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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

Patrick Burns, Teresa McCormack, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Áine Fitzpatrick, Jemma McGourty, Eugene M Caruso
A number of striking temporal asymmetries have been observed in the way that adults think about the past and the future: experiences in the future tend to be more valued than those in the past, feel closer in subjective time, and elicit stronger emotions. Three studies explored the development of these temporal asymmetries for the first time with children and adolescents. Evidence of past/future asymmetry in subjective time emerged from 4 to 5 years of age. Evidence of past/future asymmetry in emotion was clearly observable from 6 to 7 years of age...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tami Kim, Ting Zhang, Michael I Norton
We identify and document a novel construct-pettiness, or intentional attentiveness to trivial details-and examine its (negative) implications in interpersonal relationships and social exchange. Seven studies show that pettiness manifests across different types of resources (both money and time), across cultures with differing tolerance for ambiguity in relationships (the United States, Switzerland, Germany, and Austria), and is distinct from related constructs such as generosity, conscientiousness, fastidious, and counternormativity...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Pascal Burgmer, Matthias Forstmann, Olga Stavrova
What do people value about a creation: the idea behind it or the labor needed for its implementation? Recent developmental research suggests that children by the age of 6 begin to value ideas over labor. Yet, much less is known about whether adults similarly attribute a higher value to ideas and idea givers than to labor and idea executors. In seven studies (N = 1,463), we explored the relative valuation of ideas versus labor in adults, its mechanisms and boundary conditions. Participants learned about an idea giver and a laborer who collaborated to create a product and indicated who deserves ownership and monetary compensation for the product...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Justin C Hulbert, Michael C Anderson
Control processes engaged in halting the automatic retrieval of unwanted memories have been shown to reduce the later recallability of the targets of suppression. Like other cognitive skills that benefit from practice, we hypothesized that memory control is similarly experience dependent, such that individuals with greater real-life experience at stopping retrieval would exhibit better inhibitory control over unwanted memories. Across two experiments, we found that college students reporting a greater history of trauma exhibited more suppression-induced forgetting of both negative and neutral memories than did those in a matched group who had reported experiencing little to no trauma...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Guido Hesselmann, Natasha Darcy, Marcus Rothkirch, Philipp Sterzer
The study of nonconscious priming is rooted in a long research tradition in experimental psychology and plays an important role for a range of topics, including visual recognition, emotion, decision making, and memory. Prime stimuli can be transiently suppressed from awareness by using a variety of psychophysical paradigms. The aim is to understand which stimulus features can be processed nonconsciously and influence behavior toward subsequently presented probe stimuli. Here, we tested the notion that continuous flash suppression (CFS), a relatively new method of interocular suppression, selectively disrupts stimulus identification mediated by the ventral "vision-for-perception" pathway, while preserving action-relevant stimulus features processed by the dorsal "vision-for-action" pathway...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Stefan Uddenberg, Brian J Scholl
How is race encoded into memory when viewing faces? Here we demonstrate a novel systematic bias in which our memories of faces converge on certain prioritized regions in our underlying "face space," as they relate to perceived race. This convergence was made especially salient using a new visual variant of the method of serial reproduction: "TeleFace." A single face was briefly presented, with its race selected from a smooth continuum between White and Black (matched for mean luminance)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Mahesh Srinivasan, Catherine Berner, Hugh Rabagliati
It is well-known that children rapidly learn words, following a range of heuristics. What is less well appreciated is that-because most words are polysemous and have multiple meanings (e.g., "glass" can label a material and drinking vessel)-children will often be learning a new meaning for a known word, rather than an entirely new word. Across 4 experiments we show that children flexibly adapt a well-known heuristic-the shape bias-when learning polysemous words. Consistent with previous studies, we find that children and adults preferentially extend a new object label to other objects of the same shape...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Amy M Belfi, Anna Kasdan, Jess Rowland, Edward A Vessel, G Gabrielle Starr, David Poeppel
In recent years, psychological models of perception have undergone reevaluation due to a broadening of focus toward understanding not only how observers perceive stimuli but also how they subjectively evaluate stimuli. Here, we investigated the time course of such aesthetic evaluations using a gating paradigm. In a series of experiments, participants heard excerpts of classical, jazz, and electronica music. Excerpts were of different durations (250 ms, 500 ms, 750 ms, 1,000 ms, 2,000 ms, 10,000 ms) or note values (eighth note, quarter note, half note, dotted-half note, whole note, and entire 10,000 ms excerpt)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Christopher N Wahlheim, Jeffrey M Zacks
Memory for related past experiences can guide current perceptions. However, memory can lead one astray if situational features have changed. Thus, to adaptively use memory to guide perception, one needs to retrieve relevant memories and also to register differences between remembered and current events. Event Memory Retrieval and Comparison Theory proposes that observers associatively activate memories of related previous episodes, and that this guides their ongoing perception. Conflicts between previous and current event features can hurt immediate performance, but if changes are registered and encoded they can lead to highly effective encoding of the prior event, current event, and their relationship...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Ariana Orvell, Ethan Kross, Susan A Gelman
Learning from negative experiences is an essential challenge of childhood. How do children derive meaning from such events? For adults, one way is to move beyond the specifics of a situation by framing it as exemplifying a more general phenomenon. Here we examine whether children are able to make meaning in this way through their use of generic-you, a linguistic device in which people shift from the here and now to refer to people in general. Participants ( N = 89, aged 4-10 years) listened to 2 stories depicting common conflicts and were asked to discuss what lessons the character could learn (Lessons Learned condition) and how the character felt (Relive condition)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
