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Environmental Entomology

George D Hoffman, Claire Lande, Sujaya Rao
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) are effective pollinators of many crops but are thought to be inefficient in pollinating blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) due to their inability to buzz pollinate. Nonetheless, commercial growers rent honey bee hives for pollination, resulting in the dominance of honey bee workers visiting flowers during bloom. The objective of this study was to examine where on the honey bee pollen is carried and how it is transferred from flower to bee to the stigma of other flowers...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Tatyana A Rand, Jonathan G Lundgren
Sugar feeding by biological control agents, such as parasitoid wasps, may enhance their ability to control crop pests, although its importance is likely to vary greatly through space and time. Here we quantified temporal variation in the potential importance of sugar resources associated with honeydew secreted by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)) in determining levels of parasitism of the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) by its dominant parasitoid, Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) across irrigated alfalfa fields in Montana, United States over 5 yr...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ciro Abbud Righi, Carla Sandoval Rodríguez, Elisângela N L Ferreira, Wesley A C Godoy, Anthony I Cognato
Tropical forests account for 7% of the earth's surface harboring more than 50% of the biodiversity on Earth. Unfortunately, deforestation continues at high rates with negative consequences for biodiversity. With the decrease of natural habitats, biodiversity maintenance in areas degraded by human activity is a challenge. In order to maintain biodiversity, both in natural areas and in agro-ecosystems, knowledge of the structure and function of organism communities is important. Dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) play an important role in tropical ecosystems by recycling organic matter...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Felipe Donateli Gatti, Taís Helena Araujo Rodrigues, Luis Antonio Dias Figueiredo, Marco Antônio Alves Carneiro
The longhorn beetles play important roles in the forest ecosystem processes and their diversity is affected by many environmental disturbances worldwide. This study aimed at understanding how the structural heterogeneity of the habitat can affect the longhorn beetle assemblage in three areas of an Atlantic Forest, which suffered differential impacts in the past and are now in different successional stages. The area in the most advanced successional stage had mainly lower density of trees, but with greater availability of dead wood, especially larger diameter classes...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Christelle Guédot, Alina Avanesyan, Katie Hietala-Henschell
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits that has caused significant economic damage worldwide. In this study, we focused on the seasonal abundance of D. suzukii during the early years of establishment in Wisconsin. We explored the seasonal patterns of summer and winter morphs, their reproductive output, and the effect temperature and humidity may have on their seasonal phenology. The seasonal abundance of D. suzukii during 2 yr (2014-2015) revealed that flies were detected in Wisconsin from early July to late December, with winter morphs being trapped from August through December...
November 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Benjamin D Czyzewski, Benjamin A McGraw
The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is a severe pest of short-mown turfgrasses in eastern North America. Previous research has demonstrated that adults can be removed from golf course putting greens during mowing. However, the impact of mechanical control on adult removal diminishes with increases in mowing height. Therefore, to optimize adult removal we sought to describe adult presence on top of the turfgrass canopy to identify periods when mowing would be most effective. Growth chamber studies using time-lapse photography revealed that greatest activity occurred between 15 and 20°C, with few weevils active on the surface when temperatures were less than 10°C...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Dave I Palen, Billy J M Almarinez, Divina M Amalin, Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi, Guido David
The outbreak of the coconut scale insect Aspidiotus rigidus Reyne (Hemiptera: Encyrtidae) posed a serious threat to the coconut industry in the Philippines. In this article, we modeled the interaction between A. rigidus and its parasitoid Comperiella calauanica Barrion, Almarinez, Amalin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) using a system of ordinary differential equations based on a Holling type III functional response. The equilibrium points were determined, and their local stability was examined. Numerical simulations showed that C...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Zhongyi Liu, Maria Minor, Patrick C H Morel, Adriana J Najar-Rodriguez
This study aimed to determine the suitability of several organic waste substrates to be processed by the larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) (BSFL) in a value-added bioconversion system. Three types of organic waste (brewer's waste, solid phase of pig manure, and semidigested grass) were tested and compared with a standard larval diet, broll (wheat middling). Larval survival and growth, chemical composition of the resulting prepupae, conversion ratios of nutrients and waste dry matter, and waste reduction rate were measured...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Miyanda N Moonga, Katherine Kamminga, Jeffrey A Davis
Stink bugs are important insect pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in Louisiana. Scouting, economic thresholds, and insecticide applications are the main strategies used in the integrated pest management of soybean insect pests. However, biological control of stink bug eggs by parasitoids has the potential to reduce populations of these pests. A survey of stink bug egg parasitoids was conducted at different sites in Louisiana from 2008 to 2010. Similarly, a study on the incidence of stink bug egg parasitoids within soybean vertical strata and plant structures was conducted in 2009 to 2011...
October 22, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Allison Bistline-East, John G J Carey, Andrew Colton, Michael F Day, Michael J Gormally
Marsh flies are a diverse family that provide valuable ecosystem services, including the biological control of mollusks that are agricultural pests and vectors of animal and human parasitic diseases. In addition, some species may serve as important ecological bioindicators. Despite the extensive research on this family, most have centered on larval diet and behavior, as this is the life stage primarily used for biological control; virtually nothing is known about the natural dietary components of adult marsh flies...
