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Aggressive Behavior

Christina C Moore, Julie Hubbard, Michael T Morrow, Lydia R Barhight, Meghan M Lines, Meghann Sallee, Christopher T Hyde
The goal of the current study was to examine the link between children's psychophysiology and aggression when both constructs were assessed simultaneously in scenarios designed to provide the opportunity to aggress for either a reactive reason or a proactive reason. Both sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity (skin conductance) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia or RSA), as well as their interaction, were included as physiological measures. Participants were 35 5th-grade children who were placed in two virtual-peer scenarios; one scenario provided the opportunity to aggress in response to peer provocation (i...
August 12, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Richard B Felson, Patrick R Cundiff
We compared the characteristics of homicide in San Francisco during the Gold Rush epidemic (1849-1860) to the characteristics of homicides during a more recent epidemic (1965-1980), and during a period when the homicide rates were relatively low (1921-1964). The data were based on reports from coroners, newspapers, the San Francisco Police Department, and the census. Time period was used to predict the characteristics of each incident in our multivariate analyses. The evidence suggests that the homicide epidemic during the gold rush was primarily due to a higher incidence of disputes between unrelated persons, including duels and disputes over land, mining claims, and gambling...
August 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Malte Doehne, Michael von Grundherr, Mechthild Schäfer
Research has found that moral competence is negatively associated with bullying behavior in schools, but the drivers of this association are not yet well understood. In this paper, we report on two studies which suggest that moral competence acts as a moderator of peer influence in the context of school bullying. Data were collected at two time points in three German higher secondary schools (grades 7-10, average age at measurement: 14.26 years). Using a cross-lagged panel design (CLPD), study 1 (N = 251) found adolescents with low moral competence to be susceptible to peer influence, while no such effect was found for adolescents with high moral competence...
August 2, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Francesca Kassing, John E Lochman, Andrea L Glenn
Research has consistently supported autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning as a predictor of aggressive behavior in youth. Several studies have further examined how the functioning of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) branches of the ANS interact with environmental factors to predict behavioral outcomes. One factor that has yet to be studied in this context however, is parenting practices. Given that many interventions for externalizing behavior target parenting practices, such as increasing consistent discipline, it may be particularly important to assess whether parenting practices interact with SNS and PNS functioning in the child to influence risk for aggressive behavior...
July 24, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Todd Galbraith, Hannah Carliner, Katherine M Keyes, Katie A McLaughlin, Michael S McCloskey, Richard G Heimberg
We examined the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders (ADs) among adolescents with lifetime intermittent explosive disorder (IED), as well as the impact of co-occurring ADs on anger attack frequency and persistence, additional comorbidity, impairment, and treatment utilization among adolescents with IED. IED was defined by the occurrence of at least three anger attacks that were disproportionate to the provocation within a single year. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 6,140), and diagnoses were based on structured lay-administered interviews...
July 24, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Jacqueline Woerner, Antonia Abbey, Sheri E Pegram, Breanne R Helmers
Perpetrators of sexual assault are often intoxicated; however, few experimental studies evaluate alcohol's "in the moment" effects on sexual aggression. This study extends past theory and research by examining the acute effects of alcohol on men's decisions about how to respond to sexual refusals in a dating simulation. Men (N = 62) ages 21-29 were randomly assigned to consume alcohol (target breath alcohol level 0.080%) or no alcohol. Participants were encouraged to talk to a simulated woman and act as they would on an actual date...
July 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Raluca Balan, Anca Dobrean, Robert Balazsi
The association between parental and peer attachment and youths' bullying involvement is well documented. However, there is little research examining mechanisms linking the quality of relationships with parents and peers to bullying perpetration and victimization. The present study investigated the indirect effects of attachment to the mother, the father, and peers on bullying and victimization through children's negative automatic thoughts in a sample of 476 adolescents (10-17 years). Path analysis indicated that attachment to both parents as well as attachment to peers was indirectly related to both bullying and victimization through their relationship with adolescents' negative automatic thoughts...
June 29, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Guanghui Chen, Qingling Zhao, Thomas Dishion, Kirby Deater-Deckard
There is very little research on the dynamics of peer groups in schools and aggressive behavior among Chinese youth. In the present study, we investigated the link between pure indegree centrality and aggression (i.e., overt and relational aggression), and examined moderating effects of moral disengagement on this association, among Chinese adolescents in classes with different percentage of aggressors. Participants were 589 sophomore students (446 boys, 75.72% of sample; Mage  = 15.98, SD = 0.64) from 16 classes in one vocational secondary school...
June 29, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Jaime L Palmer-Hague, Anita C Twele, Alexandra J Fuller
Both facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with aggressive behavior in women but how they influence perception of their potential threat remain unclear. Here, we assessed the effects of fWHR and BMI on perceived formidability from faces of 42 female Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) fighters. In study 1, BMI, but not fWHR, positively predicted participants' ratings of aggressiveness and fighting ability from facial photographs. In study 2, both high fWHR and high BMI composite faces were rated as more aggressive, tougher, and more likely to win a fight than low fWHR and low BMI composite faces, respectively...
