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Environmental Entomology

Ayaovi Agbessenou, Agbéko Kodjo Tounou, Elie Ayitondji Dannon, Benjamin Datinon, Cyriaque Agboton, Ramasamy Srinivasan, Barry Robert Pittendrigh, Manuele Tamò
The tachinid Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) was introduced from Taiwan to Benin for evaluating its potential as a biocontrol candidate against the cowpea pest Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). To optimize its rearing, we assessed the influence of M. vitrata larval age and rearing substrate-cowpea germinating grains and peabush leaves-on its life table parameters, while its host specificity was investigated with regard to nontarget effects. Parasitism rates were higher when older larvae (10- and 14-d old) were offered to females of N...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Andrew Vrtar, Candace Toogood, Blake Keen, Michael Beeman, Heidy L Contreras
We examined the effects of humidity on the metabolic rates and respiratory patterns of Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum) (Blattodea: Blaberidae) to determine whether insects transition from continuous, cyclical, and discontinuous (DGC) respiration in response to water conservation. Eight male G. portentosa were placed under five different humidity treatments (0, 23, 40, 60, 80% RH). Using flow through respirometry we: (i) determined the effect of humidity on metabolic rate; (ii) observed if changes in metabolic rate were correlated with changes in closed/flutter (CF) or the open (O) phase of DGC; and (iii) determined whether increased spiracular closure was correlated with an increase in water retention...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Wee L Yee, Peter S Chapman
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae), occurs in unmanaged cherries (Prunus spp.) across dry climates in Washington State and other regions in western United States and Canada. To help explain the fly's distribution in arid climates, we determined the effects of adding water to bare and grass-covered soils on pupal survival rates and adult emergence patterns of R. indifferens in central Washington. Water was added ('irrigated') or not to bare soil and grass-covered soil in cylinders pressed into the ground...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Javier García Gonzalez, Marisol Giraldo Jaramillo, João Roberto Spotti Lopes
Vector-borne plant pathogenic bacteria can induce changes in infected plants favoring the insect vector behavior and biology. The study aimed to determine the effect of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) postinoculation period on the host plant preference and transmission efficiency by the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis DeLong & Wolcott, 1923 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). In a series of choice tests, D. maidis preference was measured as settling and oviposition on healthy maize plants versus infected maize plants showing early disease symptoms, advanced symptoms, or no symptoms...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Amanda L Buchanan, Cerruti R R Hooks
Winter cover crop mulches can diversify agricultural habitats and provide a range of benefits for crop production and pest management. Here we report the influence of strip tilled winter cover crop mulches on arthropod abundance in organic vegetable plots. Crookneck squash (Cucurbita pepo L.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) was direct seeded into mowed and strip tilled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poales: Poaceae), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.; Fabales: Fabaceae), a barley + crimson clover mixture, or a no-cover crop control...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Maisarah Mohamad Saad, Muhammad Matiar Rahaman, Michael J Stout
The resistance of commercial rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties widely grown in Louisiana was assessed against the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major insect pest of rice in the United States, in a 5-yr field study that included conventional inbred, herbicide-tolerant, and hybrid varieties. Resistance was evaluated by comparing densities of immature rice water weevils (larvae and pupae) in root-soil core samples taken at two time points after flooding. Randomized block experiments were conducted in two different locations to enable identification of potentially resistant varieties over diverse environments...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Frederick S Walters, Gerson Graser, Andrea Burns, Alan Raybould
Many studies have been conducted to investigate synergism among insecticidal proteins; however, a consensus on minimal data requirements and interpretation is lacking. While some have concluded that all additive predictive-type models should be abandoned, we advocate that additivity models can remain useful as assessment tools and that an appropriately designed interaction study will never systematically underestimate the existence of synergism, irrespective of which additivity model (or none at all) may be used...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
António Chamuene, Tamíris Alves Araújo, Gerson Silva, Thiago Leandro Costa, Paulo Geraldo Berger, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço
Natural mortality factors are responsible for regulating pest populations in the field. However, plant attributes such as the variety and phenological stage can influence the performance of these factors. Therefore, we investigated the performance of the natural mortality factors of Aphis gossypii (Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a function of the plant variety and phenology. To investigate the performance of these factors, we evaluated the mortality of A. gossypii caused by natural mortality factors for 2 yr in field conditions in transgenic (Bacillus thuringiensis/Roundup Ready) and non-transgenic cotton crops during vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ray S Williams, Jessica M Howells
