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Aggressive Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449231/resource-partitioning-in-tolerant-and-intolerant-macaques
#1
Nancy Rebout, Christine Desportes, Bernard Thierry
The clumped distribution of food resources promotes food defensibility and can lead to the monopolizing of resources by high-ranking individuals. However, the balance of power is set at different levels according to societies, meaning that resource partitioning should vary between them. This study investigates whether dominance asymmetry and resource partitioning are related in non-human primates by comparing two species with contrasting social styles, namely rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) which display strong social intolerance and a steep gradient of dominance, and Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), which exhibit higher levels of tolerance and more balanced dominance relationships...
April 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422297/piecing-together-the-aggression-puzzle-testing-the-mediating-variables-linking-early-to-later-aggression
#2
Christopher P Barlett, Kaitlyn M Helmstetter, Douglas A Kowalewski, Logan Pezzillo
Results from several studies show that early aggression predicts later aggression; however, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms in these relations. The paucity of research that has tested mediation found that aggressive motives and hostile attributions are important causal processes. This past work is limited by not measuring aggression multiple times throughout the study to test aggression change over time and the variables that mediate such change. The current study had participants (N = 90) interact with a same-sex confederate on a modified version of the Tangram Task-our measure of aggressive behavior-for three trials...
April 19, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393381/peer-victimization-and-changes-in-physical-and-relational-aggression-the-moderating-role-of-executive-functioning-abilities
#3
Julia D McQuade
This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected...
April 10, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326572/discrepancy-in-perception-of-bullying-experiences-and-later-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-a-prospective-study
#4
Soonjo Hwang, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Somer Bishop, Bennett L Leventhal
Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences may lead to later internalizing or externalizing behavior in adolescents. A 1,663 South Korean 7th and 8th graders (mean age: 13.1 and 14.1 years old), were seen for a follow-up study to examine the relationships between the discrepancy in perception of their bullying experiences (defined as discrepancy between self- and peer-reports of bullying experiences) and internalizing or externalizing behavior at follow-up. Bullying was assessed by self- and peer-report...
March 22, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317120/the-efficacy-of-teachers-responses-to-incidents-of-bullying-and-victimization-the-mediational-role-of-moral-disengagement-for-bullying
#5
Kristel Campaert, Annalaura Nocentini, Ersilia Menesini
Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11...
March 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299794/prospective-associations-between-peer-victimization-and-social-psychological-adjustment-problems-in-early-childhood
#6
Kimberly E Kamper-DeMarco, Jamie M Ostrov
The present short-term longitudinal study examined prospective associations between two forms of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational) and both externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. The study assessed 97 children (42 girls; M age = 45.22 months, SD = 6.99) over the course of one school year with assessments occurring at the end of each semester (approximately 6 months apart). Multiple methods were used to collect data over the course of one school year to test theoretically driven hypotheses...
March 15, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261811/the-facial-width-to-height-ratio-determines-interpersonal-distance-preferences-in-the-observer
#7
Klara A Lieberz, Sabine Windmann, Shawn N Geniole, Cheryl M McCormick, Meike Mueller-Engelmann, Felix Gruener, Pia Bornefeld-Ettmann, Regina Steil
Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with a number of aspects of aggressive behavior in men. Observers appear to be able to assess aggressiveness from male fWHR, but implications for interpersonal distance preferences have not yet been determined. This study utilized a novel computerized stop-distance task to examine interpersonal space preferences of female participants who envisioned being approached by a man; men's faces photographed posed in neutral facial expressions were shown in increasing size to mimic approach...
March 6, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229465/metacognitive-beliefs-and-rumination-as-predictors-of-anger-a-prospective-study
#8
Gabriele Caselli, Alessia Offredi, Francesca Martino, Davide Varalli, Giovanni M Ruggiero, Sandra Sassaroli, Marcantonio M Spada, Adrian Wells
The metacognitive approach conceptualizes the relationship between anger and rumination as driven by metacognitive beliefs, which are information individuals hold about their own cognition and about coping strategies that impact on it. The present study aimed to test the prospective predictive impact of metacognitive beliefs and rumination on anger in a community sample. Seventy-six participants were recruited and engaged in a 2-week anger, rumination, and metacognitive beliefs monitoring protocol. A multi-wave panel design was employed to test whether metacognitive beliefs and rumination have a prospective impact on anger...
