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American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075175/racial-group-categorization-in-minority-drug-use-studies
#1
Bin Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032813/effects-of-the-circle-of-life-hiv-prevention-program-on-marijuana-use-among-american-indian-middle-school-youths-a-group-randomized-trial-in-a-northern-plains-tribe
#2
Nancy L Asdigian, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell, Ellen M Keane, Alicia C Mousseau, Carol E Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Early substance use threatens many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, as it is a risk factor for maladaptive use and adverse health outcomes. Marijuana is among the first substances used by AI/AN youth, and its use becomes widespread during adolescence. Interventions that delay or reduce marijuana use hold the promise of curbing substance disorders and other health risk disparities in AI/AN populations. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of the Circle of Life (COL) program in reducing marijuana use among young AI adolescents...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032807/region-specific-expression-of-precursor-and-mature-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factors-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure
#3
Jin-Wei Yang, Wei Ma, Yan-Lei Yang, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Xiang-Peng Wang, Wei Gao, Jun-Yan Li, Xin-Fu Zhou, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is a serious health problem worldwide that causes a variety of physical and mental disorders. Research has shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in alcohol addiction. The BDNF precursor (proBDNF) exhibits different actions than BDNF through separate receptors and pathways in the central nervous system. However, the effects of proBDNF and BDNF in alcohol addiction are not fully known. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to identify the expression patterns and effects of proBDNF and BDNF after chronic alcohol exposure...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032801/blackouts-among-male-and-female-youth-seeking-emergency-department-care
#4
Diana M Voloshyna, Erin E Bonar, Rebecca M Cunningham, Mark A Ilgen, Frederic C Blow, Maureen A Walton
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related blackouts are a common consequence of heavy drinking, and these blackouts pose risk for injury and other adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of blackouts among underage drinkers. METHODS: Youth (ages 14-20) presenting to a suburban Emergency Department (ED) completed screening surveys. Among those reporting past-year alcohol consumption, we examined past 3-month blackouts in relation to: background characteristics (e...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010130/treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-and-co-occurring-ptsd
#5
Mandrill Taylor, Ismene Petrakis, Elizabeth Ralevski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious psychiatric disorder with medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. In individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), treatment outcomes are notably worse in comparison with treatment outcomes associated with either disorder occurring alone. There is a growing literature evaluating treatments, both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy focused, in individuals with co-occurring AUD and PTSD. The main objective of this review was to evaluate pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy studies that were specifically designed to evaluate the treatment of individuals with comorbid AUD and PTSD...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010126/quantifying-impatience-using-models-of-delay-discounting-in-substance-use-disorders
#6
Suzanne H Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996310/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-negatively-related-to-hypothalamic-and-prefrontal-cortical-gray-matter-density-in-heavy-drinking-smokers
#7
Kyle Bullock, Anita Cservenka, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND: While research has examined brain structure in individuals who use alcohol or nicotine, heavy drinking smokers comprise a unique subpopulation of substance users for whom less is known about the relationship between alcohol or nicotine use and structural brain abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined gray matter morphometry in a sample of 39 heavy drinking smokers (24 males, 15 females) in relation to alcohol and nicotine dependence and quantity of use...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929684/acute-effects-of-snus-in-never-tobacco-users-a-pilot-study
#8
Jenny E Ozga, Nicholas J Felicione, Daniel Elswick, Melissa D Blank
BACKGROUND: Snus tobacco characteristics may attract non-tobacco users, including relatively low, but pharmacologically active, doses of nicotine. Lower nicotine doses may limit adverse drug effects while also producing a physiologically active response. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study is the first to profile the acute effects of snus on physiological and subjective assessments in a sample of never-tobacco users. METHODS: Eleven never-tobacco users (five women; <100 uses/lifetime) were recruited from the community via university-approved advertisements...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929672/long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-examining-intermediary-processes
#9
Kerry M Green, Elaine E Doherty, Margaret E Ensminger
BACKGROUND: In the United States, perceptions of marijuana's acceptability are at an all-time high, risk perceptions among youth are low, and rates are rising among Black youth. Thus, it is imperative to increase the understanding of long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use and ways to mitigate adverse consequences. OBJECTIVES: To identify the midlife consequences of heavy adolescent marijuana use and the mechanisms driving effects among a Black, urban population...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929656/epilogue-to-special-issue-on-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-links-and-implications
#10
Steven A Schroeder
