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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

Austin Lee Nichols, Corey L Cook
Despite the persistent gender gap in many organizational leadership positions, researchers have not yet examined objective predictors of this gap. A fully crossed 3 (Role Prime: leader, follower, control) × 2 (Gender Prime: present, absent) × 2 (Sex: male, female) experimental design examined the effect of group role (i.e., leader or follower) and gender on loss-aversion. Participants (192 total; 96 female) were asked to name either their former or current leader ("superior") or follower ("subordinate"), compared with a no prime condition...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Marjorie W Schaeffer, Christopher S Rozek, Talia Berkowitz, Susan C Levine, Sian L Beilock
Although parents' fears and worries about math-termed math anxiety-are negatively associated with their children's math achievement in early elementary school, access to an educational math app that 1st-grade children and parents use together can ameliorate this relation. Here we show that children of higher-math-anxious parents learn less math during 1st-3rd grades, but this is not the case when families are given a math app (even after app use markedly decreases). Reducing the link between parents' math anxiety and their positive attitudes about math for their children helped to explain the sustained benefit of the math app...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tatiana Lau, Hillard T Pouncy, Samuel J Gershman, Mina Cikara
Humans form social coalitions in every society on earth, yet we know very little about how social group boundaries are learned and represented. We derive predictions from a computational model of latent structure learning to move beyond explicit category labels and mere similarity as the sole inputs to social group representations. Four experiments examine (a) how evidence for group boundaries is accumulated in a consequential social context (i.e., learning about others' political values), (b) to what extent learning about these boundaries drives one's own choices as well as attributions about other agents in the environment, and (c) whether these latent groups affect choice even in the presence of group labels that contradict the latent group structure...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Michelle E Stepan, Kimberly M Fenn, Erik M Altmann
In a large sample ( N = 234), we tested effects of 24-hr of sleep deprivation on error rates in a procedural task that requires memory maintenance of task-relevant information. In the evening, participants completed the task under double-blind conditions and then either stayed awake in the lab overnight or slept at home. In the morning, participants completed the task again. Sleep-deprived participants were more likely to suffer a general breakdown in ability (or willingness) to meet a modest accuracy criterion they had met the night before...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Christel Devue, Annabelle Wride, Gina M Grimshaw
Humans are supposedly expert in face recognition. Because of limitations in existing research paradigms, little is known about how faces become familiar in the real world, or the mechanisms that distinguish good from poor recognizers. Here, we capitalized on several unique features of the TV series Game of Thrones to develop a highly challenging test of face recognition that is ecologically grounded yet controls for important factors that affect familiarity. We show that familiarization with faces and reliable person identification require much more exposure than previously suggested...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Stephanie M Smith, Ian Krajbich
When people are faced with a decision, they tend to choose the option that draws their attention. In recent years, correlations between attention and choice have been documented in a variety of domains. This leads to the question of whether there is a general, stable relationship between attention and choice. Here, we examined choice behavior in tasks with and without risk and social considerations, using food or monetary rewards, within a single experiment. This allowed us to test the consistency of the decision-making process across domains...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Gavin Nobes, Georgia Panagiotaki, Kenisha Russell Jonsson
Daly and Wilson (1994, 2008) reported that rates of fatal assaults of young children by stepfathers are over 100 times those by genetic fathers, and they explain the difference in evolutionary terms. Their study was replicated by comparing updated homicide data and population data from 3 surveys. This indicated that the risk to young stepchildren was approximately 16 times that to genetic children, and stepfathers were twice as likely to kill by beating. However, when we controlled for father's age, the risk from cohabiting stepfathers was approximately 6 times greater...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Yael Millgram, Gal Sheppes, Elise K Kalokerinos, Peter Kuppens, Maya Tamir
Although selecting emotion regulation strategies constitutes means to achieve emotion goals (i.e., desired emotional states), strategy selection and goals have been studied independently. We propose that the strategies people select are often dictated by what they want to feel. We tested the possibility that emotion regulation involves choosing strategies that match emotion goals. We expected people who are motivated to decrease emotional intensity to select strategies that are tailored for decreasing emotions (e...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Alexander S Rich, Todd M Gureckis
Learning usually improves the accuracy of beliefs through the accumulation of experience. But are there limits to learning that prevent us from accurately understanding our world? In this article we investigate the concept of a "learning trap"-the formation of a stable false belief even with extensive experience. Our review highlights how these traps develop through the interaction of learning and decision making in unknown environments. We further document a particularly pernicious learning trap driven by selective attention, a mechanism often assumed to facilitate learning in complex environments...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Gordon Pennycook, Tyrone D Cannon, David G Rand
The 2016 U.S. presidential election brought considerable attention to the phenomenon of "fake news": entirely fabricated and often partisan content that is presented as factual. Here we demonstrate one mechanism that contributes to the believability of fake news: fluency via prior exposure. Using actual fake-news headlines presented as they were seen on Facebook, we show that even a single exposure increases subsequent perceptions of accuracy, both within the same session and after a week. Moreover, this "illusory truth effect" for fake-news headlines occurs despite a low level of overall believability and even when the stories are labeled as contested by fact checkers or are inconsistent with the reader's political ideology...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Natalia A Tiurina, Igor S Utochkin
