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Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493758/lying-because-we-care-compassion-increases-prosocial-lying
#1
Matthew J Lupoli, Lily Jampol, Christopher Oveis
Prosocial lies, or lies intended to benefit others, are ubiquitous behaviors that have important social and economic consequences. Though emotions play a central role in many forms of prosocial behavior, no work has investigated how emotions influence behavior when one has the opportunity to tell a prosocial lie-a situation that presents a conflict between two prosocial ethics: lying to prevent harm to another, and honesty, which might also provide benefits to the target of the lie. Here, we examine whether the emotion of compassion influences prosocial lying, and find that compassion causally increases and positively predicts prosocial lying...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493757/argumentation-and-the-diffusion-of-counter-intuitive-beliefs
#2
Nicolas Claidière, Emmanuel Trouche, Hugo Mercier
Research in cultural evolution has focused on the spread of intuitive or minimally counterintuitive beliefs. However, some very counterintuitive beliefs can also spread successfully, at least in some communities-scientific theories being the most prominent example. We suggest that argumentation could be an important factor in the spread of some very counterintuitive beliefs. A first experiment demonstrates that argumentation enables the spread of the counterintuitive answer to a reasoning problem in large discussion groups, whereas this spread is limited or absent when participants can show their answers to each other but cannot discuss...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493756/functional-consequences-of-compositional-spatial-representations-elicited-during-conceptual-control-of-visual-spatial-attention
#3
Pedro Sztybel, Bradley S Gibson
Reference frames are ubiquitous in spatial cognition, and they have been especially important in the visual attention literature. Researchers typically invoke these constructs to explain how the same physical location can be defined in different ways depending on changes in the reference point. However, when researchers invoke reference frames for this purpose, they also tend to invoke a construct-the Cartesian coordinate system-that has a specific compositional structure. This conclusion may not be warranted though because reference frames can be used to define a location without being compositional in nature...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493755/affect-contagion-between-mothers-and-infants-examining-valence-and-touch
#4
Sara F Waters, Tessa V West, Helena R Karnilowicz, Wendy Berry Mendes
Mothers and their babies represent one of the closest dyadic units and thus provide a powerful paradigm to examine how affective states are shared, and result in, synchronized physiologic responses between two people. We recruited mothers and their 12- to 14-month-old infants (Ndyads = 98) to complete a lab study in which mothers were initially separated from their infants and assigned to either a low-arousal positive/relaxation condition, intended to elicit parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity, or a high-arousal negative/stress task, intended to elicit sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447843/seeing-what-through-why-evidence-from-probing-the-causal-structure-of-hierarchical-motion
#5
Haokui Xu, Ning Tang, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen, Tao Gao
Although our world is hierarchically organized, the perception, attention, and memory of hierarchical structures remain largely unknown. The current study shows how a hierarchical motion representation enhances the inference of an object's position in a dynamic display. The motion hierarchy is formed as an acyclic tree in which each node represents a distinctive motion component. Each individual object is instantiated as a node in the tree. In a position inference task, participants were asked to infer the position of a target object, given how it moved jointly with other objects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447842/cognitive-coupling-during-reading
#6
Caitlin Mills, Art Graesser, Evan F Risko, Sidney K D'Mello
We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447841/examining-depletion-theories-under-conditions-of-within-task-transfer
#7
Gene A Brewer, Kevin K H Lau, Kimberly M Wingert, B Hunter Ball, Chris Blais
In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447840/the-rational-status-of-quantum-cognition
#8
Emmanuel M Pothos, Jerome R Busemeyer, Richard M Shiffrin, James M Yearsley
Classic probability theory (CPT) is generally considered the rational way to make inferences, but there have been some empirical findings showing a divergence between reasoning and the principles of classical probability theory (CPT), inviting the conclusion that humans are irrational. Perhaps the most famous of these findings is the conjunction fallacy (CF). Recently, the CF has been shown consistent with the principles of an alternative probabilistic framework, quantum probability theory (QPT). Does this imply that QPT is irrational or does QPT provide an alternative interpretation of rationality? Our presentation consists of 3 parts...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447839/the-whorfian-time-warp-representing-duration-through-the-language-hourglass
#9
Emanuel Bylund, Panos Athanasopoulos
How do humans construct their mental representations of the passage of time? The universalist account claims that abstract concepts like time are universal across humans. In contrast, the linguistic relativity hypothesis holds that speakers of different languages represent duration differently. The precise impact of language on duration representation is, however, unknown. Here, we show that language can have a powerful role in transforming humans' psychophysical experience of time. Contrary to the universalist account, we found language-specific interference in a duration reproduction task, where stimulus duration conflicted with its physical growth...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425746/look-on-the-bright-side-positivity-bias-modulates-interference-effects-in-the-simon-task
#10
Friederike Schlaghecken, Elisabeth Blagrove, Konstantinos Mantantzis, Elizabeth A Maylor, Derrick G Watson