This paper summarizes The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse special issue and offers suggestions for future steps. People who use alcohol or other addictive substances are much more likely to use tobacco. Yet, clinicians and scientists have long regarded these addiction categories as separate and unrelated. The resultant benign neglect of tobacco use has had disastrous consequences on patients. This special issue is an important step toward remedying that situation. It has reviewed what is known and what more needs to be discovered regarding the co-occurrence of tobacco use disorder (TUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs)...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901590/introduction-to-special-issue-on-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-links-and-implications
#11
Theresa Winhusen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#12
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893279/american-alcohol-photo-stimuli-aaps-a-standardized-set-of-alcohol-and-matched-non-alcohol-images
#13
Christopher S Stauffer, Lily Dobberteen, Joshua D Woolley
BACKGROUND: Photographic stimuli are commonly used to assess cue reactivity in the research and treatment of alcohol use disorder. The stimuli used are often non-standardized, not properly validated, and poorly controlled. There are no previously published, validated, American-relevant sets of alcohol images created in a standardized fashion. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: 1) make available a standardized, matched set of photographic alcohol and non-alcohol beverage stimuli, 2) establish face validity, the extent to which the stimuli are subjectively viewed as what they are purported to be, and 3) establish construct validity, the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892692/changes-in-depression-mediate-the-effects-of-aa-attendance-on-alcohol-use-outcomes
#14
Claire E Wilcox, J Scott Tonigan
BACKGROUND: Depression may contribute to increased drinking in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance predicts drinking reductions, there is conflicting information regarding the intermediary role played by reductions in depression. OBJECTIVES: We explored whether AA attendance reduces depressive symptoms, the degree to which improvement in depression results in reductions in drinking, and in which subgroups these effects occur...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870557/visual-cue-specific-craving-is-diminished-in-stressed-smokers
#15
Justinn R Cochran, Nathan S Consedine, John M J Lee, Chinmay Pandit, John J Sollers Iii, Robert R Kydd
BACKGROUND: Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. METHOD: Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820669/marijuana-use-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#16
Eman I Draz, Mervat M Oreby, Eman A Elsheikh, Lamia A Khedr, Salwa A Atlam
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances worldwide, and it has the highest prevalence among drugs used in Egypt. OBJECTIVES: The aims were to evaluate whether the use of cannabis is a risk factor of acute coronary heart disease in low-risk, young males and to compare the cardiac pathological changes between cannabis exposed and non-exposed ischemic patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 138 male patients, aged ≤ 40 years, with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit at the University Hospital...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808576/prevalence-and-correlates-of-marijuana-use-among-hiv-seropositive-and-seronegative-men-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study-macs-1984-2013
#17
Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Robert L Cook, Xinguang Chen, Pamela J Surkan, James T Becker, Steve Shoptaw, Eileen Martin, Michael W Plankey
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is common among HIV+ individuals, but few studies have examined long-term trends in prevalence and correlates of use. METHODS: We evaluated trends (1984-2013) in the annual prevalence of current (past 6-month use) and daily (among current users) marijuana use and determined correlates of use among 2742 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 3172 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios of marijuana use separately for the men who were enrolled before 2001 (early-cohort) and after 2001 (late-cohort)...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808568/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-neuroimaging-meta-analysis
#18
Scott C Wollman, Omar M Alhassoon, Matthew G Hall, Mark J Stern, Eric J Connors, Christine L Kimmel, Kenneth E Allen, Rick A Stephan, Joaquim Radua
BACKGROUND: Prior research utilizing whole-brain neuroimaging techniques has identified structural differences in gray matter in opioid-dependent individuals. However, the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The current study meta-analytically examines the neuroimaging findings of studies published before 2016 comparing opioid-dependent individuals to drug-naïve controls. METHOD: Exhaustive search of five databases yielded 12 studies that met inclusion criteria...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808562/online-and-offline-video-game-use-in-adolescents-measurement-invariance-and-problem-severity
#19
Máté Smohai, Róbert Urbán, Mark D Griffiths, Orsolya Király, Zsuzsanna Mirnics, András Vargha, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of video game playing, little is known about the similarities and differences between online and offline video game players. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (i) to test the applicability and the measurement invariance of the previously developed Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) in both online and offline gamers and to (ii) examine the differences in these groups. METHODS: Video game use habits and POGQ were assessed in a sample of 1,964 (71% male) adolescent videogame players...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808561/family-cohesion-and-pride-drinking-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-puerto-rico
#20
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: The extended multigenerational family is a core value of Hispanic culture. Family cohesion/pride can have protective effects on drinking- and drug-use-related behavior among Hispanics. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between family cohesion/pride, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household random sample of 1510 individuals 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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