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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639796/modality-switching-in-the-simon-task-the-clash-of-reference-frames
#1
Manuela Ruzzoli, Salvador Soto-Faraco
The representation of spatial information related to an event can influence behavior even when location is task-irrelevant, as in the case of Stimulus-Response (S-R) compatibility effects on the Simon task. However, unlike single-modality situations, which are often used to study the Simon effect, in real-life scenarios various sensory modalities provide spatial information coded in different coordinate systems. Here, we address the expression of S-R compatibility effects in mixed-modality contexts, where events can occur in 1 of various sensory modalities (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627909/thought-control-difficulty-motivates-structure-seeking
#2
Anyi Ma, Mark J Landau, Jayanth Narayanan, Aaron C Kay
Struggling to control one's mind can change how the world appears. In prior studies testing the compensatory control theory, reduced control over the external environment motivated the search for perceptual patterns and other forms of structured knowledge, even in remote domains. Going further, the current studies test whether difficulty controlling thoughts similarly predicts structure seeking. As hypothesized, thought-control difficulty positively predicted perceptions of causal connections between remote events (Study 1a) and nonexistent objects in visual noise (Study 1b)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627908/first-evidence-for-the-backup-plan-paradox
#3
Christopher M Napolitano, Alexandra M Freund
This research is a first test of the backup plan paradox. We hypothesized that investing in a backup plan may facilitate the conditions that it was developed to address: Plan A's insufficiency. Five studies provide initial, primarily correlative support for the undermining effect of investing in a backup plan. Study 1 (n= 160) demonstrated that the more participants perceived they had invested in developing a backup plan (preparing a "crib sheet"), the more likely they were to use it, although greater investments were unrelated to backup plan utility...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627907/the-role-of-empathy-in-experiencing-vicarious-anxiety
#4
Jocelyn Shu, Samuel Hassell, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner, Dean Mobbs
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594190/mnemonic-transmission-social-contagion-and-emergence-of-collective-memory-influence-of-emotional-valence-group-structure-and-information-distribution
#5
Hae-Yoon Choi, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Suparna Rajaram
Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594189/shifting-between-mental-sets-an-individual-differences-approach-to-commonalities-and-differences-of-task-switching-components
#6
Claudia C von Bastian, Michel D Druey
Switching between mental sets has been extensively investigated in both experimental and individual differences research using a wide range of task-switch paradigms. However, it is yet unclear whether these different tasks measure a unitary shifting ability or reflect different facets thereof. In this study, 20 task pairs were administered to 119 young adults to assess 5 proposed components of mental set shifting: switching between judgments, stimulus dimensions, stimulus-response mappings, response sets, and stimulus sets...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569521/how-dispositional-social-risk-seeking-promotes-trusting-strangers-evidence-based-on-brain-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#7
Yiwen Wang, Yiming Jing, Zhen Zhang, Chongde Lin, Emilio A Valadez
Trust is a risky social decision because betrayal may occur. It's not clear how individual differences in social risk-seeking propensity modulate brain processes of trusting strangers. We examined event-related potentials and time-frequency power to investigate this question while 40 participants played the one-shot trust game. Twenty high social risk-seekers (HSR) and 20 low social risk-seekers (LSR) made trusting or distrusting decisions regarding unknown trustees while their electroencephalogram activity was recorded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557513/shocking-action-facilitative-effects-of-punishing-electric-shocks-on-action-control
#8
Andreas B Eder, David Dignath, Thorsten M Erle, Julian Wiemer
Four experiments examined motivational effects of response-contingent electric shocks on action initiation. Although the shock was unambiguously aversive for the individual in line with subjective and functional criteria, results showed that the shock-producing action was initiated faster relative to a response producing no shock. However, no facilitation effect was found when strong shocks were delivered, ruling out increased emotional arousal as an explanation. The action was initiated faster even when the response discontinued to generate a shock...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557512/the-nature-disorder-paradox-a-perceptual-study-on-how-nature-is-disorderly-yet-aesthetically-preferred
#9
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Natural environments have powerful aesthetic appeal linked to their capacity for psychological restoration. In contrast, disorderly environments are aesthetically aversive, and have various detrimental psychological effects. But in our research, we have repeatedly found that natural environments are perceptually disorderly. What could explain this paradox? We present 3 competing hypotheses: the aesthetic preference for naturalness is more powerful than the aesthetic aversion to disorder (the nature-trumps-disorder hypothesis); disorder is trivial to aesthetic preference in natural contexts (the harmless-disorder hypothesis); and disorder is aesthetically preferred in natural contexts (the beneficial-disorder hypothesis)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557511/the-heart-trumps-the-head-desirability-bias-in-political-belief-revision
#10
Ben M Tappin, Leslie van der Leer, Ryan T McKay
Understanding how individuals revise their political beliefs has important implications for society. In a preregistered study (N = 900), we experimentally separated the predictions of 2 leading theories of human belief revision-desirability bias and confirmation bias-in the context of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Participants indicated who they desired to win, and who they believed would win, the election. Following confrontation with evidence that was either consistent or inconsistent with their desires or beliefs, they again indicated who they believed would win...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557510/endorsing-help-for-others-that-you-oppose-for-yourself-mind-perception-alters-the-perceived-effectiveness-of-paternalism
#11