Intraspecific genetic variation in plants can contribute to the diversity and abundance of associated insects, though many questions remain about why some genotypes support more insects than others. Since plant secondary metabolites, which may be induced after insect attack, may potentially vary among genotypes, these compounds provide a possible explanation for insect abundance variation in plants with substantial genetic variation. In this study, we examined four genotypes of the old-field plant species Solidago altissima (L...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Erik J Wenninger, Amy Carroll, Jennifer Dahan, Alexander V Karasev, Michael Thornton, Jeff Miller, Philip Nolte, Nora Olsen, William Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
J A Pinedo-Escatel, G Moya-Raygoza
Leafhoppers constitute one of the largest groups of pests causing damage to crops worldwide. Edge grasses, which are border crops (also known as border grasses), contain diverse plant species and maintain large populations of leafhoppers during the tropical dry and wet seasons. However, little is known about the diversity of leafhoppers on these grasses. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity of leafhoppers on maize and on surrounding border grasses during the dry and wet seasons. Leafhopper adults were collected with a sweep net from border grasses during the dry season, when maize is absent...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ivan Milosavljevic, Ruth Amrich, Vincent Strode, Mark S Hoddle, Kevin Heinz
Modeling can be used to characterize the effects of environmental drivers and biotic factors on the phenology of arthropod pests. From a biological control perspective, population dynamics models may provide insights as to when the most vulnerable pest life stages are available for natural enemies to attack. Analyses presented here used temperature and habitat dependent, instar-specific, discrete models to investigate the population dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
B L Blood, W E Klingeman, M A Paschen, Ð Hadžiabdic, J J Couture, M D Ginzel, Lukasz Stelinski
Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a pest complex formed by the association of the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), with the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae). Current monitoring and detection efforts for WTB rely on a pheromone lure that is effective over a limited distance while plant- and fungal-derived volatiles that may facilitate host location remain poorly understood...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Stephen J Burr, Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Todd A Ugine, Evan Hoki, John E Losey
The importation and establishment of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in North America purportedly caused the displacement and local extirpation of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), across most of its former range, and several reports have shown that C. septempunctata maintains competitive advantages over C. novemnotata. We investigated the role of aphid density on the retention time of these two species on fava bean plants, and the effect of con- versus heterospecific pairings of adult beetles on the foraging behavior of C...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Junhua Ma, Yanyan Lei, Kashif Ur Rehman, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang, Wu Li, Qing Li, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng
Edible insects have become a recognized alternative and sustainable source of high-quality proteins and fats for livestock or human consumption. In the production process of black soldier fly (BSF), (Hermetia illucens L. [Diptera: Stratiomyidae]), initial substrate pH is a critical parameter to ensure the best value of insect biomass, life history traits, and quality bio-fertilizer. This study examined the impact of initial pH values on BSF larvae production, development time, and adult longevity. The BSF were reared on artificial diet with initial pH of 2...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Stephen J Taerum, Francesca De Martini, Jürgen Liebig, Gillian H Gile
Coevolution is a major driver of speciation in many host-associated symbionts. In the termite-protist digestive symbiosis, the protists are vertically inherited by anal feeding among nest mates. Lower termites (all termite families except Termitidae) and their symbionts have broadly co-diversified over ~170 million yr. However, this inference is based mainly on the restricted distribution of certain protist genera to certain termite families. With the exception of one study, which demonstrated congruent phylogenies for the protist Pseudotrichonympha and its Rhinotermitidae hosts, coevolution in this symbiosis has not been investigated with molecular methods...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Tian-Mei Dai, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wan-Xue Liu, Zhi-Chuang Lü, Fang-Hao Wan
Anthropogenic climate change and global warming are expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many ectothermic species, which will increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species. To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature conditions, insects require sensitive thermal sensory mechanisms to detect external thermal stimuli and induce the appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. TRPA, a thermal-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in insects...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Houston Wilson, Jessica S Wong, Robbin W Thorp, Albie F Miles, Kent M Daane, Miguel A Altieri
Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Shahla Farzan
Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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