February 23, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217970/anxiety-symptoms-as-a-moderator-of-the-reciprocal-links-between-forms-of-aggression-and-peer-victimization-in-middle-childhood
#9
John L Cooley, Andrew L Frazer, Paula J Fite, Shaquanna Brown, Moneika DiPierro
The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anxiety symptoms moderated the bidirectional associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) of aggression and peer victimization over a 1-year period during middle childhood. Participants were 228 predominantly Caucasian children (50.4% boys; M = 8.32 years, SD = .95 years) in the second through fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Children completed a self-report measure of anxiety symptoms at Time 1. Peer victimization was assessed using self-reports at Time 1 and approximately 1 year later (Time 2), and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at both time points...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#10
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#11
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181256/psychological-processes-in-young-bullies-versus-bully-victims
#12
Anouk van Dijk, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Tina Malti
Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others...
February 8, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168707/do-attachment-patterns-predict-aggression-in-a-context-of-social-rejection-an-executive-functioning-account
#13
Yuanxiao Ma, Haijing Ma, Xu Chen, Guangming Ran, Xing Zhang
People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns...
February 7, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747889/physical-and-relational-bullying-and-victimization-differential-relations-with-adolescent-dating-and-sexual-behavior
#14
Andrew V Dane, Zopito A Marini, Anthony A Volk, Tracy Vaillancourt
Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629521/predicting-aggression-in-adolescence-the-interrelation-between-a-lack-of-empathy-and-social-goals
#15
Babette C M van Hazebroek, Tjeert Olthof, Frits A Goossens
In an attempt to explain the inconsistent findings and overall weak relation between empathy and aggression, we focused on the role of emotional empathy (emotions of concern, compassion or sympathy toward a (potential) victim), agentic goals (the desire to be dominant during social interaction with peers) and their interplay (mediation or moderation) in the prediction of proactive aggression (learned instrumental behavior) in adolescence. Data were collected from 550 young Dutch adolescents, who filled out multiple questionnaires...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629385/unanimous-versus-partial-rejection-how-the-number-of-excluders-influences-the-impact-of-ostracism-in-children
#16
Marlene J Sandstrom, Marike H F Deutz, Tessa A M Lansu, Tirza H J van Noorden, Johan C Karremans, Antonius H N Cillessen
Previous research has shown that ostracism-the experience of being ignored and excluded-has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs (belongingness, control, meaningful existence, and self-esteem) of children (Study 1) and then extends the literature by examining the role of the number of ostracizers and inclusive members in this process by randomly assigning children to conditions varying in degree of ostracism (Study 2)...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629251/what-is-past-is-prologue-a-population-based-case-control-study-of-repeat-victimization-premature-mortality-and-homicide
#17
William Alex Pridemore, Mark T Berg
We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk-heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629104/helping-and-hurting-others-person-and-situation-effects-on-aggressive-and-prosocial-behavior-as-assessed-by-the-tangram-task
#18
Muniba Saleem, Christopher P Barlett, Craig A Anderson, Ian Hawkins
The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory-based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605486/do-the-same-risk-and-protective-factors-influence-aggression-toward-partners-and-same-sex-others
#19
Elizabeth A Bates, John Archer, Nicola Graham-Kevan
The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605443/examining-the-reactive-proactive-questionnaire-in-adults-in-forensic-and-non-forensic-settings-a-variable-and-person-based-approach
#20
Suzanne Brugman, Liza J M Cornet, Danique Smeijers, Kirsten Smeets, Sanne Oostermeijer, Jan K Buitelaar, Robbert-Jan Verkes, Jill Lobbestael, Catharina H de Kogel, Lucres M C Jansen
The Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) was originally developed to assess reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in children. Nevertheless, some studies have used the RPQ in adults. This study examines the reliability of the RPQ within an adult sample by investigating whether reactive and proactive aggression can be distinguished at a variable- and person-based level. Male adults from forensic samples (N = 237) and from the general population (N = 278) completed the RPQ questionnaire. Variable-based approaches, including factor analyses, were conducted to verify the two-factor model of the RPQ and to examine alternative factor solutions of the 23 items...
April 2017: Aggressive Behavior
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