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Journal of Mathematical Biology

Sabin Lessard, Cíntia Dalila Soares
In this paper we consider class-structured populations in discrete time in the limit of weak selection and with the inverse of the intensity of selection as unit of time. The aim is to establish a continuous model that approximates the discrete model. More precisely, we study frequency-dependent growth in an infinite haploid population structured into a finite number of classes such that individuals in each class contribute to a given subset of classes from one time step to the next. These contributions take the form of generalized fecundity parameters with perturbations of order 1 / N that depends on the class frequencies of each type and the type frequencies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Marc Hellmuth, Maribel Hernandez-Rosales, Yangjing Long, Peter F Stadler
Rare events have played an increasing role in molecular phylogenetics as potentially homoplasy-poor characters. In this contribution we analyze the phylogenetic information content from a combinatorial point of view by considering the binary relation on the set of taxa defined by the existence of a single event separating two taxa. We show that the graph-representation of this relation must be a tree. Moreover, we characterize completely the relationship between the tree of such relations and the underlying phylogenetic tree...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Zhenguo Bai, Rui Peng, Xiao-Qiang Zhao
In this paper, we propose a time-periodic reaction-diffusion model which incorporates seasonality, spatial heterogeneity and the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of the parasite. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is derived, and it is shown that the disease-free periodic solution is globally attractive if [Formula: see text], while there is an endemic periodic solution and the disease is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text]. Numerical simulations indicate that prolonging the EIP may be helpful in the disease control, while spatial heterogeneity of the disease transmission coefficient may increase the disease burden...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Mohit P Dalwadi, John R King, Nigel P Minton
A biosustainable production route for 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), an important platform chemical, would allow 3HP to be produced without using fossil fuels. We are interested in investigating a potential biochemical route to 3HP from pyruvate through [Formula: see text]-alanine and, in this paper, we develop and solve a mathematical model for the reaction kinetics of the metabolites involved in this pathway. We consider two limiting cases, one where the levels of pyruvate are never replenished, the other where the levels of pyruvate are continuously replenished and thus kept constant...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Alexandru Hening, Dang H Nguyen
We study the persistence and extinction of species in a simple food chain that is modelled by a Lotka-Volterra system with environmental stochasticity. There exist sharp results for deterministic Lotka-Volterra systems in the literature but few for their stochastic counterparts. The food chain we analyze consists of one prey and [Formula: see text] predators. The jth predator eats the [Formula: see text]th species and is eaten by the [Formula: see text]th predator; this way each species only interacts with at most two other species-the ones that are immediately above or below it in the trophic chain...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Derdei Bichara, Abderrahman Iggidr
We develop a multi-patch and multi-group model that captures the dynamics of an infectious disease when the host is structured into an arbitrary number of groups and interacts into an arbitrary number of patches where the infection takes place. In this framework, we model host mobility that depends on its epidemiological status, by a Lagrangian approach. This framework is applied to a general SEIRS model and the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is derived. The effects of heterogeneity in groups, patches and mobility patterns on [Formula: see text] and disease prevalence are explored...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
William F Basener, John C Sanford
The mutation-selection process is the most fundamental mechanism of evolution. In 1935, R. A. Fisher proved his fundamental theorem of natural selection, providing a model in which the rate of change of mean fitness is equal to the genetic variance of a species. Fisher did not include mutations in his model, but believed that mutations would provide a continual supply of variance resulting in perpetual increase in mean fitness, thus providing a foundation for neo-Darwinian theory. In this paper we re-examine Fisher's Theorem, showing that because it disregards mutations, and because it is invalid beyond one instant in time, it has limited biological relevance...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Swati Patel, Sebastian J Schreiber
Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
James Dowdall, Victor LeBlanc, Frithjof Lutscher
Biological invasions can cause great damage to existing ecosystems around the world. Most landscapes in which such invasions occur are heterogeneous. To evaluate possible management options, we need to understand the interplay between local growth conditions and individual movement behaviour. In this paper, we present a geometric approach to studying pinning or blocking of a bistable travelling wave, using ideas from the theory of symmetric dynamical systems. These ideas are exploited to make quantitative predictions about how spatial heterogeneities in dispersal and/or reproduction rates contribute to halting biological invasion fronts in reaction-diffusion models with an Allee effect...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Brian P Yurk
Animal movement behaviors vary spatially in response to environmental heterogeneity. An important problem in spatial ecology is to determine how large-scale population growth and dispersal patterns emerge within highly variable landscapes. We apply the method of homogenization to study the large-scale behavior of a reaction-diffusion-advection model of population growth and dispersal. Our model includes small-scale variation in the directed and random components of movement and growth rates, as well as large-scale drift...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Elisa Sovrano
