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Journal of Mathematical Biology

Paulo Amorim, Thierry Goudon, Fernando Peruani
We analyze an ant navigation model based on Weber's law, where the ants move across a pheromone landscape sensing the area using two antennae. The key parameter of the model is the angle [Formula: see text] representing the span of the ant's sensing area. We show that when [Formula: see text] ants are able to follow (straight) pheromone trails proving that for initial conditions close to the trail, there exists a Lyapunov function that ensures ant trajectories converge on and follow the pheromone trail, with these solutions being locally asymptotically stable...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Catheryn W Gray, Adelle C F Coster
Akt/PKB is an important crosstalk node at the junction between a number of major signalling pathways in the mammalian cell. As a significant nutrient sensor, Akt plays a central role in many cellular processes, including cell growth, cell survival and glucose metabolism. The dysregulation of Akt signalling is implicated in the development of many diseases, from diabetes to cancer. The translocation of Akt from cytosol to plasma membrane is a crucial step in Akt activation. Akt is initially synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum, but translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin stimulation, where it may be activated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Li Ge, Jiaguo Liu, Yusen Zhang, Matthias Dehmer
We generalize chaos game representation (CGR) to higher dimensional spaces while maintaining its bijection, keeping such method sufficiently representative and mathematically rigorous compare to previous attempts. We first state and prove the asymptotic property of CGR and our generalized chaos game representation (GCGR) method. The prediction follows that the dissimilarity of sequences which possess identical subsequences but distinct positions would be lowered exponentially by the length of the identical subsequence; this effect was taking place unbeknownst to researchers...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Joan Carles Pons, Charles Semple, Mike Steel
Phylogenetic networks generalise phylogenetic trees and allow for the accurate representation of the evolutionary history of a set of present-day species whose past includes reticulate events such as hybridisation and lateral gene transfer. One way to obtain such a network is by starting with a (rooted) phylogenetic tree T, called a base tree, and adding arcs between arcs of T. The class of phylogenetic networks that can be obtained in this way is called tree-based networks and includes the prominent classes of tree-child and reticulation-visible networks...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Yue Ren, Johannes W R Martini, Jacinta Torres
We present a result on the number of decoupled molecules for systems binding two different types of ligands. In the case of n and 2 binding sites respectively, we show that there are [Formula: see text] decoupled molecules to a generic binding polynomial. For molecules with more binding sites for the second ligand, we provide computational results.
October 3, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Hadrien Oliveri, Jan Traas, Christophe Godin, Olivier Ali
A crucial question in developmental biology is how cell growth is coordinated in living tissue to generate complex and reproducible shapes. We address this issue here in plants, where stiff extracellular walls prevent cell migration and morphogenesis mostly results from growth driven by turgor pressure. How cells grow in response to pressure partly depends on the mechanical properties of their walls, which are generally heterogeneous, anisotropic and dynamic. The active control of these properties is therefore a cornerstone of plant morphogenesis...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Axel A Almet, Helen M Byrne, Philip K Maini, Derek E Moulton
We consider mechanically-induced pattern formation within the framework of a growing, planar, elastic rod attached to an elastic foundation. Through a combination of weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical methods, we identify how the shape and type of buckling (super- or subcritical) depend on material parameters, and a complex phase-space of transition from super- to subcritical is uncovered. We then examine the effect of heterogeneity on buckling and post-buckling behaviour, in the context of a heterogeneous substrate adhesion, elastic stiffness, or growth...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Alexander Lange, Robert Schwieger, Julia Plöntzke, Stefan Schäfer, Susanna Röblitz
The reproductive cycle of mono-ovulatory species such as cows or humans is known to show two or more waves of follicular growth and decline between two successive ovulations. Within each wave, there is one dominant follicle escorted by subordinate follicles of varying number. Under the surge of the luteinizing hormone a growing dominant follicle ovulates. Rarely the number of ovulating follicles exceeds one. In the biological literature, the change of hormonal concentrations and individually varying numbers of follicular receptors are made responsible for the selection of exactly one dominant follicle, yet a clear cause has not been identified...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Jamie J R Bennett, Jonathan A Sherratt
An aerial view of an intertidal mussel bed often reveals large scale striped patterns aligned perpendicular to the direction of the tide; dense bands of mussels alternate periodically with near bare sediment. Experimental work led to the formulation of a set of coupled partial differential equations modelling a mussel-algae interaction, which proved pivotal in explaining the phenomenon. The key class of model solutions to consider are one-dimensional periodic travelling waves (wavetrains) that encapsulate the abundance of peak and trough mussel densities observed in practice...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Yuri S Semenov, Artem S Novozhilov
The quasispecies model introduced by Eigen in 1971 has close connections with the isometry group of the space of binary sequences relative to the Hamming distance metric. Generalizing this observation we introduce an abstract quasispecies model on a finite metric space X together with a group of isometries [Formula: see text] acting transitively on X. We show that if the domain of the fitness function has a natural decomposition into the union of t G-orbits, G being a subgroup of [Formula: see text], then the dominant eigenvalue of the evolutionary matrix satisfies an algebraic equation of degree at most [Formula: see text], where R is the orbital ring that is defined in the text...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ibrahima Dione, Nicolas Doyon, Jean Deteix
