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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414986/post-neoadjuvant-strategies-in-breast-cancer-from-risk-assessment-to-treatment-escalation
#1
REVIEW
Giacomo Pelizzari, Lorenzo Gerratana, Debora Basile, Valentina Fanotto, Michele Bartoletti, Alessia Liguori, Caterina Fontanella, Simon Spazzapan, Fabio Puglisi
The post-neoadjuvant setting in early breast cancer represents an attractive scenario for adjuvant clinical trials, offering the opportunity to test new drugs or combinations in high-risk patients who did not achieve pathologic complete response after primary treatment. No standard therapies are routinely proposed to patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and few trials have explored this setting. To date, only one randomized phase III study showed the benefit of additional capecitabine after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and international guidelines recommend at least to consider its use, particularly for triple negative breast cancer...
October 30, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414985/chemotherapy-in-elderly-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-efficacy-feasibility-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Marina Macchini, Marta Chiaravalli, Silvia Zanon, Umberto Peretti, Elena Mazza, Luca Gianni, Michele Reni
By 2030 70% of newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) will occur in older adults. Elderly patients, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as people older than 65 years, represent a heterogeneous group with different biological and functional characteristics that need personalized anticancer treatments. Since older patients are under-represented in randomized phase III trials, their management is mostly extrapolated from studies performed in younger patients, without robust evidence-based recommendations...
October 29, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390423/in-vivo-cancer-vaccination-which-dendritic-cells-to-target-and-how
#3
REVIEW
Cheryl Lai-Lai Chiang, Lana E Kandalaft
The field of cancer immunotherapy has been revolutionized with the use of immune checkpoint blockade antibodies such as anti-programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Significant clinical benefits are observed in different cancer types with these treatments. While considerable efforts are made in augmenting tumor-specific T cell responses with these therapies, other immunotherapies that actively stimulate endogenous anti-tumor T cells and generating long-term memory have received less attention...
October 25, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415106/palliative-treatment-of-germ-cell-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Oing, Patrizia Giannatempo, Friedemann Honecker, Karin Oechsle, Carsten Bokemeyer, Jörg Beyer
Most patients with metastatic germ-cell cancer (GCC) can be cured by cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Yet, about 10-15% of metastatic GCC patients will eventually die of their disease. This narrative review focuses on treatment options when cure is no longer realistic.
October 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366200/management-of-brain-metastases-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-era-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Anna Wrona, Rafał Dziadziuszko, Jacek Jassem
Lung cancer represents the most common cause of brain dissemination. Oncogene-addicted (EGFR- and ALK-positive) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are characterized by a unique metastatic neurotropism resulting in a particularly high incidence of brain metastases. The goal of optimal brain metastases management is to improve both overall survival and quality of life, with the focus on neurocognitive function preservation. Neurosurgery is offered to patients presenting with limited intracranial tumor burden located in surgically accessible un-eloquent regions of the brain, whereas stereotactic radiosurgery represents the preferred radiotherapy option for patients not amenable to surgery...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366201/absolute-benefit-from-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-contemporary-clinical-trials-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Hadar Goldvaser, Domen Ribnikar, Habeeb Majeed, Alberto Ocaña, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: Many adjuvant breast cancer trials have observed smaller than anticipated differences between experimental and control groups. Accurate estimation of the absolute benefits of treatment is essential for the planning of clinical trials. METHODS: We searched PubMed to identify contemporary randomized trials comparing different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer. The absolute difference in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall-survival between experimental and control groups were extracted, weighted by individual study sample size and pooled...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343173/third-line-treatment-of-advanced-oesophagogastric-cancer-a-critical-review-of-current-evidence-and-evolving-trends
#7
REVIEW
P Edwards, M Davidson, V Calamai, D Cunningham, N Starling
There is increasing evidence that treatment beyond second line provides significant survival benefit for selected advanced oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma patients, and important randomised controlled trials of both chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy have recently been reported in this space. Despite this growing evidence base there are presently no formal guidelines for third line treatment available to clinicians, and as these agents move into routine clinical practice patient selection and rational sequencing of treatment will become an increasingly relevant clinical challenge...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359792/immunotherapy-for-oncogenic-driven-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-is-the-time-ripe-for-a-change
#8
REVIEW
J Remon, L E Hendriks, C Cabrera, N Reguart, B Besse
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in first- and second-line setting improving the prognosis of these patients. However, the treatment landscape has been also drastically overturned with the advent of targeted therapies in oncogenic-addicted advanced NSCLC patients. Despite ICIs represent an active and new treatment option for a wide range of advanced NSCLC patients, the efficacy and the optimal place of ICI in the treatment strategy algorithm of oncogenic-addicted tumors remains still controversial, as only a minority of trials with ICI enrol oncogenic-addicted NSCLC patients previously treated with standard therapy...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352319/systemic-therapies-in-patients-with-advanced-well-differentiated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-pannets-when-cytoreduction-is-the-aim-a-critical-review-with-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Marta Pozzari, Patrick Maisonneuve, Francesca Spada, Alfredo Berruti, Vito Amoroso, Chiara Alessandra Cella, Alice Laffi, Stefania Pellicori, Emilio Bertani, Nicola Fazio
INTRODUCTION: Cytoreduction is sometimes an important aim of systemic anti-tumor therapies in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). As there is not a gold standard treatment for these tumors in this field, we conducted a literature review in order to identify objective criteria for treatment choice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We critically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of all published clinical studies of systemic therapies in patients with well-differentiated unresectable PanNETs, selecting only those articles which reported tumor shrinkage (TS) with a waterfall plot (WP)...
