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Cancer Treatment Reviews

Angela Lamarca, Jorge Barriuso, Mairéad G McNamara, Juan W Valle
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs), including cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer and ampullary cancers, are poor-prognosis malignancies. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease, when treatment is limited to palliative chemotherapy. First line chemotherapy is usually administered in the form of cisplatin and gemcitabine. Benefit from second line chemotherapy is still to be confirmed. Even though new systemic treatment targets have been recognised, especially in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (e...
September 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Javier S Morales, Pedro L Valenzuela, Cecilia Rincón-Castanedo, Tim Takken, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Alejandro Lucia
INTRODUCTION: Physical capacity and quality of life (QoL) are typically impaired in children/adolescents with cancer. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of exercise training performed after diagnosis of any type of pediatric cancer on physical capacity-related endpoints, survival, disease relapse and adverse effects. METHODS: (a) Search and selection criteria: Systematic review in Pubmed and Web of Science (until August 2018) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise interventions in children with cancer during treatment or within one year after its end...
September 3, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Meredith A McKean, Rodabe N Amaria
Stage III melanoma encompasses a range of disease burdens, including microscopic foci of metastatic melanoma in a sentinel lymph node; bulky, clinically detected lymphadenopathy; and in-transit dermal metastases. After initial surgical management, patients with stage III melanoma at highest risk for recurrence are most likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy. Novel therapies that have improved the disease response rates and long-term survival of patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma have now been evaluated in the adjuvant setting, with the goal of eliminating residual microscopic disease to improve relapse-free and overall survival...
August 29, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Si-Qi Qiu, Stijn J H Waaijer, Mieke C Zwager, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Bert van der Vegt, Carolien P Schröder
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are important tumor-promoting cells in the breast tumor microenvironment. Preclinically TAMs stimulate breast tumor progression, including tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. TAMs also induce resistance to multiple types of treatment in breast cancer models. The underlying mechanisms include: induction and maintenance of tumor-promoting phenotype in TAMs, inhibition of CD8+ T cell function, degradation of extracellular matrix, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of phagocytosis...
August 28, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Ibrahim Algorashi, Hadar Goldvaser, Domen Ribnikar, David W Cescon, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: Hormone receptor positive breast cancer is characterized by a prolonged risk of recurrence. Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy improves disease-free survival (DFS), but no effect on overall survival has been observed. This may be explained by changes in the relative contribution of local, regional and distant recurrences as well as non-breast cancer death to DFS events over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed sequential reports of large, randomized, adjuvant endocrine therapy trials extracting the number and types of recurrences defining DFS events at each point over follow-up...
August 24, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Roberto Iacovelli, Chiara Ciccarese, Emilio Bria, Davide Bimbatti, Emanuela Fantinel, Claudia Mosillo, Iolanda Bisogno, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora, Camillo Porta
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors against PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA4 have emerged as new treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), despite discrepancy between their effects on OS and PFS. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing immunotherapy to standard of care (SOC) in mRCC. METHODS: Searching the MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library and ASCO Meeting abstracts prospective studies were identified. Data extraction was conducted according to the PRISMA statement...
August 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Claudia Mosillo, Roberto Iacovelli, Chiara Ciccarese, Emanuela Fantinel, Davide Bimbatti, Matteo Brunelli, Iolanda Bisogno, Stefania Kinspergher, Consuelo Buttigliero, Marcello Tucci, Orazio Caffo, Giampaolo Tortora
De novo metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) accounts for about 4% of all prostate tumors in Western Countries. This condition has a heterogeneous biological e clinical behavior, ranging from indolent to aggressive and rapidly fatal forms. Recently, the therapeutic landscape for mCSPC has been broadly enriched; indeed robust evidence supports the addiction of chemotherapy (docetaxel) or abiraterone acetate to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), the latter considered for long the unique standard of care...
August 11, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Samson Mathews Samuel, Elizabeth Varghese, Sharon Varghese, Dietrich Büsselberg
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic disease worldwide and affects all cross-sections of the society including children, women, youth and adults. Scientific evidence has linked diabetes to higher incidence, accelerated progression and increased aggressiveness of different cancers. Among the different forms of cancer, research has reinforced a link between diabetes and the risk of breast cancer. Some studies have specifically linked diabetes to the highly aggressive, triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) which do not respond to conventional hormonal/HER2 targeted interventions, have chances of early recurrence, metastasize, tend to be more invasive in nature and develop drug resistance...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Alexander Egle, Lisa Pleyer, Thomas Melchardt, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Richard Greil
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment has come a long way in the last two decades, producing increases in tumor control to the point of generating sizeable numbers of patients with undetectable minimal residual disease and creating overall survival benefits in randomized comparisons. Most of this has been achieved by limited-term treatment approaches including chemotherapeutic and immune-therapeutic drugs. More recently, novel therapies targeting signaling pathways essential for the survival of the neoplastic clones have opened avenues that provide disease control in long-term treatment designs, mostly without producing deep remissions...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Scott S Tykodi, Dirk Schadendorf, David Cella, Martin Reck, Kevin Harrington, Samuel Wagner, James W Shaw
Patients with recurrent or metastatic cancer commonly suffer from debilitating toxicity associated with conventional treatment modalities, as well as disease-related symptoms, often with a concomitant negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide important insights into the patient experience in clinical trials. Nivolumab is a programmed death-1 receptor inhibitor that extends survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic disease in multiple tumor types...
