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Environmental Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020444/assessments-of-temporal-variations-in-haplotypes-of-candidatus-liberibacter-solanacearum-and-its-vector-the-potato-psyllid-in-potato-fields-and-native-vegetation
#1
Fekede Workneh, Li Paetzold, Adrian Silva, Christopher Johnson, Arash Rashed, Ismael Badillo-Vargas, Neil C Gudmestad, Charlie M Rush
The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), had been known for nearly a century to cause psyllid yellows of solanaceous crops. However, it has only been a decade since the insect was discovered to transmit the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso), which putatively causes potato zebra chip disease. This project was initiated to quantify temporal incidences of haplotypes of the psyllid (Central, Southwestern, and Western) and Lso (A, B) in potato fields and in native vegetation...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010815/red-flour-beetle-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-response-to-volatile-cues-varies-with-strain-and-behavioral-assay
#2
Alison R Gerken, Erin D Scully, James F Campbell
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a major pest of facilities where grain is processed because of its ability to find and colonize food resource patches. Traps baited with pheromone and kairomone lures are commonly used to monitor for the presence of insects in warehouses or flour mills, for example. However, two nonmutually exclusive components, environment and genetics, could influence insect responsiveness to volatiles, impacting the efficacy of monitoring...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010732/effect-of-color-and-contrast-of-highbush-blueberries-to-host-finding-behavior-by-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#3
Catherine M Little, Thomas W Chapman, N Kirk Hillier
Drosophila suzukii Matsumara (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become a serious pest in soft-skin fruits and berries, infesting both ripe and ripening fruits. Crop damage in highbush blueberry has been particularly severe. During blueberry fruit development, fruits of various degrees of ripeness are present simultaneously. In addition, foliage color changes as the season progresses. We investigated the influence of blueberry fruit and leaf color on host-finding behavior in D. suzukii. Opposing shifts between reflectance spectra of ripening fruits and senescing leaves increased contrast between ripe fruit and senesced foliage...
July 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007344/natural-history-of-a-sit-and-wait-dipteran-predator-that-uses-extrafloral-nectar-as-prey-attractant
#4
Mayra C Vidal, Sebastián F Sendoya, Lydia F Yamaguchi, Massuo J Kato, Rafael S Oliveira, Paulo S Oliveira
Sit-and-wait predators use different strategies to encounter potential prey. Rhinoleucophenga myrmecophaga Vidal et (Vidal et Vilela; Diptera: Drosophilidae) larvae build sticky shelters on top of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of Qualea grandiflora Mart (Vochysiaceae), a common plant in the Brazilian cerrado savanna. Although larval shelters block the EFNs, nectar production is not obstructed and is used by the larvae to attract and trap nectar-gathering ants that are eventually eaten by the dipteran. Here we describe the natural history of R...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992319/landscape-effects-on-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-geocoris-spp-hemiptera-geocoridae-two-important-omnivorous-arthropod-taxa-in-field-crops
#5
Dawn M Olson, Adam R Zeilinger, Kristina K Prescott, Alisa W Coffin, John R Ruberson, David A Andow
The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a native pest of many crops in southeastern United States and insecticide applications are the prevailing method of population suppression. To elucidate biological control of E. servus populations, we investigated two egg predators' (red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae)) responses to both local and landscape factors that may have influenced their combined ability to cause mortality in immature E...
