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American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726525/working-memory-capacity-and-addiction-treatment-outcomes-in-adolescents
#1
Jon M Houck, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
BACKGROUND: Brief addiction treatments including motivational interviewing (MI) have shown promise with adolescents, but the factors that influence treatment efficacy in this population remain unknown. One candidate is working memory, the ability to hold a fact or thought in mind. This is relevant, as in therapy, a client must maintain and manipulate ideas while working with a clinician. Working memory depends upon brain structures and functions that change markedly during neurodevelopment and that can be negatively impacted by substance use...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726520/rural-and-urban-substance-use-differences-effects-of-the-transition-to-college
#2
Karen J Derefinko, Zoran Bursac, Michael G Mejia, Richard Milich, Donald R Lynam
BACKGROUND: With approximately 20% of Americans residing in rural communities, substance use differences is an important topic for appropriate use of resources, policy decisions, and the development of prevention and intervention programs. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined differences in alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among students from rural and urban backgrounds across the transition to college. METHODS: Participants were 431 (48% male) undergraduate students from a large, public southeastern university who provided yearly alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use data during freshman, sophomore, and junior years...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726514/increased-blood-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-levels-in-methamphetamine-users-during-early-abstinence
#3
Ming-Chyi Huang, Ying-Ching Lai, Shih-Ku Lin, Chun-Hsin Chen
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a role in the adverse physical and mental consequences of methamphetamine usage. The oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known biomarker of ROS-induced DNA damage. Currently, there is insufficient clinical information about methamphetamine-induced oxidative DNA damage. OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences in blood levels of 8-OHdG between methamphetamine users and non-users as well as alterations in 8-OHdG levels after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726513/effects-of-depression-and-past-year-binge-drinking-on-cognitive-control-processes-during-a-flanker-task-in-college-aged-adults
#4
Arin M Connell, Sarah Danzo, Glen Dawson
BACKGROUND: Recent but largely separate literatures have examined neurocognitive alterations related to both depression and binge drinking, suggesting similar patterns of impairments in attention control and decisional processes. However, depression and problematic alcohol use tend to co-occur, and few studies have examined whether cognitive processing effects of depression and binge drinking are independent or interacting. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined joint effects of depressive symptoms and past-year binge drinking on cognitive processing (measured via EEG assessment)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665694/surveying-the-opinions-of-pennsylvania-chiefs-of-police-toward-officers-carrying-and-administering-naloxone
#5
Paul A Smyser, Jeffrey S Lubin
BACKGROUND: Recent legislation in Pennsylvania allows police officers to administer naloxone to individuals in an opioid overdose. Pressure has subsequently been placed on police departments to adopt naloxone programs. OBJECTIVE: To survey Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police regarding potential obstacles to officer-administered naloxone, and their overall opinion toward such programs. METHODS: A confidential survey was administered at the Annual Conference for the Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police Association and online over the organization's listserv...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662359/distinctions-between-seeking-and-non-seeking-treatment-research-participants-implications-for-clinical-trials-effectiveness
#6
Laura Acion, Janet Zwick, L Paloma Rojas Saunero, Stephan Arndt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662358/interaction-between-the-adh1b-3-allele-and-drinking-motives-on-alcohol-use-among-black-college-students
#7
Michelle J Zaso, Jessica M Desalu, Jueun Kim, Kavita Suryadevara, John M Belote, Aesoon Park
BACKGROUND: Black young adults have lower rates of alcohol use than other racial groups. Genetic factors may protect against drinking. Specifically, the ADH1B*3 allele is present almost exclusively in Black populations and has been protective against alcohol use and alcohol use disorder. The protective effects of the ADH1B*3 allele, however, may differ as a function of alcohol-promoting cognitions. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined whether ADH1B*3 moderated relations of drinking motives with alcohol consumption among Black college drinkers...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662352/longitudinal-associations-between-outpatient-medical-care-use-and-substance-use-among-rural-stimulant-users
#8
Michael A Cucciare, Xiaotong Han, Christine Timko, Nickolas Zaller, Kristina M Kennedy, Brenda M Booth
BACKGROUND: Negative views toward substance use treatment among some rural substance users and limited treatment resources in rural areas likely affect substance use utilization. It is therefore important to determine whether accessing healthcare options other than substance use treatment, specifically outpatient medical care (OMC), is associated with reductions in substance use. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether use of OMC was associated with reductions in substance use among rural substance users over a three-year period...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662343/effect-of-chronic-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-administration-on-ghb-toxicokinetics-and-ghb-induced-respiratory-depression
#9
Bridget L Morse, Gurkishan S Chadha, Melanie A Felmlee, Kristin E Follman, Marilyn E Morris
BACKGROUND: γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a high potential for illicit use; overdose of this compound results in sedation, respiratory depression and death. Tolerance to the hypnotic/sedative and electroencephalogram effects of GHB occurs with chronic GHB administration; however, tolerance to respiratory depression has not been evaluated. GHB toxicodynamic effects are mediated predominantly by GABAB receptors. Chronic treatment may affect monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and alter the absorption, renal clearance and brain uptake of GHB...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650668/categorization-of-psychoactive-substances-into-hard-drugs-and-soft-drugs-a-critical-review-of-terminology-used-in-current-scientific-literature
#10
Peter Janik, Michaela Kosticova, Jan Pecenak, Michal Turcek
BACKGROUND: Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." OBJECTIVES: To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621562/association-between-alcohol-consumption-trajectories-and-clinical-profiles-among-women-and-men-living-with-hiv
#11
Natalie E Kelso-Chichetto, Michael Plankey, Alison G Abraham, Nicole Ennis, Xinguang Chen, Robert Bolan, Robert L Cook