August 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rico D Bense, Si-Qi Qiu, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Carolien P Schröder, Rudolf S N Fehrmann
Extended endocrine therapy can reduce recurrences occurring more than 5 years after diagnosis (late recurrences) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Given the side effects of endocrine therapy, optimal patient selection for extended treatment is crucial. Enhanced understanding of late recurrence biology could optimize patient selection in this setting. We therefore summarized the current knowledge of late recurrence biology, clinical trials on extended endocrine therapy, and tools for predicting late recurrence and benefit from treatment extension...
July 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
M Nuti, I G Zizzari, A Botticelli, A Rughetti, P Marchetti
In renal cancer emerging treatment options are becoming available and there is a strong need to combine therapies to reformulate and adjourn clinical practice. We here highlight and discuss the need to take advantage of the common immune targets to design combined strategies to increase clinical responses.
July 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Joyce O'Shaughnessy, J Thaddeus Beck, Melanie Royce
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Endocrine therapy is the standard of care for the most common subtype of MBC, hormone-receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) disease. Advances in treating this type of MBC have focused on improving the efficacy of endocrine therapy by adding agents that target specific molecular pathways of breast cancer cell growth and survival. The combination of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane and the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, more than doubled median progression-free survival compared with exemestane alone (7...
July 23, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Issam S Hamadeh, Jai N Patel, Stephanie Rusin, Antoinette R Tan
BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy for patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in both adjuvant and metastatic settings. Their use in clinical practice has been challenged by significant inter-individual variability in response and tolerability. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct review of the literature on the genetic factors contributing to this variability. DESIGN: A systematic search in PUBMED was conducted to identify studies that investigated the association between germline polymorphisms and disposition, clinical response and toxicities of aromatase inhibitors, as well as those evaluating the implications of mutations in ESR1 on clinical response...
July 23, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Paul Sargos, Brian C Baumann, Libni Eapen, John Christodouleas, Amhit Bahl, Vedang Murthy, Jason Efstathiou, Valérie Fonteyne, Leslie Ballas, Mohamed Zaghloul, Guilhem Roubaud, Mathieu Orré, Stéphane Larré
BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) associated with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the most common local therapy in the management of non-metastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Loco-regional recurrence (LRR), however, remains a common and important therapeutic challenge associated with poor oncologic outcomes. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding factors associated with LRR and to propose a framework for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with MIBC...
July 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Wim G Groen, Wim H van Harten, Jeff K Vallance
BACKGROUND: Physically active cancer survivors have a reduced risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. Given the health advantages of active lifestyles in cancer survivorship, as well as the barriers preventing physical activity (e.g., geography, time) there is a need to develop and evaluate effective physical activity interventions that employ distance-based (i.e., non face-to-face) approaches. The primary objective of this study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of present-day (2013-2018) distance-based physical activity behaviour change interventions for cancer survivors...
July 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Michael B Atkins, Nizar M Tannir
There has been significant progress in the treatment of patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with improved knowledge of disease biology and the introduction of targeted agents and immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss current and emerging first-line treatment options, including recent approvals of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) cabozantinib and the immunotherapy combination of nivolumab (anti-programmed cell death 1 [PD-1])/ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4]), and initial outcomes with the combination of atezolizumab (anti-PD-ligand 1 [PD-L1])/bevacizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF])...
July 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Consuelo Buttigliero, Simona Allis, Marcello Tucci, Clizia Zichi, Gianmarco Leone, Rosario Francesco Di Stefano, Maria Grazia Ruo Redda, Umberto Ricardi, Giorgio Vittorio Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
In the last few years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been extensively investigated in renal cell carcinoma and led to remarkable results. Radiation therapy may increase the activity of immune modulating agents through different mechanisms, priming the immune system, recruiting immune cells to the tumor environment, and altering the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment. Preclinical studies reported increased loco-regional control when radiation is combined with immune-checkpoint blockade...
July 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rachel Bosshard, Karl O'Reilly, Stephen Ralston, Shkun Chadda, David Cork
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare hematologic malignancy largely affecting older adults. Comorbidities may compromise fitness and eligibility for high-intensity chemotherapy (HIC). This study presents the results of two systematic reviews (SRs) assessing (1) the impact of AML and current treatments on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and (2) the economic burden and cost drivers of AML in patients who are ineligible for HIC. METHODS: Electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, Cochrane library) were supplemented with manual searching of conference, utility, and HTA databases...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Wang-Qin Shen, Liang Yao, Xiao-Qin Wang, Yan Hu, Zhao-Xiang Bian
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of clinical practice guidelines of cancer cachexia and identify gaps limiting knowledge. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant guideline websites and literature databases (including PubMed, NCCN, NGC, SIGN, NICE, and google) was undertaken from inception to March 2017 to identify and select clinical guidelines related to cancer cachexia. Four independent reviewers assessed the eligible guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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