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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014952/overview-of-the-lux-lung-clinical-trial-program-of-afatinib-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Namita Sharma, Stephen Graziano
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as first-line treatment for the management of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib and gefitinib were the initial TKIs to be approved for lung cancer and showed improved response rates compared with chemotherapy. Afatinib is an irreversible ErbB family blocker that has also been shown to be active in EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Afatinib has been tested as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC in the LUX-Lung trial program, as well as in the second- and third-line settings...
June 28, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014951/optimal-sequence-of-adjuvant-endocrine-and-radiation-therapy-in-early-stage-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
S F McGee, S Mazzarello, J M Caudrelier, M A G Lima, B Hutton, M Sienkiewicz, C Stober, R Fernandes, M F K Ibrahim, L Vandermeer, J Hilton, R Shorr, D Fergusson, M Clemons
IMPORTANCE: Clinical equipoise exists around the optimal time to start adjuvant endocrine therapy in patients who will receive post-operative radiotherapy for breast cancer. Concerns continue to exist regarding potential reduced efficacy, or increased toxicity, when radiation, and endocrine therapy are administered concurrently. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of studies comparing outcomes between sequential and concurrent adjuvant radiation and endocrine therapy in early-stage breast cancer...
June 28, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957373/does-pelvic-radiation-increase-rectal-cancer-incidence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
A J M Rombouts, N Hugen, J J P van Beek, P M P Poortmans, J H W de Wilt, I D Nagtegaal
BACKGROUND: One of the late complications associated with radiation therapy (RT) is a possible increased risk of second cancer. In this systematic review, we analysed the incidence of rectal cancer following primary pelvic cancer irradiation. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed and EMBASE libraries. Original articles that reported on secondary rectal cancer after previous RT for a primary pelvic cancer were included. Sensitivity analyses were performed by correcting for low number of events, high risk of bias, and outlying results...
June 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966936/checkpoint-inhibitors-as-treatment-for-malignant-gliomas-a-long-way-to-the-top
#4
REVIEW
Matteo Simonelli, Pasquale Persico, Matteo Perrino, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Pierina Navarria, Federico Pessina, Marta Scorsetti, Lorenzo Bello, Armando Santoro
Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal malignant brain tumor in adults, with a very poor prognosis of less than two years despite surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To date, targeted agents and antiangiogenic therapy have failed to show survival benefits and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently revolutionized the landscape of cancer immunotherapy achieving regulatory approvals for a number of other 'historically' resistant cancers...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960124/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinicopathologic-factors-linked-to-oncologic-outcomes-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-tumor-thrombus-treated-by-radical-nephrectomy-with-thrombectomy
#5
REVIEW
Liangyou Gu, Hongzhao Li, Zihuan Wang, Baojun Wang, Qingbo Huang, Xiangjun Lyu, Dan Shen, Yu Gao, Yang Fan, Xintao Li, Yongpeng Xie, Songliang Du, Kan Liu, Lu Tang, Cheng Peng, Xin Ma, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND: There remain discrepancies over the factors that influence oncologic outcomes after radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy (RNTE). To assess significant predictors of oncologic outcomes after RNTE from a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science was performed to identify eligible studies. The endpoints included cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS)...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940525/fifty-years-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-studies-on-both-sides-of-the-pond-and-lessons-learned
#6
REVIEW
Carola A S Arndt, Gianni Bisogno, Ewa Koscielniak
We review and summarize the highlights of almost five decades of cooperative group trials in rhabdomyosarcoma on both sides of the Atlantic, concentrating on chemotherapy regimens, what has been learned, and where remaining challenges are. The most important achievements have been to decrease or omit the dose of alkylator therapy for many patients, to clarify after much controversy that doxorubicin does not improve the outcome of patients even in the highest risk groups, and to show that high dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue do not improve the outcome of the highest risk patients...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957366/locally-advanced-gastro-oesophageal-cancer-recent-therapeutic-advances-and-research-directions
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Fornaro, Enrico Vasile, Giuseppe Aprile, Thorsten Oliver Goetze, Caterina Vivaldi, Alfredo Falcone, Salah-Eddin Al-Batran
Gastric (GC) and gastro-oesophageal (GOJC) adenocarcinomas are often considered as a single entity, even though differences exist in epidemiology, clinical presentation, molecular biology and treatment options. Locally advanced, resectable disease represents a particularly challenging scenario, as many critical issues need to be addressed. In both GC and GOJC among Western countries, systemic chemotherapy demonstrated the greatest benefit when administered before and after surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been set as a standard in this setting...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944978/clinical-development-of-her3-targeting-monoclonal-antibodies-perils-and-progress