Previous studies have shown that people are good at rapidly estimating ensemble summary statistics, such as the mean size of multiple objects. In the present study, we tested whether these average estimates are based on "raw" retinal representations (proximal sizes) or on how items should appear based on context, such as the viewing distance (distal sizes). In our experiments, observers adjusted the mean size of multiple objects presented at various apparent distances through a stereoscope. In Experiment 1, all items were shifted in depth by the same amount while the adjustable probe stayed at the fixed middle position...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Babak Hemmatian, Steven A Sloman
Formal or categorical explanation involves the use of a label to explain a property of an object or group of objects. In four experiments, we provide evidence that label entrenchment, the degree to which a label is accepted and used by members of the community, influences the judged quality of a categorical explanation whether or not the explanation offers substantive information about the explanandum. Experiment 1 shows that explanations using unentrenched labels are seen as less comprehensive and less natural, independent of the causal information they provide...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Alexa Tompary, Lila Davachi, Elizabeth A Phelps
Acute stress can modulate memory for individual parts of an event (items), but whether it similarly influences memory for associations between items remains unclear. We used a within-subjects design to explore the influence of acute stress on item and associative memory in humans. Participants associated negative words with neutral objects, rated their subjective arousal for each pair, and completed delayed item and paired associative recognition tasks. We found strikingly different patterns of acute stress effects on item and associative memory: for high-arousal pairs, preencoding stress enhanced associative memory, whereas postencoding stress enhanced item memory...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Catalina Kopetz, Jacqueline I Woerner, Laura MacPherson, Carl W Lejuez, Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah, Nathan A Fox
Risk-taking in adolescence has been often associated with early life adversities. However, the impact of such macrolevel factors on risk behavior has been rarely studied in humans. To address these gaps we recruited a sample of young adolescents who were part of a randomized control trial of foster care. Children institutionalized at or soon after birth were randomly assigned either to be removed from institutions and placed into a family or foster care intervention or to remain in institutions receiving care as usual...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Raeya Maswood, Anne S Rasmussen, Suparna Rajaram
People frequently engage in conversation about shared autobiographical events from their lives, particularly those with emotional significance. The pervasiveness of this practice raises the question whether shared memory reconstruction has the power to influence the memory and emotions associated with such events. We developed a novel paradigm that combined the strengths of the methods from autobiographical and collaborative memory research traditions to examine such consequences. We selected a shared, real-life autobiographical event of an exam, and asked students to recall their memory of taking a recent exam where they provided a group and/or personal narrative of this autobiographical event...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Birte Moeller, Christian Frings
Binding between stimulus features and between stimuli and responses has been discussed as a central mechanism in human action control: Carrying out a response to a stimulus leads to bindings between stimulus and response features, so that repetition of one can retrieve the other later on. We find it intriguing that all discussions to date focus either on stimulus-stimulus or on stimulus-response bindings. Here we argue that response-response bindings are equally relevant for action control, if binding really plays a role in action representation...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Lihan Chen, Xiaolin Zhou, Hermann J Müller, Zhuanghua Shi
In our multisensory world, we often rely more on auditory information than on visual input for temporal processing. One typical demonstration of this is that the rate of auditory flutter assimilates the rate of concurrent visual flicker. To date, however, this auditory dominance effect has largely been studied using regular auditory rhythms. It thus remains unclear whether irregular rhythms would have a similar impact on visual temporal processing, what information is extracted from the auditory sequence that comes to influence visual timing, and how the auditory and visual temporal rates are integrated together in quantitative terms...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Patrick Burns, Teresa McCormack, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Áine Fitzpatrick, Jemma McGourty, Eugene M Caruso
A number of striking temporal asymmetries have been observed in the way that adults think about the past and the future: experiences in the future tend to be more valued than those in the past, feel closer in subjective time, and elicit stronger emotions. Three studies explored the development of these temporal asymmetries for the first time with children and adolescents. Evidence of past/future asymmetry in subjective time emerged from 4 to 5 years of age. Evidence of past/future asymmetry in emotion was clearly observable from 6 to 7 years of age...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tami Kim, Ting Zhang, Michael I Norton
We identify and document a novel construct-pettiness, or intentional attentiveness to trivial details-and examine its (negative) implications in interpersonal relationships and social exchange. Seven studies show that pettiness manifests across different types of resources (both money and time), across cultures with differing tolerance for ambiguity in relationships (the United States, Switzerland, Germany, and Austria), and is distinct from related constructs such as generosity, conscientiousness, fastidious, and counternormativity...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Pascal Burgmer, Matthias Forstmann, Olga Stavrova
What do people value about a creation: the idea behind it or the labor needed for its implementation? Recent developmental research suggests that children by the age of 6 begin to value ideas over labor. Yet, much less is known about whether adults similarly attribute a higher value to ideas and idea givers than to labor and idea executors. In seven studies (N = 1,463), we explored the relative valuation of ideas versus labor in adults, its mechanisms and boundary conditions. Participants learned about an idea giver and a laborer who collaborated to create a product and indicated who deserves ownership and monetary compensation for the product...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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