October 13, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326422/brachytherapy-versus-external-beam-radiotherapy-boost-for-prostate-cancer-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Lam Cham Kee, Jocelyn Gal, Alexander T Falk, Renaud Schiappa, Marie-Eve Chand, Mathieu Gautier, Jérôme Doyen, Jean-Michel Hannoun-Levi
BACKGROUND: Brachytherapy boost after external beam radiotherapy for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer is presented as an attractive technique in numerous retrospective and prospective studies. Currently, three randomized controlled trials comparing brachytherapy versus external beam radiotherapy boost used non-homogenous irradiation features. Therefore, we analyzed the oncological outcomes by a systematic review with meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases up to 30/04/10 and we considered all published randomized controlled trials comparing brachytherapy versus external beam radiotherapy boost for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement...
October 11, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326421/translating-the-anti-myeloma-activity-of-natural-killer-cells-into-clinical-application
#11
REVIEW
Cinzia Fionda, Helena Stabile, Rosa Molfetta, Alessandra Soriani, Giovanni Bernardini, Alessandra Zingoni, Angela Gismondi, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni
Natural Killer cells (NK) are innate effector cells with a critical role in immunosurveillance against different kinds of cancer cells, including Multiple Myeloma (MM). However, the number and/or function of these lymphocytes are strongly reduced during MM progression and in advanced clinical stages. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling both MM and NK cell biology have greatly contributed to develop novel and combined therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this incurable hematologic malignancy...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326423/current-status-of-proton-therapy-outcome-for-paediatric-cancers-of-the-central-nervous-system-analysis-of-the-published-literature
#12
REVIEW
Myxuan Huynh, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eileen Giles, Michala Short, Donna Matthews, Eva Bezak
INTRODUCTION: The most common solid tumours that develop in children are cancers of the central nervous system. Due to the increased rate of survival over the past decades, greater focus has been placed on the minimisation of long term side effects. In childhood cancer survivors, over 60% report one or more radiation-related late toxicities while half of these adverse events are graded as life-threatening or severe. Proton therapy enables high conformity with the planning target volume and a reduction in dose to areas beyond the target...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321741/cancer-cachexia-and-myopenia-update-on-management-strategies-and-the-direction-of-future-research-for-optimizing-body-composition-in-cancer-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Edward T Pring, George Malietzis, Robin H Kennedy, Thanos Athanasiou, John T Jenkins
PURPOSE: Body composition degenerates with cancer. Optimizing body composition is rarely, if ever, undertaken. This narrative review highlights and evaluates emerging treatments that have the potential to improve outcomes for our cancer patients. OBSERVATIONS: Body composition in cancer patients has been shown to be modifiable; enhanced body composition is associated with improved short term, long-term outcomes and survival in addition to improvements in function and quality of life...
October 6, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366202/best-practices-for-the-management-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors-a-position-paper-by-the-italian-collaborative-group-for-thymic-malignancies-tyme
#14
REVIEW
Martina Imbimbo, Margaret Ottaviano, Milena Vitali, Alessandra Fabbri, Giovanni Leuzzi, Michele Fiore, Davide Franceschini, Giulia Pasello, Matteo Perrino, Marco Schiavon, Giancarlo Pruneri, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Claudia Sangalli, Marina Chiara Garassino, Rossana Berardi, Alessandra Alessi, Giuseppina Calareso, Iacopo Petrini, Marta Scorsetti, Vieri Scotti, Lorenzo Rosso, Federico Rea, Ugo Pastorino, Paolo Giovanni Casali, Sara Ramella, Umberto Ricardi, Laura Abate-Daga, Valter Torri, Annalisa Trama, Giovannella Palmieri, Mirella Marino, Paolo Andrea Zucali
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are a heterogenous group of rare tumors, with a complex histopatological classification. Furthermore, the recent introduction of the first TNM staging system, that is scheduled to replace the Masaoka-Koga system, may create further difficulties in TET management, that remains challenging. Several guidelines for treatment of TETs are available and provide recommendations based mainly on non randomized trials and retrospective or limited series. Often the lack of evidence leads to formulation of indications based on expert opinions...
