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Environmental Entomology

David W Onstad, Andre L B Crespo, Zaiqi Pan, Philip R Crain, Stephen D Thompson, Clinton D Pilcher, Amit Sethi
In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Daniel J Gibson, Sarah J Adamowicz, Shoshanah R Jacobs, M Alex Smith
Plants and herbivorous (or parasitic) insects form the majority of macroscopic life. The specificity of interaction between host plant and parasitic insect depends on the adaptations of both the host and the parasite. Over time, these interactions evolve and change as a result of an 'arms race' between host and parasite, and the resulting species-specific adaptations may be maintained, perpetuating these interactions across speciation events. This can lead to specialisation between species or clades. With speciation and species sorting over time, complex interactions evolve...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Kazuhiro Nakai, Yasumasa Murata, Masahiro Osakabe
The application of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to control spider mites is challenging as a key technology for integrated pest management (IPM) in greenhouse strawberries in Japan. To address this, concurrent use of phytoseiid mites and reduced UVB irradiance is desirable to ensure control effects in areas shaded from UVB radiation and to minimize the sunscald in winter, respectively. We designed experiments reproducing the UVB dose on the lower leaf surfaces in strawberry and evaluated the effects of intermittent UVB irradiation at midnight for practical application in the greenhouse and low temperature on the survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and damage to the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Amanda St Onge, Héctor A Cárcamo, Maya L Evenden
The pea leaf weevil (PLW), Sitona lineatus L., is a pest of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) that recently invaded the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Although most damage is done by larvae that feed on root nodules, adults are easier to monitor than larvae. Both male and female weevils respond to a male-produced aggregation pheromone and to volatiles released by host plants. The current study tests the attractiveness of synthetic aggregation pheromone, 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione, and host plant volatiles linalool, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate to PLWs in spring when weevils are reproductively active and in fall when weevils seek overwintering sites...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Si-Si Sun, Yun-Xuan Bao, Yan Wu, Min-Hong Lu, Hoang-Anh Tuan
Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory rice pest that periodically erupts across Asia, and early immigration is an important cause of its outbreak. The early immigration of S. furcifera into southern China shows evident annual fluctuations. In the spring of 2012, the huge size of the immigrant population and the large number of immigration peaks were at levels rarely seen prior to that year. However, little research has been done on the entire process of round-trip migration to clarify the development of the population, the long-distance migration and the final eruption...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Samantha A Willden, Edward W Evans
The phenology of the stem-mining weevil Mecinus janthiniformis Toševski and Caldara (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as adults attacking Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller (Plantaginaceae), was studied in 2014-2015 at two low elevation sites in northern Utah. The seasonal pattern of adult weevil abundance on the host plant at the two sites was most similar between years when described by degree-day accumulation, versus calendar date. Repeated censusing over the growing season revealed that males appeared first and subsequently peaked in abundance on the host plant earlier than females did, such that the adult population was dominated by males early in the season and by females late in the season...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
John D Reeve
Spatial synchrony and cycles are common features of forest insect pests, but are often studied as separate phenomenon. Using time series of timber damage caused by Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (southern pine beetle) in 10 states within the southern United States, this study examines synchrony in D. frontalis abundance, the synchronizing effects of temperature extremes, and the evidence for shared cycles among state populations. Cross-correlation and cluster analyses are used to quantify synchrony across a range of geographic distances and to identify groups of states with synchronous dynamics...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Carla Sandoval Rodríguez, Anthony I Cognato, Ciro Abbud Righi
Land use changes and forest fragmentation result in biodiversity loss and displacement, with insects among the most affected groups. Among these, bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) occupy a prominent position due to their close ties to food resources, i.e., trees, and importance as primary decomposers in forest ecosystems. Therefore, our study aimed to document scolytine biodiversity associated with landscape components that vary based on their physical or botanical composition. Bark beetle diversity was sampled monthly for 12 mo in an Atlantic forest remnant and five adjacent vegetation plots (mixed Agroforestry System-AFS, of native trees and fruit species; AFS of rubber trees and coffee plants; coffee monoculture; rubber monoculture; and pasture)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Chamran Hemmati, Saeid Moharramipour, Ali Asghar Talebi
To find out the potential condition for diapause induction in the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), combination of constant temperatures (15, 20, and 30°C) and photoperiods (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 h) were employed from egg to adult emergence. In addition, changes in the total phospholipid fatty acid content and cold tolerance of non-diapausing and diapausing pupae were examined. The critical daylength for diapause induction were 12.43 h at 20°C and lower temperatures that can induce in 50% of population...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Christine A Ricci, Albert J Meier, Ouida W Meier, T Keith Philips
Exyra ridingsii (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a moth whose obligate host is the pitcher plant Sarracenia flava (L.) (Nepenthales: Sarraceniaceae). The entire life cycle of the moth is completed in the trumpets of this fire-dependent plant that is found throughout the southeastern United States in bogs, long-leaf pine savannas, and pocosins. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of E. ridingsii on S. flava, including the effect of herbivory on trumpet height in the year subsequent to feeding and whether moths select trumpets for oviposition based on height...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Rachel L Wells, Serena K Murphy, Matthew D Moran
