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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783126/systemic-therapy-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-sorafenib-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Raoul, Masatoshi Kudo, Richard S Finn, Julien Edeline, Maria Reig, Peter R Galle
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment landscape changed a decade ago, with sorafenib demonstrating survival benefit in the first-line setting and becoming the first systemic therapy to be approved for HCC. More recently, regorafenib and nivolumab have received approval in the second-line setting after sorafenib, with further positive phase 3 studies emerging in the first line (lenvatinib non-inferior to sorafenib) and second line versus placebo (cabozantinib and ramucirumab). A key recommendation in the management of patients receiving sorafenib is to promote close communication between the patient and the physician so that adverse events (AEs) are detected early and severe AEs can be prevented...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772460/estrogen-receptor-negative-progesterone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-nobody-s-land-or-just-an-artifact
#2
REVIEW
Michał Kunc, Wojciech Biernat, Elżbieta Senkus-Konefka
The estrogen receptor α (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) are one of the most important prognostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in breast cancer. Breast cancers may express various profiles of hormone receptors: ER(+)/PgR(+), ER(-)/PgR(-), ER(+)/PgR(-) and ER(-)/PgR(+). The existence of the latter profile is a matter of controversy since PgR expressions is induced by ER-dependent pathways in breast cancer cells. One of the most extensively propagated hypotheses trying to explain the origin of ER(-)/PgR(+) breast cancers claims that they are technical artifacts dependent on the immunohistochemical procedure...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772459/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-brain-metastases-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Renata Duchnowska, Sibylle Loibl, Jacek Jassem
Approximately 30-50% of advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases, with an annual risk of around 10%, and a half of them will die from brain progression. An increased risk of brain metastases is also seen in patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer administered curative therapy. Brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients usually constitute the first site of recurrence. The administration of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab and pertuzumab, considerably delays the onset of symptomatic brain disease: however, the limited penetration of these compounds into the CNS hinders their efficacy...
May 9, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775845/toward-innovative-combinational-immunotherapy-a-systems-biology-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Xue-Tao Li, Jin-Ji Yang, Yi-Long Wu, Jun Hou
The treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has advanced significantly in the last decades. Especially immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown inconceivable effect on enhancing host anti-tumor activity in NSCLC. However, the limitation of checkpoint blockade monotherapy seems unavoidable in most of the NSCLC patients and only ∼20% of them achieved response to monotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with other agents with different action mechanisms holds a promise to revitalize NSCLC treatment, such as the combination of checkpoint inhibitors with angiogenesis inhibitors, or with chemotherapy, as well as the combination of two checkpoint inhibitors...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763779/clinical-implications-of-the-non-luminal-intrinsic-subtypes-in-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Juan Miguel Cejalvo, Tomás Pascual, Aranzazu Fernández-Martínez, Fara Brasó-Maristany, Roger R Gomis, Charles M Perou, Montserrat Muñoz, Aleix Prat
Gene expression profiling has had a considerable impact on our understanding ofbreastcancer biology. Duringthelast decade, 4 intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched [HER2-E] and Basal-like) have been identified and intensively studied. In this article, we review and discuss the clinical implications of the 2 non-luminal subtypes (i.e. HER2-E and Basal-like) identified within hormone receptor (HR)-positive disease. After reviewing 32 studies for a total of 13,091 samples, ∼8% and ∼ 15% of early and metastatic HR+/HER2-negative breast cancer, respectively, were found to be non-luminal...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753962/the-management-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Nicola Hughes, Dan Stark
Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer are young people developing serious illness when at the interface between the responsibilities of paediatric and adult cancer services. Personally, they are in a period of transition both biologically and in major social roles (Sawyer et al., 2018) [1]. For these and other reasons they present a unique set of clinical challenges in their management. Over the last 20 years the requirement for specific services to address their needs has been identified and this has become a growing field of research...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787892/the-role-of-bisphosphonates-or-denosumab-in-light-of-the-availability-of-new-therapies-for-prostate-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Fred Saad, Cora N Sternberg, Peter F A Mulders, Daniela Niepel, Bertrand F Tombal
