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Aggressive Behavior

Nicole Paschek, Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
Human aggression can be differentiated into reactive aggression (RA), displayed in face of a real or perceived threat and associated with high levels of anxiety, and proactive aggression (PA), displayed to achieve a certain goal and linked to lower anxiety levels. To study the origins of these aggression subtypes and their relation to anxiety, we tested if both subtypes can be distinguished in a nonhuman primate species, characterized their occurrence within the study group, and examined the link between aggression subtype and anxiety...
October 14, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Amy Nivette, Alex Sutherland, Manuel Eisner, Joseph Murray
A great deal of research shows that adolescent and adult males are more likely to engage in physical aggression and violence than females are. However, few studies have examined cross-cultural variation in sex differences, particularly among low- and middle-income countries [LMICs]. Based on social role and sexual selection theories, we derived two hypotheses regarding possible variations in sex differences across societal contexts: 1) sex differences increase with societal gender polarization (social role theory) and 2) sex differences are exacerbated in societies where socio-economic opportunities are scarce, unequal, or insecure (prediction derived from sexual selection theory)...
October 3, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Hellen P Barbosa, Monica G Lima-Maximino, Caio Maximino
Zebrafish have been introduced as a model organism in behavioral neuroscience and biological psychiatry, increasing the breadth of findings using fish to study the neurobiology of aggression. Phenotypic differences between leopard and longfin zebrafish were exploited in order to elucidate the role of phasic serotonin in aggressive displays on this species. The present study, revealed differences in aggressive display between leopard and longfin zebrafish, and a discrepant effect of acute fluoxetine in both populations...
September 25, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
George Darko, Kaj Björkqvist, Karin Österman
Sex differences in the perpetration and victimization of low intensity intimate partner aggression (IPA) were investigated in Ghana. The sample consisted of 1,204 adults (mean age 44.1 yrs., SD 13.5), 602 males and 602 females. IPA was measured with the DIAS-Adult questionnaire, which measures perpetration and victimization of physical, indirect, nonverbal, cyber, and economic aggression in a relationship. Males scored higher than females on being victimized by their partner from physical, indirect, and nonverbal aggression, while females scored higher than males on being perpetrators of physical, indirect, nonverbal, and cyber aggression...
September 23, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Atika Khurana, Amy Bleakley, Morgan E Ellithorpe, Michael Hennessy, Patrick E Jamieson, Ilana Weitz
Media violence exposure (MVE) is associated with aggressive outcomes in adolescents. However, based on the differential susceptibility hypothesis, this risk is expected to vary based on the individual's unique risk and protective factors. Using survey data from 1,990 adolescents (Mean age = 15.6 ± 1.10 years; 48% female) and content analysis of U.S. top-grossing films and popular TV shows, we evaluated the effect of MVE in relation to both risk (i.e., family conflict, impulsivity, sensation seeking) and protective factors (i...
September 23, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Ruschelle M Leone, Dominic J Parrott
The present study utilized a laboratory paradigm to examine the extent to which bystander behavior for sexual aggression is independently and jointly influenced by situational misogynistic peer norms and men's adherence to hegemonic male norms. Participants were a racially diverse college sample of self-identified heterosexual men (N = 104) between the ages of 18-35. Men completed a measure of hegemonic masculinity and engaged in a laboratory paradigm in which they and three male confederates watched a female confederate, who reported a strong dislike of sexual content in the media, view a sexually explicit film which they could stop at any time...
September 21, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Slava Dantchev, Dieter Wolke
Emerging evidence suggests that sibling aggression is associated with the development of high-risk behavior. This study investigated the relationship between sibling bullying perpetration and victimization in early adolescence and high-risk behavior in early adulthood. Sibling bullying was assessed at 12 years in 6,988 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a birth cohort based in the UK and high-risk behavioral outcomes were assessed at 18-20 years. Frequent sibling bullying perpetration predicted antisocial behavior (OR = 1...
September 19, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Brad J Bushman
When shooting a gun at a human target, firearms training instructors teach individuals to shoot for the upper torso because it is the largest lethal target on the human body. In contrast, violent first-person shooter (FPS) video games reward players for headshots. The head is the smallest lethal target, and requires careful aim to hit. In this experiment, participants were randomly assigned to play a violent FPS game with humanoid targets that rewarded headshots, a nonviolent shooting game that punished hits to bull's-eye targets with faces, or a nonviolent non-shooting game...
September 17, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Chiao-Yun Chen, Chung-Ru Chiou, Cheng-Hung Ko
Inhibitory control and the effects of negative emotional feedback were investigated in adolescents with a history of violent behavior and normal adolescents using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP), a task simulating real situations of social interaction to elicit aggressive behavior and negative emotions, with concurrent event related potential recordings. The Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPAQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) Scale were also presented...
September 10, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Rami Benbenishty, Ron A Astor, Verónica López, Marian Bilbao, Paula Ascorra
Although in recent years there has been a growing interest in victimization of teachers by their students (student-to-teacher victimization), it is not discussed in relation to students' victimization by their teachers (teacher-to-student victimization) across cultures. This study used a cross-cultural comparative design to examine the prevalence of students' reports of student-to-teacher and teacher-to-student victimization and the correlations between them, both at the student and the school levels. It compares the patterns of findings among Jewish and Arab students in Israel and a sample of Chilean students...
