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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535439/critical-focus-on-mechanisms-of-resistance-and-toxicity-of-m-tor-inhibitors-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
REVIEW
L Antonuzzo, M Del Re, V Barucca, F Spada, G Meoni, G Restante, R Danesi, F Di Costanzo, N Fazio
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms representing less than 2% of all pancreatic malignancies. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is often deregulated in pNETs and seems to play a key role in tumorigenesis. Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of pNETs. Nevertheless de novo or acquired drug resistance is responsible for disease progression and represents a major obstacle to overcome by clinicians. Blocking the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway may cover the supposed main mechanisms of resistance to everolimus...
May 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527407/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-systemic-therapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Galletti, Benjamin I Leach, Linda Lam, Scott T Tagawa
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) now have an unprecedented number of approved treatment options, including chemotherapies (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (enzalutamide, abiraterone), a radioisotope (radium-223) and a cancer vaccine (sipuleucel-T). However, the optimal treatment sequencing pathway is unknown, and this problem is exacerbated by the issues of primary and acquired resistance. This review focuses on mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies and taxane-based chemotherapy...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505475/colorectal-cancer-subtypes-translation-to-routine-clinical-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Antonia K Roseweir, Donald C McMillan, Paul G Horgan, Joanne Edwards
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in Europe. Although outcomes have improved, it is clear that from a genomic standpoint CRC is not one disease, but a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise within one organ. Given that different subtypes have different outcomes, the ability to subtype tumours in the clinic would be highly favourable, enabling optimal treatment for individual patients. In 2015, a consortium proposed four consensus subtypes for CRC (MSI immune, canonical, metabolic, and mesenchymal) based on six classifications systems reported to have prognostic value...
May 4, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525810/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-her2-positive-breast-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-plus-trastuzumab-lapatinib-or-their-combination-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
C Solinas, M Ceppi, M Lambertini, M Scartozzi, L Buisseret, S Garaud, D Fumagalli, E de Azambuja, R Salgado, C Sotiriou, K Willard-Gallo, M Ignatiadis
BACKGROUND: A relationship between baseline tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and outcomes has been described in HER2-positive breast cancer. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this association and whether this effect differs based on the type of anti-HER2 agent remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between baseline TIL and pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab and lapatinib either alone or in combination...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457880/the-notch-1-receptor-in-prostate-tumorigenesis
#5
REVIEW
Rebecca O'Brien, Laure Marignol
The Notch signalling pathway plays a fundamental role in tissue development due to its involvement in cell fate determination and postnatal tissue differentiation. Its capacity to regulate cell growth and development has been linked to the occurrence of several cancers including that of the prostate. The transmembrane receptor Notch-1 of this pathway has been linked to the oncogenic role of Notch signalling in prostate adenocarcinoma. Other studies have suggested a tumour suppressive function for Notch-1. This review focuses on the role of Notch-1 in prostate cancer development and maintenance and relates this to the fundamental role of Notch in normal prostate development...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453966/psychotherapy-for-depression-among-advanced-incurable-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Toru Okuyama, Tatsuo Akechi, Lisa Mackenzie, Toshi A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms among advanced, incurable cancer patients. Patients commonly report a preference for non-pharmacological treatments such as psychotherapy over pharmacological treatments for depression. The objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in people with advanced, incurable cancer via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched research databases and clinical trial registries for studies published prior to June 2015...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437678/efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-price-of-newly-approved-drugs-in-solid-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Tristan A Barnes, Eitan Amir, Arnoud J Templeton, Susana Gomez-Garcia, Beatriz Navarro, Bostjan Seruga, Alberto Ocana
BACKGROUND: New anti-cancer drugs utilize diverse mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate their differential efficacy, safety, tolerability and price. METHODS: Drugs approved for solid tumor treatment between 2000 and 2015 were identified and analyzed in subgroups: agents targeting oncogenes (group 1), anti-angiogenics (group 2), immunotherapy (group 3), and chemotherapy (group 4). Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted from the registration trials and pooled in a meta-analysis...
