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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121502/the-prognostic-role-of-epigenetic-dysregulation-in-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
David Casadevall, Anaïs Yacine Kilian, Joaquim Bellmunt
BACKGROUND: Despite adequate treatment and follow-up, around one fifth of patients with localized bladder cancer will present with disease progression. Adequate prognostic biomarkers are lacking to define patients who are at risk. Mutations in chromatin remodeling genes are more frequently found in bladder cancer than in any other solid tumor. However, the prognostic relevance of epigenetic dysregulation has not been established and may offer an opportunity for biomarker discovery. METHODS: Looking for prognostic epigenetic factors, we performed a comprehensive PubMed search using keywords such as "bladder cancer", "chromatin remodeling", "gene methylation" and "epigenetics"...
November 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127857/the-updated-network-meta-analysis-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ayako Nakashoji, Tetsu Hayashida, Takamichi Yokoe, Hinako Maeda, Tomoka Toyota, Masayuki Kikuchi, Rurina Watanuki, Aiko Nagayama, Tomoko Seki, Maiko Takahashi, Takayuki Abe, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: We previously described a systematic assessment of the neoadjuvant therapies for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive breast cancer, using network meta-analysis. Accumulation of new clinical data has compelled us to update the analysis. METHODS: Randomized trials comparing different anti-HER2 regimens in the neoadjuvant setting were included, and odds ratio for pathologic complete response (pCR) in seven treatment arms were assessed by pooling effect sizes...
October 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126017/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-overexpression-and-outcomes-in-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Galileo A Gonzalez-Conchas, Laura Rodriguez-Romo, David Hernandez-Barajas, Juan F Gonzalez-Guerrero, Ivan A Rodriguez-Fernandez, Adrian Verdines-Perez, Arnoud J Templeton, Alberto Ocana, Bostjan Seruga, Ian F Tannock, Eitan Amir, Francisco E Vera-Badillo
BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of membrane tyrosine-kinase receptors. Studies exploring the prognostic role of EGFR-overexpression in early breast cancer have shown variable results, and the true prognostic value of EGFR is unknown. METHODS: A systematic review of identified publications exploring the association between EGFR-overexpression (as defined from different techniques and cut-offs) and outcomes [disease-free (DFS) and, overall survival (OS)] in women with early breast cancer...
October 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125982/disability-in-activities-of-daily-living-among-adults-with-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Josephine Neo, Lucy Fettes, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Matthew Maddocks
INTRODUCTION: People with cancer frequently report limitation in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs); essential activities required to live independently within society. Although several studies have assessed ADL related disability, variability in assessment, setting, and population means evidence is difficult to interpret. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ADL related disability, overall and by setting, and the most commonly affected ADLs in people living with cancer. METHODS: We searched twelve databases to June 2016 for observational studies assessing ADL disability in adults with cancer...
October 28, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125981/the-clinical-development-of-vaccines-for-her2-breast-cancer-current-landscape-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
R L B Costa, H Soliman, B J Czerniecki
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a tumor associated antigen over-expressed in 20-30% of cases of breast cancer. Passive immune therapy with HER2-directed monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has changed the natural history of this subset of breast tumors both in the localized and metastatic settings. The safety and efficacy of HER2 vaccines have been assessed in early phase clinical trials but to date clinically relevant results in late phase trials remain an elusive target. Here, we review the recent translational discoveries related to the interactions between the adaptive immune system and the HER2 antigen in breast cancer, results of published clinical trials, and future directions in the field of HER2 vaccine treatment development...
October 28, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108713/risk-of-adverse-events-with-the-addition-of-targeted-agents-to-endocrine-therapy-in-patients-with-hormone-receptor-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Samuel Martel, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, Christian Maurer, Noam Falbel Ponde, Arlindo R Ferreira, Giulia Viglietti, Lucia Del Mastro, Catherine Prady, Evandro de Azambuja, Matteo Lambertini
BACKGROUND: Combining targeted agents and endocrine therapy (ET) improves outcomes in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer patients but increases the risk of adverse events (AEs). This meta-analysis aims to estimate the comparative risk of AEs with ET in addition to targeted agents in this setting. METHODS: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and conference proceedings up to July 17th 2017 was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials investigating ET with or without CDK4/6, mTOR, PI3K inhibitors and anti-HER2 agents...
