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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

George Aalbers, Richard J McNally, Alexandre Heeren, Sanne de Wit, Eiko I Fried
Passive social media use (PSMU)-for example, scrolling through social media news feeds-has been associated with depression symptoms. It is unclear, however, if PSMU causes depression symptoms or vice versa. In this study, 125 students reported PSMU, depression symptoms, and stress 7 times daily for 14 days. We used multilevel vector autoregressive time-series models to estimate (a) contemporaneous, (b) temporal, and (c) between-subjects associations among these variables. (a) More time spent on PSMU was associated with higher levels of interest loss, concentration problems, fatigue, and loneliness...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Anne M Cleary
The present study demonstrates a counterintuitive pattern regarding the affective nature of the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon (when a currently inaccessible word feels right on the verge of retrieval). First, TOT reports were more likely for questions corresponding to positively valenced than negatively valenced targets. Second, TOT states were associated with a bias toward inferring positive characteristics regarding the unretrieved information. During TOT states, participants inferred a greater likelihood that the unretrieved target was positively valenced (Experiment 1), that it was earlier presented with a higher value number (Experiment 2), and that a pictured celebrity whose name was unretrieved was ethical (Experiment 3)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David Moreau, Michael C Corballis
Recent failed attempts to replicate numerous findings in psychology have raised concerns about methodological practices in the behavioral sciences. More caution appears to be required when evaluating single studies, while systematic replications and meta-analyses are being encouraged. Here, we provide an additional element to this ongoing discussion, by proposing that typical assumptions of meta-analyses be substantiated. Specifically, we argue that when effects come from more than one underlying distributions, meta-analytic averages extracted from a series of studies can be deceptive, with potentially detrimental consequences...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Rowan Jacques-Hamilton, Jessie Sun, Luke D Smillie
Evidence suggests that extraverted (i.e., bold, agentic) behavior increases positive affect (PA), and could be targeted in wellbeing interventions. However, this evidence is either causally ambiguous or has questionable ecological validity, and the potential costs of sustained extraverted behavior have received minimal attention. To address these limitations, we conducted a randomized controlled trial examining the wellbeing benefits and costs of an extraverted behavior intervention conducted in everyday life...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Anna Foerster, Robert Wirth, Frauke L Berghoefer, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Cognitive theories of dishonesty revolve around an automatic activation of honest response tendencies, which is assumed to impair response selection for the intended dishonest response. Clear-cut evidence for the claim is still limited, however. We therefore present a novel approach to dishonest responding that takes advantage of psychological refractory period methodology. Four experiments yielded evidence supporting the assumption of prolonged response selection during dishonest responding. Moreover, they also showed differences in early response activation and they revealed additional downstream consequences of this behavior that are currently not sufficiently covered by common theoretical models...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jessica C Lee, Peter F Lovibond, Brett K Hayes, Danielle J Navarro
When generalizing properties from known to novel instances, both positive evidence (instances known to possess a property) and negative evidence (instances known not to possess a property) must be integrated. The current study compared generalization based on positive evidence alone against a mixture of positive evidence and perceptually dissimilar negative evidence in an interdimensional discrimination procedure. In 2 experiments, we compared generalization following training with a single positive stimulus (that predicted shock) against groups where an additional negative stimulus (that did not predict shock) was presented in a causal judgment (Experiment 1) and a fear conditioning (Experiment 2) procedure...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
John Plass, Simon Choi, Satoru Suzuki, Marcia Grabowecky
Cognition in action requires strategic allocation of attention between internal processes and the sensory environment. We hypothesized that this resource allocation could be facilitated by mechanisms that predict sensory results of self-generated actions. Sensory signals conforming to predictions would be safely ignored to facilitate focus on internally generated content, whereas those violating predictions would draw attention for additional scrutiny. During a visual-verbal serial digit-recall task, we varied the temporal relationship between task-irrelevant keypresses and auditory distractors so that the distractors were either temporally coupled or decoupled with keypresses...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Michael S Clayton, Nick Yeung, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Neural oscillations in the alpha band (7-13 Hz) have long been associated with reductions in attention. However, recent studies have suggested a more nuanced perspective in which alpha oscillations also facilitate processes of cognitive control and perceptual stability. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over occipitoparietal cortex at 10 Hz (alpha-tACS) can selectively enhance EEG alpha power. To assess the contribution of alpha oscillations to attention, we delivered alpha-tACS across 4 experiments while 178 participants performed sustained attention tasks...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Dorit Segal, Alena Stasenko, Tamar H Gollan
The current study examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying task and language switching by comparing them with each other, and with flanker task performance, at multiple points of the response time distribution. Ninety-eight Spanish-English bilinguals completed cued language and color-shape switching tasks, and 2 versions of a nonlinguistic flanker task. Bilinguals responded more quickly and exhibited smaller mixing costs in the language task, but surprisingly exhibited larger switching costs than in the color-shape task...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Roni Tibon, Richard N Henson
Events that conform to our expectations, that is, are congruent with our world knowledge or schemas, are better remembered than unrelated events. Yet events that conflict with schemas can also be remembered better. We examined this apparent paradox in 4 experiments, in which schemas were established by training ordinal relationships between randomly paired objects, whereas event memory was tested for the number of objects on each trial. Better memory was found for both congruent and incongruent trials, relative to unrelated trials, producing memory performance that was a "U-shaped" function of congruency...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Ji Won Bang, Medha Shekhar, Dobromir Rahnev
