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Environmental Entomology

Desen Wang, Lihua Lü, Yurong He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Sebastian Ibarra Jimenez, Cassandra Carroll, Tamara Babcock, Nathan Derstine, Alison Hadwin, Margo Moore, Gerhard Gries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Douglas M Light, Joseph A Grant, Ronald P Haff, Alan L Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Michael C Cavallaro, M Christopher Barnhart, W Wyatt Hoback
Terrestrial insects in water can often delay or escape drowning by floating and swimming. However, we observed that flooding of pitfall traps baited with rotting carrion results in high overnight mortality of captured beetles and reasoned that this risk may be enhanced by microbial respiration. By assessing carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) response to flooding, tolerance to immersion, and swimming behavior, we offer insights to this cause of death and beetle behavioral physiology. Response of buried Nicrophorus orbicollis Say to soil flooding resulted in beetles moving to the soil surface...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Karina M Borges, W Rodney Cooper, Stephen F Garczynski, Jenita Thinakaran, Andy S Jensen, David R Horton, Joseph E Munyaneza, Isabel Cueva, Nina M Barcenas
The psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Solanales: Convolvulaceae) and other plants with the congeneric psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Bactericera cockerelli is a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease of potato (Solanales: Solanaceae). Because B. maculipennis and B. cockerelli both naturally occur on certain plants, we surveyed B...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Stephanie Guzman-Valencia, Ma Teresa Santillán-Galicia, Ariel W Guzmán-Franco, Ricardo Vega-Muñoz
Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Angelita L Acebes-Doria, Tracy C Leskey, J Christopher Bergh
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive and polyphagous herbivore that has been problematic in Mid-Atlantic fruit orchards, many of which are adjacent to woodlands containing its wild hosts. Our tree census in woodlands bordering 15 Mid-Atlantic apple orchards revealed 47 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, 76.6% of which were recorded hosts of H. halys Tree of heaven was most common and abundant overall. Halyomorpha halys nymphs have a substantial walking dispersal capacity, and their fitness is enhanced by feeding on multiple hosts...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Marina Santadino, María E Brentassi, Diego D Fanello, Carlos Coviella
The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) originally restricted to Australia, is an important emerging pest of Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. It feeds on mature leaves, causing the loss of photosynthetic surface area and defoliation and, according to some studies, even tree death. In this work, feeding activities of T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn leaves and its primary food resources were identified. In cross sections of leaves, solid salivary deposits on epidermal cells and in the vicinity of stomata cells were detected...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
J P Michaud, Yun Zhang, Clint Bain
In the process of feeding, aphids modify the physiology of their host plants in species-specific ways, and plant responses to these aggressions are often genotype- or cultivar-specific. Thus, different aphid species sharing a host can influence each other's fitness via plant-mediated interactions, usually with negative and asymmetric impacts. Here, we show that feeding by the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner, can improve the suitability of sorghum as a host plant for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Entomology
He Du, Thomas Chouvenc, Nan-Yao Su
Age polyethism in a social insect colony occurs when individuals of different ages perform different tasks. In termites (Isoptera), it has mostly been reported in higher termites, but elements of age polyethism were recently found in juvenile colonies of a lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Rhinotermitidae). The objective of this study was to compare age polyethism in immature colonies (10-mo-old) of C. formosanus to the age polyethism observed in juvenile colonies (4-yr-old), to investigate if age polyethism emerges as soon as old workers are present, or if it emerges later on, as the colony grows and ages...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
M D Smart, R S Cornman, D D Iwanowicz, M McDermott-Kubeczko, J S Pettis, M S Spivak, C R V Otto
Taxonomic identification of pollen has historically been accomplished via light microscopy but requires specialized knowledge and reference collections, particularly when identification to lower taxonomic levels is necessary. Recently, next-generation sequencing technology has been used as a cost-effective alternative for identifying bee-collected pollen; however, this novel approach has not been tested on a spatially or temporally robust number of pollen samples. Here, we compare pollen identification results derived from light microscopy and DNA sequencing techniques with samples collected from honey bee colonies embedded within a gradient of intensive agricultural landscapes in the Northern Great Plains throughout the 2010-2011 growing seasons...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
