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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

Friederike Schlaghecken, Elisabeth Blagrove, Konstantinos Mantantzis, Elizabeth A Maylor, Derrick G Watson
Negative faces are detected more quickly but categorized more slowly than positive faces. Using a Simon task, we examined stimulus- and response-related processes of this dissociation: If negative stimuli are both processed and responded to more quickly than positive ones, they should elicit reduced Simon effects. Conversely, if negative stimuli are processed more quickly but responded to more slowly, enlarged Simon effects should occur. Consistent with the first possibility, negative stimuli showed reduced Simon effects...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jehan Sparks, Alison Ledgerwood
Considerable research has demonstrated the power of the current positive or negative frame to shape people's current judgments. But humans must often learn about positive and negative information as they encounter that information sequentially over time. It is therefore crucial to consider the potential importance of sequencing when developing an understanding of how humans think about valenced information. Indeed, recent work looking at sequentially encountered frames suggests that some frames can linger outside the context in which they are first encountered, sticking in the mind so that subsequent frames have a muted effect...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Alia Martin, Catharyn C Shelton, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to interpret choices as enduring preferences that generalize beyond the immediate situation gives adults a powerful means of predicting and explaining others' behavior. How do infants come to recognize that current choices can be driven by generalizable preferences? Although infants can encode others' actions in terms of goals (Woodward, 1998), there is evidence that 10-month-olds still fail to generalize goal information presented in one environment to an event sequence occurring in a new environment (Sommerville & Crane, 2009)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Matthew L Stanley, Paul Henne, Vijeth Iyengar, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Felipe De Brigard
People maintain a positive identity in at least two ways: They evaluate themselves more favorably than other people, and they judge themselves to be better now than they were in the past. Both strategies rely on autobiographical memories. The authors investigate the role of autobiographical memories of lying and emotional harm in maintaining a positive identity. For memories of lying to or emotionally harming others, participants judge their own actions as less morally wrong and less negative than those in which other people lied to or emotionally harmed them...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis, Kathleen Rastle
There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Oksana Itkes, Ruth Kimchi, Hadeel Haj-Ali, Avia Shapiro, Assaf Kron
We examined the possible dissociation between two modes of valence: affective valence (valence of e emotional response) and semantic valence (stored knowledge about valence of an object or event). In Experiment 1, 50 participants viewed affective pictures that were repeatedly presented while their facial electromyography (EMG) activation and heart rate response were continuously recorded. Half of the participants provided self-report ratings about the valence of their feelings and half about the valence of the stimulus...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The dominant theoretical framework for decision making asserts that people make decisions by integrating noisy evidence to a threshold. It has recently been shown that in many ecologically realistic situations, decreasing the decision boundary maximizes the reward available from decisions. However, empirical support for decreasing boundaries in humans is scant. To investigate this problem, we used an ideal observer model to identify the conditions under which participants should change their decision boundaries with time to maximize reward rate...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Francine Karmali, Kerry Kawakami, Elizabeth Page-Gould
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Vencislav Popov, Penka Hristova, Royce Anders
Here we argue that semantic relations (e.g., works in: nurse-hospital) have abstract independent representations in long-term memory (LTM) and that the same representation is accessed by all exemplars of a specific relation. We present evidence from 2 associative recognition experiments that uncovered a novel relational luring effect (RLE) in recognition memory. Participants studied word pairs, and then discriminated between intact (old) pairs and recombined lures. In the first experiment participants responded more slowly to lures that were relationally similar (table-cloth) to studied pairs (floor-carpet), in contrast to relationally dissimilar lures (pipe-water)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Gerald Echterhoff, René Kopietz, E Tory Higgins
Communicators typically tune messages to their audience's attitude. Such audience tuning biases communicators' memory for the topic toward the audience's attitude to the extent that they create a shared reality with the audience. To investigate shared reality in intergroup communication, we first established that a reduced memory bias after tuning messages to an out-group (vs. in-group) audience is a subtle index of communicators' denial of shared reality to that out-group audience (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then examined whether the audience-tuning memory bias might emerge when the out-group audience's epistemic authority is enhanced, either by increasing epistemic expertise concerning the communication topic or by creating epistemic consensus among members of a multiperson out-group audience...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Levi R Baker, James K McNulty, Laura E VanderDrift
