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Environmental Entomology

Nicola Gammans, Frank Drummond, Eleanor Groden
We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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May 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Noureldin Abuelfadl Ghazy, Takeshi Suzuki, Hiroshi Amano
Although laboratory observations provide basic knowledge of the development and reproduction of predacious and phytophagous mites, little is known of their behavior under natural conditions. Using a closed system designed to simulate natural climate patterns, we investigated the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at air temperatures typical of June to October at three latitudes (Aomori, Tottori, and Naha) in Japan...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Matthew W Ethington, Larry D Galligan, Fred M Stephen
The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Kun-Yu Tu, Shin-Fu Tsai, Tzu-Wei Guo, Hou-Ho Lin, Zhi-Wei Yang, Chung-Ta Liao, Wen-Po Chuang
Atmospheric temperature increases along with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This is a major concern for agroecosystems. Although the impact of an elevated temperature or increased CO2 has been widely reported, there are few studies investigating the combined effect of these two environmental factors on plant-insect interactions. In this study, plant responses (phenological traits, defensive enzyme activity, secondary compounds, defense-related gene expression and phytohormone) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) -susceptible and resistant rice under various conditions (environment, soil type, variety, C...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Lee-Jin Bong, Kok-Boon Neoh, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctidae) are distributed mainly in tropical regions. The primary mechanism allowing these beetles to survive in cold and arid habitats beyond the native tropical region is a reduced water loss rate. This study investigated the water relations of these two beetles in relation to their size, ontogenetic traits, and behavioral characteristics to determine how they can survive in desiccated wood. H. aequalis and L...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Entomology
A Hakeem, J F Grant, P L Lambdin, F A Hale, J R Rhea, G J Wiggins, C Coots
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), in the eastern United States. Two commonly used insecticides to manage adelgid are imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, and horticultural oil, a refined petroleum oil foliar spray. We have investigated the influence of imidacloprid and horticultural oil on spider abundance at different canopy strata in eastern hemlock. In total, 2,084 spiders representing 11 families were collected from the canopies of eastern hemlock...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Theresa M Cira, Robert L Koch, Eric C Burkness, W D Hutchison, Robert C Venette
Diapause and cold tolerance can profoundly affect the distribution and activity of temperate insects. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an alien invasive species from Asia, enters a winter dormancy in response to environmental cues. We investigated the nature of this dormancy and its effects on H. halys cold tolerance, as measured by supercooling points, lower lethal temperatures, and overwintering field mortality. Dormancy was induced by rearing individuals in the laboratory or under field conditions...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Haiqiang Li, Hongsheng Pan, Dongmei Wang, Bing Liu, Jian Liu, Jianping Zhang, Yanhui Lu
With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Zhang Yifei, Dai Yang, Wan Guijun, Liu Bin, Xing Guangnan, Chen Fajun
Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jakub Goczal, Robert Rossa, Anna Nawrocka, Jon David Sweeney, Adam Tofilski
Biological invasions provide a unique opportunity to gain insight into basic biological processes occurring under new circumstances. During the process of establishment, exotic species are exposed to various stressors which may affect their development. Presence of the stressors is often detected by measurements of left-right body asymmetry, which consists of two main components: fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetry constitutes random differences between the two body sides, whereas directional asymmetry occurs when a particular trait is bigger on one of the sides...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Malcolm M Furniss, Sandra J Kegley
The twig beetle, Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus Eichhoff, infests dead branches of pines in western United States and Canada, including lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas, in northern Idaho. Adult broods overwintered in their host and emerged and colonized new hosts in late April. Males initiated galleries and were joined by up to seven females, each of which constructed an egg gallery radiating from a central chamber. Galleries had an average of 4.7 egg niches each with an egg that was large relative to the mother beetle...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Katarzyna Kmiec, Katarzyna Rubinowska, Katarzyna Golan
Gall formation is induced by an insect, which changes normal plant development and results in the formation of a new organ, following distinct stages of metabolic and developmental alterations. Research on mechanisms of recognition and responses to biotic stress may help to understand the interactions between galling aphids and their host plants. In this study, Tetraneura ulmi L. (Hemiptera: Eriosomatinae) galls and Ulmus pumila L. (Rosales: Ulmaceae) leaves were used as a model. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, electrolyte leakage, as well as the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase (CAT) were determined in galls and two parts of galled leaves (with and without visible damage)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Natalia Rosetti, Maria I Remis
Wing dimorphism occurs widely in insects and involves discontinuous variation in a wide variety of traits involved in fight and reproduction. In the current study, we analyzed the spatial pattern of wing dimorphism and intraspecific morphometric variation in nine natural populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus vittatus (Bruner; Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Argentina. Considerable body size differences among populations, between sexes and wing morphs were detected. As a general trend, females were larger than males and macropterous individuals showed increased thorax length over brachypterous which can be explained by the morphological requirements for the development of flight muscles in the thoracic cavity favoring dispersal...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
J C Poythress, James M Affolter
Because of concerns over recent declines in overall biodiversity in suburban areas, homeowners are attempting to improve the ecological functioning of their landscapes by incorporating native plants. Native plants are important for supporting native herbivorous insects, but it is unknown whether the native plants that are commercially available, typically cultivated varieties (cultivars) of a single genotype, are equally effective as food sources as the local, wild-type plants. We compared the hemipteran communities feeding on cultivars and wild-propagated plants for four species of native perennials commonly used as ornamentals...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Danielle M Kirkpatrick, Heather L Leach, Peng Xu, Ke Dong, Rufus Isaacs, Larry J Gut
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a devastating global pest of berry crops and cherries. Little is understood about its biology during the winter in northern temperate regions, including potential resources that it may utilize during this period. In this study, olfactory and behavioral responses of female D. suzukii to six volatiles (methionol, acetic acid, linalool, bornyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and geosmin) were evaluated separately for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral assays between summer and winter morphs...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Tyler Christensen, William D Brown
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Keith S Mason, Rufus Isaacs
Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), the grape berry moth, is a major economic pest of cultivated grapes in eastern North America. Although pheromone lures and traps are available for monitoring this pest, male moth captures in these traps decline as the infestation risk increases through the multiple generations that occur during a season. This makes it difficult to use traps to monitor this pest's population dynamics and complicates the timing of pest management activities. To test whether seasonal changes in the plant canopy affect captures of male grape berry moth, we manipulated grapevine fruit density or canopy structure in multiple growing seasons, and measured male captures under these conditions...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Benjamin D Jaffe, Alina Avanesyan, Harit K Bal, Yan Feng, Joshua Grant, Matthew J Grieshop, Jana C Lee, Oscar E Liburd, Elena Rhodes, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Ashfaq A Sial, Aijun Zhang, Christelle Guédot
Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits across the globe. Effective monitoring is necessary to manage this pest, but suitable attractants are still being identified. In this study, we combined lures with fermenting liquid baits to improve D. suzukii trapping specificity and attractiveness. We also measured the efficiency and specificity of baits/lures during different times of the season; the reproductive status of females among baits/lures; and the effects of locations and crop type on these response variables...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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