T S Davis, Y Wu, S D Eigenbrode
Intraspecific specialization by insect herbivores on different host plant species contributes to the formation of genetically distinct "host races," but the effects of plant virus infection on interactions between specialized herbivores and their host plants have barely been investigated. Using three genetically and phenotypically divergent pea aphid clones (Acyrthosiphon pisum L.) adapted to either pea (Pisum sativum L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we tested how infection of these hosts by an insect-borne phytovirus (Bean leafroll virus; BLRV) affects aphid performance and preference...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
T D Schowalter, M R Willig, S J Presley
We quantified long-term successional trajectories of canopy arthropods on six tree species in a tropical rainforest ecosystem in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico that experienced repeated hurricane-induced disturbances during the 19-yr study (1991-2009). We expected: 1) differential performances of arthropod species to result in taxon- or guild-specific responses; 2) differences in initial conditions to result in distinct successional responses to each hurricane; and 3) the legacy of hurricane-created gaps to persist despite subsequent disturbances...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Rafael Dal Bosco Ducatti, Todd A Ugine, John Losey
The decline of the North American native lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, is strongly correlated with the introduction of Coccinella septempunctata L., and C. novemnotata are locally extirpated across much of the United States. Since C. novemnotata's decline, the invasive Harmonia axyridis Pallas has become dominant in North America. This study investigated whether H. axyridis has the potential to impede the recovery of C. novemnotata populations. To determine how H. axyridis interacts with C. novemnotata via intraguild predation and competition for prey, we paired first-instar C...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Thomson M Paris, Sandra A Allan, David G Hall, Matthew G Hentz, Scott D Croxton, Niharika Ainpudi, Philip A Stansly
Phenotypic plasticity provides a mechanism by which an organism can adapt to new or changing environments. Earlier studies have demonstrated the variability of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Asian citrus psyllid) population dynamics, but no analysis of morphological changes induced by seasonal or artificial laboratory-induced conditions has yet been documented. Such morphometric variation has been found to correspond in dispersal capabilities in several insect taxa. In this study, the effects of temperature and photoperiod on morphometric variation of D...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Entomology
P Martinek, E Kula, J Hedbávný
Reaction of leaf weevil (Phyllobius arborator (Herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. Food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch Betula pendula Roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of MnCl24H2O with graded concentration of manganese. Direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of P. arborator adults. At the same time, the levels of manganese in unconsumed food, excrement, and bodies of adults were determined...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Donnie L Peterson, Don Cipollini
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America that was recently found infesting white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus L.). Initial reports of the infestation of white fringetree by emerald ash borer occurred in southwestern Ohio and Chicago, IL. We examined white fringetrees at additional sites in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania in Summer and Fall 2015 and Winter 2016 for emerald ash borer infestation. Our aim was to examine white fringetrees at a limited number of sites with emerald ash borer infestation and to relate tree size, crown dieback, epicormic sprouting, tree sex, and adjacency to ash or white fringetrees with the likelihood of beetle infestation...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Entomology
R J Pretorius, G L Hein, E E Blankenship, F F Purrington, J D Bradshaw
This study investigated the impact of a neonicotinoid seed-applied insecticide (Poncho Beta) and two plant densities (86,487 and 61,776 plants per hectare) on the sugarbeet root aphid (Pemphigus betae Doane), beneficial epigeal arthropods, and selected crop yield parameters in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. var. vulgaris). Ground beetles and centipedes were the most commonly collected taxa during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Centipede, spider, and rove beetle activity densities were not affected by the seed-applied insecticide, whereas plant density had a marginal effect on centipede activity density during 2012...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Ashley R Hough, James R Nechols, Brian P McCornack, David C Margolies, Brett K Sandercock, Donglin Yan, Leigh Murray
A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Entomology
I R Sánchez-Galván, J Ferrer, E Galante, M A Marcos-García
Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Entomology
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