July 10, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986003/fuscumol-and-geranylacetone-as-pheromone-components-of-californian-longhorn-beetles-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-the-subfamily-spondylidinae
#6
Sean T Halloran, R Maxwell Collignon, J Steven McElfresh, Jocelyn G Millar
In field trials testing attraction of cerambycid beetles to a blend of known pheromone components plus host plant volatiles, several species in the subfamily Spondylidinae were attracted to baited traps, suggesting that one or more components of the blend might constitute their pheromones. Here, we describe laboratory and field experiments aimed at identifying the actual pheromone components produced by these species. Analysis of headspace odors collected from male Tetropium abietis (Fall) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) contained (S)-fuscumol as a single component, whereas Asemum nitidum (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) males produced both (S)-fuscumol and geranylacetone, and Asemum caseyi (Linsley) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) produced only geranylacetone...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982328/the-effect-of-feeding-and-mate-presence-on-the-pheromone-production-of-the-spruce-beetle-coleoptera-curculionidae
#7
R L Isitt, K P Bleiker, D S Pureswaran, N K Hillier, D P W Huber
Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) uses pheromone blends containing aggregative components (frontalin, verbenene, 1-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ol [MCOL], and seudenol) and an anti-aggregative component (3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one [MCH]) to coordinate attacks against host trees, but little is known about the influence of external stimuli on pheromone production. We conducted feeding experiments followed by pheromone extractions to determine if feeding duration and mate presence affected pheromone production in D...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982322/impact-of-peanut-depth-and-container-size-on-the-parasitism-of-diapausing-and-nondiapausing-larvae-of-indian-meal-moth-lepidoptera-pyralidae-by-habrobracon-hebetor-hymenoptera-braconidae
#8
Sanower Warsi, George N Mbata
Host mortality and progeny production by the ectoparasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were investigated in response to peanut depths and free space at standard environmental conditions. The free space was created by having four different quantities of peanuts in glass containers of fixed volume or same quantity of peanut in containers of different sizes. Host mortality caused by the parasitoids was significantly higher for diapausing larvae compared with nondiapausing larvae at corresponding peanut depth...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982490/factors-that-influence-flight-propensity-in-anoplophora-glabripennis-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#9
Melody A Keena
The effects of mating status, sex, beetle age, host quality, temperature, and wind speed on the propensity of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to take flight were evaluated using a free flight test in the laboratory. Time to initiate flight, the angle of flight, and flight capability (when beetles were enticed to take flight) were also evaluated. Host quality, mating status, beetle age, sex, temperature, and the interactions between one or more of these were all found to be significant predictors of flight in A...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982481/dispersion-and-optimization-of-sequential-sampling-plans-for-coffee-berry-borer-coleoptera-curculionidae-infestations-in-hawaii
#10
Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi, Rosemary Gutierrez-Coarite, Mark G Wright
Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of coffee in most coffee-growing areas of the world. This beetle was first detected in Big Island of Hawaii in 2010 and has since spread to other islands. Being an invasive pest that causes serious economic damage, efforts are in progress in Hawaii to develop an integrated approach to manage this pest. In this study, we sampled commercial coffee orchards from representative coffee-growing regions in the Big Island, Hawaii, to understand dispersion of the pest in the field and develop a reliable sampling plan based on the dispersion characteristics...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982324/effects-of-nymphal-diet-and-adult-feeding-on-allocation-of-resources-to-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-egg-production
#11
Mark S Sisterson, Drake C Stenger
The glassy-winged sharpshooter is an invasive insect capable of transmitting the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Pre-oviposition periods of laboratory-reared glassy-winged sharpshooters are variable. Here, two questions were addressed: does nymphal diet affect pre-oviposition period and how do allocation patterns of resources differ for females that produce eggs versus females that do not? Nymphs were reared on one of three host plant species: cowpea, sunflower, or sorghum. Half of the females were sacrificed at emergence...
June 29, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961857/attraction-of-ceratitis-capitata-diptera-tephritidae-sterile-males-to-essential-oils-the-importance-of-linalool
#12
Jerome Niogret, Nancy D Epsky
Small cage and wind tunnel bioassays were used to understand the role of volatile chemicals found in ginger root oil and other essential oils in the attraction of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Small cage bioassays found that both a 10 component blend (geraniol, linalool, β-myrcene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and α-humulene) and a 4 component subset of that blend (geraniol, linalool, β-myrcene and limonene) were more attractive than paired mineral oil controls...
June 29, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955815/ants-on-clerodendrum-infortunatum-disentangling-effects-of-larceny-and-herbivory
#13
Amritendu Mukhopadhyay, Suhel Quader
Nectar larcenists extract nectar from flowers without pollinating them. A reasonable expectation is that any form of nectar larceny should have a detrimental effect on the plant's reproductive success. However, studies reveal an entire range of effects, from highly negative to highly positive. This variation in effect may be partly explained by additional, unmeasured, effects of nectar larcenists on plants. In a study system where two ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Trichomyrmex destructor (Jerd...
