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Aggressive Behavior

Andrew V Dane, Zopito A Marini, Anthony A Volk, Tracy Vaillancourt
Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior...
October 17, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Roos Haer, Katharin Hermenau, Thomas Elbert, James K Moran, Tobias Hecker
It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i...
October 17, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Jean Gagnon, Mercédès Aubin, Fannie Carrier Emond, Sophie Derguy, Alex Fernet Brochu, Monique Bessette, Pierre Jolicoeur
Hostile attribution bias (e.g., tendency to interpret the intention of others as hostile in ambiguous social contexts) has been associated with impulsive aggression in adults, but the results are mixed and the complete sequence of hostile inferential processes leading to aggression has not been investigated yet. The goal of this event-related brain potentials (ERPs) study was to track the neural activity associated with the violation of expectations about hostile versus nonhostile intentions in aggressive and nonaggressive individuals and examine how this neural activity relates to self-reported hostile attributional bias and impulsive aggression in real life...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Babette C M van Hazebroek, Tjeert Olthof, Frits A Goossens
In an attempt to explain the inconsistent findings and overall weak relation between empathy and aggression, we focused on the role of emotional empathy (emotions of concern, compassion or sympathy toward a (potential) victim), agentic goals (the desire to be dominant during social interaction with peers) and their interplay (mediation or moderation) in the prediction of proactive aggression (learned instrumental behavior) in adolescence. Data were collected from 550 young Dutch adolescents, who filled out multiple questionnaires...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Marlene J Sandstrom, Marike H F Deutz, Tessa A M Lansu, Tirza H J van Noorden, Johan C Karremans, Antonius H N Cillessen
Previous research has shown that ostracism-the experience of being ignored and excluded-has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs (belongingness, control, meaningful existence, and self-esteem) of children (Study 1) and then extends the literature by examining the role of the number of ostracizers and inclusive members in this process by randomly assigning children to conditions varying in degree of ostracism (Study 2)...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
William Alex Pridemore, Mark T Berg
We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk-heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Muniba Saleem, Christopher P Barlett, Craig A Anderson, Ian Hawkins
The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory-based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Elizabeth A Bates, John Archer, Nicola Graham-Kevan
The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA...
September 7, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Suzanne Brugman, Liza J M Cornet, Danique Smeijers, Kirsten Smeets, Sanne Oostermeijer, Jan K Buitelaar, Robbert-Jan Verkes, Jill Lobbestael, Catharina H de Kogel, Lucres M C Jansen
The Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) was originally developed to assess reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in children. Nevertheless, some studies have used the RPQ in adults. This study examines the reliability of the RPQ within an adult sample by investigating whether reactive and proactive aggression can be distinguished at a variable- and person-based level. Male adults from forensic samples (N = 237) and from the general population (N = 278) completed the RPQ questionnaire. Variable-based approaches, including factor analyses, were conducted to verify the two-factor model of the RPQ and to examine alternative factor solutions of the 23 items...
September 7, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Christopher Barlett, Kristina Chamberlin, Zachary Witkower
The Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model (BGCM) is a learning-based theory that posits the importance of positive cyberbullying attitudes predicting subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Furthermore, the tenants of the BGCM state that cyberbullying attitude are likely to form when the online aggressor believes that the online environment allows individuals of all physical sizes to harm others and they are perceived as anonymous. Past work has tested parts of the BGCM; no study has used longitudinal methods to examine this model fully...
September 7, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Courtland S Hyatt, Danielle S Berke, Joshua D Miller, Amos Zeichner
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression...