October 5, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292979/prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-for-somatostatin-analogs-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy-and-serotonin-pathway-targets-in-neuroendocrine-tumours
#15
REVIEW
Jorge Barriuso, Ana Custodio, Ruth Afonso, Vicente Alonso, Aurora Astudillo, Jaume Capdevila, Rocío García-Carbonero, Enrique Grande, Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Mónica Marazuela, Cristina Rodríguez-Antona, Javier Aller
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms regarding their molecular biology, clinical behaviour, prognosis and response to therapy. Several attempts to establish robust predictive biomarkers have failed. Neither tissue markers nor blood borne ones have proven to be successful yet. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) as "liquid biopsies" could provide prognostic information at the time a therapeutic decision needs to be made and could be an attractive tool for tumour monitoring throughout the treatment period...
September 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308466/molecular-imaging-to-enlighten-cancer-immunotherapies-and-underlying-involved-processes
#16
REVIEW
Elly L van der Veen, Frederike Bensch, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge, Elisabeth G E de Vries
Cancer immunotherapy has led to impressive antitumor effects. However, not all patients respond to immunotherapy, serious toxicity can occur and combination therapy may be warranted. Strategies for rational early treatment choices are urgently required. In the absence of ideal accompanying biomarkers it remains challenging to capture the dynamic, heterogeneous and complex tumor behavior. Tumor immune response involves next to tumor cells, numerous other cells and molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We review research to identify potential novel imaging biomarkers by non-invasive whole body molecular imaging with positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography for cancer immunotherapy...
September 25, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300771/management-of-non-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Yohann Loriot, Stéphane Supiot, Jean-Baptiste Beauval, Friederike Schlürmann, Gilles Pasticier, Paul Sargos, Philippe Barthélémy, Géraldine Pignot, Denis Maillet, Sébastien Vincendeau, Emmanuel Gross, Guillaume Ploussard, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Delphine Borchiellini
Management of non metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer is challenging for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of the disease and to the scarce clinical data available in this setting. Recent results obtained with the new generation hormone therapies (NGHT) apalutamide and enzalutamide bring a new perspective for the treatment strategy. The authors present here a systematic review of the treatment options.
September 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273812/predictive-and-on-treatment-monitoring-biomarkers-in-advanced-melanoma-moving-toward-personalized-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Ahmad Tarhini, Ragini R Kudchadkar
The treatment armamentarium for patients with metastatic melanoma has increased substantially over the past decade with the regulatory approval of targeted BRAF + MEK inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors, which have vastly improved long-term outcomes. Recently, these advances have been rapidly translated to the high-risk adjuvant setting. Primary and acquired resistance to both immune and molecularly targeted agents, however, remains a challenge. Therefore, biomarkers predictive of response to therapy that can be assessed prior to initiation of treatment and early during the course of therapy are critical...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336366/restoring-guardianship-of-the-genome-anticancer-drug-strategies-to-reverse-oncogenic-mutant-p53-misfolding
#19
REVIEW
Husam A Babikir, Rayhaneh Afjei, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Tarik F Massoud
p53 is a transcription factor that activates numerous genes involved in essential maintenance of genetic stability. P53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. One third of these mutations are structural, resulting in mutant p53 with a disrupted protein conformation. Here we review current progress in a relatively underexplored aspect of p53-targeted drug development, that is, strategies to reactivate wild-type function of misfolded mutant p53. Unfortunately, most p53-targeted drugs are still at early stages of development and many of them are progressing slowly toward clinical implementation...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269007/restored-replication-fork-stabilization-a-mechanism-of-parp-inhibitor-resistance-can-be-overcome-by-cell-cycle-checkpoint-inhibition
#20
REVIEW
Brittany Haynes, Junko Murai, Jung-Min Lee
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition serves as a potent therapeutic option eliciting synthetic lethality in cancers harboring homologous recombination (HR) repair defects, such as BRCA mutations. However, the development of resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPis) poses a clinical challenge. Restoration of HR competency is one of the many molecular factors contributing to PARPi resistance. Combination therapy with cell cycle checkpoint (ATR, CHK1, and WEE1) inhibitors is being investigated clinically in many cancers, particularly in ovarian cancer, to enhance the efficacy and circumvent resistance to PARPis...
September 11, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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