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Environmental Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053788/tropical-rainforest-and-human-modified-landscapes-support-unique-butterfly-communities-that-differ-in-abundance-and-diversity
#1
Hemchandranauth Sambhu, Tobin Northfield, Alliea Nankishore, Abdullah Ansari, Stephen Turton, Richard Redak
Tropical forests account for at least 50% of documented diversity, but anthropogenic activities are converting forests to agriculture and urban areas at an alarming rate, with potentially strong effects on insect abundance and diversity. However, the questions remain whether insect populations are uniformly affected by land conversion and if insect conservation can occur in agricultural margins and urban gardens. We compare butterfly populations in tropical secondary forests to those found in sugarcane and urban areas in coastal Guyana and evaluate the potential for particular butterfly communities to inhabit human-modified landscapes...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045595/performance-of-apanteles-hemara-hymenoptera-braconidae-on-two-amaranth-leaf-webbers-spoladea-recurvalis-and-udea-ferrugalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#2
S T O Othim, K M Agbodzavu, R Kahuthia-Gathu, K S Akutse, S Muchemi, S Ekesi, K K M Fiaboe
Amaranth is an African indigenous vegetable that is gaining popularity due to its nutritional, medicinal, and economic values. In East Africa, frequent outbreaks of Lepidopteran leaf-webbers, Spoladea recurvalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Udea ferrugalis Hübner (1976) are reported on this crop, causing up to 100% foliage loss. The larval endoparasitoid Apanteles hemara Nixon is also frequently found associated with these pests during the outbreaks, however, its performance on both pests has never been documented...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040452/assessment-of-vegetable-and-fruit-substrates-as-potential-rearing-media-for-hermetia-illucens-diptera-stratiomyidae-larvae
#3
Costanza Jucker, Daniela Erba, Maria Giovanna Leonardi, Daniela Lupi, Sara Savoldelli
Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is able to consume a wide range of organic matter and is of particular interest for waste management. The nutritional value of preimaginal stages, in particular the protein content, makes this species a valid candidate for use as feed for other organisms. Vegetables and fruits are promising rearing substrates for insects produced for this purpose according to the EU regulation. In order to examine the effects of diets on insect performance and chemical composition, larvae were reared on the following substrates: 1) fruit (apple, pear, and orange); 2) vegetable (lettuce, green beans, and cabbage); and 3) mixed fruits and vegetables...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040526/phenology-of-the-potato-psyllid-bactericera-cockerelli-hemiptera-triozidae-and-candidatus-liberibacter-solanacearum-in-commercial-potato-fields-in-idaho
#4
Erik J Wenninger, Amy Carroll, Jennifer Dahan, Alexander V Karasev, Michael Thornton, Jeff Miller, Philip Nolte, Nora Olsen, William Price
Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015)...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029003/rearing-xyleborus-volvulus-coleoptera-curculionidae-on-media-containing-sawdust-from-avocado-or-silkbay-with-or-without-raffaelea-lauricola-ophiostomatales-ophiostomataceae
#5
Octavio Menocal, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Jonathan H Crane, Randy C Ploetz, Daniel Carrillo
Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent reports of an association between X. volvulus and Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the cause of the laurel wilt disease of avocado (Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae]), and its potential role as vector of the pathogen merit further investigation...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028992/spatial-distribution-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-adults-eggs-and-parasitism-by-paratelenomus-saccharalis-hymenoptera-platygastridae-in-soybean
#6
Ian A Knight, Phillip M Roberts, Wayne A Gardner, Kerry M Oliver, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic D Reisig, Michael D Toews
Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029041/long-term-effects-of-berberis-thunbergii-ranunculales-berberidaceae-management-on-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-abundance-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirochaetales-spirochaetaceae-prevalence-in-connecticut-usa
#7
Scott C Williams, Megan A Linske, Jeffrey S Ward
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029177/influence-of-traditional-management-and-environmental-variables-on-mediterranean-saproxylic-beetle-assemblages
#8
P Ramilo, A P Martínez-Falcón, A García-López, H Brustel, E Galante, E Micó
Mediterranean oak forests of the Iberian Peninsula host a great diversity of saproxylic beetles. For centuries, humans have carried out traditional management practices in this area, at both habitat and tree level, causing changes in forest structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropic effect of these traditional practices on saproxylic beetle diversity by measuring a set of environmental variables related to forest structure at both plot and tree level. Fauna was collected using window traps over a period of 12 mo...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029089/geostatistics-and-geographic-information-system-to-analyze-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-diversity-of-anastrepha-species-diptera-tephritidae-the-effect-of-forest-fragments-in-an-urban-area
#9
A G Garcia, M R Araujo, K Uramoto, J M M Walder, R A Zucchi
Fruit flies are among the most damaging insect pests of commercial fruit in Brazil. It is important to understand the landscape elements that may favor these flies. In the present study, spatial data from surveys of species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an urban area with forest fragments were analyzed, using geostatistics and Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the diversity of insects and evaluate how the forest fragments drive the spatial patterns. The results indicated a high diversity of species associated with large fragments, and a trend toward lower diversity in the more urbanized area, as the fragment sizes decreased...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029088/plant-herbivore-and-plant-pollinator-interactions-of-the-developing-perennial-oilseed-crop-silphium-integrifolium
#10
J R Prasifka, R E Mallinger, B S Hulke, S R Larson, D Van Tassel
