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Environmental Entomology

Zachary Hajian-Forooshani, Iris Saraeny Rivera Salinas, Estelí Jiménez-Soto, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer
Recent theoretical work suggests that two ineffective control agents can provide effective biological control when coupled together. We explore the implications of this work with the system of coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by the fungal agent Hemileiae vastatrix, and two of its natural enemies, a fungal pathogen (Lecanicillium lecanii) and a spore predator (Mycodiplosis hemileiae). Here we report on comparative surveys of the CLR and its two natural enemies in Mexico, where the CLR has been at epidemic status since 2012, and Puerto Rico, where the CLR is present but has not reached epidemic densities...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Bonnie J Ohler, Christelle Guédot, Richard S Zack, Peter J Landolt
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Hannes Schuler, Peter Kern, Wolfgang Arthofer, Heidrun Vogt, Maximilian Fischer, Christian Stauffer, Markus Riegler
The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Mary L Cornelius, Christine Dieckhoff, Bryan T Vinyard, Kim A Hoelmer
We conducted a survey to examine parasitism, predation, and the species composition of native parasitoids attacking sentinel egg masses of the invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in bell pepper, squash, and tomato. A 2-yr survey was conducted for each crop. The species composition of parasitoids was determined for parasitoids that successfully emerged from eggs, parasitoids that were identified from dissections, and parasitoids that were found attending egg masses at the time of collection...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Zachary Scott, Howard S Ginsberg, Steven R Alm
We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
T N Wittman, K A Miller, B H King
Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Dulce María Figueroa-Castro, Guadalupe González-Tochihuitl, Sombra Patricia Rivas-Arancibia, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses
We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Aaron S Weed, Joseph S Elkinton, Nina K Lany
Insect populations are affected by density-dependent and density-independent factors, and knowing how these factors affect long-term population growth is critical to pest management. In this study, we experimentally manipulated densities of the hemlock woolly adelgid on eastern and western hemlock trees in the western USA to evaluate the effects of density and host species on hemlock woolly adelgid crawler colonization. We then followed development of hemlock woolly adelgid on each hemlock species. Settlement of crawlers was strongly density-dependent and consistent between host species...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Shaonpius Mondal, Erik J Wenninger, Pamela J S Hutchinson, Monica A Weibe, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major concern for potato production in the United States given its impact on both crop quality and yield. Although green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is the most efficient PVY vector, it may be less abundant in potato-growing areas of Idaho relative to non-potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY that may disperse from nearby cereal fields and other crops. A field study was conducted during 2012-2013 to examine if noncolonizing aphids disperse to nearby potato fields as cereal crops dry down before harvest...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Edwin R Burgess, B H King
Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Entomology
J P Michaud, Paulo R R Barbosa, Clint L Bain, Jorge B Torres
Nonconsumptive effects of predators on prey are well known, but similar effects among competing predators are not. Aphidophagous insect larvae are notorious for cannibalism and intraguild predation, as they compete for aggregated but ephemeral prey. We tested for indirect effects of competitors on the development of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), with all larvae reared on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Gregory J Wiggins, Jerome F Grant, James R Rhea, Albert E Mayfield, Abdul Hakeem, Paris L Lambdin, A B Lamb Galloway
From 2010 through 2013, adult emergence and seasonality of Laricobius nigrinus Fender, an introduced predatory species native to western North America, as well as hybridization with the native species Laricobius rubidus (LeConte), were evaluated using emergence traps and beat-sheet sampling in areas of previous release against hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. The shortest emergence period of adult L. nigrinus was 7 wk beginning 22 October 2010, and the longest emergence was 15 wk beginning 17 October 2012...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
R A Arango, C M Carlson, C R Currie, B R McDonald, A J Book, F Green, N K Lebow, K F Raffa
Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, were extracted and plated on selective chitin media. A total of 38 Actinobacteria isolates were selected for in vitro growth inhibition assays...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Shoko Kawaguchi, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara, Masahiro Osakabe
Adult females of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) enter diapause under conditions of short-day length and low temperature. A conspicuous body color change, from greenish yellow to bright orange, accompanies diapause induction. This pigmentation is attributed to accumulation of keto-carotenoids produced internally from β-carotene, which is a precursor of vitamin A essential for inducing diapause. The quantity of β-carotene transferred from females to eggs has been considered sufficient to induce diapause...
September 25, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Jordan Lestina, Maxwell Cook, Sunil Kumar, Jeffrey Morisette, Paul J Ode, Frank Peairs
Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Entomology
K P Bleiker, B H Van Hezewijk
The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Entomology
M N Darr, T J McAvoy, C C Brewster, S M Salom
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest of eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) forests in the eastern United States. Scymnus (Pullus) coniferarum Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a lady beetle that preys on A. tsugae in the western United States, where A. tsugae infestations on western hemlocks are not lethal. It is thought that S. coniferarum could be an important predator that helps keep A. tsugae populations from reaching damaging levels in this region...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Irena M Grześ, Mateusz Okrutniak, Jakub Sternalski, Marek Banasiak, Piotr Piszczek
Environmental stress can lead to a decrease in the body size of insects. As social insects, ants have a complex caste system; each caste has its own morphological traits and functions in the colony, hence the effects of stress may manifest differentially among different ant castes. Here we investigated the body size of males of the common garden ant, Lasius niger L., 1758, living in a postmining area polluted mainly by Zn, Cd, and Pb. We examined if individual body size decreases with the pollution gradient...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Entomology
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