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American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929684/acute-effects-of-snus-in-never-tobacco-users-a-pilot-study
#1
Jenny E Ozga, Nicholas J Felicione, Daniel Elswick, Melissa D Blank
BACKGROUND: Snus tobacco characteristics may attract non-tobacco users, including relatively low, but pharmacologically active, doses of nicotine. Lower nicotine doses may limit adverse drug effects while also producing a physiologically active response. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study is the first to profile the acute effects of snus on physiological and subjective assessments in a sample of never-tobacco users. METHODS: Eleven never-tobacco users (five women; <100 uses/lifetime) were recruited from the community via university-approved advertisements...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929672/long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-examining-intermediary-processes
#2
Kerry M Green, Elaine E Doherty, Margaret E Ensminger
BACKGROUND: In the United States, perceptions of marijuana's acceptability are at an all-time high, risk perceptions among youth are low, and rates are rising among Black youth. Thus, it is imperative to increase the understanding of long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use and ways to mitigate adverse consequences. OBJECTIVES: To identify the midlife consequences of heavy adolescent marijuana use and the mechanisms driving effects among a Black, urban population...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929656/epilogue-to-the-special-issue-on-co-occurrence-of-substance-use-and-tobacco
#3
Steven A Schroeder
This paper summarizes The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse special issue and offers suggestions for future steps. People who use alcohol or other addictive substances are much more likely to use tobacco. Yet, clinicians and scientists have long regarded these addiction categories as separate and unrelated. The resultant benign neglect of tobacco use has had disastrous consequences on patients. This special issue is an important step toward remedying that situation. It has reviewed what is known and what more needs to be discovered regarding the co-occurrence of tobacco use disorder (TUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs)...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901590/introduction-to-special-issue-on-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-links-and-implications
#4
Theresa Winhusen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#5
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893279/american-alcohol-photo-stimuli-aaps-a-standardized-set-of-alcohol-and-matched-non-alcohol-images
#6
Christopher S Stauffer, Lily Dobberteen, Joshua D Woolley
BACKGROUND: Photographic stimuli are commonly used to assess cue reactivity in the research and treatment of alcohol use disorder. The stimuli used are often non-standardized, not properly validated, and poorly controlled. There are no previously published, validated, American-relevant sets of alcohol images created in a standardized fashion. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: 1) make available a standardized, matched set of photographic alcohol and non-alcohol beverage stimuli, 2) establish face validity, the extent to which the stimuli are subjectively viewed as what they are purported to be, and 3) establish construct validity, the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892692/changes-in-depression-mediate-the-effects-of-aa-attendance-on-alcohol-use-outcomes
#7
Claire E Wilcox, J Scott Tonigan
BACKGROUND: Depression may contribute to increased drinking in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance predicts drinking reductions, there is conflicting information regarding the intermediary role played by reductions in depression. OBJECTIVES: We explored whether AA attendance reduces depressive symptoms, the degree to which improvement in depression results in reductions in drinking, and in which subgroups these effects occur...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870557/visual-cue-specific-craving-is-diminished-in-stressed-smokers
#8
Justinn R Cochran, Nathan S Consedine, John M J Lee, Chinmay Pandit, John J Sollers Iii, Robert R Kydd
BACKGROUND: Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. METHOD: Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820669/marijuana-use-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#9
Eman I Draz, Mervat M Oreby, Eman A Elsheikh, Lamia A Khedr, Salwa A Atlam
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances worldwide, and it has the highest prevalence among drugs used in Egypt. OBJECTIVES: The aims were to evaluate whether the use of cannabis is a risk factor of acute coronary heart disease in low-risk, young males and to compare the cardiac pathological changes between cannabis exposed and non-exposed ischemic patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 138 male patients, aged ≤ 40 years, with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit at the University Hospital...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808576/prevalence-and-correlates-of-marijuana-use-among-hiv-seropositive-and-seronegative-men-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study-macs-1984-2013
#10
Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Robert L Cook, Xinguang Chen, Pamela J Surkan, James T Becker, Steve Shoptaw, Eileen Martin, Michael W Plankey
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is common among HIV+ individuals, but few studies have examined long-term trends in prevalence and correlates of use. METHODS: We evaluated trends (1984-2013) in the annual prevalence of current (past 6-month use) and daily (among current users) marijuana use and determined correlates of use among 2742 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 3172 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios of marijuana use separately for the men who were enrolled before 2001 (early-cohort) and after 2001 (late-cohort)...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808568/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-neuroimaging-meta-analysis