August 28, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Ivana Vranjes, Sara Erreygers, Heidi Vandebosch, Elfi Baillien, Hans De Witte
Research on cyberbullying has boomed in the past two decades. Findings from studies among adolescents suggest that they can be classified into distinct groups based on their cyberbullying experience, and that cyberbullying seems to be related to poor emotion regulation. So far, only a few studies have examined cyberbullying among adult workers and it is unclear whether cyberbullying develops similarly in that population. Therefore, in this study cyberbullying victimization was assessed in adolescents and adult workers simultaneously to address three aims: (1) to explore which groups can be distinguished based on their cyberbullying experience; (2) to analyze the associations of group membership with the way people regulate their emotions; and (3) to examine whether the results are comparable in adolescents and adults...
August 28, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
María J Gutiérrez-Cobo, Alberto Megías, Raquel Gómez-Leal, Rosario Cabello, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
The General Aggression Model (GAM) offers an integrative explanation of the aggressive behavior based on three stages: 1) inputs: personal and situational factors; 2) routes or individual internal states: affect, cognition, and arousal; and 3) outcomes: decision processes with a (non) aggressive result. Researchers are interested in looking for protective factors within the GAM to diminish aggression. Previous studies have found two relevant variables acting independently as risk and protective factors: emotional intelligence (EI) and negative affect (NA)...
August 22, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Christina C Moore, Julie Hubbard, Michael T Morrow, Lydia R Barhight, Meghan M Lines, Meghann Sallee, Christopher T Hyde
The goal of the current study was to examine the link between children's psychophysiology and aggression when both constructs were assessed simultaneously in scenarios designed to provide the opportunity to aggress for either a reactive reason or a proactive reason. Both sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity (skin conductance) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia or RSA), as well as their interaction, were included as physiological measures. Participants were 35 5th-grade children who were placed in two virtual-peer scenarios; one scenario provided the opportunity to aggress in response to peer provocation (i...
August 12, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Richard B Felson, Patrick R Cundiff
We compared the characteristics of homicide in San Francisco during the Gold Rush epidemic (1849-1860) to the characteristics of homicides during a more recent epidemic (1965-1980), and during a period when the homicide rates were relatively low (1921-1964). The data were based on reports from coroners, newspapers, the San Francisco Police Department, and the census. Time period was used to predict the characteristics of each incident in our multivariate analyses. The evidence suggests that the homicide epidemic during the gold rush was primarily due to a higher incidence of disputes between unrelated persons, including duels and disputes over land, mining claims, and gambling...
August 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Malte Doehne, Michael von Grundherr, Mechthild Schäfer
Research has found that moral competence is negatively associated with bullying behavior in schools, but the drivers of this association are not yet well understood. In this paper, we report on two studies which suggest that moral competence acts as a moderator of peer influence in the context of school bullying. Data were collected at two time points in three German higher secondary schools (grades 7-10, average age at measurement: 14.26 years). Using a cross-lagged panel design (CLPD), study 1 (N = 251) found adolescents with low moral competence to be susceptible to peer influence, while no such effect was found for adolescents with high moral competence...
August 2, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Francesca Kassing, John E Lochman, Andrea L Glenn
Research has consistently supported autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning as a predictor of aggressive behavior in youth. Several studies have further examined how the functioning of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) branches of the ANS interact with environmental factors to predict behavioral outcomes. One factor that has yet to be studied in this context however, is parenting practices. Given that many interventions for externalizing behavior target parenting practices, such as increasing consistent discipline, it may be particularly important to assess whether parenting practices interact with SNS and PNS functioning in the child to influence risk for aggressive behavior...
July 24, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Todd Galbraith, Hannah Carliner, Katherine M Keyes, Katie A McLaughlin, Michael S McCloskey, Richard G Heimberg
We examined the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders (ADs) among adolescents with lifetime intermittent explosive disorder (IED), as well as the impact of co-occurring ADs on anger attack frequency and persistence, additional comorbidity, impairment, and treatment utilization among adolescents with IED. IED was defined by the occurrence of at least three anger attacks that were disproportionate to the provocation within a single year. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 6,140), and diagnoses were based on structured lay-administered interviews...
July 24, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Macià Buades-Rotger, Ulrike M Krämer
Implicit measures of aggressiveness are able to circumvent response biases that plague self-reports, but it is unclear how they link to neural activation during aggressive interactions and to aggression-related endocrine function. Here, we tested whether an implicit attentional bias toward antisocial semantic information was associated with endogenous testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels, as well as with aggressive behavior and amygdala reactivity to angry faces in a separate competitive paradigm. On Day one, participants (39 healthy young women) completed an emotional word Stroop task in which they had to indicate the font color of antisocial, prosocial, or neutral words...
November 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Jacqueline Woerner, Antonia Abbey, Sheri E Pegram, Breanne R Helmers
Perpetrators of sexual assault are often intoxicated; however, few experimental studies evaluate alcohol's "in the moment" effects on sexual aggression. This study extends past theory and research by examining the acute effects of alcohol on men's decisions about how to respond to sexual refusals in a dating simulation. Men (N = 62) ages 21-29 were randomly assigned to consume alcohol (target breath alcohol level 0.080%) or no alcohol. Participants were encouraged to talk to a simulated woman and act as they would on an actual date...
July 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
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