August 16, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Whitney A Brammer, Kristen L Jezior, Steve S Lee
Although the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with externalizing behavior, its mediating pathways are unknown. Given their sensitivity to serotonin neurotransmission and unique association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), we tested callous-unemotional (CU) traits and narcissism as separate mediators of the association of 5-HTTLPR with ADHD and ODD. We evaluated 209 5-9 year-old children with and without ADHD at baseline; approximately 2 years later (i...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Khandis R Blake, Brock Bastian, Thomas F Denson
Researchers have become increasingly interested in the saturation of popular Western culture by female hypersexualization. We provide data showing that men have more sexually aggressive intentions toward women who self-sexualize, and that self-sexualized women are vulnerable to sexual aggression if two qualifying conditions are met. Specifically, if perceivers view self-sexualized women as sexually open and lacking agency (i.e., the ability to influence one's environment), they harbor more sexually aggressive intentions and view women as easier to sexually victimize...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Julia D McQuade, Rosanna P Breaux, Angelina F Gómez, Rebecca J Zakarian, Julia Weatherly
This study expands on prior research suggesting that children who either over- or under-estimate their social competence relative to others' reports are more likely to be aggressive. Linear and curvilinear associations between biased social self-perceptions and forms (physical vs. relational) and functions (proactive vs. reactive) of aggression were tested along with three moderators (peer rejection, social dominance goals, and child sex). Children in the fifth through eight grade (N = 167) completed self-reports of perceived social competence and social dominance goals...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Miguel A M Cárdaba, Pablo Briñol, Gaspar Brändle, José A Ruiz-SanRomán
This research indicates that a critical factor for understanding the success or failure of anti-violence campaigns is the aggressiveness of the target audience. We propose that person and situation interact in predicting post-intervention attitudes toward violence, fighting expectations, and intentions to learn how to use real guns. Across two studies conducted in different countries and with different age populations, we found that anti-violence campaigns were effective, only for those for whom the message was already pro-attitudinal (low trait aggressiveness)...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Ling-Yin Chang, Mei-Yeh Wang, Pei-Shan Tsai
Child and adolescent physical aggression are influenced by multiple contexts, such as peers, family, school, and neighborhood. However, the effect of neighborhoods on youth physical aggression remains unclear. The objective of this study was to quantitatively synthesize studies that have examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on physical aggression in children and adolescents and to identify potential moderators. We searched seven databases for articles published before April 25, 2015. Studies were considered eligible if they were published in peer-reviewed journals, used multilevel data, controlled for neighborhood clustering, used physical aggression as the study outcome, and considered children or adolescents as the study population...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Nicole H Weiss, Aaron A Duke, Nicole M Overstreet, Suzanne C Swan, Tami P Sullivan
A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Alvaro Mailhos, Abraham P Buunk, Denise Del Arca, Verónica Tutte
Anatomical, cognitive and behavioral sex differences are widely recognized in many species. It has been proposed that some of these differences might result from the organizing effects of prenatal sex steroids. In humans, males usually exhibit higher levels of physical aggression and prowess. In this study, we analyze the relationship between second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios-a proxy for prenatal androgen levels-and foul play and sporting performance in a sample of junior soccer players from a professional Uruguayan soccer club...
September 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Stefan Pfattheicher
The dual-hormone hypothesis suggests that testosterone is positively associated with status-seeking tendencies such as aggression and dominance, particularly in individuals with low levels of cortisol. Although recent research supports the dual-hormone hypothesis, its boundary conditions under which the dual-hormone interaction is likely to emerge are not clearly understood. In the present study (N = 153), the dual-hormone hypothesis was empirically tested in the context of an economic game that included a decision whether to dominate another individual...
July 13, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
David Matsumoto, Hyisung C Hwang, Mark G Frank
Previous research has suggested an important role for the emotion of hatred in intergroup aggression. Recent theoretical and empirical work has strongly suggested that the combination of anger, contempt, and disgust (ANCODI) comprise the basic elements of hatred, and are the key emotions associated with intergroup aggression. No study, however, has provided evidence that these emotions cause hostile cognitions about specific groups. We report two studies that provide initial evidence. In both, participants were members of ideologically motivated groups and were primed with ANCODI...
July 13, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
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