#8
REVIEW
Wolfgang Jacob, Ian James, Max Hasmann, Martin Weisser
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family consists of four transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, and HER4. They are part of a complex signalling network and stimulate intracellular pathways regulating cell growth and differentiation. So far, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting EGFR and HER2 have been developed and approved. Recently, focus has turned to HER3 as it may play an important role in resistance to EGFR- and HER2-targeting therapies...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936313/the-poor-design-of-clinical-trials-of-statins-in-oncology-may-explain-their-failure-lessons-for-drug-repurposing
#9
REVIEW
Marwan I Abdullah, Elizabeth de Wolf, Mohammed J Jawad, Alan Richardson
Statins are widely used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. However, by inhibiting the production of mevalonate, they also reduce the production of several isoprenoids that are necessary for the function of small GTPase oncogenes such as Ras. As such, statins offer an attractive way to inhibit an "undruggable" target, suggesting that they may be usefully repurposed to treat cancer. However, despite numerous studies, there is still no consensus whether statins are useful in the oncology arena. Numerous preclinical studies have provided evidence justifying the evaluation of statins in cancer patients...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936015/the-relationship-between-anticipated-response-and-subsequent-experience-of-cancer-treatment-related-side-effects-a-meta-analysis-comparing-effects-before-and-after-treatment-exposure
#10
REVIEW
Chloe Fletcher, Carlene Wilson, Amanda D Hutchinson, Elizabeth Alice Grunfeld
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for a systematic relationship between cancer patients' pre-treatment expectations (anticipated side effects) and subsequent experience of treatment-related side effects, and to compare this relationship in patients with no prior treatment experience (cognitive expectations) and with some prior treatment experience (conditioned response). METHODS: A total of 12,952 citations were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature published on or before November 2016 and screened against inclusion criteria...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957372/borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-challenges-and-controversies
#11
REVIEW
Luis Sabater, Elena Muñoz, Susana Roselló, Dimitri Dorcaratto, Marina Garcés-Albir, Marisol Huerta, Desamparados Roda, María Carmen Gómez-Mateo, Antonio Ferrández-Izquierdo, Antonio Darder, Andrés Cervantes
Pancreatic cancer is a dismal disease with an increasing incidence. Despite the majority of patients are not candidates for curative surgery, a subgroup of patients classified as borderline resectable pancreatic cancer can be selected in whom a sequential strategy of neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery can provide better outcomes. Multidisciplinary approach and surgical pancreatic expertise are essential for successfully treating these patients. However, the lack of consensual definitions and therapies make the results of studies very difficult to interpret and hard to be implemented in some settings...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940524/androgen-receptor-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-a-potential-target-for-the-targetless-subtype
#12
REVIEW
L Gerratana, D Basile, G Buono, S De Placido, M Giuliano, S Minichillo, A Coinu, F Martorana, I De Santo, L Del Mastro, M De Laurentiis, F Puglisi, G Arpino
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents the 15-20% of all breast cancers (BC) and is characterized by a very aggressive behavior. Recent data suggest that TNBC is not a single disease, but it is rather an umbrella for different ontology-profiles such as basal like 1 and 2, mesenchymal, and the luminal androgen receptor (LAR). The LAR subtype is characterized by the expression of the Androgen Receptor (AR) and its downstream effects. Notwithstanding the role of the AR in several signaling pathways, its impact on a biological and clinical standpoint is still controversial...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909222/fallopian-tube-tumorigenesis-and-clinical-implications-for-ovarian-cancer-risk-reduction
#13
REVIEW
Allison A Gockley, Kevin M Elias
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death among American women. Prevention is the only proven approach to reduce the incidence of the disease. Oral contraception, tubal ligation, and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (rrBSO) for high-risk groups are all established risk reduction strategies. This paradigm is changing as recent biologic studies suggest that many ovarian cancers, especially high-grade serous ovarian cancers, originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube rather than the ovarian surface epithelium...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957365/it-is-finally-time-for-adjuvant-therapy-in-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
S Napolitano, G Brancaccio, G Argenziano, E Martinelli, F Morgillo, F Ciardiello, T Troiani
Although melanoma is amenable to early detection, there has been no decline in the mortality rate of this disease and the prognosis of patients with high-risk primary melanoma or with macroscopic nodal involvement remains poor. The best option for patients with higher-risk melanoma is to receive effective adjuvant therapy in order to reduce their chances of recurrence. Multiple systemic therapeutic agents have been tested as adjuvant therapy for melanoma with durable benefits seen only with interferon- to date...