October 20, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Muhammad Binyameen, Masood Ejaz, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Muhammad Razaq, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Fredrik Schlyter
The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a polyphagous pest that causes serious damage to agricultural crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants worldwide. Farmers rely on the extensive usage of synthetic chemical insecticides to control T. tabaci. There is a dire need to develop alternative control strategies to overcome the problems posed by chemical insecticides. Efficient traps would allow sensitive monitoring and possibly mass trapping. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of three plant compounds with known release rates (ranging from 6-30 mg/d); eugenol (Eug), 1, 8-cineole (eucalyptol), and linalool in all possible combinations with a thrips attractant, ethyl iso-nicotinate (EI)...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Thomas Chouvenc, Monica L Elliott, Jan Šobotník, Caroline A Efstathion, Nan-Yao Su
Mutualistic associations between insects and microorganisms must imply gains for both partners, and the emphasis has mostly focused on coevolved host-symbiont systems. However, some insect hosts may have evolved traits that allow for various means of association with opportunistic microbial communities, especially when the microbes are omnipresent in their environment. It was previously shown that colonies of the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) build nests out of fecal material that host a community of Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae)...
October 13, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Mary E Ferguson, Kristopher L Giles, Norman C Elliott, Mark E Payton, Tom A Royer
Winter canola Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) was introduced to U.S. Southern Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) growers to manage some difficult-to-control grassy weeds in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). Two braconid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are active in this cropping landscape. Both wasps move between crops but D. rapae has a limited ability to develop in the main wheat aphid hosts, so L...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Priscila E Hanisch, Andrew V Suarez, Pablo L Tubaro, Carolina I Paris
Ants are abundant and ecologically dominant insects in most terrestrial communities. In subtropical ecosystems, there is a high turnover of species from the canopy to the top layers of the soil. Additionally, ant communities are often influenced by inter-specific competition. Collectively, these two processes (abiotic filtering and competition) make ants ideal for studies of community structure. We examined composition, co-occurrence, and species interactions in a sub-tropical forest ant community to examine how ground-foraging ant species partition microhabitats...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Alicia Niño-Domínguez, Brian T Sullivan, Jose H Lopez-Urbina, Jorge E Macías-Sámano
In the Central American region, the aggressive, sibling bark beetles Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano & Sullivan (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonize pines concurrently, and in nature they avoid heterospecific pairing, although it can be produced in the lab. We performed walking arrestment bioassays in the lab to examine the capacity of both sexes of both species to discriminate odors from frass expelled from gallery entrances of either solitary females or conspecific pairs of either species...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Nsengimana Venuste, Kaplin A Beth, Francis Frederic, Kouakou M Maurice Lombart, Dekoninck Wouter, Nsabimana Donat
The use of soil and litter arthropods as biological indicators is a way to assess environmental changes, where ant species in particular may serve as important indicators of soil quality. This study aimed at relating the abundance of soil and litter ant species to soil parameters under different tree species, both native and exotic, and varieties of coffee and banana plantations. Variations were found in soil physicochemical parameters. A total of 30 species belonging to 14 genera, and four subfamilies, the Formicinae, Dorylinae, Myrmicinae, and Ponerinae were identified...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Dominic D Reisig, Ryan Kurtz
Both maize and cotton genetically engineered to express Bt toxins are widely planted and important pest management tools in the United States. Recently, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has developed resistance to two toxin Bt maize and cotton (Cry1A and Cry2A). Hence, growers are transitioning to three toxin Bt cotton and maize that express both Cry toxins and the Vip3Aa toxin. H. zea susceptibility to Vip3Aa is threatened by 1) a lack of availability of non-Bt refuge crop hosts, including a 1-5% annual decline in the number of non-Bt maize hybrids being marketed; 2) the ineffectiveness of three toxin cultivars to function as pyramids in some regions, with resistance to two out of three toxins in the pyramid; and 3) the lack of a high dose Vip3Aa event in cotton and maize...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Nana Banahene, Salem K Salem, Trevor M Faske, Hannah M Byrne, Madison Glackin, Salvatore J Agosta, Andrew J Eckert, Kristine L Grayson, Lily M Thompson
As global temperatures rise, thermal limits play an increasingly important role in determining the persistence and spread of invasive species. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in North America provides an ideal system for studying the effect of high temperatures on invasive species performance. Here, we used fluctuating temperature regimes and exposed gypsy moth at specific points in development (first-fourth instar, pupa) to cycles of favorable (22-28°C) or high-temperature treatments (30-36°C, 32-38°C, 34-40°C) for either 2 or 7 d...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
K A Clark, Evan Lampert
Animals rely on carotenoids as fundamental precursors for hormones and antioxidants, and animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet. Previous research has shown that insects often absorb carotenoids in amounts proportional to those in their diet, and that carotenoids play key roles in multitrophic interactions. The consumption of diets that provide high levels of antioxidant compounds is associated with high levels of immune responses; however, it is unknown whether individual carotenoids directly influence immune response...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Mary L Cornelius, Jing S Hu, Bryan T Vinyard
This study evaluated how the size of the egg mass and the parasitoids prior exposure to eggs influenced parasitism rates by Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on egg masses of two squash bug species, Anasa tristis DeGeer and Anasa armigera Say (Hemiptera: Coreidae). G. pennsylvanicum is the primary egg parasitoid of A. tristis. There were no published reports available on egg parasitism of A. armigera. In choice tests, there was no difference in host acceptance by G. pennsylvanicum of egg masses of the two squash bug species...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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