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American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095057/high-inpatient-utilization-among-veterans-health-administration-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-and-co-occurring-mental-health-conditions
#1
Janelle M Painter, Carol A Malte, Anna D Rubinsky, Timothy R Campellone, Amanda K Gilmore, John S Baer, Eric J Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Substance-use disorders (SUDs) are common and costly conditions. Understanding high inpatient utilization (HIU) among patients with SUD can inform the development of treatment approaches designed to reduce healthcare expenditures and improve service quality. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence, type, and predictors of HIU among patients with SUD and co-occurring mental health conditions. METHODS: Service utilization and demographic and clinical variables were extracted from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients with SUD-only [n = 148,960 (98...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095046/molecular-spectroscopic-studies-examining-the-interactions-between-phenobarbital-and-human-serum-albumin-in-alcohol-consumption
#2
Sheng-Feng Cui, Wei Li, Cheng-He Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with a wide range of serious mental, physical, and social consequences and is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Barbiturates, which are a first-line treatment in the clinic for alcohol withdrawal, may result in combined barbiturate and alcohol use. Their co-use abuse may promote synergistic effects between barbiturates and alcohol in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different alcohol concentrations on the synergistic effects of phenobarbital and alcohol...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058471/assessment-of-the-validity-of-the-cudit-r-in-a-subpopulation-of-cannabis-users
#3
Mallory Loflin, Kimberly Babson, Kendall Browne, Marcel Bonn-Miller
BACKGROUND: The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R) is an 8-item measure used to screen for cannabis use disorders (CUD). Despite widespread use of the tool, assessments of the CUDIT-R's validity in subpopulations are limited. OBJECTIVES: Current study tested the structural validity and internal consistency of one of the most widely used screening measures for CUD (i.e., CUDIT-R) among a sample of military veterans who use cannabis for medicinal purposes...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053377/substance-use-among-bi-multiracial-youth-in-the-united-states-profiles-of-psychosocial-risk-and-protection
#4
Trenette Clark Goings, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matthew O Howard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth. OBJECTIVES: This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048974/strengthening-the-working-alliance-through-a-clinician-s-familiarity-with-the-12-step-approach
#5
Cory B Dennis, Brian D Roland, Barry M Loneck
BACKGROUND: The working alliance plays an important role in the substance use disorder treatment process. Many substance use disorder treatment providers incorporate the 12-Step approach to recovery into treatment. With the 12-Step approach known among many clients and clinicians, it may well factor into the therapeutic relationship. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how, from the perspective of clients, a clinician's level of familiarity with and in-session time spent on the 12-Step approach might affect the working alliance between clients and clinicians, including possible differences based on a clinician's recovery status...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048952/increasing-availability-of-illicit-and-prescription-opioids-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-a-canadian-setting-2010-2014
#6
Joel Ho, Kora DeBeck, M-J Milloy, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical use of prescription opioid and illicit opioid has been increasing at an alarming rate in North America over the past decade. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the temporal trends and correlates of the availability of illicit and prescription opioids among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of PWID in Vancouver between 2010 and 2014. In semiannual interviews, participants reported the availability of five sets of illicit and prescription opioids: (1) heroin; (2) Percocet (oxycodone/acetaminophen), Vicodin (hydrocodone/acetaminophen), or Demerol (meperidine); (3) Dilaudid (hydromorphone); (4) Morphine; (5) oxycontin/OxyNEO (controlled-release oxycodone)...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048934/recovery-high-schools-may-be-a-key-component-of-youth-recovery-support-services
#7
Amy M Yule, John F Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981333/evaluation-of-the-appropriate-use-of-a-ciwa-ar-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-in-the-general-hospital-setting
#8
Amanda S Eloma, Jason M Tucciarone, Edmund M Hayes, Brian D Bronson
BACKGROUND: The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) is an assessment tool used to quantify alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) severity and inform benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prescribing patterns and appropriate use of the CIWA-Ar protocol in a general hospital setting, as determined by the presence or absence of documented AWS risk factors, patients' ability to communicate, and provider awareness of the CIWA-Ar order...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920715/the-mixed-message-behind-medication-assisted-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#9
Sean M Robinson, Bryon Adinoff
The gap between treatment utilization and treatment need for substance use disorders (SUDs) remains a significant concern in our field. While the growing call to bridge this gap often takes the form of more treatment services and/or better integration of existing services, this perspective proposes that more effective labels for and transparent descriptions of existing services would also have a meaningful impact. Adopting the perspective of a consumer-based health-care model (wherein treatments and services are products and patients are consumers) allows us to consider how labels like Addiction-focused Medical Management, Medication-Assisted Treatment, Medication-Assisted Therapy, and others may actually be contributing to the underutilization problem rather than alleviating it...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144768/editorial-board-eov