Contemporary perspectives on relationship commitment posit that intimates decide whether or not to maintain a relationship based on their commitment to that relationship, and that they base such commitment partially on their current satisfaction with that relationship. Nevertheless, given that ending a relationship requires knowing about both the current state of the relationship and the likely future state of the relationship, we propose that people base their commitment to a relationship more on their expected future satisfaction with the relationship than on their current satisfaction with that relationship...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Aileen Oeberst, Christina Matschke
The title of a historical event is usually the first thing we learn about that event. This article investigates whether group order in supposedly neutral conflict titles (e.g., Polish-Russian War) is systematically biased toward naming the in-group first (e.g., Polish-Russian War in Polish; Russian-Polish War in Russian) and whether group order affects perceptions of the groups involved. Based on linguistic evidence that individuals have the tendency to name themselves first, we expected and found a systematic tendency to name the in-group first in N = 172 real-world titles of historical conflicts from more than 40 languages (Study 1), under controlled conditions with participants from different cultures (Studies 2a and 2b), and in a minimal group experiment (Study 3), which identifies group membership as a crucial factor and rules out alternative explanations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David S Chester, Donald R Lynam, Richard Milich, C Nathan DeWall
Impulsivity is a multifaceted trait with substantial implications for human well-being. One facet of impulsivity is negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect. Correlational evidence suggests that negative affect magnifies impulsive behavior among individuals with greater negative urgency, yet causal evidence for this core pillar of urgency theory is lacking. To fill this gap in the literature, participants (N = 363) were randomly assigned to experience social rejection (a situation shown to induce negative affect) or acceptance...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Eva C Buechel, Jiao Zhang, Carey K Morewedge
Affective forecasts are used to anticipate the hedonic impact of future events and decide which events to pursue or avoid. We propose that because affective forecasters are more sensitive to outcome specifications of events than experiencers, the outcome specification values of an event, such as its duration, magnitude, probability, and psychological distance, can be used to predict the direction of affective forecasting errors: whether affective forecasters will overestimate or underestimate its hedonic impact...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Erin Cooley, B Keith Payne, William Cipolli, C Daryl Cameron, Alyssa Berger, Kurt Gray
Three studies examine how subtle shifts in framing can alter the mind perception of groups. Study 1 finds that people generally perceive groups to have less mind than individuals. However, Study 2 demonstrates that changing the framing of a group from "a group of people" to "people in a group," substantially increases mind perception-leading to comparable levels of mind between groups and individuals. Study 3 reveals that this change in framing influences people's sympathy for groups, an effect mediated by mind perception...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Laurent Caplette, Bruno Wicker, Frédéric Gosselin, Greg L West
The nervous system gives preferential treatment to objects near the hands that are candidates for action. It is not yet understood how this process is achieved. Here we show evidence for the mechanism that underlies this process having used an experimental technique that maps the use of spatial frequencies (SFs) during object recognition across time. We used this technique to replicate and characterize with greater precision the coarse-to-fine SF sampling observed in previous studies. Then we show that the visual processing of real-world objects near an observer's hands is biased toward the use of low-SF information, around 288 ms...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Dragan Rangelov, Hermann J Müller, Michael Zehetleitner
Pop-out search implies that the target is always the first item selected, no matter how many distractors are presented. However, increasing evidence indicates that search is not entirely independent of display density even for pop-out targets: search is slower with sparse (few distractors) than with dense displays (many distractors). Despite its significance, the cause of this anomaly remains unclear. We investigated several mechanisms that could slow down search for pop-out targets. Consistent with the assumption that pop-out targets frequently fail to pop out in sparse displays, we observed greater variability of search duration for sparse displays relative to dense...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Erik M Altmann, David Z Hambrick
Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Dries H Bostyn, Arne Roets
The present manuscript addresses how perceived trustworthiness of cooperative partners in a social dilemma context is influenced by the moral judgments those partners make on Trolley-type moral dilemmas; an issue recently investigated by Everett, Pizarro, and Crockett (2016). The present research comprises 2 studies that were conducted independently, simultaneously with, and incognizant of the Everett studies. Whereas the present studies aimed at investigating the same research hypothesis, a different and more elaborate methodology was used, as such providing a conceptual replication opportunity and extension to the Everett et al...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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