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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805442/the-secret-to-happiness-feeling-good-or-feeling-right
#1
Maya Tamir, Shalom H Schwartz, Shige Oishi, Min Y Kim
Which emotional experiences should people pursue to optimize happiness? According to traditional subjective well-being research, the more pleasant emotions we experience, the happier we are. According to Aristotle, the more we experience the emotions we want to experience, the happier we are. We tested both predictions in a cross-cultural sample of 2,324 participants from 8 countries around the world. We assessed experienced emotions, desired emotions, and indices of well-being and depressive symptoms. Across cultures, happier people were those who more often experienced emotions they wanted to experience, whether these were pleasant (e...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#2
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805440/do-rewards-reinforce-the-growth-mindset-joint-effects-of-the-growth-mindset-and-incentive-schemes-in-a-field-intervention
#3
Melody Manchi Chao, Sujata Visaria, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Rajeev Dehejia
The current study draws on the motivational model of achievement which has been guiding research on the growth mindset intervention (Dweck & Leggett, 1988) and examines how this intervention interacts with incentive systems to differentially influence performance for high- and low-achieving students in Indian schools that serve low-SES communities. Although, as expected, the growth mindset intervention did interact with incentive systems and prior achievement to influence subsequent academic performance, the existing growth mindset framework cannot fully account for the observed effects...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726438/superior-pattern-detectors-efficiently-learn-activate-apply-and-update-social-stereotypes
#4
David J Lick, Adam L Alter, Jonathan B Freeman
Superior cognitive abilities are generally associated with positive outcomes such as academic achievement and social mobility. Here, we explore the darker side of cognitive ability, highlighting robust links between pattern detection and stereotyping. Across 6 studies, we find that superior pattern detectors efficiently learn and use stereotypes about social groups. This pattern holds across explicit (Studies 1 and 2), implicit (Studies 2 and 4), and behavioral measures of stereotyping (Study 3). We also find that superior pattern detectors readily update their stereotypes when confronted with new information (Study 5), making them particularly susceptible to counterstereotype training (Study 6)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714712/spatial-cues-influence-the-visual-perception-of-gender
#5
Sarah Ariel Lamer, Max Weisbuch, Timothy D Sweeny
Spatial localization is a basic process in vision, occurring reliably when people encounter an object or person. Yet the role of spatial-location in the visual perception of people is poorly understood. We explored the extent to which spatial-location distorts the perception of gender. Consistent with evidence that the perception of objects is constrained by their location in visual scenes, enhancing perception for objects in their typical location (e.g., Biederman et al., 1982), we hypothesized that people would see relatively greater femininity in faces that appeared lower in space...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714711/children-understand-that-agents-maximize-expected-utilities
#6
Julian Jara-Ettinger, Sammy Floyd, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Laura E Schulz
A growing set of studies suggests that our ability to infer, and reason about, mental states is supported by the assumption that agents maximize utilities-the rewards they attain minus the costs they incur. This assumption enables observers to work backward from agents' observed behavior to their underlying beliefs, preferences, and competencies. Intuitively, however, agents may have incomplete, uncertain, or wrong beliefs about what they want. More formally, agents try to maximize their expected utilities...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714710/a-relative-bilingual-advantage-in-switching-with-preparation-nuanced-explorations-of-the-proposed-association-between-bilingualism-and-task-switching
#7
Alena Stasenko, Georg E Matt, Tamar H Gollan
Bilingual language switching may increase general switching efficiency, but the evidence on this question is mixed. We hypothesized that group differences in switching might be stronger at a long cue-target interval (CTI), which may better tap general switching abilities (Yehene & Meiran, 2007). Eighty Spanish-English bilinguals and 80 monolinguals completed a color-shape switching task, and an analogous language-switching task, varying CTI (short vs. long) in both tasks. With longer preparation time (long CTI), bilinguals exhibited significantly smaller task-switching costs than monolinguals, but only in the first half of trials...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682092/social-norm-perception-in-groups-with-outliers
#8
Jennifer E Dannals, Dale T Miller
Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682091/a-quantum-probability-framework-for-human-probabilistic-inference
#9
Jennifer S Trueblood, James M Yearsley, Emmanuel M Pothos
There is considerable variety in human inference (e.g., a doctor inferring the presence of a disease, a juror inferring the guilt of a defendant, or someone inferring future weight loss based on diet and exercise). As such, people display a wide range of behaviors when making inference judgments. Sometimes, people's judgments appear Bayesian (i.e., normative), but in other cases, judgments deviate from the normative prescription of classical probability theory. How can we combine both Bayesian and non-Bayesian influences in a principled way? We propose a unified explanation of human inference using quantum probability theory...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661167/the-devil-s-in-the-detail-accessibility-of-specific-personal-memories-supports-rose-tinted-self-generalizations-in-mental-health-and-toxic-self-generalizations-in-clinical-depression
#10
Caitlin Hitchcock, Catrin Rees, Tim Dalgleish
Models of memory propose that separate systems underpin the storage and recollection of specific events from our past (e.g., the first day at school), and of the generic structure of our experiences (e.g., how lonely I am), and that interplay between these systems serves to optimize everyday cognition. Specifically, it is proposed that memories of discrete events help define the circumstances (boundary conditions) in which our generalized knowledge applies, thereby enhancing accuracy of memory-dependent cognitive processes...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639796/modality-switching-in-the-simon-task-the-clash-of-reference-frames
