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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214651/a-review-on-the-evolution-of-pd-1-pd-l1-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer-the-future-is-now
#1
REVIEW
Joaquin Bellmunt, Thomas Powles, Nicholas J Vogelzang
The treatment of bladder cancer has evolved over time to encompass not only the traditional modalities of chemotherapy and surgery, but has been particularly impacted by the use of immunotherapy. The first immunotherapy was the live, attenuated bacterial Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which has been the standard of care non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer since 1990. Modern immunotherapy has focused on inhibitors of checkpoint proteins, which are molecules that impede immune function, thereby allowing tumor cells to grow and proliferate unregulated...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189914/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-targeted-therapies-for-metastatic-melanoma-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Sandro Pasquali, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Carlo Riccardo Rossi, Simone Mocellin
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies, two new class of drugs for treatment of metastatic melanoma, have not been compared in randomized controlled trials (RCT). We quantitatively summarized the evidence and compared immune and targeted therapies in terms of both efficacy and toxicity. METHODS: A comprehensive search for RCTs of immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies was conducted to August 2016. Using a network meta-analysis approach, treatments were compared with each other and ranked based on their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on progression-free survival [PFS]) and acceptability (the inverse of high grade toxicity)...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161619/combination-of-metformin-with-chemotherapeutic-drugs-via-different-molecular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Mei Peng, Kwame Oteng Darko, Ting Tao, Yanjun Huang, Qiongli Su, Caimei He, Tao Yin, Zhaoqian Liu, Xiaoping Yang
Metformin, a widely prescribed drug for treating type II diabetes, is one of the most extensively recognized metabolic modulators which has shown an important anti-cancer property. However, fairly amount of clinical trials on its single administration have not demonstrated a convincing efficiency yet. Thus, recent studies tend to combine metformin with clinical commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to decrease their toxicity and attenuate their tumor resistance. These strategies have displayed promising clinical benefits...
January 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189913/clinical-and-biological-effects-of-demethylating-agents-on-solid-tumours-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
J F Linnekamp, R Butter, R Spijker, J P Medema, H W M van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that DNA methylation plays a key role in both tumour development and therapy resistance. Demethylating agents have been shown to be effective in the treatment of haematological malignancies. Based on encouraging preclinical results, demethylating agents may also be effective in solid tumours. This systematic review summarizes the evidence of the effect of demethylating agents on clinical response, methylation and the immune system in solid tumours. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search from 1949 to December 2016, according to the PRISMA guidelines...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192747/biology-and-patterns-of-response-to-egfr-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-cancers-of-the-lung-and-head-neck
#5
REVIEW
Rosalyn A Juergens, Scott V Bratman, Ming-Sound Tsao, Scott A Laurie, M Sara Kuruvilla, Albiruni R A Razak, Aaron R Hansen
The identification of common molecular aberrations that drive cancer progression has led to targeted therapies that improve treatment efficacy in many tumor types. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been used to treat both lung and head and neck cancers with squamous cell histology. These tumors often show high EGFR expression and/or increased gene copy number, but low incidence of the activating kinase domain mutations common to adenocarcinomas of the lung. In this manuscript, we review clinical trial data on EGFR-inhibitors in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung and head and neck (SCCHN), including both efficacy and biomarker analyses...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135623/molecular-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-bladder-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Consuelo Buttigliero, Marcello Tucci, Francesca Vignani, Giorgio V Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
Cystectomy is the gold standard for treatment of localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, about 50% of patients develop metastases within 2years after cystectomy and subsequently die for the disease. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before cystectomy improves the overall survival in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment (downstaging to ⩽pT1 at cystectomy) is a strong predictor of better disease-specific survival. Nevertheless, some patients do not benefit from neoadjuvant therapy...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113097/the-immune-infiltrate-in-prostate-bladder-and-testicular-tumors-an-old-friend-for-new-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Nieves Martinez Chanzá, Ahmad Awada, Mario Scartozzi