October 28, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102679/cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas-focusing-on-novel-agents-in-relapsed-and-refractory-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lisa Argnani, Alessandro Broccoli, Pier Luigi Zinzani
Patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) display a dismal prognosis and their therapy represents an unmet medical need, as the best treatment strategy is yet to be determined. Exciting data on novel targeted agents are now emerging from recently concluded and ongoing clinical trials in patients with relapsed and refractory CTCL. Three FDA approved compounds are used as single agents including the oral retinoid bexarotene and histone deacetylase inhibitors romidepsin and vorinostat...
October 28, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121501/does-c-met-remain-a-rational-target-for-therapy-in-patients-with-egfr-tki-resistant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Yi-Long Wu, Ross Andrew Soo, Giuseppe Locatelli, Uz Stammberger, Giorgio Scagliotti, Keunchil Park
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) inevitably develops resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. In 5-20% of cases, this can be attributed to aberrant c-Met activity, providing a clear rationale for the use of c-Met inhibitors in these patients. EGFR TKI-resistant tumors often remain sensitive to EGFR signaling, such that c-Met inhibitors are likely to be most effective when combined with continued EGFR TKI therapy. The phase III trials of the c-Met inhibitors onartuzumab and tivantinib, which failed to demonstrate significant benefit in patients with NSCLC but excluded patients with EGFR TKI-resistant disease, do not allow c-Met to be dismissed as a rational target in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC...
October 25, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100168/genetic-variants-as-ovarian-cancer-first-line-treatment-hallmarks-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Joana Assis, Carina Pereira, Augusto Nogueira, Deolinda Pereira, Rafael Carreira, Rui Medeiros
BACKGROUND: The potential predictive value of genetic polymorphisms in ovarian cancer first-line treatment is inconsistently reported. We aimed to review ovarian cancer pharmacogenetic studies to update and summarize the available data and to provide directions for further research. METHODS: A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis was conducted on cohort studies assessing the involvement of genetic polymorphisms in ovarian cancer first-line treatment response retrieved through a MEDLINE database search by November 2016...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100167/early-identification-and-intervention-matters-a-comprehensive-review-of-current-evidence-and-recommendations-for-the-monitoring-of-bone-health-in-patients-with-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Brodowicz, Peyman Hadji, Daniela Niepel, Ingo Diel
Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced solid tumors, and many individuals experience debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs; e.g. pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, radiotherapy or surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression). These events substantially affect disease outcomes, including survival and quality of life, and healthcare systems. Plain radiography is the most widely used imaging modality for the detection of bone metastases; skeletal scintigraphy, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater sensitivity but their use in routine practice is restricted by high costs and limited availability...
October 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100169/the-next-era-of-treatment-for-hormone-receptor-positive-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer-triplet-combination-based-endocrine-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Javier Cortés, Seock-Ah Im, Esther Holgado, Jose M Perez-Garcia, Peter Schmid, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor
Until recently, the standard of care for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer was single-agent endocrine therapy, which aims to prevent estrogen receptor signaling. This therapeutic strategy has extended survival without the toxicity associated with chemotherapy, but primary endocrine therapy resistance is common, and secondary resistance develops over time. Adjunct downstream inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/6 pathway, intended to delay and prevent endocrine therapy resistance, has further extended progression-free survival in patients receiving endocrine therapy; however, resistance still eventually develops in these patients...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073552/chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairments-white-matter-pathologies
#12
REVIEW
A Matsos, M Loomes, I Zhou, E Macmillan, I Sabel, E Rotziokos, W Beckwith, I N Johnston
Whilst chemotherapeutic agents show promising results in the amelioration of cancerous tumors, patients often experience cognitive disturbances associated with chemotherapy long after treatment has ceased. Research has suggested that the structural integrity of white matter fibres in the brain are susceptible to the harmful effects of chemotherapy. Post-chemotherapy, white matter tracts often display altered morphology with a reduction in glial cells such as oligodendrocytes. Demyelination, gliosis and leukoencephalopathy during or post chemotherapy is associated with changes in processing speed and IQ...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033261/erratum-to-limitations-and-opportunities-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-pediatric-malignancies-cancer-treat-rev-58c-2017-22-33
#13
Jeong A Park, Nai-Kong V Cheung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078133/androgen-receptor-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-beyond-expression
#14
REVIEW
Debora Basile, Marika Cinausero, Donatella Iacono, Giacomo Pelizzari, Marta Bonotto, Maria Grazia Vitale, Lorenzo Gerratana, Fabio Puglisi
In recent years, new therapeutic approaches have reshaped the overall strategy of breast cancer (BC) treatment and have markedly improved patient survival. This is, in part, due to novel therapies for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC. Unfortunately, many patients present de novo resistance to these therapies or develop an acquired resistance over time. Therefore, research is now focused on discovering new molecular targets to overcome these resistances. Interestingly, preclinical and clinical studies have shown a critical role for the cross-talk between androgen receptor (AR) and ER in luminal-like BC...