We deal with the study of the evolution of the allelic frequencies, at a single locus, for a population distributed continuously over a bounded habitat. We consider evolution which occurs under the joint action of selection and arbitrary migration, that is independent of genotype, in absence of mutation and random drift. The focus is on a conjecture, that was raised up in literature of population genetics, about the possible uniqueness of polymorphic equilibria, which are known as clines, under particular circumstances...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
David B Damiano, Melissa R McGuirl
Single-photon emission computed tomography images of murine tumors are interpreted as the values of functions on a three-dimensional domain. Motivated by Morse theory, the local maxima of the tumor image functions are analyzed. This analysis captures tumor heterogeneity that cannot be identified with standard measures. Utilizing decreasing sequences of uptake values to filter the images, a modified form of the standard persistence diagrams for 0-dimensional persistent homology as well as novel childhood diagrams are constructed...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Xiunan Wang, Xiao-Qiang Zhao
Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are among the most important and effective intervention measures against malaria. In order to investigate the impact of bed net use on disease control, we formulate a periodic vector-bias malaria model incorporating the juvenile stage of mosquitoes and the use of ITNs. We derive the vector reproduction ratio [Formula: see text] and the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text]. We show that the global dynamics of the model is completely determined by these two reproduction ratios...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Matthew D Johnston, David F Anderson, Gheorghe Craciun, Robert Brijder
We study chemical reaction networks with discrete state spaces and present sufficient conditions on the structure of the network that guarantee the system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions we derive involve creating a modified chemical reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network and then checking properties of this network. Unlike previous results, our analysis allows algorithmic implementation via systems of equalities and inequalities and suggests sequences of reactions which may lead to extinction events...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Grégoire Nadin, Martin Strugarek, Nicolas Vauchelet
We study the biological situation when an invading population propagates and replaces an existing population with different characteristics. For instance, this may occur in the presence of a vertically transmitted infection causing a cytoplasmic effect similar to the Allee effect (e.g. Wolbachia in Aedes mosquitoes): the invading dynamics we model is bistable. We aim at quantifying the propagules (what does it take for an invasion to start?) and the invasive power (how far can an invading front go, and what can stop it?)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
K T Huber, V Moulton, M Steel
Trees with labelled leaves and with all other vertices of degree three play an important role in systematic biology and other areas of classification. A classical combinatorial result ensures that such trees can be uniquely reconstructed from the distances between the leaves (when the edges are given any strictly positive lengths). Moreover, a linear number of these pairwise distance values suffices to determine both the tree and its edge lengths. A natural set of pairs of leaves is provided by any 'triplet cover' of the tree (based on the fact that each non-leaf vertex is the median vertex of three leaves)...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Sze-Bi Hsu, King-Yeung Lam, Feng-Bin Wang
This paper presents a PDE system modeling the growth of a single species population consuming inorganic carbon that is stored internally in a poorly mixed habitat. Inorganic carbon takes the forms of "CO2" (dissolved CO2 and carbonic acid) and "CARB" (bicarbonate and carbonate ions), which are substitutable in their effects on algal growth. We first establish a threshold type result on the extinction/persistence of the species in terms of the sign of a principal eigenvalue associated with a nonlinear eigenvalue problem...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Fabio A C C Chalub, Max O Souza
This work is a systematic study of discrete Markov chains that are used to describe the evolution of a two-types population. Motivated by results valid for the well-known Moran (M) and Wright-Fisher (WF) processes, we define a general class of Markov chains models which we term the Kimura class. It comprises the majority of the models used in population genetics, and we show that many well-known results valid for M and WF processes are still valid in this class. In all Kimura processes, a mutant gene will either fixate or become extinct, and we present a necessary and sufficient condition for such processes to have the probability of fixation strictly increasing in the initial frequency of mutants...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
U A Rozikov
We define a DNA as a sequence of [Formula: see text]'s and embed it on a path of Cayley tree. Using group representation of the Cayley tree, we give a hierarchy of a countable set of DNAs each of which 'lives' on the same Cayley tree. This hierarchy has property that each vertex of the Cayley tree belongs only to one of DNA. Then we give a model (energy, Hamiltonian) of this set of DNAs by an analogue of Ising model with three spin values (considered as DNA base pairs) on a set of admissible configurations...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Judy Day
The spore-forming, gram-negative bacteria Clostridium difficile can cause severe intestinal illness. A striking increase in the number of cases of C. difficile infection (CDI) among hospitals has highlighted the need to better understand how to prevent the spread of CDI. In our paper, we modify and update a compartmental model of nosocomial C. difficile transmission to include vaccination. We then apply optimal control theory to determine the time-varying optimal vaccination rate that minimizes a combination of disease prevalence and spread in the hospital population as well as cost, in terms of time and money, associated with vaccination...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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