Juliana Schroeder, Adam Waytz, Nicholas Epley
How people choose to help each other can be just as important as how much people help. Help can come through relatively paternalistic or agentic aid. Paternalistic aid, such as banning certain foods to encourage weight loss or donating food to alleviate poverty, restricts recipients' choices compared with agentic aid, such as providing calorie counts or donating cash. Nine experiments demonstrate that how people choose to help depends partly on their beliefs about the recipient's mental capacities. People perceive paternalistic aid to be more effective for those who seem less mentally capable (Experiments 1 and 2), and people therefore give more paternalistically when others are described as relatively incompetent (Experiment 3)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493758/lying-because-we-care-compassion-increases-prosocial-lying
#12
Matthew J Lupoli, Lily Jampol, Christopher Oveis
Prosocial lies, or lies intended to benefit others, are ubiquitous behaviors that have important social and economic consequences. Though emotions play a central role in many forms of prosocial behavior, no work has investigated how emotions influence behavior when one has the opportunity to tell a prosocial lie-a situation that presents a conflict between two prosocial ethics: lying to prevent harm to another, and honesty, which might also provide benefits to the target of the lie. Here, we examine whether the emotion of compassion influences prosocial lying, and find that compassion causally increases and positively predicts prosocial lying...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493757/argumentation-and-the-diffusion-of-counter-intuitive-beliefs
#13
Nicolas Claidière, Emmanuel Trouche, Hugo Mercier
Research in cultural evolution has focused on the spread of intuitive or minimally counterintuitive beliefs. However, some very counterintuitive beliefs can also spread successfully, at least in some communities-scientific theories being the most prominent example. We suggest that argumentation could be an important factor in the spread of some very counterintuitive beliefs. A first experiment demonstrates that argumentation enables the spread of the counterintuitive answer to a reasoning problem in large discussion groups, whereas this spread is limited or absent when participants can show their answers to each other but cannot discuss...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493756/functional-consequences-of-compositional-spatial-representations-elicited-during-conceptual-control-of-visual-spatial-attention
#14
Pedro Sztybel, Bradley S Gibson
Reference frames are ubiquitous in spatial cognition, and they have been especially important in the visual attention literature. Researchers typically invoke these constructs to explain how the same physical location can be defined in different ways depending on changes in the reference point. However, when researchers invoke reference frames for this purpose, they also tend to invoke a construct-the Cartesian coordinate system-that has a specific compositional structure. This conclusion may not be warranted though because reference frames can be used to define a location without being compositional in nature...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493755/affect-contagion-between-mothers-and-infants-examining-valence-and-touch
#15
Sara F Waters, Tessa V West, Helena R Karnilowicz, Wendy Berry Mendes
Mothers and their babies represent one of the closest dyadic units and thus provide a powerful paradigm to examine how affective states are shared, and result in, synchronized physiologic responses between two people. We recruited mothers and their 12- to 14-month-old infants (Ndyads = 98) to complete a lab study in which mothers were initially separated from their infants and assigned to either a low-arousal positive/relaxation condition, intended to elicit parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity, or a high-arousal negative/stress task, intended to elicit sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447843/seeing-what-through-why-evidence-from-probing-the-causal-structure-of-hierarchical-motion
#16
Haokui Xu, Ning Tang, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen, Tao Gao
Although our world is hierarchically organized, the perception, attention, and memory of hierarchical structures remain largely unknown. The current study shows how a hierarchical motion representation enhances the inference of an object's position in a dynamic display. The motion hierarchy is formed as an acyclic tree in which each node represents a distinctive motion component. Each individual object is instantiated as a node in the tree. In a position inference task, participants were asked to infer the position of a target object, given how it moved jointly with other objects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447842/cognitive-coupling-during-reading
#17
Caitlin Mills, Art Graesser, Evan F Risko, Sidney K D'Mello
We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447841/examining-depletion-theories-under-conditions-of-within-task-transfer
#18
Gene A Brewer, Kevin K H Lau, Kimberly M Wingert, B Hunter Ball, Chris Blais
In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447840/the-rational-status-of-quantum-cognition
#19
Emmanuel M Pothos, Jerome R Busemeyer, Richard M Shiffrin, James M Yearsley
Classic probability theory (CPT) is generally considered the rational way to make inferences, but there have been some empirical findings showing a divergence between reasoning and the principles of classical probability theory (CPT), inviting the conclusion that humans are irrational. Perhaps the most famous of these findings is the conjunction fallacy (CF). Recently, the CF has been shown consistent with the principles of an alternative probabilistic framework, quantum probability theory (QPT). Does this imply that QPT is irrational or does QPT provide an alternative interpretation of rationality? Our presentation consists of 3 parts...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447839/the-whorfian-time-warp-representing-duration-through-the-language-hourglass
#20
Emanuel Bylund, Panos Athanasopoulos
How do humans construct their mental representations of the passage of time? The universalist account claims that abstract concepts like time are universal across humans. In contrast, the linguistic relativity hypothesis holds that speakers of different languages represent duration differently. The precise impact of language on duration representation is, however, unknown. Here, we show that language can have a powerful role in transforming humans' psychophysical experience of time. Contrary to the universalist account, we found language-specific interference in a duration reproduction task, where stimulus duration conflicted with its physical growth...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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