October 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028552/risk-reducing-salpingo-oophorectomy-in-brca1-and-brca2-mutated-patients-an-evidence-based-approach-on-what-women-should-know
#15
REVIEW
F De Felice, C Marchetti, S M Boccia, A Romito, C M Sassu, M G Porpora, L Muzii, V Tombolini, P Benedetti Panici
This review is focused on the ovarian cancer risk reduction management in BRCA mutation carriers and is intended to assist with clinical decision-making. Obviously, treatment decisions must be based on the available evidence. Despite risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is firmly recommended, several separate questions can be raised to address the variety of intense controversy of this approach. A special emphasis lies in the effective preventive surgical measure against ovarian cancer risk, in an attempt to detect the optimal timing and mitigate the impact on patients...
September 28, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992528/adjuvant-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Massari, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Chiara Ciccarese, Jeffrey Graham, Camillo Porta, Francesca Comito, Marta Cubelli, Roberto Iacovelli, Daniel Y C Heng
Several drugs have demonstrated clinical activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The identification of key metabolic pathways has led to the development of novel targeted therapies which have drastically changed the treatment paradigm of mRCC. Moreover, immune-checkpoint inhibitors have recently shown significant activity in advanced disease. Despite these advancements, the role of adjuvant therapy in localized, non-metastatic RCC remains unclear. The utility of many of these agents in the adjuvant setting is currently being actively explored...
November 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961555/dna-damage-response-inhibitors-mechanisms-and-potential-applications-in-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Laura Carrassa, Giovanna Damia
Over the last decade the unravelling of the molecular mechanisms of the DNA damage response pathways and of the genomic landscape of human tumors have paved the road to new therapeutic approaches in oncology. It is now clear that tumors harbour defects in different DNA damage response steps, mainly signalling and repair, rendering them more dependent on the remaining pathways. We here focus on the proteins ATM, ATR, CHK1 and WEE1, reviewing their roles in the DNA damage response and as targets in cancer therapy...
November 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961554/cdk4-6-inhibition-in-early-and-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-review
#18
REVIEW
A F de Groot, C J Kuijpers, J R Kroep
Breast cancer (BC) is responsible for 14% of cancer-related deaths in women [1]. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors are a new class of selective drugs, offering an effective and tolerable treatment. CDK4/6 inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and may thereby prevent tumour progression. Three CDK4/6 inhibitors have been tested in clinical BC trials: palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EMA) have approved palbociclib for the treatment of patients HR+ HER2- locally advanced or metastatic BC (aBC) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor as initial therapy in postmenopausal women or in combination with fulvestrant in women who have received prior endocrine therapy...
November 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946015/peripheral-t-cell-lymphomas-focusing-on-novel-agents-in-relapsed-and-refractory-disease
#19
REVIEW
Alessandro Broccoli, Lisa Argnani, Pier Luigi Zinzani
Patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma display a dismal prognosis and their therapy represents an unmet medical need, as the best treatment strategy is yet to be determined. Exciting data on novel targeted agents are now emerging from recently concluded and ongoing clinical trials in patients with relapsed and refractory PTCL. Four recently approved compounds are used as single agents: pralatrexate, a novel antifolate agent; romidepsin and belinostat, both histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors; brentuximab vedotin, an anti-CD30 drug-conjugated monoclonal antibody...
November 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946014/targeting-braf-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-maximizing-molecular-approaches
#20
REVIEW
John H Strickler, Christina Wu, Tanios Bekaii-Saab
Oncogenic mutations in B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) occur in 7-10% of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC). Despite recent improvements in survival in the general population of patients with mCRC, patients with BRAF-mutant mCRC continue to have poor response to most systemic therapies, and prognosis remains poor. There is a substantial unmet need for novel therapeutic strategies to treat patients with BRAF-mutant mCRC. This review outlines the epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, prognosis, and mechanisms of treatment resistance of BRAF-mutated CRC...
November 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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