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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967763/effects-of-learning-on-somatosensory-decision-making-and-experiences
#1
Akib Ul Huque, Ellen Poliakoff, Richard J Brown
Operant conditioning has been shown to influence perceptual decision making in the auditory and visual modalities but the effects of conditioning on touch perception are unknown. If conditioning can be used to reduce the tendency to misinterpret somatic noise as signal (tactile false alarms), there may be the potential to use similar procedures in the treatment of excessive physical symptom reporting in clinical settings. We explored this possibility in 4 experiments investigating whether the false alarm (FA) rate in a somatic signal detection task (SSDT) could be altered with operant conditioning, and whether the resultant learning would transfer to other sensory decisions...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933892/erasing-and-blurring-memories-the-differential-impact-of-interference-on-separate-aspects-of-forgetting
#2
Sol Z Sun, Celia Fidalgo, Morgan D Barense, Andy C H Lee, Jonathan S Cant, Susanne Ferber
Interference disrupts information processing across many timescales, from immediate perception to memory over short and long durations. The widely held similarity assumption states that as similarity between interfering information and memory contents increases, so too does the degree of impairment. However, information is lost from memory in different ways. For instance, studied content might be erased in an all-or-nothing manner. Alternatively, information may be retained but the precision might be degraded or blurred...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922001/reasons-probably-won-t-change-your-mind-the-role-of-reasons-in-revising-moral-decisions
#3
Matthew L Stanley, Ashley M Dougherty, Brenda W Yang, Paul Henne, Felipe De Brigard
Although many philosophers argue that making and revising moral decisions ought to be a matter of deliberating over reasons, the extent to which the consideration of reasons informs people's moral decisions and prompts them to change their decisions remains unclear. Here, after making an initial decision in 2-option moral dilemmas, participants examined reasons for only the option initially chosen (affirming reasons), reasons for only the option not initially chosen (opposing reasons), or reasons for both options...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910126/negative-emotional-content-disrupts-the-coherence-of-episodic-memories
#4
James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, Daniel Bush, Neil Burgess
Events are thought to be stored in episodic memory as coherent representations, in which the constituent elements are bound together so that a cue can trigger reexperience of all elements via pattern completion. Negative emotional content can strongly influence memory, but opposing theories predict strengthening or weakening of memory coherence. Across a series of experiments, participants imagined a number of person-location-object events with half of the events including a negative element (e.g., an injured person), and memory was tested across all within event associations...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910125/threat-of-shock-and-aversive-inhibition-induced-anxiety-modulates-pavlovian-instrumental-interactions
#5
Anahit Mkrtchian, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety can be an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. However, if experienced in inappropriate contexts, it can also lead to pathological and maladaptive anxiety disorders. Experimentally, anxiety can be induced in healthy individuals using the threat of shock (ToS) paradigm. Accumulating work with this paradigm suggests that anxiety promotes harm-avoidant mechanisms through enhanced inhibitory control. However, the specific cognitive mechanisms underlying anxiety-linked inhibitory control are unclear...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891657/the-role-of-a-common-is-moral-heuristic-in-the-stability-and-change-of-moral-norms
#6
Björn Lindström, Simon Jangard, Ida Selbing, Andreas Olsson
Moral norms are fundamental for virtually all social interactions, including cooperation. Moral norms develop and change, but the mechanisms underlying when, and how, such changes occur are not well-described by theories of moral psychology. We tested, and confirmed, the hypothesis that the commonness of an observed behavior consistently influences its moral status, which we refer to as the common is moral (CIM) heuristic. In 9 experiments, we used an experimental model of dynamic social interaction that manipulated the commonness of altruistic and selfish behaviors to examine the change of peoples' moral judgments...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872330/the-effects-of-verbal-descriptions-on-performance-in-lineups-and-showups
#7
Brent M Wilson, Travis M Seale-Carlisle, Laura Mickes
Verbally describing a face has been found to impair subsequent recognition of that face from a photo lineup, a phenomenon known as the verbal overshadowing effect (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). Recently, a large direct replication study successfully reproduced that original finding (Alogna et al., 2014). However, in both the original study and the replication studies, memory was tested using only target-present lineups (i.e., lineups containing the previously seen target face), making it possible to compute the correct identification rate (correct ID rate; i...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857575/down-regulation-of-love-feelings-after-a-romantic-break-up-self-report-and-electrophysiological-data
#8
Sandra J E Langeslag, Michelle E Sanchez
Because remaining love feelings for an ex-partner are negatively associated with recovery from a romantic break-up, it may be helpful to decrease those love feelings. Love regulation is the use of behavioral or cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. This study evaluated three regulation strategies: (1) negative reappraisal of the ex-partner, (2) reappraisal of love feelings, and (3) distraction. It was tested how these regulation strategies change love feelings for the ex-partner, valence of affect, and motivated attention for the ex-partner...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#9
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726438/superior-pattern-detectors-efficiently-learn-activate-apply-and-update-social-stereotypes
#10
David J Lick, Adam L Alter, Jonathan B Freeman
Superior cognitive abilities are generally associated with positive outcomes such as academic achievement and social mobility. Here, we explore the darker side of cognitive ability, highlighting robust links between pattern detection and stereotyping. Across 6 studies, we find that superior pattern detectors efficiently learn and use stereotypes about social groups. This pattern holds across explicit (Studies 1 and 2), implicit (Studies 2 and 4), and behavioral measures of stereotyping (Study 3). We also find that superior pattern detectors readily update their stereotypes when confronted with new information (Study 5), making them particularly susceptible to counterstereotype training (Study 6)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967777/pseudo-set-framing