In genito-urinary tumors immunotherapy has been administered for a long time: Calmette-Guèrin Bacillus as adjuvant treatment in high risk patients with non muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer and interleukin-2 and interferon-α in metastatic kidney cancer. The vaccine Sipuleucel-T has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic disease, given the 22% reduction of mortality risk in this group...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110254/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-continuing-challenge-in-the-personalized-treatment-era
#8
REVIEW
J Remon, E Le Rhun, B Besse
Leptomeningeal metastasis is a fatal manifestation seen in advanced cancer patients. Its incidence is increasing, reaching 3.8% in molecularly unselected non-small cell lung cancer patients and up to 5% and 9% in ALK-rearranged and EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients, respectively. The prognosis remains poor despite systemic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiation therapy and personalized treatments in molecularly selected patients. However, new therapies with improved cerebral-spinal fluid penetration have been developed for subgroups of molecular selected patients indicating they could be promising therapeutic options for managing leptomeningeal disease...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104567/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-angiogenesis-inhibitors-in-treatment-of-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Husam Abdel-Qadir, Josee-Lyne Ethier, Douglas S Lee, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular risk of angiogenesis inhibitors is not well-quantified. We hypothesized that, compared to direct vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors (anti-VEGF antibodies or decoy receptors), small molecule agents have higher risk due to their less specific mechanism. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for phase III randomised controlled trials comparing angiogenesis inhibitor-based therapy to other systemic therapy...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104566/targeting-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-new-discoveries-and-practical-insights-for-drug-development
#10
REVIEW
Ricardo Costa, Ami N Shah, Cesar A Santa-Maria, Marcelo R Cruz, Devalingam Mahalingam, Benedito A Carneiro, Young Kwang Chae, Massimo Cristofanilli, William J Gradishar, Francis J Giles
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of cases in breast cancer. Despite recent advances in the treatment of hormonal receptor+ and HER2+ breast cancers, there are no targeted therapies available for TNBC. Evidence supports that most patients with TNBC express the transmembrane Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). However, early phase clinical trials failed to demonstrate significant activity of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we review the recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of the EGFR pathway in TNBC, clinical progress to date and suggest rational future approaches for investigational therapies in TNBC...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088074/anti-angiogenic-treatment-in-breast-cancer-facts-successes-failures-and-future-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Kim C Aalders, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Elżbieta Senkus, Fatima Cardoso
Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and a crucial requisite in the development of tumors. Interrupting this process by blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab has been considered a possible breakthrough in the treatment of various types of cancer, especially for advanced disease. However in breast cancer, studies have shown ambivalent results causing debate about the value of this drug. In this article, we review the evidence for anti-angiogenic treatment options for breast cancer, as well as discuss the possible factors limiting the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic agents and offer a recommendation regarding the future research on these therapies for the treatment of breast cancer...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088073/strategies-to-design-clinical-studies-to-identify-predictive-biomarkers-in-cancer-research
#12
REVIEW
Jose Luis Perez-Gracia, Miguel F Sanmamed, Ana Bosch, Ana Patiño-Garcia, Kurt A Schalper, Victor Segura, Joaquim Bellmunt, Josep Tabernero, Christopher J Sweeney, Toni K Choueiri, Miguel Martín, Juan Pablo Fusco, Maria Esperanza Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alfonso Calvo, Celia Prior, Luis Paz-Ares, Ruben Pio, Enrique Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Alvaro Gonzalez Hernandez, David Páez, Jose María Piulats, Alfonso Gurpide, Mapi Andueza, Guillermo de Velasco, Roberto Pazo, Enrique Grande, Pilar Nicolas, Francisco Abad-Santos, Jesus Garcia-Donas, Daniel Castellano, María J Pajares, Cristina Suarez, Ramon Colomer, Luis M Montuenga, Ignacio Melero
The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081486/front-line-treatment-of-cll-in-the-era-of-novel-agents
#13
REVIEW
Tadeusz Robak, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Alessandra Tedeschi
Although chemoimmunotherapy prolongs survival and as such, is the standard of care for treatment-naïve patients, its effectiveness may be reduced by associated toxicity and dose reductions. In addition, it has been associated with the development of myelosuppression and secondary neoplasms; treatments are hence needed which offer greater survival and lowered toxicity. A range of new targeted agents, ibrutinib, idelalisib and venetoclax, have demonstrated such a balance in a second-line setting, offering CLL patients durable remissions and a modest toxicity profile...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073102/cancer-resistance-to-therapies-against-the-egfr-ras-raf-pathway-the-role-of-mek
#14
REVIEW
Erika Martinelli, Floriana Morgillo, Teresa Troiani, Fortunato Ciardiello