James Colton, Patric Bach, Ben Whalley, Christopher Mitchell
It feels intuitive that our actions are intentional, but there is considerable debate about whether (and how) humans control their motor behavior. Recent ideomotor theories of action argue that action intentions are fundamentally perceptual, that actions are not only controlled by anticipating-imagining-their intended perceptual consequences, but are also initiated when this action effect activation is strong. Here, the authors report a study (plus a replication) that provides direct evidence for this proposal, showing that even nonintended actions are executed when their effects are activated strongly enough...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Kristina Krasich, Robert McManus, Stephen Hutt, Myrthe Faber, Sidney K D'Mello, James R Brockmole
Physiological limitations on the visual system require gaze to move from location to location to extract the most relevant information within a scene. Therefore, gaze provides a real-time index of the information-processing priorities of the visual system. We investigated gaze allocation during mind wandering (MW), a state where cognitive priorities shift from processing task-relevant external stimuli (i.e., the visual world) to task-irrelevant internal thoughts. In both a main study and a replication, we recorded the eye movements of college-aged adults who studied images of urban scenes and responded to pseudorandom thought probes on whether they were mind wandering or attentively viewing at the time of the probe...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Daniel Poole, Emma Gowen, Paul A Warren, Ellen Poliakoff
We have previously observed that participants with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are more influenced by visual distractors during a tactile task compared with controls (Poole, Gowen, Warren, & Poliakoff, 2015). This finding suggests that changes in multisensory processing could underpin differences in sensory reactivity in ASC. Here we explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect. Adults with ASC ( n = 22) and matched neurotypical (NT) controls ( n = 22) completed 3 tasks involving similar stimuli...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Netta Weinstein, Dan N Stone
Evidence suggests that experiencing financial insecurity lowers well-being and increases problematic financial behaviors. The present article employs a self-determination theory (SDT; R. M. Ryan & Deci, 2000a) perspective to understand the mechanisms by which experiencing financial insecurity contributes to these detrimental outcomes. Informed by SDT, we expected that the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness would drive these effects. Studies were concerned with individuals' general experiences of financial insecurity (using community samples; Studies 1 and 2), and employed manipulations involving self-reflection (Study 3) and hypothetical scenarios (Study 4)...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Patrick Ring, Catharina C Probst, Levent Neyse, Stephan Wolff, Christian Kaernbach, Thilo van Eimeren, Colin F Camerer, Ulrich Schmidt
Problem gambling is a serious socioeconomic problem involving high individual and social costs. In this article, we study risk preferences of problem gamblers including their risk attitudes in the gain and loss domains, their weighting of probabilities, and their degree of loss aversion. Our findings indicate that problem gamblers are systematically more risk taking and less sensitive toward changes in probabilities in the gain domain only. Neither their risk attitudes in the loss domain nor their degree of loss aversion are significantly different from the controls...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Philip Millroth, Mona Guath, Peter Juslin
The rationality of decision making under risk is of central concern in psychology and other behavioral sciences. In real-life, the information relevant to a decision often arrives sequentially or changes over time, implying nontrivial demands on memory. Yet, little is known about how this affects the ability to make rational decisions and a default assumption is rather that information about outcomes and probabilities are simultaneously available at the time of the decision. In 4 experiments, we show that participants receiving probability- and outcome information sequentially report substantially (29 to 83%) higher certainty equivalents than participants with simultaneous presentation...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Oriel FeldmanHall, A Ross Otto, Elizabeth A Phelps
There is little consensus about how moral values are learned. Using a novel social learning task, we examine whether vicarious learning impacts moral values-specifically fairness preferences-during decisions to restore justice. In both laboratory and Internet-based experimental settings, we employ a dyadic justice game where participants receive unfair splits of money from another player and respond resoundingly to the fairness violations by exhibiting robust nonpunitive, compensatory behavior (baseline behavior)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Markus Janczyk, Veronika Lerche
Humans act goal-oriented, and this idea is at the core of ideomotor theory (IT), which claims that actions are selected by mentally anticipating the sensory consequences brought about by the respective bodily movement (i.e., their action effects). Evidence for this effect anticipation mainly derives from the response-effect (R-E) compatibility (REC) paradigm: In the spatial domain, for example, a left response is produced faster (and sometimes less error-prone) if followed by a compatible left rather than an incompatible right action effect...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Celina K Bowman-Smith, Brandon W Goulding, Ori Friedman
Since ancient times, legal systems have held owners responsible for harm caused by their property. Across 4 experiments, we show that children aged 3-7 (N = 572) also hold owners responsible for such harm. Older children judge that owners should repair harm caused by property (Experiments 1A and 1B), and younger children may do this as well (Experiment 4). Younger and older children judge that owners should apologize for harm (Experiments 2A and 3), even when children do not believe the owners allowed the harm to occur (Experiment 2B)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Yoav Bar-Anan, Michelangelo Vianello
The dual-attitude perspective posits that it is useful for research and theory to assume two distinct constructs: explicit and implicit attitudes (or automatic and deliberate evaluation). Much evidence supports this perspective, but some important tests are missing, casting doubts on studies that relied on the perspective for inference. We used a multimethod multitrait design to extensively test the validity of the dual perspective. The dataset (N = 24,015) included measurements of attitudes in 3 domains (race, politics, the self) with 7 indirect measures, and at least 3 self-report measures for each attitude domain...
August 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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