#11
Scott C Wollman, Omar M Alhassoon, Matthew G Hall, Mark J Stern, Eric J Connors, Christine L Kimmel, Kenneth E Allen, Rick A Stephan, Joaquim Radua
BACKGROUND: Prior research utilizing whole-brain neuroimaging techniques has identified structural differences in gray matter in opioid-dependent individuals. However, the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The current study meta-analytically examines the neuroimaging findings of studies published before 2016 comparing opioid-dependent individuals to drug-naïve controls. METHOD: Exhaustive search of five databases yielded 12 studies that met inclusion criteria...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808562/online-and-offline-video-game-use-in-adolescents-measurement-invariance-and-problem-severity
#12
Máté Smohai, Róbert Urbán, Mark D Griffiths, Orsolya Király, Zsuzsanna Mirnics, András Vargha, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of video game playing, little is known about the similarities and differences between online and offline video game players. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (i) to test the applicability and the measurement invariance of the previously developed Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) in both online and offline gamers and to (ii) examine the differences in these groups. METHODS: Video game use habits and POGQ were assessed in a sample of 1,964 (71% male) adolescent videogame players...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808561/family-cohesion-and-pride-drinking-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-puerto-rico
#13
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: The extended multigenerational family is a core value of Hispanic culture. Family cohesion/pride can have protective effects on drinking- and drug-use-related behavior among Hispanics. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between family cohesion/pride, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household random sample of 1510 individuals 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808555/randomized-open-label-trial-of-baclofen-for-relapse-prevention-in-alcohol-dependence
#14
Manushree Gupta, Pankaj Verma, Rajesh Rastogi, Sheetal Arora, Deeksha Elwadhi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by narrowing of the drinking repertoire, salience of drinking, tolerance and withdrawal phenomenon, compulsion to drink, and frequent relapses. Baclofen has been shown to promote abstinence, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol-dependent individuals, and it promises to be a useful agent, although clinical data are limited at present. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to test the utility of baclofen, a GABA agonist, in improving the relapse rates in alcohol-dependent subjects...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797288/characteristics-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-patients-treated-in-a-public-psychiatric-emergency-setting
#15
Adriana M Joseph, Marc W Manseau, Monique Lalane, Amit Rajparia, Crystal Fuller Lewis
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence of adverse outcomes following synthetic cannabinoid use has engendered interest into populations at risk. The existing literature reports that synthetic cannabinoid use is predominant among young, white males. However, reports from local Departments of Health have found contrary evidence, showing that synthetic cannabinoid use is prevalent in populations other than those of young, white men. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine sociodemographic characteristics associated with self-reported synthetic cannabinoid use among a clinical psychiatric population within a public hospital in New York City...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797283/from-dispensed-to-disposed-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-disposal-programs-through-a-comparison-with-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-data
#16
Kathleen L Egan, Eric Gregory, Michael Sparks, Mark Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Organized disposal of controlled medications, such as take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes, is a prevention strategy that has been widely used to reduce the availability of controlled medications for diversion or abuse. However, little is known as to whether this strategy actually reduces the overall availability of these medications for the purposes of diversion or abuse. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the number and types of controlled medications that were disposed through organized efforts to the number dispensed in local communities...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797275/decreased-re-conviction-rates-of-dui-offenders-with-intensive-supervision-and-home-confinement
#17
William D Barta, Virginia Fisher, Patrick Hynes
BACKGROUND: In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. OBJECTIVES: Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740856/alcohol-and-nicotine-interactions-pre-clinical-models-of-dependence
#18
Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739874/establishment-of-an-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-model-in-mice
#19
Peizhu Tan, Huan Liang, Junhui Nie, Yan Diao, Qi He, Baoyu Hou, Tingting Zhao, Hui Huang, Yanze Li, Xu Gao, Lingyun Zhou, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) defines an important stage in the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To establish a mouse model of AFLD. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following two groups: (i) a control group, which was allowed free access to food and water and (ii) an alcohol-treated group, which was administered a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution instead of water...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723372/the-costs-of-prohibition
#20
Bryon Adinoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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