June 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908480/maintenance-treatment-of-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#15
REVIEW
Paul DiSilvestro, Angeles Alvarez Secord
Approximately 1% of women in the United States will be diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) during their lifetime. It is most likely to present at a more advanced stage, requiring aggressive therapeutic measures, and most women will succumb to this illness. Due to advancements in therapy, the oncology community has begun to shift its focus to molecular targeted agents, alternative dosing schedules, and maintenance therapy. Women who achieve a response to initial adjuvant chemotherapy may be candidates for maintenance therapy, with the goal of inducing a lasting remission or prolonging the disease-free interval before recurrence...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886353/adjuvant-and-neoadjuvant-approaches-for-urothelial-cancer-updated-indications-and-controversies
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Massari, Matteo Santoni, Vincenzo di Nunno, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Marina Scarpelli, Nicola Battelli, Rodolfo Montironi
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and upper urinary tract still results an open challenge for clinical oncologists. Excluding selected patients who will particularly benefit from chemo-radiotherapy combined to endoscopic tumour removal, surgery represents the only curative approach for localized stages. Unfortunately, over 50% of operated patients do experience local or distant recurrence of the disease. Several pre and/or postoperative treatments are under evaluation in patients with UC in order to effectively reduce the difficulty and morbidity of more extensive procedures and to increase the Disease-Free Survival (DFS)...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909223/chemotherapy-and-cognition-international-cognition-and-cancer-task-force-recommendations-for-harmonising-preclinical-research
#17
REVIEW
Gordon Winocur, Ian Johnston, Hélène Castel
Cancer survivors who undergo chemotherapy for non-CNS tumours often report substantial cognitive disturbances that adversely affect quality of life, during and after treatment. The neurotoxic effects of anti-cancer drugs have been confirmed in clinical and pre-clinical research. Work with animals has also identified a range of factors and underlying mechanisms that contribute to chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. However, there is a continuing need to develop standard cognitive testing procedures for validation and comparison purposes, broaden the search for biological and neurochemical mechanisms, and develop improved animal models for investigating the combined effects of treatment, the disease, and other potential factors (e...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883857/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-brain-metastases-and-the-immune-system-from-brain-metastases-development-to-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Elie El Rassy, Angela Botticella, Joseph Kattan, Cecile Le Péchoux, Benjamin Besse, Lizza Hendriks
Brain metastases (BM) are diagnosed frequently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Despite the high incidence of BM (up to 40% in unselected patients), patients with untreated and/or unstable BM were excluded from pivotal immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) NSCLC trials. Percentage of patients with stable and treated BM in these trials ranged from 9.1 to 14.7% and ICI benefit over chemotherapy was not always demonstrated. Only small trials have been completed that demonstrated ICI efficacy in locally untreated, selected BM patients...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870916/emerging-therapeutic-modalities-of-parp-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Xin Wang, Yaqin Shi, Doudou Huang, Xiaoxiang Guan
Inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has shown marked benefit for breast cancer with homologous recombination deficiency, whether driven by defects in BRCA1, BRCA2, or other pathway components. Since the initial approval of olaparib, a mostly investigated PARP inhibitor (PARPi), the clinical development of PARPi in breast cancer treatment has been a major emphasis. Researches in investigating platinum-PARPi combination use compared with platinum monotherapy demonstrated promising benefit in metastatic BRCA mutated breast cancer or TNBC, while no such superiority was observed in the neoadjuvant setting of TNBC...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864718/vitamin-d-in-melanoma-controversies-and-potential-role-in-combination-with-immune-check-point-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Luigia Stefania Stucci, Stella D'Oronzo, Marco Tucci, Antonella Macerollo, Simone Ribero, Francesco Spagnolo, Elena Marra, Virginia Picasso, Laura Orgiano, Riccardo Marconcini, Francesco De Rosa, Lorenza Di Guardo, Giulia Galli, Sara Gandini, Raffaele Palmirotta, Giuseppe Palmieri, Paola Queirolo, Francesco Silvestris
The role of vitamin D in melanoma is still controversial. Although several Authors described a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and poor survival in metastatic melanoma patients, clinical trials exploring the effects of vitamin D supplementation in this clinical setting were mostly inconclusive. However, recent evidence suggests that vitamin D exerts both anti-proliferative effects on tumor cells and immune-modulating activities, that have been widely explored in auto-immune disorders. On the one hand, vitamin D has been shown to inhibit T-helper17 lymphocytes, notoriously involved in the pathogenesis of immune-related adverse events (iAEs) which complicate immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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