#11
Manuela Ruzzoli, Salvador Soto-Faraco
The representation of spatial information related to an event can influence behavior even when location is task-irrelevant, as in the case of Stimulus-Response (S-R) compatibility effects on the Simon task. However, unlike single-modality situations, which are often used to study the Simon effect, in real-life scenarios various sensory modalities provide spatial information coded in different coordinate systems. Here, we address the expression of S-R compatibility effects in mixed-modality contexts, where events can occur in 1 of various sensory modalities (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627909/thought-control-difficulty-motivates-structure-seeking
#12
Anyi Ma, Mark J Landau, Jayanth Narayanan, Aaron C Kay
Struggling to control one's mind can change how the world appears. In prior studies testing the compensatory control theory, reduced control over the external environment motivated the search for perceptual patterns and other forms of structured knowledge, even in remote domains. Going further, the current studies test whether difficulty controlling thoughts similarly predicts structure seeking. As hypothesized, thought-control difficulty positively predicted perceptions of causal connections between remote events (Study 1a) and nonexistent objects in visual noise (Study 1b)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627908/first-evidence-for-the-backup-plan-paradox
#13
Christopher M Napolitano, Alexandra M Freund
This research is a first test of the backup plan paradox. We hypothesized that investing in a backup plan may facilitate the conditions that it was developed to address: Plan A's insufficiency. Five studies provide initial, primarily correlative support for the undermining effect of investing in a backup plan. Study 1 (n= 160) demonstrated that the more participants perceived they had invested in developing a backup plan (preparing a "crib sheet"), the more likely they were to use it, although greater investments were unrelated to backup plan utility...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627907/the-role-of-empathy-in-experiencing-vicarious-anxiety
#14
Jocelyn Shu, Samuel Hassell, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner, Dean Mobbs
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594190/mnemonic-transmission-social-contagion-and-emergence-of-collective-memory-influence-of-emotional-valence-group-structure-and-information-distribution
#15
Hae-Yoon Choi, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Suparna Rajaram
Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594189/shifting-between-mental-sets-an-individual-differences-approach-to-commonalities-and-differences-of-task-switching-components
#16
Claudia C von Bastian, Michel D Druey
Switching between mental sets has been extensively investigated in both experimental and individual differences research using a wide range of task-switch paradigms. However, it is yet unclear whether these different tasks measure a unitary shifting ability or reflect different facets thereof. In this study, 20 task pairs were administered to 119 young adults to assess 5 proposed components of mental set shifting: switching between judgments, stimulus dimensions, stimulus-response mappings, response sets, and stimulus sets...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569521/how-dispositional-social-risk-seeking-promotes-trusting-strangers-evidence-based-on-brain-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#17
Yiwen Wang, Yiming Jing, Zhen Zhang, Chongde Lin, Emilio A Valadez
Trust is a risky social decision because betrayal may occur. It's not clear how individual differences in social risk-seeking propensity modulate brain processes of trusting strangers. We examined event-related potentials and time-frequency power to investigate this question while 40 participants played the one-shot trust game. Twenty high social risk-seekers (HSR) and 20 low social risk-seekers (LSR) made trusting or distrusting decisions regarding unknown trustees while their electroencephalogram activity was recorded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557513/shocking-action-facilitative-effects-of-punishing-electric-shocks-on-action-control
#18
Andreas B Eder, David Dignath, Thorsten M Erle, Julian Wiemer
Four experiments examined motivational effects of response-contingent electric shocks on action initiation. Although the shock was unambiguously aversive for the individual in line with subjective and functional criteria, results showed that the shock-producing action was initiated faster relative to a response producing no shock. However, no facilitation effect was found when strong shocks were delivered, ruling out increased emotional arousal as an explanation. The action was initiated faster even when the response discontinued to generate a shock...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557512/the-nature-disorder-paradox-a-perceptual-study-on-how-nature-is-disorderly-yet-aesthetically-preferred
#19
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Natural environments have powerful aesthetic appeal linked to their capacity for psychological restoration. In contrast, disorderly environments are aesthetically aversive, and have various detrimental psychological effects. But in our research, we have repeatedly found that natural environments are perceptually disorderly. What could explain this paradox? We present 3 competing hypotheses: the aesthetic preference for naturalness is more powerful than the aesthetic aversion to disorder (the nature-trumps-disorder hypothesis); disorder is trivial to aesthetic preference in natural contexts (the harmless-disorder hypothesis); and disorder is aesthetically preferred in natural contexts (the beneficial-disorder hypothesis)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557510/endorsing-help-for-others-that-you-oppose-for-yourself-mind-perception-alters-the-perceived-effectiveness-of-paternalism
#20
Juliana Schroeder, Adam Waytz, Nicholas Epley
How people choose to help each other can be just as important as how much people help. Help can come through relatively paternalistic or agentic aid. Paternalistic aid, such as banning certain foods to encourage weight loss or donating food to alleviate poverty, restricts recipients' choices compared with agentic aid, such as providing calorie counts or donating cash. Nine experiments demonstrate that how people choose to help depends partly on their beliefs about the recipient's mental capacities. People perceive paternalistic aid to be more effective for those who seem less mentally capable (Experiments 1 and 2), and people therefore give more paternalistically when others are described as relatively incompetent (Experiment 3)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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