Metacognitive efficiency quantifies people's ability to introspect into their own decision making relative to their ability to perform the primary task. Despite years of research, it is still unclear how visual metacognitive efficiency can be manipulated. Here, we show that a hierarchical model of confidence generation makes a counterintuitive prediction: Higher sensory noise should increase metacognitive efficiency. The reason for this is that hierarchical models assume that although the primary decision is corrupted only by sensory noise, the confidence judgment is corrupted by both sensory and metacognitive noise...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Kurt Braunlich, Bradley C Love
Through selective attention, decision-makers can learn to ignore behaviorally irrelevant stimulus dimensions. This can improve learning and increase the perceptual discriminability of relevant stimulus information. Across cognitive models of categorization, this is typically accomplished through the inclusion of attentional parameters, which provide information about the importance assigned to each stimulus dimension by each participant. The effect of these parameters on psychological representation is often described geometrically, such that perceptual differences over relevant psychological dimensions are accentuated (or stretched), and differences over irrelevant dimensions are down-weighted (or compressed)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Massimo Turatto, Francesca Bonetti, David Pascucci, Leonardo Chelazzi
For the good and the bad, the world around us is full of distraction. In particular, onset stimuli that appear abruptly in the scene grab attention, thus disrupting the ongoing task. Different cognitive mechanisms for distractor filtering have been proposed, but prevalent accounts share the idea that filtering is accomplished to shield target processing from interference. Here we provide novel evidence that challenges this view, as passive exposure to a repeating visual onset is sufficient to trigger learning-dependent mechanisms to filter the unwanted stimulation...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Zlatan Krizan, Garrett Hisler
Despite extensive ties between sleep disruption, anger, and aggression, it is unclear whether sleep loss plays a causal role in shaping anger. On one hand, negative affect and distress frequently follow curtailed sleep, suggesting increased anger responses. On the other hand, fatigue and withdrawal also follow, potentially muting anger. To examine these competing possibilities, 142 community residents were randomly assigned to either maintain or restrict their sleep over 2 days. Before and after, these participants rated their anger and affect throughout a product-rating task alongside aversive noise...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tal Makovski
How do people prepare for the presentation of distractors, if at all? Previous studies have shown that sometimes, paradoxically, observers actively allocate attention to expected distractors. However, this was mainly found in selective-attention tasks in which to-be-attended targets were also expected. The present experiments are designed to probe attention when the only stimuli expected to appear in the display are distractors. Specifically, participants performed a change-detection task while interfering stimuli appeared at a fixed moment during the retention interval...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Fabrice B R Parmentier, Martin R Vasilev, Pilar Andrés
Performance in sustained attention tasks is known to be slowed by the occurrence of unexpected task-irrelevant distractors (novelty distraction) and the detection of errors (posterror slowing), 2 well-established phenomena studied separately and regarded as reflecting distinct underpinning mechanisms. We measured novelty distraction and posterror slowing in an auditory-visual oddball task to test the hypothesis that they both involve an orienting response. Our results confirm that the 2 effects exhibit a positive interaction...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Julian De Freitas, Peter DeScioli, Kyle A Thomas, Steven Pinker
Why do people esteem anonymous charitable giving? We connect normative theories of charitability (captured in Maimonides' Ladder of Charity) with evolutionary theories of partner choice to test predictions on how attributions of charitability are affected by states of knowledge: whether the identity of the donor or of the beneficiary is revealed to the other. Consistent with the theories, in Experiments 1-2 participants judged a double-blind gift as more charitable than one to a revealed beneficiary, which in turn was judged as more charitable than one from a revealed donor...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Lexi E Crommett, Deeksha Madala, Jeffrey M Yau
Naturally occurring signals in audition and touch can be complex and marked by temporal variations in frequency and amplitude. Auditory frequency sweep processing has been studied extensively; however, much less is known about sweep processing in touch because studies have primarily focused on the perception of simple sinusoidal vibrations. Given the extensive interactions between audition and touch in the frequency processing of pure tone signals, we reasoned that these senses might also interact in the processing of higher-order frequency representations like sweeps...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Chris Westbury, Geoff Hollis
Theories of humor tend to be post hoc descriptions, suffering from insufficient operationalization and a subsequent inability to make predictions about what will be found humorous and to what extent. Here we build on the Engelthaler & Hills' (2017) humor rating norms for 4,997 words, by analyzing the semantic, phonological, orthographic, and frequency factors that play a role in the judgments. We were able to predict the original humor rating norms and ratings for previously unrated words with greater reliability than the split half reliability in the original norms, as estimated from splitting those norms along gender or age lines...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Federica Degno, Otto Loberg, Chuanli Zang, Manman Zhang, Nick Donnelly, Simon P Liversedge
Participants' eye movements and electroencephalogram (EEG) signal were recorded as they read sentences displayed according to the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. Two target words in each sentence were manipulated for lexical frequency (high vs. low frequency) and parafoveal preview of each target word (identical vs. string of random letters vs. string of Xs). Eye movement data revealed visual parafoveal-on-foveal (PoF) effects, as well as foveal visual and orthographic preview effects and word frequency effects...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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