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is common among persons living with HIV (PLWH). It is unclear how alcohol consumption changes over time and if these changes are associated with clinical profiles. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the association between longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption and the clinical profiles of PLWH. METHODS: Data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (n = 1123 women) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (n = 597 men) from 2004 to 2013 were utilized...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613973/the-association-of-cannabis-use-on-inpatient-psychiatric-hospital-outcomes
#12
Melanie Rylander, Helena R Winston, Haley Medlin, Madelyne Hull, Abraham Nussbaum
BACKGROUND: The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 20, 2015 and October 20, 2015. All patients (n = 120) admitted to Denver Health with psychotic symptoms were administered a urine toxicology screening testing for the presence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, the active metabolite of cannabis)...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605266/estimated-blood-alcohol-concentrations-achieved-by-consuming-supersized-alcopops
#13
Matthew E Rossheim, Dennis L Thombs
BACKGROUND: Producers of supersized alcopops have ignored requests from a number of state attorneys general to reduce the alcohol concentration in these products. To the contrary, new flavor options have since been released that contain even greater alcohol content so that some alcopop products now contain 5.5 standard alcoholic drinks in a single-serving can. Though alcohol content of supersized alcopops has risen, little attention has been paid to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level consumers can expect to achieve from drinking these products...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557631/the-daily-progress-system-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study-of-a-recovery-support-technology-tool-for-outpatient-substance-abuse-treatment
#14
S B Carswell, M S Gordon, J Gryczynski, S A Tangires
BACKGROUND: Illicit substance use remains highly prevalent in the US, and epidemiological surveillance surveys estimate that in 2015, over 27 million individuals (10.1% of the US population) 12 years of age or older used illicit drugs in the past 30 days.(1) Outpatient treatment delivered in community-based settings is the dominant modality for addiction treatment, typically involving weekly psychosocial counseling sessions in an individual and/or group format.(2,3) Unfortunately, relapse and premature treatment discontinuation are quite common in outpatient treatment...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557531/importance-of-short-term-continuing-care-plan-adherence-on-long-term-outcomes-among-patients-discharged-from-residential-substance-use-treatment
#15
Steven L Proctor, Jaclyn L Wainwright, Philip L Herschman
BACKGROUND: Patients adherent to their recommended treatment regimen demonstrate favorable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether there are specific short-term continuing care performance variables indicative of better long-term prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the impact of attendance at an outpatient appointment within 7 days post-discharge from residential treatment on 12-month outcomes. METHOD: Data were abstracted from electronic medical records for 275 patients (58...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541119/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-with-ibogaine-detoxification-and-drug-use-outcomes
#16
Thomas Kingsley Brown, Kenneth Alper
BACKGROUND: Ibogaine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used in medical and nonmedical settings for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Its mechanism of action is apparently novel. There are no published prospective studies of drug use outcomes with ibogaine. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes following opioid detoxification with ibogaine. METHODS: In this observational study, 30 subjects with DSM-IV Opioid Dependence (25 males, 5 females) received a mean total dose of 1,540 ± 920 mg ibogaine HCl...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498718/effects-of-regular-cannabis-use-on-neurocognition-brain-structure-and-function-a-systematic-review-of-findings-in-adults
#17
Danilo A Nader, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide. The long-standing consequences for the central nervous system associated with frequent cannabis use have not been well delineated and should be determined. OBJECTIVE: To review recent studies on the effects of regular cannabis use regarding its effects on cognition, brain structure, and function in adults. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted by performing electronic searches in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases (2010-2016)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481655/young-adult-binge-drinkers-have-immunophenotypic-changes-in-peripheral-polymorphonuclear-cells-and-monocytes
#18
Adolfo Pérez-García, América Guadalupe Arroyo-Valerio, José Luis Zaldivar-Fujigaki, Mayra A Bustos-Esquivel, Alfonso Gastelum-Strozzi, Miguel A Padilla-Castañeda, Arturo Reding-Bernal, David Kershenobich, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: High alcohol intake on weekends (binge drinking) is more frequent in young adults, who could undergo early liver damage. Alcohol-induced liver damage is characterized by polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration, which can be represented in the peripheral blood by altered trafficking and activation profiles. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the PMN trafficking and activation immunophenotypic profiles in people with a binge drinking pattern. METHODS: People with binge drinking (n = 18, 8 females) or at low risk (n = 16, 13 females) based on their AUDIT and HEPCA scores were studied...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481624/older-adults-marijuana-use-injuries-and-emergency-department-visits
#19
Namkee G Choi, C Nathan Marti, Diana M DiNitto, Bryan Y Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing marijuana use among older adults, little research has been done on marijuana's effects on their healthcare use. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether (1) marijuana use is associated with the likelihood of emergency department (ED) visits through increased injury risk, and (2) marijuana use patterns are associated with injury risk and ED visits among older adults. METHODS: Using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Problems (N = 14,715 aged 50+; 6,379 men and 8,336 women), descriptive statistics were used to compare past-year marijuana users to nonusers on sociodemographic and physical/mental health characteristics...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471245/there-has-been-little-progress-in-implementing-comprehensive-alcohol-control-strategies-in-africa
#20
Nasheeta Peer
Alcohol is the most common substance of addiction and a threat not only to health but also to sustainable human development. Consequently, at least a 10% relative reduction in the harmful use of alcohol has been advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This perspective describes alcohol use in Africa, strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use, and the ability of African countries to meet this target. Although alcohol consumption in Africa was intermediate compared to other world regions, the total alcohol per capita among alcohol consumers was the second highest (19...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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