Negative faces are detected more quickly but categorized more slowly than positive faces. Using a Simon task, we examined stimulus- and response-related processes of this dissociation: If negative stimuli are both processed and responded to more quickly than positive ones, they should elicit reduced Simon effects. Conversely, if negative stimuli are processed more quickly but responded to more slowly, enlarged Simon effects should occur. Consistent with the first possibility, negative stimuli showed reduced Simon effects...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425745/when-good-is-stickier-than-bad-understanding-gain-loss-asymmetries-in-sequential-framing-effects
#11
Jehan Sparks, Alison Ledgerwood
Considerable research has demonstrated the power of the current positive or negative frame to shape people's current judgments. But humans must often learn about positive and negative information as they encounter that information sequentially over time. It is therefore crucial to consider the potential importance of sequencing when developing an understanding of how humans think about valenced information. Indeed, recent work looking at sequentially encountered frames suggests that some frames can linger outside the context in which they are first encountered, sticking in the mind so that subsequent frames have a muted effect...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425744/once-a-frog-lover-always-a-frog-lover-infants-goal-generalization-is-influenced-by-the-nature-of-accompanying-speech
#12
Alia Martin, Catharyn C Shelton, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to interpret choices as enduring preferences that generalize beyond the immediate situation gives adults a powerful means of predicting and explaining others' behavior. How do infants come to recognize that current choices can be driven by generalizable preferences? Although infants can encode others' actions in terms of goals (Woodward, 1998), there is evidence that 10-month-olds still fail to generalize goal information presented in one environment to an event sequence occurring in a new environment (Sommerville & Crane, 2009)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425743/i-m-not-the-person-i-used-to-be-the-self-and-autobiographical-memories-of-immoral-actions
#13
Matthew L Stanley, Paul Henne, Vijeth Iyengar, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Felipe De Brigard
People maintain a positive identity in at least two ways: They evaluate themselves more favorably than other people, and they judge themselves to be better now than they were in the past. Both strategies rely on autobiographical memories. The authors investigate the role of autobiographical memories of lying and emotional harm in maintaining a positive identity. For memories of lying to or emotionally harming others, participants judge their own actions as less morally wrong and less negative than those in which other people lied to or emotionally harmed them...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425742/comparing-and-validating-methods-of-reading-instruction-using-behavioural-and-neural-findings-in-an-artificial-orthography
#14
J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis, Kathleen Rastle
There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414508/dissociating-affective-and-semantic-valence
#15
Oksana Itkes, Ruth Kimchi, Hadeel Haj-Ali, Avia Shapiro, Assaf Kron
We examined the possible dissociation between two modes of valence: affective valence (valence of e emotional response) and semantic valence (stored knowledge about valence of an object or event). In Experiment 1, 50 participants viewed affective pictures that were repeatedly presented while their facial electromyography (EMG) activation and heart rate response were continuously recorded. Half of the participants provided self-report ratings about the valence of their feelings and half about the valence of the stimulus...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406682/overcoming-indecision-by-changing-the-decision-boundary
#16
Gaurav Malhotra, David S Leslie, Casimir J H Ludwig, Rafal Bogacz
The dominant theoretical framework for decision making asserts that people make decisions by integrating noisy evidence to a threshold. It has recently been shown that in many ecologically realistic situations, decreasing the decision boundary maximizes the reward available from decisions. However, empirical support for decreasing boundaries in humans is scant. To investigate this problem, we used an ideal observer model to identify the conditions under which participants should change their decision boundaries with time to maximize reward rate...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368200/word-and-face-processing-engage-overlapping-distributed-networks-evidence-from-rsvp-and-eeg-investigations
#17
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368199/he-said-what-physiological-and-cognitive-responses-to-imagining-and-witnessing-outgroup-racism
#18
Francine Karmali, Kerry Kawakami, Elizabeth Page-Gould
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368198/the-relational-luring-effect-retrieval-of-relational-information-during-associative-recognition
#19
Vencislav Popov, Penka Hristova, Royce Anders
Here we argue that semantic relations (e.g., works in: nurse-hospital) have abstract independent representations in long-term memory (LTM) and that the same representation is accessed by all exemplars of a specific relation. We present evidence from 2 associative recognition experiments that uncovered a novel relational luring effect (RLE) in recognition memory. Participants studied word pairs, and then discriminated between intact (old) pairs and recombined lures. In the first experiment participants responded more slowly to lures that were relationally similar (table-cloth) to studied pairs (floor-carpet), in contrast to relationally dissimilar lures (pipe-water)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368197/shared-reality-in-intergroup-communication-increasing-the-epistemic-authority-of-an-out-group-audience
#20
Gerald Echterhoff, René Kopietz, E Tory Higgins
Communicators typically tune messages to their audience's attitude. Such audience tuning biases communicators' memory for the topic toward the audience's attitude to the extent that they create a shared reality with the audience. To investigate shared reality in intergroup communication, we first established that a reduced memory bias after tuning messages to an out-group (vs. in-group) audience is a subtle index of communicators' denial of shared reality to that out-group audience (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then examined whether the audience-tuning memory bias might emerge when the out-group audience's epistemic authority is enhanced, either by increasing epistemic expertise concerning the communication topic or by creating epistemic consensus among members of a multiperson out-group audience...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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