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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080127/are-you-early-or-late-temporal-error-monitoring
#1
Başak Akdoğan, Fuat Balcı
Temporal judgments regarding a target interval typically produce a nearly normally distributed reproduction times centered on the target with substantial variance. This phenomenon indicates that the majority of our temporal judgments are deviations from the target times, which are assumed to originate from the underlying timing uncertainty. Although humans were found to adapt their decisions in response to timing uncertainty, we do not know if they can accurately judge the direction and degree of their temporal errors...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#2
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080125/valence-in-context-asymmetric-reactions-to-realized-gains-and-losses
#3
Abigail B Sussman
The current research documents a novel pattern of preferences across nominally equivalent outcomes. When evaluating the outcome of completed experiences, people are sensitive to the magnitude of component (i.e., gross) gains and losses rather than responding solely to the net outcomes. However, people do not consistently favor outcomes that minimize losses (a pattern consistent with loss aversion), nor those that maximize gains (a pattern consistent with a positivity bias). Instead, preferences are context dependent...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080124/statistical-learning-of-parts-and-wholes-a-neural-network-approach
#4
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977227/charting-the-expansion-of-strategic-exploratory-behavior-during-adolescence
#5
Leah H Somerville, Stephanie F Sasse, Megan C Garrad, Andrew T Drysdale, Nadine Abi Akar, Catherine Insel, Robert C Wilson
Although models of exploratory decision making implicate a suite of strategies that guide the pursuit of information, the developmental emergence of these strategies remains poorly understood. This study takes an interdisciplinary perspective, merging computational decision making and developmental approaches to characterize age-related shifts in exploratory strategy from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 149 12-28-year-olds who completed a computational explore-exploit paradigm that manipulated reward value, information value, and decision horizon (i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893239/face-blind-for-other-race-faces-individual-differences-in-other-race-recognition-impairments
#6
Lulu Wan, Kate Crookes, Amy Dawel, Madeleine Pidcock, Ashleigh Hall, Elinor McKone
We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054817/imagining-wrong-fictitious-contexts-mitigate-condemnation-of-harm-more-than-impurity
#7
John S Sabo, Roger Giner-Sorolla
Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054816/two-paths-to-blame-intentionality-directs-moral-information-processing-along-two-distinct-tracks
#8
Andrew E Monroe, Bertram F Malle
There is broad consensus that features such as causality, mental states, and preventability are key inputs to moral judgments of blame. What is not clear is exactly how people process these inputs to arrive at such judgments. Three studies provide evidence that early judgments of whether or not a norm violation is intentional direct information processing along 1 of 2 tracks: if the violation is deemed intentional, blame processing relies on information about the agent's reasons for committing the violation; if the violation is deemed unintentional, blame processing relies on information about how preventable the violation was...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#9
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054814/entrainment-to-an-auditory-signal-is-attention-involved
#10
Richard Kunert, Suzanne R Jongman
Many natural auditory signals, including music and language, change periodically. The effect of such auditory rhythms on the brain is unclear however. One widely held view, dynamic attending theory, proposes that the attentional system entrains to the rhythm and increases attention at moments of rhythmic salience. In support, 2 experiments reported here show reduced response times to visual letter strings shown at auditory rhythm peaks, compared with rhythm troughs. However, we argue that an account invoking the entrainment of general attention should further predict rhythm entrainment to also influence memory for visual stimuli...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054813/who-believes-in-the-gambler-s-fallacy-and-why
#11
George D Farmer, Paul A Warren, Ulrike Hahn
Humans possess a remarkable ability to discriminate structure from randomness in the environment. However, this ability appears to be systematically biased. This is nowhere more evident than in the Gambler's Fallacy (GF)-the mistaken belief that observing an increasingly long sequence of "heads" from an unbiased coin makes the occurrence of "tails" on the next trial ever more likely. Although the GF appears to provide evidence of "cognitive bias," a recent theoretical account (Hahn & Warren, 2009) has suggested the GF might be understandable if constraints on actual experience of random sources (such as attention and short term memory) are taken into account...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054812/on-the-failure-to-notice-that-white-people-are-white-generating-and-testing-hypotheses-in-the-celebrity-guessing-game
#12
Peter Hegarty