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662359/distinctions-between-seeking-and-non-seeking-treatment-research-participants-implications-for-clinical-trials-effectiveness
#11
Laura Acion, Janet Zwick, L Paloma Rojas Saunero, Stephan Arndt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662343/effect-of-chronic-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-administration-on-ghb-toxicokinetics-and-ghb-induced-respiratory-depression
#12
Bridget L Morse, Gurkishan S Chadha, Melanie A Felmlee, Kristin E Follman, Marilyn E Morris
BACKGROUND: γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a high potential for illicit use; overdose of this compound results in sedation, respiratory depression and death. Tolerance to the hypnotic/sedative and electroencephalogram effects of GHB occurs with chronic GHB administration; however, tolerance to respiratory depression has not been evaluated. GHB toxicodynamic effects are mediated predominantly by GABAB receptors. Chronic treatment may affect monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and alter the absorption, renal clearance and brain uptake of GHB...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650668/categorization-of-psychoactive-substances-into-hard-drugs-and-soft-drugs-a-critical-review-of-terminology-used-in-current-scientific-literature
#13
Peter Janik, Michaela Kosticova, Jan Pecenak, Michal Turcek
BACKGROUND: Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." OBJECTIVES: To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635349/the-association-between-alcohol-use-trajectories-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-and-cannabis-use-disorder-in-adulthood-a-22-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Jung Yeon Lee, Judith S Brook, Mario De La Rosa, Youngjin Kim, David W Brook
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing prevalence of cannabis use disorder (CUD), the impact of cannabis use on public health may be significant. OBJECTIVE: The present study seeks the possible precursors (e.g., alcohol use) of CUD in order to minimize the potential negative consequences of CUD such as impaired coordination and performance. METHOD: The Harlem Longitudinal Development Study included 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), with 60% females (n=405) from a six wave survey...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635346/effect-of-drug-related-cues-on-response-inhibition-through-abstinence-a-pilot-study-in-male-heroin-abstainers
#15
Bobo Su, Ling Yang, Grace Y Wang, Sha Wang, Shaomei Li, Hua Cao, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic heroin use can cause a deficit of inhibitory function, leading to a loss of control over drug use. Exposure to drug-related cues is considered as one of the contributing factors. However, it is unclear whether there are dynamic changes on the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition following prolonged abstinence. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition in heroin abstainers at different abstinent phases...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635343/primary-psychopathy-and-alcohol-pathology-in-college-students-the-role-of-protective-behavioral-strategies
#16
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557531/importance-of-short-term-continuing-care-plan-adherence-on-long-term-outcomes-among-patients-discharged-from-residential-substance-use-treatment
#17
Steven L Proctor, Jaclyn L Wainwright, Philip L Herschman
BACKGROUND: Patients adherent to their recommended treatment regimen demonstrate favorable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether there are specific short-term continuing care performance variables indicative of better long-term prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the impact of attendance at an outpatient appointment within 7 days post-discharge from residential treatment on 12-month outcomes. METHOD: Data were abstracted from electronic medical records for 275 patients (58...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510498/deficits-in-go-no-go-task-performance-in-male-undergraduate-high-risk-alcohol-users-are-driven-by-speeded-responding-to-go-stimuli
#18
Xin Zhao, Wang Qian, Lily Fu, Joseph H R Maes
BACKGROUND: Response disinhibition plays an important role in addictive behaviors. However, results of studies on the performance on response inhibition tasks of individuals evidencing potentially problematic levels of alcohol drinking are mixed. OBJECTIVES: We assessed conditions under which persons with a relatively high risk of alcohol dependence show inhibition deficits in such tasks and investigated the nature of those deficits. METHODS: Fifty-eight male undergraduate students, 27 of which were high-risk drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, performed a go/no-go inhibition task with differing percentages of no-go trials (50% vs...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471245/there-has-been-little-progress-in-implementing-comprehensive-alcohol-control-strategies-in-africa
#19
Nasheeta Peer
Alcohol is the most common substance of addiction and a threat not only to health but also to sustainable human development. Consequently, at least a 10% relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol has been advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This perspective describes alcohol use in Africa, strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use, and the ability of African countries to meet this target. Although alcohol consumption in Africa was intermediate compared to other world regions, the total alcohol per capita among alcohol consumers was the second highest (19...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471244/aldh2-2-and-peer-drinking-in-east-asian-college-students
#20
Taryn O'Shea, Nathaniel Thomas, Bradley Todd Webb, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Karen G Chartier
BACKGROUND: The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking...
November 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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