June 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945250/phoresy-and-within-colony-transmission-of-nematodes-associated-with-alates-of-subterranean-termites-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#14
Jeremiah R Foley, Thomas Chouvenc, Robin M Giblin-Davis, Nan-Yao Su, Natsumi Kanzaki
Termites and their nests are potential resources for a wide assemblage of taxa including nematodes. During dispersal flight events from termite colonies, co-occurring nematodes in the nest may have phoretic opportunities to use termite alates as transportation hosts. The two subterranean termite species Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki are both invasive and established in south Florida. Alates of both species (n = 245) were collected during dispersal flight events in 2015-2016 from six locations, of which 30 (12...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939240/interaction-between-linepithema-micans-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-the-vine-mealybug-planococcus-ficus-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-trophobiosis-or-predation
#15
Aline Nobre Guindani, Aline Nondillo, Vitor C Pacheco da Silva, Simone Andzeiewski, Wilson S de Azevedo Filho, Odair C Bueno, Marcos Botton
The mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has recently been detected in vineyards in southern Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the most abundant and frequent species in these vineyards, acting mainly as a disperser of the native soil scale, the ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae). This study evaluated the interactions (dispersal and predation) of L. micans with P. ficus. The first experiment evaluated the interaction between L...
June 23, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924308/heavy-metal-accumulation-excretion-in-and-food-utilization-of-lymantria-dispar-larvae-fed-with-zn-or-pb-stressed-populus-alba-berolinensis-leaves
#16
Dun Jiang, Xiao-Wen Dong, Shan-Chun Yan
Heavy metal contaminations have attracted increasing concern worldwide due to their potential damages to the whole ecosystem. This study investigated the heavy metal-accumulation and excretion in, and food utilization of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae that were fed with leaves plucked from poplar seedlings (Populus alba berolinensis) grown in either noncontaminated soil (control), Zn-contaminated soil (500mg/kg), or Pb-contaminated soil (500mg/kg). Our results showed that excretion of heavy metals via insect feces and exuvia is an effective approach to reduce the internal Zn and Pb concentrations, and result in the decrease of Zn and Pb concentrations in the gypsy moth larvae with the increased larval age...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905833/seasonal-and-regional-distributions-degree-day-models-and-phoresy-rates-of-the-major-sap-beetle-coleoptera-nitidulidae-vectors-of-the-oak-wilt-fungus-bretziella-fagacearum-in-wisconsin
#17
Stephanie M Jagemann, Jennifer Juzwik, Patrick C Tobin, Kenneth F Raffa
Oak wilt is a lethal disease caused by the invasive fungus Bretziella fagacearum, which is transmitted belowground via root grafts and aboveground by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). Attempts to limit spread and impact of B. fagacearum emphasize limiting harvesting and pruning to periods of vector inactivity. However, there is limited information on sap beetle activity periods, responses to temperature, and phoresy frequencies of fungi. We sampled two major vectors in Wisconsin, Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi, for 2 yr to quantify their seasonal and geographic abundances...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893822/associative-learning-of-food-odors-by-the-european-paper-wasp-polistes-dominula-christ-hymenoptera-vespidae
#18
Dane C Elmquist, Peter J Landolt
We investigated associative learning of food odors by the European paper wasp Polistes dominula Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) because of consistent low rates of attraction to food materials in laboratory assays. We hypothesized that wasps in nature exhibit nonspecific food-finding behavior until locating a suitable food, and then respond more strongly and specifically to odors associated with that food reward. Female P. dominula workers exhibited higher rates of attraction in a flight tunnel to piped odors of fermented fruit purees following previous experience with that puree, compared to wasps with no prior experience with the fermented fruits...
June 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878176/predation-and-parasitism-of-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae-eggs-in-minnesota
#19
Daniela T Pezzini, Erica C Nystrom Santacruz, Robert L Koch
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has spread across North America and is causing serious economic damages. Current management of this pest is based primarily on use of insecticides, which can disrupt integrated pest management programs. Alternatively, biological control is a more benign management tactic. This study provides the first examination of potential impact of parasitoids and predators of pentatomid eggs in Minnesota. Over 2 yr, 10,074 fresh and 9,870 frozen H...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878175/a-life-table-for-liriomyza-trifolii-diptera-agromyzidae-in-a-temperate-zone-of-northeast-egypt-with-key-factor-analysis
#20
Mohamed H Bayoumy, Hager S Awadalla, J P Michaud, Marwa M Ramadan
The American serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a perennial pest of leguminous crops in the Mediterranean region. A life table was constructed for L. trifolii infesting broad bean, Vicia faba L., in northern Egypt. Key factor analysis was used to rank sources of immature mortality over two seasons. Leaf miners had three successive generations, and a partial fourth, in each year, with peak abundance in March-April. Less than 15 and 22% of L. trifolii survived to adult in seasons one and two, respectively...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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