Drawing together social psychologists' concerns with equality and cognitive psychologists' concerns with scientific inference, 6 studies (N = 841) showed how implicit category norms make the generation and test of hypothesis about race highly asymmetric. Having shown that Whiteness is the default race of celebrity actors (Study 1), Study 2 used a variant of Wason's (1960) rule discovery task to demonstrate greater difficulty in discovering rules that require specifying that race is shared by White celebrity actors than by Black celebrity actors...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054811/overdistribution-illusions-categorical-judgments-produce-them-confidence-ratings-reduce-them
#13
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, V F Reyna, R E Holliday
Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054810/the-dynamic-effect-of-incentives-on-postreward-task-engagement
#14
Indranil Goswami, Oleg Urminsky
Although incentives can be a powerful motivator of behavior when they are available, an influential body of research has suggested that rewards can persistently reduce engagement after they end. This research has resulted in widespread skepticism among practitioners and academics alike about using incentives to motivate behavior change. However, recent field studies looking at the longer term effects of temporary incentives have not found such detrimental behavior. We design an experimental framework to study dynamic behavior under temporary rewards, and find that although there is a robust decrease in engagement immediately after the incentive ends, engagement returns to a postreward baseline that is equal to or exceeds the initial baseline...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935734/exposure-to-justice-diminishes-moral-perception
#15
Ana P Gantman, Jay J Van Bavel
Evidence suggests that people have a lower threshold for the conscious awareness of moral words. Given the potential motivational relevance of moral concerns, the authors hypothesized and found that motivational relevance of moral stimuli enhanced the detection of moral words. People who saw a CrimeStoppers advertisement in which a majority (vs. minority) of wanted murderers had been brought to justice exhibited reduced detection of moral words (Experiment 1). Similarly, people who read that an assailant was arrested (vs...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935733/correction-to-kane-et-al-2016
#16
Michael J Kane, Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Reports an error in "Individual differences in the executive control of attention, memory, and thought, and their associations with schizotypy" by Michael J. Kane, Matt E. Meier, Bridget A. Smeekens, Georgina M. Gross, Charlotte A. Chun, Paul J. Silvia and Thomas R. Kwapil (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Aug], Vol 145[8], 1017-1048). There were errors in Table 3 and Table 7 (these transcription errors were limited to descriptive statistics in the Tables and did not affect any inferential statistics)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935732/active-perspective-taking-induces-flexible-use-of-self-knowledge-during-social-inference
#17
Andrew R Todd, Austin J Simpson, Diana I Tamir
Social life hinges on the ability to infer others' mental states. By default, people often recruit self-knowledge during social inference, particularly for others who are similar to oneself. How do people's active perspective-taking efforts-deliberately imagining another's perspective-affect self-knowledge use? In 2 experiments, we test the flexible self-application hypothesis: that the application of self-knowledge to a perspective-taking target differs based on that person's similarity to oneself. We found consistent evidence that, when making inferences about dissimilar others, perspective taking increased the projection of one's own traits and preferences to those targets, relative to a control condition...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935731/two-bayesian-tests-of-the-glomosys-model
#18
Sarahanne M Field, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Ben R Newell, René Zeelenberg, Don van Ravenzwaaij
Priming is arguably one of the key phenomena in contemporary social psychology. Recent retractions and failed replication attempts have led to a division in the field between proponents and skeptics and have reinforced the importance of confirming certain priming effects through replication. In this study, we describe the results of 2 preregistered replication attempts of 1 experiment by Förster and Denzler (2012). In both experiments, participants first processed letters either globally or locally, then were tested using a typicality rating task...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797555/-replicable-effects-of-primes-on-human-behavior-correction-to-payne-et-al-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior" by B. Keith Payne, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi and Chris Loersch (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Oct], Vol 145[10], 1269-1279). In the article, the graph in Figure 5 did not contain the asterisk mentioned in the figure caption, which was intended to indicate a statistically significant difference between bet and pass prime. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-46925-002...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736136/how-target-lure-similarity-shapes-confidence-judgments-in-multiple-alternative-decision-tasks
#20
Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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