April 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431263/epigenetic-therapy-and-chemosensitization-in-solid-malignancy
#8
REVIEW
Sean M Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Anup Sharma, Nita Ahuja
Epigenetic modifications result in dynamic shifts between transcriptionally active and suppressed states. The potentially reversible nature of epigenetic changes underlies the concept of epigenetic therapy, which serves to reprogram cancer cells as opposed to inducing cytotoxicity that occurs with standard chemotherapeutics. There are numerous enzymes involved in epigenetic changes and each can be potentially targetable. Although many investigations have evaluated the clinical potential of the various epigenetic therapies, currently only histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for use in specific hematologic malignancies...
April 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427013/the-accelerated-path-of-ceritinib-translating-pre-clinical-development-into-clinical-efficacy
#9
REVIEW
Tony S K Mok, Lucio Crino, Enriqueta Felip, Ravi Salgia, Tommaso De Pas, Daniel S W Tan, Laura Q M Chow
The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007 led to the development and subsequent approval of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib in 2011. However, despite its clinical efficacy, resistance to crizotinib invariably develops. There is now a next generation of ALK inhibitors, including two that have been approved-ceritinib and alectinib-and others that are in development-brigatinib, lorlatinib and X-396. Ceritinib and the other next-generation ALK inhibitors are more potent than crizotinib and can overcome tumor cell resistance mechanisms...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371665/mutation-matters-in-precision-medicine-a-future-to-believe-in
#10
REVIEW
Nandini Dey, Casey Williams, Brian Leyland-Jones, Pradip De
As a genetic disease [1] cancer dysregulates key oncogenic pathways that influence cell growth, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Among the major determinants that enable cancer cells to acquire malignant traits are genomic diversity and instability. In the post human genome project era, cancer-specific genomic maps are redesigning tumor taxonomy. The treatment modalities, as well as the overall management of cancer as a disease in today's clinic, have started depending heavily on the molecular pathology of the individual tumor(s) in addition to the fundamental classification of cancers by histopathology...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363142/local-co-administration-of-gene-silencing-rna-and-drugs-in-cancer-therapy-state-of-the-art-and-therapeutic-potential
#11
REVIEW
Mikael Larsson, Wei-Ting Huang, Dean-Mo Liu, Dusan Losic
Gene-silencing miRNA and siRNA are emerging as attractive therapeutics with potential to suppress any genes, which could be especially useful in combination cancer therapy to overcome multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer. Nanomedicine aims to advance cancer treatment through functional nanocarriers that delivers one or more therapeutics to cancer tissue and cells with minimal off-target effects and suitable release kinetics and dosages. Although much effort has gone into developing circulating nanocarriers with targeting functionality for systemic administration, another alternative and straightforward approach is to utilize formulations to be administered directly to the site of action, such as pulmonary and intratumoral delivery...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342938/the-impact-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-on-the-histopathological-features-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Stephan Schorn, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Carmen Mota Reyes, Cemil Saricaoglu, Nicole Samm, Rebekka Schirren, Elke Tieftrunk, Daniel Hartmann, Helmut Friess, Güralp Onur Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Due to increased rates of curative tumor resections exceeding 60% after FOLFIRINOX-treatment, neoadjuvant therapy/NTx is increasingly recognized as an effective therapy option for downstaging borderline or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma/PDAC. Yet, the effects of NTx on the common histopathological features of PDAC have not been systematically analysed. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact of NTx on relevant histopathological features of PDAC...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342334/oncogene-addiction-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focus-on-ros1-inhibition
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Facchinetti, Giulio Rossi, Emilio Bria, Jean-Charles Soria, Benjamin Besse, Roberta Minari, Luc Friboulet, Marcello Tiseo
Detection of molecular aberrations driving the biology and the clinical behavior of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) allows the adoption of specific therapeutic strategies dramatically impacting disease courses. Among these, ROS1 rearrangements are present in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas. Thanks to similarities between ALK and ROS1 oncogenes, lessons inferred from ALK can be applied to ROS1-positive NSCLC; nevertheless, disparities exist between diseases mastered by these two fusion genes. In the absence of more common genetic alterations detected in NSCLC (e...
