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Environmental Entomology

D L Mausel, L T Kok, S M Salom
To determine if key attributes for a successful biological control agent are possessed by the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender, field studies were conducted in its native range of Seattle, WA. The relationship between adult and immature L. nigrinus abundance to different densities of its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, were determined. In a second study, predator and prey densities, and survivorship of each sistens A. tsugae stage were determined to gauge the impact of predation. The predator strongly aggregated and increased its reproduction when prey density increased, the two mechanisms of a numerical response...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Entomology
N E Foote, T S Davis, D W Crowder, N A Bosque-Pérez, S D Eigenbrode
In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Courtney Holt McDaniel, Joseph V McHugh, Darold P Batzer
Coexistence of closely related species has long been a focus of biologists in their efforts to explain mechanisms that drive community assembly. Dytiscidae (predaceous diving beetles) are a group that shows a particularly high affinity for sympatry despite their relatedness. Our objective was to investigate the degree of overlap among Neoporus (Guignot) species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in floodplains of the southeastern United States. We sampled two floodplain habitats (permanent oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded pools) of the Altamaha River (Georgia, USA) for Neoporus species over three years...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Xu-Yang Chen, R J Hopkins, Yi-Pei Zhao, Guo-Hua Huang
Host selection is a key stage in the lifecycle of parasitoids, and is critical to both their function in control and to the maintenance of their population. The solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis similis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological control agent of Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we examined the preference M. similis exhibits for different instars of the host, host instar effects on parasitoid development, and the weight gain and food consumption of different instars of parasitized larvae...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Gui-Yao Wang, Mu-Fei Zhu, Yan-Dong Jiang, Wen-Wu Zhou, Su Liu, Kong Luen Heong, Jiaan Cheng, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important predatory natural enemy of planthopper and leafhopper eggs in Asian rice paddy fields. Cyrtorhinus lividipennis is known to rely largely on herbivore-induced plant volatiles to identify eggs embedded in rice stem tissues for feeding and on pheromones for mating. However, exactly how C. lividipennis decode these chemical information is unclear. In most insects, the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are essential for seeking out food resources and mates...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
J C H Wong, Y Zou, J G Millar, L M Hanks
Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The source of plant volatiles was chipped wood from trees of three angiosperm species, as well as from one nonhost, gymnosperm species...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Brian N Hogg, Patrick J Moran, Lincoln Smith
The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Yan-Nan Zhang, Jue-Ying-Qi Jiang, Yi-Jing Zhang, Ye Qiu, Jian-Ping Zhang
Knowledge about the prey preference of polyphagous predators is important for determining their ability to suppress pest insects. Tetranychus truncatus (Tetranychidae), Tetranychus turkestani (Tetranychidae), and Thrips tabaci (Thripidae) often coexist in crops. Neoseiulus bicaudus (Wainstein) is a native predatory mite that was recently observed in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of N. bicaudus as a bio-control agent against the three pest species mentioned above...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
R B deJonge, R S Bourchier, S M Smith
Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Qamar Saeed, Faheem Ahmad, Shafqat Saeed
Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) is a polyphagous pest that shifts its population to different hosts during its life cycle to receive nutritive advantages. Therefore, demographic evaluation of alternate hosts is important for effective pest management. Here, we have evaluated castor (Ricinus communis L.), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) for growth, survival, and population development of S. exigua. Development of early populations of S...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Ola Lundin, Kimiora L Ward, Derek R Artz, Natalie K Boyle, Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Neal M Williams
The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Daniel S Bush, Allen Lawrance, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Jason Gibbs, Neelendra K Joshi, Julianna K Wilson, Nikki L Rothwell, Karen Powers, Mike Haas, Larry Gut, David J Biddinger, Rufus Isaacs
During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Brian N Hogg, Nicholas J Mills, Kent M Daane
Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Keisuke Hoshino, Tarô Adati, Dawn M Olson, Keiji Takasu
We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (F.) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep, in Tokyo, Japan, during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. The eggs of M. cribraria per 1 m2 of kudzu at four locations in Tokyo were collected weekly and parasitism rates were assessed. Eggs of M. cribraria were laid on the kudzu plant from May to September. Megacopta cribraria eggs were parasitized by two parasitoid species, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Entomology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Mariano Pablo Grilli, Romina Fachinetti
In Córdoba province, central Argentina, there is an area of introduced pine trees, in which an invading Cerambycid, Arhopalus rusticus (L.), was detected in this region for the first time in 2006. The species has since expanded its range until it now occupies the whole area. Arhopalus rusticus is a common species in pine forests of the northern hemisphere. In this paper, we analyze how sex and mating status affects flight performance and the potential distribution of this species. The study was performed with individuals collected from introduced pine forests in the center-west of Córdoba Province (Argentina)...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Lisa G Neven, Wee L Yee
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Taciano Moura Barbosa, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues Carmo, Leonardo Pereira Silva, Raissa Guerra Sales, Simao Dias Vasconcelos
Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Entomology
João V L Firmino, Milton D S Mendonça, Iracilda M M Lima, Jocelia Grazia
Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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