#11
Kate Barasz, Leslie K John, Elizabeth A Keenan, Michael I Norton
Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967776/power-as-an-emotional-liability-implications-for-perceived-authenticity-and-trust-after-a-transgression
#12
Peter H Kim, Alexandra Mislin, Ece Tuncel, Ryan Fehr, Arik Cheshin, Gerben A van Kleef
People may express a variety of emotions after committing a transgression. Through 6 empirical studies and a meta-analysis, we investigate how the perceived authenticity of such emotional displays and resulting levels of trust are shaped by the transgressor's power. Past findings suggest that individuals with power tend to be more authentic because they have more freedom to act on the basis of their own personal inclinations. Yet, our findings reveal that (a) a transgressor's display of emotion is perceived to be less authentic when that party's power is high rather than low; (b) this perception of emotional authenticity, in turn, directly influences (and mediates) the level of trust in that party; and (c) perceivers ultimately exert less effort when asked to make a case for leniency toward high rather than low-power transgressors...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891656/implied-reading-direction-and-prioritization-of-letter-encoding
#13
Alex O Holcombe, Elizabeth H L Nguyen, Patrick T Goodbourn
Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872329/sequential-effects-modulate-spatial-biases
#14
Dinis Gökaydin, Peter Brugger, Tobias Loetscher
Healthy individuals usually display a bias toward the left side of space. This effect can be measured in a line bisection task or, alternatively, in a landmark task where prebisected lines are presented to participants. Several factors have been shown to influence pseudoneglect, that is, to vary the magnitude of the left side bias. We performed 2 landmark experiments: 1 online (n = 801) and a 2nd in the laboratory (n = 20). Our results demonstrate that pseudoneglect is strongly modulated by the sequence of trials in a landmark task...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805442/the-secret-to-happiness-feeling-good-or-feeling-right
#15
Maya Tamir, Shalom H Schwartz, Shige Oishi, Min Y Kim
Which emotional experiences should people pursue to optimize happiness? According to traditional subjective well-being research, the more pleasant emotions we experience, the happier we are. According to Aristotle, the more we experience the emotions we want to experience, the happier we are. We tested both predictions in a cross-cultural sample of 2,324 participants from 8 countries around the world. We assessed experienced emotions, desired emotions, and indices of well-being and depressive symptoms. Across cultures, happier people were those who more often experienced emotions they wanted to experience, whether these were pleasant (e...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805440/do-rewards-reinforce-the-growth-mindset-joint-effects-of-the-growth-mindset-and-incentive-schemes-in-a-field-intervention
#16
Melody Manchi Chao, Sujata Visaria, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Rajeev Dehejia
The current study draws on the motivational model of achievement which has been guiding research on the growth mindset intervention (Dweck & Leggett, 1988) and examines how this intervention interacts with incentive systems to differentially influence performance for high- and low-achieving students in Indian schools that serve low-SES communities. Although, as expected, the growth mindset intervention did interact with incentive systems and prior achievement to influence subsequent academic performance, the existing growth mindset framework cannot fully account for the observed effects...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703620/is-general-intelligence-little-more-than-the-speed-of-higher-order-processing
#17
Anna-Lena Schubert, Dirk Hagemann, Gidon T Frischkorn
Individual differences in the speed of information processing have been hypothesized to give rise to individual differences in general intelligence. Consistent with this hypothesis, reaction times (RTs) and latencies of event-related potential have been shown to be moderately associated with intelligence. These associations have been explained either in terms of individual differences in some brain-wide property such as myelination, the speed of neural oscillations, or white-matter tract integrity, or in terms of individual differences in specific processes such as the signal-to-noise ratio in evidence accumulation, executive control, or the cholinergic system...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703618/from-conscious-thought-to-automatic-action-a-simulation-account-of-action-planning
#18
Torsten Martiny-Huenger, Sarah E Martiny, Elizabeth J Parks-Stamm, Elisa Pfeiffer, Peter M Gollwitzer
We provide a theoretical framework and empirical evidence for how verbally planning an action creates direct perception-action links and behavioral automaticity. We argue that planning actions in an if (situation)-then (action) format induces sensorimotor simulations (i.e., activity patterns reenacting the event in the sensory and motor brain areas) of the anticipated situation and the intended action. Due to their temporal overlap, these activity patterns become linked. Whenever the previously simulated situation is encountered, the previously simulated action is partially reactivated through spreading activation and thus more likely to be executed...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639796/modality-switching-in-the-simon-task-the-clash-of-reference-frames
#19
Manuela Ruzzoli, Salvador Soto-Faraco
The representation of spatial information related to an event can influence behavior even when location is task-irrelevant, as in the case of Stimulus-Response (S-R) compatibility effects on the Simon task. However, unlike single-modality situations, which are often used to study the Simon effect, in real-life scenarios various sensory modalities provide spatial information coded in different coordinate systems. Here, we address the expression of S-R compatibility effects in mixed-modality contexts, where events can occur in 1 of various sensory modalities (i...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846007/emodiversity-robust-predictor-of-outcomes-or-statistical-artifact
#20
Nicholas J L Brown, James C Coyne
This article examines the concept of emodiversity, put forward by Quoidbach et al. (2014) as a novel source of information about "the health of the human emotional ecosystem" (p. 2057). Quoidbach et al. drew an analogy between emodiversity as a desirable property of a person's emotional make-up and biological diversity as a desirable property of an ecosystem. They claimed that emodiversity was an independent predictor of better mental and physical health outcomes in two large-scale studies. Here, we show that Quoidbach et al...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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