Most men with advanced prostate cancer will develop bone metastases, which have a substantial impact on quality of life. Bone metastases can lead to skeletal-related events (SREs), which place a burden on patients and healthcare systems. For men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases, the treatment landscape has evolved rapidly over the past few years. The relatively recent approvals of the hormonal agents abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, second-line chemotherapy cabazitaxel, and the radiopharmaceutical radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), have provided clinicians with a greater choice of treatments...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775779/metabolomics-in-breast-cancer-a-decade-in-review
#8
REVIEW
Amelia McCartney, Alessia Vignoli, Laura Biganzoli, Richard Love, Leonardo Tenori, Claudio Luchinat, Angelo Di Leo
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease which has been characterised and stratified by many platforms such as clinicopathological risk factors, genomic assays, computer generated models, and various "-omic" technologies. Genomic, proteomic and transcriptomic analysis in breast cancer research is well established, and metabolomics, which can be considered a downstream manifestation of the former disciplines, is of growing interest. The past decade has seen significant progress made within the field of clinical metabolomic BC research, with several groups demonstrating results with significant promise in the setting of BC screening and biological characterisation, as well as future potential for prognostic metabolomic biomarkers...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777800/cardiotoxicity-associated-with-radiotherapy-in-breast-cancer-a-question-based-review-with-current-literatures
#9
REVIEW
Qian Zhu, Youlia M Kirova, Lu Cao, Alexandre Arsene-Henry, Jiayi Chen
Radiotherapy is an indispensable unit of multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer. Although the application of modern techniques has led to a significantly reduction in radiation-induced heart disease, it is still recognized as the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among breast cancer survivors. With the growing number of long-term survivors, it is important to understand the cardiovascular risks associated with radiotherapy. Questions exist regarding the existence or not of a safe radiation threshold dose that the heart (or its substructures) can receive and strategies to minimize risk of radiation...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753961/the-role-of-parp-inhibition-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-unraveling-the-wide-spectrum-of-synthetic-lethality
#10
REVIEW
Marios Papadimitriou, Giannis Mountzios, Christos A Papadimitriou
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for approximately 15-20% of all breast cancers and is characterized by a lack of immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and HER2. TNBC is associated with poor long-term outcomes compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Many of these tumors are also basal-like cancers which are characterized by an aggressive biological behavior with a distant recurrence peak observed early at 3 years following diagnosis. Furthermore, metastatic TNBC bears a dismal prognosis with an average survival of 12 months...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753244/renal-cell-carcinoma-in-one-year-going-inside-the-news-of-2017-a-report-of-the-main-advances-in-rcc-cancer-research
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Mosillo, Chiara Ciccarese, Davide Bimbatti, Emanuela Fantinel, Alberto Dalla Volta, Iolanda Bisogno, Ilaria Zampiva, Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massar, Matteo Brunelli, Rodolfo Montironi, Giampaolo Tortora, Roberto Iacovelli
Very interesting issues regarding RCC treatment have been raised during 2017. We analysed the main news that may potentially modified clinical practice. Conflicting data came from trials testing targeted therapies in the adjuvant setting, supporting the necessity of further investigations. One of the key goals of RCC research is focused on the first-line therapy, with particular interest focus on immunotherapy combinations. Redefine the standard of care with the aim of improving patients' survival represents an imperative need...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751335/the-current-evidence-for-a-biomarker-based-approach-in-cancer-of-unknown-primary
#12
REVIEW
Elie El Rassy, Nicholas Pavlidis
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for the seventh to eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer yet its prognosis remains poor with conventional chemotherapy. The spectrum of therapeutic management includes both locoregional and systemic therapy and should intend to offer optimal benefit to favorable CUP patients and palliative care to unfavorable cases. The recent molecular advances have revolutionized the armamentarium of cancer treatments though a biomarker-based approach. Unfortunately, solid data in CUP is lacking in the absence of a CUP-specific driver molecular signature...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751334/treatment-of-advanced-her2-positive-breast-cancer-2018-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Noam Pondé, Mariana Brandão, Georges El-Hachem, Emilie Werbrouck, Martine Piccart
In the 1980s the importance of HER2 signalling to the aberrant behaviour of a subset of breast cancer cells was recognized for the first time and, consequently, a hitherto unknown subtype of breast cancer - HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer was identified. The development of the anti-HER2 class of drugs, first with trastuzumab, followed closely by lapatinib, pertuzumab, and T-DM1, has improved outcomes dramatically. Nevertheless, metastatic HER2+ breast cancer remains an incurable disease and new therapeutic options are needed...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746922/diabetes-and-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-which-interplays-if-any
#14
REVIEW