June 29, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Kevin C Runions, Christina Salmivalli, Therese Shaw, Sharyn Burns, Donna Cross
The role of reactive and proactive aggression in school bullying perpetration remains unclear. In this study, we explore the predictive value of an expanded model of aggression motives based on the Quadripartite Violence Typology (QVT), which distinguishes between motivational valence (appetitive or aversive) and recruitment of deliberative self-control to derive four classes of motives: Rage, Revenge, Reward, and Recreation. With a sample of 1,802 students from grades 7-9, we assessed aggression motives via self-report, along with self-report of bullying perpetration and victimization, which were used to assign students into categories of Pure Bully, Bully/Victim (B/V), Pure Victim, and Uninvolved...
June 29, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Elliott T MacDonell, Shawn N Geniole, Cheryl M McCormick
Individuals with larger facial width-to-height ratios (FWHRs) are judged as more threatening, and engage in more threat-related behavior, than do individuals with smaller FWHRs. Here we identified components of threat potential that are related to the FWHR. In Study 1, the FWHR was correlated positively with physical threat potential (bicep size) in women and with both physical and psychological (anger proneness) threat potential in men. Behavioral aggression was measured in a subset of these participants using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (costly aggression) and a Money Allocation Task (non-costly aggression)...
June 7, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Emma Alleyne, Charlotte Parfitt
Animal cruelty is a form of passive and active aggression that is largely undocumented and unreported. Given that animals are voiceless victims, we have to rely on witnesses and frontline staff (e.g., veterinarians) to report incidents of abuse, which suggests the number of convicted animal abusers is an under-representation of actual perpetrators. The primary aim of the current study was to identify the static and dynamic factors that distinguish animal abusers from non-abuse offenders (i.e., individuals who self-reported antisocial behavior, but not animal abuse), and non-offenders (i...
May 25, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Jill Portnoy, Adrian Raine, Jianghong Liu, Joseph R Hibbeln
Omega-3 supplementation has been found to reduce externalizing behavior in children. Reciprocal models of parent-child behavior suggest that improving child behavior could lead to improvements in parent behavior, however no study has examined whether omega-3 supplementation in children could reduce intimate partner violence or child maltreatment by their adult caregivers. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel group trial, a community sample of children were randomized to receive either a fruit drink containing 1 gm of omega-3 fats (Smartfish Recharge; Omega-3 group, n = 100) or the same fruit drink without omega-3's (Placebo group, n = 100)...
May 20, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Brad J Bushman, Sarah M Coyne, Craig A Anderson, Kaj Björkqvist, Paul Boxer, Kenneth A Dodge, Eric F Dubow, David P Farrington, Douglas A Gentile, L Rowell Huesmann, Jennifer E Lansford, Raymond W Novaco, Jamie M Ostrov, Marion K Underwood, Wayne A Warburton, Michele L Ybarra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Virginia Pallante, Roscoe Stanyon, Elisabetta Palagi
Peaceful third-party interventions usually occur after an aggressive encounter and can be directed toward the victim or the aggressor. Macaca tonkeana, a cercopithecine species characterized by high levels of tolerance, frequently engage in consolatory contacts, which both calm the victim and reduce the probability of further attacks against him/her. Other post-conflict affiliative interventions such as reconciliation and quadratic affiliation are also common in this species. However, little attention has been given to contacts directed toward the aggressor...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Julia D McQuade, Nicole L Breslend, Destin Groff
The social risk factors for physical and relational peer victimization were examined within a mixed-gender sample of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 124 children (ages 8-12 years; 48% boys), with 47% exhibiting sub-clinical or clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms. ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom counts were assessed based on parent- and teacher-reports; parents rated children's social problems and teachers rated children's use of physical and relational aggression and experiences of physical and relational victimization...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Gijs Huitsing, Claire P Monks
The aim of this research was to investigate the interplay between victim-aggressor relationships and defending relationships in early childhood to test the proposition that young aggressors are less selective than older children in their choice of vulnerable targets. Cross-sectional multivariate statistical social network analyses (Exponential Random Graph Models) for a sample of 177 preschoolers from seven classes, 5- to 7-years-old, revealed that boys were more aggressive than girls, toward both boys and girls, whereas defending relationships were most often same-sex...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Carla Aimé, Daniel Paquette, Michèle Déry, Pierrette Verlaan
The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the development of aggression in boys and girls by testing a model combining insights from both evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. A sample of 744 children (348 girls) between six and 13 years old was recruited in schools with high deprivation indices. Half of the sample (N = 372; 40.1% girls) had received special educational services for behavioral and/or socio-emotional problems. Two trajectories for overt aggression and two trajectories for indirect aggression were identified and binomial logistic regressions were used to identify environmental predictors and sex-specific patterns of these trajectories...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Kirsty S Lee, Heather Brittain, Tracy Vaillancourt
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Michele Cascardi, Megan Chesin, Molly Kammen
Perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) represent a heterogeneous group who engage in a variety of aggressive acts which often co-occur. However, few studies take this co-occurrence into consideration. Failure to consider overlapping forms of IPV confounds understanding of risk factors for physical IPV, which in turn undermines identification, prevention, and intervention efforts. Though rarely studied in emerging adults, personality variables have recently been identified as important correlates of IPV...
July 2018: Aggressive Behavior
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