Biological structures exhibiting electric potential fluctuations such as neuron and neural structures with complex geometries are modelled using an electrodiffusion or Poisson Nernst-Planck system of equations. These structures typically depend upon several parameters displaying a large degree of variation or that cannot be precisely inferred experimentally. It is crucial to understand how the mathematical model (and resulting simulations) depend on specific values of these parameters. Here we develop a rigorous approach based on the sensitivity equation for the electrodiffusion model...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Yuanshi Wang, Hong Wu, Donald L DeAngelis
Recent simulation modeling has shown that species can coevolve toward clusters of coexisting consumers exploiting the same limiting resource or resources, with nearly identical ratios of coefficients related to growth and mortality. This paper provides a mathematical basis for such as situation; a full analysis of the global dynamics of a new model for such a class of n-dimensional consumer-resource system, in which a set of consumers with identical growth to mortality ratios compete for the same resource and in which each consumer is mutualistic with the resource...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Chunhua Shan, Qihua Huang
When two competing species are simultaneously exposed in a polluted environment, one species may be more vulnerable to toxins than the other. To study the impact of environmental toxins on competition dynamics of two species, we develop a toxin-dependent competition model that incorporates both direct and indirect toxic effects on the species. The direct effects of toxins typically reduce population abundance by increasing mortality and reducing reproduction. However, the indirect effects, which are mediated through competitive interactions, may lead to counterintuitive effects...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Angelika Manhart
Hyperbolic transport-reaction equations are abundant in the description of movement of motile organisms. Here, we focus on a system of four coupled transport-reaction equations that arises from an age-structuring of a species of turning individuals. By modeling how the behavior depends on the time since the last reversal, we introduce a memory effect. The highlight consists of the explicit construction and characterization of counter-propagating traveling waves, patterns which have been observed in bacterial colonies...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Xiaoying Wang, Frithjof Lutscher
Many ecological systems show striking non-homogeneous population distributions. Diffusion-driven instabilities are commonly studied as mechanisms of pattern formation in many fields of biology but only rarely in ecology, in part because some of the conditions seem quite restrictive for ecological systems. Seasonal variation is ubiquitous in temperate ecosystems, yet its effect on pattern formation has not yet been explored. We formulate and analyze an impulsive reaction-diffusion system for a resource and its consumer in a two-season environment...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
M G Roberts, R I Hickson, J M McCaw, L Talarmain
We propose and analyse a model for the dynamics of a single strain of an influenza-like infection. The model incorporates waning acquired immunity to infection and punctuated antigenic drift of the virus, employing a set of differential equations within a season and a discrete map between seasons. We show that the between-season map displays a variety of qualitatively different dynamics: fixed points, periodic solutions, or more complicated behaviour suggestive of chaos. For some example parameters we demonstrate the existence of two distinct basins of attraction, that is the initial conditions determine the long term dynamics...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Qingyang Luo
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a commonly used molecular biology technique for measuring the concentration of a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample. The whole qPCR amplification process usually consists of an exponential, a linear and a plateau phase. In qPCR experiments, amplification curves of samples with different template concentrations often, even though not always, have the same plateau height. The biological theory for this phenomenon is that the plateau height is determined by reaction kinetics...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Camille Coron, Sylvie Méléard, Denis Villemonais
In this article we consider diffusion processes modeling the dynamics of multiple allelic proportions (with fixed and varying population size). We are interested in the way alleles extinctions and fixations occur. We first prove that for the Wright-Fisher diffusion process with selection, alleles get extinct successively (and not simultaneously), until the fixation of one last allele. Then we introduce a very general model with selection, competition and Mendelian reproduction, derived from the rescaling of a discrete individual-based dynamics...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ariel Camacho, Silvia Jerez
Metastatic disease is a lethal stage of cancer progression. It is characterized by the spread of aberrant cells from a primary tumor to distant tissues like the bone. Several treatments are used to deal with bone metastases formation, but they are palliative since the disease is considered incurable. Computational and mathematical models are used to understand the underlying mechanisms of how bone metastasis evolves. In this way, new therapies aiming to reduce or eliminate the metastatic burden in the bone tissue may be proposed...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Steven Kelk, Fabio Pardi, Celine Scornavacca, Leo van Iersel
Phylogenetic networks are often constructed by merging multiple conflicting phylogenetic signals into a directed acyclic graph. It is interesting to explore whether a network constructed in this way induces biologically-relevant phylogenetic signals that were not present in the input. Here we show that, given a multiple alignment A for a set of taxa X and a rooted phylogenetic network N whose leaves are labelled by X, it is NP-hard to locate a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree displayed by N (with respect to A) even when the level of N-the maximum number of reticulation nodes within a biconnected component-is 1 and A contains only 2 distinct states...
August 19, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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