Sampling in Kansas and North Dakota documented the plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions of the developing perennial oilseed crop, Silphium integrifolium Michx. The larva of the tortricid moth, Eucosma giganteana (Riley), was the most damaging floret- and seed-feeding pest in Kansas, with infested heads producing ≈85% (2015) or ≈45% (2016) fewer seeds than apparently undamaged heads. Necrosis of apical meristems caused stunting and delayed bloom in Kansas; though the source of the necrosis is not known, observations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois; Hemiptera: Miridae), in S...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029081/rapid-cold-hardening-of-a-subtropical-species-maruca-vitrata-lepidoptera-crambidae-accompanies-hypertrehalosemia-by-upregulating-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase
#11
Yonggyun Kim, Dae-Weon Lee, Jin Kyo Jung
A subtropical insect, Maruca vitrata (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is invasive to temperate zones, in which low temperatures during winter would be a serious challenge for colonization. This study assessed cold tolerance and cold-hardening of M. vitrata to understand its overwintering mechanism. Supercooling capacity was confirmed in all developmental stages exhibiting body freezing points at lower than -10°C, in which supercooling points (SCPs) were significantly different among developmental stages, with eggs having the lowest SCP (at -22...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029031/impact-of-field-densities-of-the-naturalized-defoliator-caloptilia-triadicae-lepidoptera-gracillariidae-on-the-invasive-weed-chinese-tallowtree
#12
G S Wheeler, S D Hight, S A Wright
Chinese tallowtree, Triadica sebifera (L.) Small (Euphoriaceae), is one of the most aggressive weeds of coastal wetlands and forests of the southeastern United States. The lack of specialist herbivores in the invaded range may be one of the factors that contribute to the invasive nature of this weed. Chinese tallowtree has been the target of a classical biological control project since 2006. Several herbivore species are being tested for biological control of Chinese tallowtree. Concurrently, an adventive herbivore, Caloptilia triadicae Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was found feeding on Chinese tallowtree in the southeastern United States in 2004 and now occurs throughout the invaded range...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028999/control-of-pecan-weevil-with-microbial-biopesticides
#13
David I Shapiro-Ilan, Ted E Cottrell, Clive Bock, Kim Mai, Debbie Boykin, Lenny Wells, William G Hudson, Russell F Mizell
The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028996/cold-tolerance-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-an-invasive-pest-of-soybeans
#14
Jessica I Grant, William O Lamp
Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028975/comparative-responses-of-rhagoletis-zephyria-and-rhagoletis-pomonella-diptera-tephritidae-to-commercial-and-experimental-sticky-traps-and-odors-in-washington-state
#15
Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn, Dong H Cha
Rhagoletis zephyria Snow and Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are morphologically similar flies that attack white-colored snowberry fruit (Symphoricarpos spp.) and yellow/red or dark-colored apple/hawthorn fruit (Malus/Crataegus spp.), respectively. The two flies are caught together on traps in R. pomonella surveys in the western United States, increasing labor needed to process catches. Comparing responses of the two species with different traps could help identify best practices for reducing R...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961806/differences-in-flight-activity-of-coleomegilla-maculata-and-hippodamia-convergens-coleoptera-coccinellidae-following-emergence-mating-and-reproduction
#16
Ahmed H Abdel-Wahab, J P Michaud, Mohamed H Bayoumy, Samir S Awadalla, Mohamed El-Gendy
The flight activity of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was examined by observing tethered beetles in the laboratory. C. maculata were fed eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, as were larval H. convergens, whereas adult H. convergens were fed Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) to induce egg maturation; adults of both species received water and diluted honey. A spot of magnetic paint was applied to one elytrum of each beetle, which then adhered to a small neodymium magnet attached to a thread...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962006/olfactory-response-of-the-predatory-bug-orius-laevigatus-hemiptera-anthocoridae-to-the-aggregation-pheromone-of-its-prey-frankliniella-occidentalis-thysanoptera-thripidae
#17
Teresa Vaello, José L Casas, Ana Pineda, Ignacio de Alfonso, M Ángeles Marcos-García
Herbivore natural enemies base their foraging decision on information cues from different trophic levels but mainly from plant odors. However, the second trophic level (i.e., the herbivorous prey) may also provide reliable infochemical cues for their natural enemies. We have evaluated the role of the aggregation pheromone from Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) as a potential kairomone for its natural enemy, the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Fieber). For this purpose, we have analyzed the response of O...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961948/trap-style-bait-and-height-deployments-in-black-walnut-tree-canopies-help-inform-monitoring-strategies-for-bark-and-ambrosia-beetles-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae
#18
William E Klingeman, Alicia M Bray, Jason B Oliver, Christopher M Ranger, Debra E Palmquist
Knowledge about which bark and ambrosia beetle species are active and at what heights in black walnut canopies is not well understood. Neither is the role of these beetles in spreading Thousand Cankers Disease. To assist with future planned research, which will assess the extent to which these beetle species are associated with Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae), experiments were undertaken to monitor bark and ambrosia beetles in urban landscapes and parks in Tennessee between 2011 and 2013...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961931/thermal-requirements-and-performance-of-the-parasitoid-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-on-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae-eggs-under-variable-temperatures
#19
V Zuim, H S Rodrigues, D Pratissoli, J B Torres
Temperature causes physiological and behavioral changes in egg parasitism. Egg parasitoids are a possible alternative for the control of Lepidoptera pests. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a generalist pest that has recently been introduced into Brazil. We evaluated the suitability of H. armigera eggs as hosts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the effects of temperature (18-33°C) on its survival and development. We assessed the developmental time (egg adult), thermal requirements, age-specific fertility, and parasitism rate upon eggs of H...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961914/milkweed-matters-monarch-butterfly-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-survival-and-development-on-nine-midwestern-milkweed-species
#20
V M Pocius, D M Debinski, J M Pleasants, K G Bidne, R L Hellmich, L P Brower
The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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