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate intracellular signals activated by a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade culminates in the regulation of gene transcription promoting cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and angiogenesis. MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-MAPKK) 1/2 is a transducer of the growth factor receptor-RAS-RAF-MAPK signalling cascade and plays a relevant role in development and progression of human cancers, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073101/impact-of-targeted-therapies-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-on-patient-reported-outcomes-methodology-of-clinical-trials-and-clinical-benefit
#15
REVIEW
M Dos Santos, P E Brachet, C Chevreau, F Joly
BACKGROUND: Molecular targeted therapies have improved progression-free survival (PFS) without translating systematically into overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In this population, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become a significant outcome. We evaluated the methodological quality of the assessment of PROs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the clinical benefit of the different treatments including survival and quality of life (QoL)...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063304/splenic-irradiation-for-splenomegaly-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Graeme R Williams, Stefan K Barta, Nestor F Esnaola, Patricia L Kropf, Shelly B Hayes, Joshua E Meyer
Splenic irradiation (SI) is a palliative treatment option for symptomatic splenomegaly (i.e. for pain, early satiety, pancytopenia from sequestration) secondary to hematologic malignancies and disorders. The purpose of the current article is to review the literature on SI for hematologic malignancies and disorders, including: (1) patient selection and optimal technique; (2) efficacy of SI; and (3) toxicities of SI. PICOS/PRISMA methods are used to select 27 articles including 766 courses of SI for 486 patients from 1960 to 2016...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056413/rituximab-13-open-questions-after-20years-of-clinical-use
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Pavanello, Emanuele Zucca, Michele Ghielmini
Rituximab improved the prognosis of all B-cell derived lymphoproliferative diseases, but despite 20years of intensive use, it remains a drug with a number of still obscure characteristics and unanswered questions. These include the mechanism of action and of resistance, the optimal schedule, the interaction with chemotherapy, as well as predictive factors for response rate and duration. Despite being very well tolerated, the question of its long term side effects and the risks of the administration near to a pregnancy have only recently been addressed...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056412/toxicity-of-concurrent-stereotactic-radiotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-or-immunotherapy-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie G C Kroeze, Corinna Fritz, Morten Hoyer, Simon S Lo, Umberto Ricardi, Arjun Sahgal, Rolf Stahel, Roger Stupp, Matthias Guckenberger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and immune- or targeted therapy play an increasingly important role in personalized treatment of metastatic disease. Concurrent application of both therapies is rapidly expanding in daily clinical practice. In this systematic review we summarize severe toxicity observed after concurrent treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for English literature published up to April 2016 using keywords "radiosurgery", "local ablative therapy", "gamma knife" and "stereotactic", combined with "bevacizumab", "cetuximab", "crizotinib", "erlotinib", "gefitinib", "ipilimumab", "lapatinib", "sorafenib", "sunitinib", "trastuzumab", "vemurafenib", "PLX4032", "panitumumab", "nivolumab", "pembrolizumab", "alectinib", "ceritinib", "dabrafenib", "trametinib", "BRAF", "TKI", "MEK", "PD1", "EGFR", "CTLA-4" or "ALK"...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056411/chemotherapy-related-late-adverse-effects-on-ovarian-function-in-female-survivors-of-childhood-and-young-adult-cancer-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Annelies Overbeek, Marleen H van den Berg, Flora E van Leeuwen, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Cornelis B Lambalk, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer treatment may reduce the fertile life span and induce premature menopause. This review aims to provide an overview of the available literature on effects of chemotherapy only on the incidence of ovarian dysfunction and to evaluate the relationship between dose of chemotherapy, age at time of treatment, and time since treatment in female survivors of childhood and young adult cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases was performed (search date December 2015)...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027480/neck-lymph-node-metastases-from-unknown-primary
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Daniele Arosio, Lorenzo Pignataro, Renato Maria Gaini, Werner Garavello
Metastatic cervical carcinoma from unknown primary is a metastatic disease in the lymph nodes of the neck without any evidence of a primary tumour after appropriate investigation. The condition is rare and definite evidence is lacking for both diagnosis and treatment. In this review of the literature, we tried to draw some clinical indications based on the few available studies. We ultimately came to the following conclusions: (1) a thorough and accurate diagnostic work-up should be systematically offered. It includes accurate inspection with fibroscopy, CT or MRI, fine needle aspiration, panendoscopy and positron emission tomography, (2) Patients with low-volume neck disease, N1 and N2a stage and without extracapsular extension on histopathological examination should receive single modality treatment...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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