughter, and spontaneous (authentic) laughter from 5 unfamiliar speakers. We found that performance was significantly impaired for spontaneous laughter, a vocalization produced under reduced volitional control...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797560/not-all-risks-are-created-equal-a-twin-study-and-meta-analyses-of-risk-taking-across-seven-domains
#17
X T Xiao-Tian Wang, Rui Zheng, Yan-Hua Xuan, Jie Chen, Shu Li
Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797559/a-look-into-the-future-spontaneous-anticipatory-saccades-reflect-processes-of-anticipatory-action-control
#18
Christina U Pfeuffer, Andrea Kiesel, Lynn Huestegge
According to ideomotor theory, human action control uses anticipations of one's own actions' future consequences, that is, action effect anticipations, as a means of triggering actions that will produce desired outcomes (e.g., Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001). Using the response-effect compatibility paradigm (Kunde, 2001), we demonstrate that the anticipation of one's own manual actions' future consequences not only triggers appropriate (i.e., instructed) actions, but simultaneously induces spontaneous (uninstructed) anticipatory saccades to the location of future action consequences...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797558/immediate-relativity-eeg-reveals-early-engagement-of-comparison-in-social-information-processing
#19
Katharina Ohmann, Jutta Stahl, Thomas Mussweiler, Gayannée Kedia
A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797557/cognitive-predictors-of-a-common-multitasking-ability-contributions-from-working-memory-attention-control-and-fluid-intelligence
#20
Thomas S Redick, Zach Shipstead, Matthew E Meier, Janelle J Montroy, Kenny L Hicks, Nash Unsworth, Michael J Kane, D Zachary Hambrick, Randall W Engle
Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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