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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

Erik M Altmann, David Z Hambrick
Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Dries H Bostyn, Arne Roets
The present manuscript addresses how perceived trustworthiness of cooperative partners in a social dilemma context is influenced by the moral judgments those partners make on Trolley-type moral dilemmas; an issue recently investigated by Everett, Pizarro, and Crockett (2016). The present research comprises 2 studies that were conducted independently, simultaneously with, and incognizant of the Everett studies. Whereas the present studies aimed at investigating the same research hypothesis, a different and more elaborate methodology was used, as such providing a conceptual replication opportunity and extension to the Everett et al...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tom Gordon-Hecker, Daniela Rosensaft-Eshel, Andrea Pittarello, Shaul Shalvi, Yoella Bereby-Meyer
When allocating resources, equity and efficiency may conflict. When resources are scarce and cannot be distributed equally, one may choose to destroy resources and reduce societal welfare to maintain equity among its members. We examined whether people are averse to inequitable outcomes per se or to being responsible for deciding how inequity should be implemented. Three scenario-based experiments and one incentivized experiment revealed that participants are inequity responsibility averse: when asked to decide which of the 2 equally deserving individuals should receive a reward, they rather discarded the reward than choosing who will get it...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Hans Alves, Alex Koch, Christian Unkelbach
Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Erin M O'Mara, Lowell Gaertner
Self-enhancement is a pervasive motivation that manifests broadly to promote and protect the positivity of the self. Research suggests that self-enhancement is associated with improved task performance. Untested, however, is whether that association is causal. The present research experimentally manipulated self-enhancement to examine its causal effect on task performance. Participants in 5 experiments were randomly assigned to self-enhance or not before completing a creativity task (Experiments 1-4) or pain-inducing cold-pressor task (Experiment 5)...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jennifer M Clegg, Nicole J Wen, Cristine H Legare
Cross-cultural comparisons provide critical insight into variation in reasoning about intelligence. In two studies, the authors used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the role of conformity in U.S. and Ni-Vanuatu adults' judgments of children's intelligence and, as a comparison trait, good behavior. In Study 1, there were cultural differences in the impact of conformity on U.S. and Ni-Vanuatu adults' judgments of children's intelligence and good behavior. When evaluating U.S. children only, U...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tao Tao, Robert S Wyer, Yuhuang Zheng
We propose a two-process conceptualization of numerical information processing to describe how people form impressions of a score that is described along a bounded scale. According to the model, people spontaneously categorize a score as high or low. Furthermore, they compare the numerical discrepancy between the score and the endpoint of the scale to which it is closer, if they are not confident of their categorization, and use implications of this comparison as a basis for judgment. As a result, their evaluation of the score is less extreme when the range of numbers along the scale is large (e...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Evangelia G Chrysikou, Daniel Casasanto, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
An object's perceived readiness-for-action (e.g., its size, the degree of rotation from its canonical position, the user's viewpoint) can influence semantic knowledge retrieval. Yet, the organization of object knowledge may also be affected by body-specific sensorimotor experiences. Here, we investigated whether people's history of performing motor actions with their hands influences the knowledge they store and retrieve about graspable objects. We compared object representations between healthy right- and left-handers (Experiment 1), and between unilateral stroke patients, whose motor experience was changed by impairment of either their right or left hand (Experiment 2)...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Mark W Schurgin, Jonathan I Flombaum
Humans recognize thousands of objects, and with relative tolerance to variable retinal inputs. The acquisition of this ability is not fully understood, and it remains an area in which artificial systems have yet to surpass people. We sought to investigate the memory process that supports object recognition. Specifically, we investigated the association of inputs that co-occur over short periods of time. We tested the hypothesis that human perception exploits expectations about object kinematics to limit the scope of association to inputs that are likely to have the same token as a source...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Erik C Nook, Jessica L Schleider, Leah H Somerville
Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Başak Akdoğan, Fuat Balcı
Temporal judgments regarding a target interval typically produce a nearly normally distributed reproduction times centered on the target with substantial variance. This phenomenon indicates that the majority of our temporal judgments are deviations from the target times, which are assumed to originate from the underlying timing uncertainty. Although humans were found to adapt their decisions in response to timing uncertainty, we do not know if they can accurately judge the direction and degree of their temporal errors...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Abigail B Sussman
The current research documents a novel pattern of preferences across nominally equivalent outcomes. When evaluating the outcome of completed experiences, people are sensitive to the magnitude of component (i.e., gross) gains and losses rather than responding solely to the net outcomes. However, people do not consistently favor outcomes that minimize losses (a pattern consistent with loss aversion), nor those that maximize gains (a pattern consistent with a positivity bias). Instead, preferences are context dependent...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Stephen B Broomell, Patrick Bodilly Kane
Understanding how the public perceives uncertainty in scientific research is fundamental for effective communication about research and its inevitable uncertainty. Previous work found that scientific evidence differentially influenced beliefs from individuals with different political ideologies. Evidence that threatens an individual's political ideology is perceived as more uncertain than nonthreatening evidence. The authors present 3 studies examining perceptions of scientific uncertainty more broadly by including sciences that are not politically polarizing...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Stéphane Côté, Michael W Kraus, Nichelle C Carpenter, Paul K Piff, Ursula Beermann, Dacher Keltner
Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Pierre Chandon, Nailya Ordabayeva
Five studies show that people, including experts such as professional chefs, estimate quantity decreases more accurately than quantity increases. We argue that this asymmetry occurs because physical quantities cannot be negative. Consequently, there is a natural lower bound (zero) when estimating decreasing quantities but no upper bound when estimating increasing quantities, which can theoretically grow to infinity. As a result, the "accuracy of less" disappears (a) when a numerical or a natural upper bound is present when estimating quantity increases, or (b) when people are asked to estimate the (unbounded) ratio of change from 1 size to another for both increasing and decreasing quantities...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Blair C Armstrong, Nicolas Dumay, Woojae Kim, Mark A Pitt
Connectionist accounts of quasiregular domains, such as spelling-sound correspondences in English, represent exception words (e.g., pint) amid regular words (e.g., mint) via a graded "warping" mechanism. Warping allows the model to extend the dominant pronunciation to nonwords (regularization) with minimal interference (spillover) from the exceptions. We tested for a behavioral marker of warping by investigating the degree to which participants generalized from newly learned made-up words, which ranged from sharing the dominant pronunciation (regulars), a subordinate pronunciation (ambiguous), or a previously nonexistent (exception) pronunciation...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Yair Pinto, Annelinde R Vandenbroucke, Marte Otten, Ilja G Sligte, Anil K Seth, Victor A F Lamme
Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask or a new scene), so that subjects have to rely on working memory (WM), which has limited capacity, to detect the change. Before such interference, however, a much larger capacity store, called fragile memory (FM), which is easily overwritten by newly presented visual information, is present...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Benedek Kurdi, Mahzarin R Banaji
Six experiments, involving a total of 6,492 participants, were conducted to investigate the relative effectiveness of repeated evaluative pairings (REP; exposure to category members paired with pleasant or unpleasant images), evaluative statements (ES; verbally signaling upcoming pairings without actual exposure), and their combination (ES + REP) in shifting implicit social and nonsocial attitudes. Learning modality (REP, ES, and ES + REP) was varied between participants and implicit attitudes were assessed using an Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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