March 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340451/the-role-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-focus-on-abiraterone-acetate-prednisone-and-enzalutamide
#14
REVIEW
Marzia Del Re, Stefano Fogli, Lisa Derosa, Francesco Massari, Paul De Souza, Stefania Crucitta, Sergio Bracarda, Daniele Santini, Romano Danesi
Elderly patients with cancer may have comorbidities, each requiring additional pharmacologic treatment. Therefore, the occurrence of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions is very likely, and the risk of adverse reactions (ADRs), due to the narrow therapeutic window of anticancer drugs, is increased. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may occur in prostate cancer patients due to inhibition by abiraterone of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent enzymes CYP2C8 and 2D6, which are involved in the metabolism of approximately 25% of all drugs, and induction by enzalutamide of CYP3A4, 2C9 and 2C19, which metabolize up to 50% of medications...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320564/anti-angiogenic-treatment-for-breast-cancer
#15
LETTER
Johannes Pieter van Netten, Stephen Hoption Cann, Ian Thornton, Rory P Finegan, Chris Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340450/health-promotion-and-psychological-interventions-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Natalie Katrina Bradford, Raymond Javan Chan
BACKGROUND: The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. METHODS: The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314175/choosing-wisely-preclinical-test-models-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Konrad Klinghammer, Wolfgang Walther, Jens Hoffmann
Through the introduction of a steadily growing variety of preclinical test models drug development and biomarker research has advanced. Next to classical used 2D cell line cultures, tissue-slice cultures, 3D organoid cell cultures, genetically engineered mouse models, cell line derived mouse models and patient derived xenografts may be selected for a specific question. All models harbor advantages and disadvantages. This review focuses on the available preclinical test models, novel developments such as humanized mice and discusses for which question a particular model should be employed...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482228/classification-systems-in-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-sentiment-or-evidenced-based
#18
REVIEW
V L Parker, A A Pacey, J E Palmer, J A Tidy, M C Winter, B W Hancock
The classification system for Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) has proved a controversial topic for over 100years. Numerous systems simultaneously existed in different countries, with three main rival classifications gaining popularity, namely histological, anatomical and clinical prognostic systems. Until 2000, prior to the combination of the FIGO and WHO classifications, there was no worldwide consensus on the optimal classification system, largely due to a lack of high quality data proving the merit of one system over another...
May 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456055/unraveling-molecular-pathways-of-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-of-the-gastroenteropancreatic-system-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Daniel M Girardi, Andrea C B Silva, Juliana Florinda M Rêgo, Renata A Coudry, Rachel P Riechelmann
BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare and aggressive tumors. Their molecular pathogenesis is still largely unknown, and consequently, the best therapeutic management also remains to be determined. We conducted a systematic review on molecular alterations found in gastroenteropancreatic NECs (GEP-NECs) and discuss potential applications of targeted therapies in setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review of studies about molecular features in tumor tissues of patients with GEP-NECs...
May 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437679/nodal-recurrence-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-incidence-and-proposed-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Krista C J Wink, Angela van Baardwijk, Esther G C Troost, Dirk De Ruysscher
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an alternative to surgery for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are inoperable due to comorbid disease or who refuse surgery. SBRT results in an excellent local control rate of more than 90%, which is comparable to surgery, while short and long-term overall toxicity is low. Surgically treated patients are often more extensively staged pre-operatively, e.g. with endobronchial ultrasound and/or mediastinoscopy, and typically undergo intra-operative lymph node dissection or sampling...
May 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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