Ecosystem engineers are profoundly important in many biological communities. A Neotropical taxonomic group considered to have engineering effects is the Formicidae (ants). Leaf-cutter ants (LCAs), in particular, which form extensive colonies of millions of individuals, can be important ecosystem engineers in these environments. While the effects of LCAs on plant community structure and soil chemistry are well-studied, their effects on consumers are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the indirect effects of the LCA Atta cephalotes L...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Holly A Wantuch, Thomas P Kuhar, Scott M Salom
The pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi Hartig (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a native herbivore of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. (Pinales: Pinaceae), in eastern North America. P. strobi does not appear to have any dominant overwintering lifestage in southwest Virginia, as it does in its northern range. Eggs can be found consistently from late March through early December and may be produced sporadically later throughout the winter during warm periods. Two distinct generations were observed in the spring, after which life stage frequencies overlapped...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Qingxing Shi, Lihua Lu, Yanyuan Lei, Yurong He, Jian Chen
Volatile compounds in Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) workers were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electroantennogram responses of workers to these compounds were investigated using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection. Among 18 detected compounds, six elicited electroantennogram response, including 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4 iridodials, and (Z)-9-nonadecene. (Z)-9-Nonadecene and iridodials were identified the first time in T...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Marcel S Coelho, Marco Antônio Alves Carneiro, Cristina A Branco, Rafael Augusto Xavier Borges, G Wilson Fernandes, Deborah Finke
In this work, we investigated the factors that determine the distribution of galling insects in high-altitude grasslands, locally called 'campos de altitude' of Mantiqueira Range and tested whether 1) richness of galling insects decreases with altitude, 2) galling insect richness increases with plant richness, 3) variation in galling insect diversity is predominantly a consequence of its β component, and 4) turnover is the main mechanism driving the beta diversity of both galling insects and plants. Galling insect richness did not exhibit a negative relationship with altitude, but it did increase with plant richness...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Mozhgan Mohammadzadeh, Ehsan Borzoui, Hamzeh Izadi, Colin Brent
The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nikol'skaya (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), is one of the main pests in various pistachio growing regions of Iran. This pest passes the winter as diapausing last instar larvae. In this study, the relationship between diapause and cold hardiness and also the physiological and biochemical characteristics the diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of E. plotnikovi were investigated. Digestive α-amylase enzyme showed a high activity (70.41 ± 2.36 µg maltose/min per mg protein) in nondiapausing larvae, but its activity vigorously decreased during the diapause period...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Huifang Wang, Tao Ma, Qiang Xiao, Panrong Cao, Xuan Chen, Yuzhen Wen, Hongpeng Xiong, Wenquan Qin, Shiping Liang, Shengzhe Jian, Yanjun Li, Zhaohui Sun, Xiujun Wen, Cai Wang
Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the most severe pests of tea plants in China. This species commonly pupates in soil; however, little is known about its pupation ecology. In the present study, choice and no-choice tests were conducted to investigate the pupation behaviors and emergence success of E. grisescens in response to different substrates (sand, sandy loam 1, sandy loam 2, and silt loam) and moisture contents (5, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80%). Moisture-choice bioassays showed that significantly more E...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Maja Kajin, Carla M Penz, Phil J DeVries
One of the most tangible outcomes of climate change is change in the frequency of El Niño/La Niña events. They have a large impact on rainfall in the Western hemisphere, but their impact on tropical fauna is largely unknown. A decade long capture-mark-recapture study of the widespread Ecuadorian butterfly Nessaea hewitsoni (Felder & Felder) from an intact forest allowed us to analyze patterns of monthly and seasonal population dynamics before, during, and after an El Niño event. El Niño events did not affect long-term population size, but a 5-month delayed El Niño led to temporary emigration of females, with their subsequent return...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Pedro M Pedro, Ross Piper, Pedro Bazilli Neto, Laury Cullen, Milena Dropa, Rogerio Lorencao, Maria Helena Matté, Tatiane Cristina Rech, Mauro Osmar Rufato, Miriam Silva, Daniele Turganti Turati
Spatial and temporal collections provide important data on the distribution and dispersal of species. Regional-scale monitoring invariably involves hundreds of thousands of samples, the identification of which is costly in both time and money. In this respect, metabarcoding is increasingly seen as a viable alternative to traditional morphological identification, as it eliminates the taxonomic bottleneck previously impeding such work. Here, we assess whether terrestrial arthropods collected from 12 pitfall traps in two farms of a coffee ( Coffea arabica L...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Yasumasa Murata, Masahiro Osakabe
Exposure to ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation generates DNA lesions, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts in Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Larvae appeared normal and healthy after UVB irradiation. Conversely, many mites were trapped in their old epidermis or experienced retarded development and shrunk, thus failing to molt from protochrysalises to protonymphs and died. This suggested that DNA lesions per se were not causing lethality in mites unless damaged genes were expressed...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Erica Jean Kistner
The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a harmful pest of horticultural crops in North America and Europe. Native to East Asia, this highly polyphagous insect is spreading rapidly worldwide. Climate change will add further complications to managing this species in terms of both geographic distribution and population growth. This study used CLIMEX to compare potential H. halys distribution under recent and future climate models using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global circulation models, CSIRO Mk3...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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