Marco Gallo, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Genoveffa Pizza, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria Colao
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) represent an uncommon type of pancreatic neoplasm, whose incidence is increasing worldwide. As per exocrine pancreatic cancer, a relationship seems to exist between PanNETs and glycaemic alterations. Diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance often occurs in PanNET patients as a consequence of hormonal hypersecretion by the tumour, specifically affecting glucose metabolism, or due to tumour mass effects. On the other hand, pre-existing DM may represent a risk factor for developing PanNETs and is likely to worsen the prognosis of such patients...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763778/mage-a-antigens-as-targets-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Erik Schooten, Alessia Di Maggio, Paul M P van Bergen En Henegouwen, Marta M Kijanka
Targeted anti-cancer therapies aim at reducing side effects while retaining their anti-cancer efficacy. Immunotherapies e.g. monoclonal antibodies, adoptive T cell therapy and cancer vaccines are used to combat cancer, but the number of available cancer specific targets is limited and new approaches are needed to generate more effective and patient tailored treatments. Unique cancer intracellular epitopes can be presented on the cell surface by MHC class I molecules, which can function as epitopes for targeted therapies...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730462/untying-the-gordion-knot-of-targeting-met-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Kanwal Raghav, Ann Marie Bailey, Jonathan M Loree, Scott Kopetz, Vijaykumar Holla, Timothy Anthony Yap, Fang Wang, Ken Chen, Ravi Salgia, David Hong
Despite compelling evidence backing the crucial role of a dysregulated MET axis in cancer and a myriad of agents targeting this pathway in active clinical development, the therapeutic value of MET inhibition in cancer oncology remains to be established. Although a series of disappointing clinical trials, at first, lessened fervor for targeting this pathway, investigations continue unabated with a number of novel active compounds entering clinical trials. Suboptimal designs which lacked biomarker selection have been the main reason for these early failures and this has stimulated a more biomarker enriched approach lately...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729495/braf-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-pickaxing-another-brick-in-the-wall
#17
REVIEW
Alessandro Leonetti, Francesco Facchinetti, Giulio Rossi, Roberta Minari, Antonia Conti, Luc Friboulet, Marcello Tiseo, David Planchard
Molecular characterization of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) marked an historical turning point for the treatment of lung tumors harboring kinase alterations suitable for specific targeted drugs inhibition, translating into major clinical improvements. Besides EGFR, ALK and ROS1, BRAF represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. BRAF mutations, found in 1.5-3.5% of NSCLC, are responsible of the constitutive activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
April 24, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730461/evolution-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-gastric-cancers-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Julien Taieb, Markus Moehler, Narikazu Boku, Jaffer A Ajani, Eduardo Yañez Ruiz, Min-Hee Ryu, Silke Guenther, Vikram Chand, Yung-Jue Bang
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment options for patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC) are associated with limited efficacy and some toxicity. Recently, immunotherapy with antibodies that inhibit the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction has emerged as a new treatment option. This manuscript reviews early-phase and late-phase trials of immunotherapy in advanced GC/GEJC. METHODS: Searches for studies of immunotherapy in GC/GEJC were performed using PubMed, ClinicalTrials...
April 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704768/management-of-treatment-related-toxicities-in-advanced-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Marcia S Brose, Keith C Bible, Laura Q M Chow, Jill Gilbert, Carolyn Grande, Francis Worden, Robert Haddad
Progress in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has resulted from the approval of 2 drugs within the past 5 years, vandetanib and cabozantinib. These multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) possess overlapping specificities for multiple kinase targets implicated in the progression of MTC. Both drugs are associated with toxicities, including hypertension, hemorrhage/perforation, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal events, several dermatologic events, and hypothyroidism. In addition, vandetanib is uniquely associated with QTc prolongation through interaction with myocardial potassium channels, and cabozantinib is uniquely associated with hand-foot skin reaction...
April 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684744/the-role-of-circulating-tumour-cells-and-nucleic-acids-in-blood-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Pramit Khetrapal, Matthew Wei Liang Lee, Wei Shen Tan, Liqin Dong, Patricia de Winter, Andrew Feber, John D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Blood-based biomarkers are a neglected resource in bladder cancer, where the mainstay of focus has been on urinary biomarkers. However, blood-based biomarkers are gaining popularity in other solid cancers, particularly circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and circulating nucleic acids. In this systematic review, we identify and discuss the diagnostic value of CTC, cell-free DNA and RNA based biomarkers in bladder cancer. METHODS: A MEDLINE/Pubmed systematic search was performed using the following keywords: (bladder cancer) AND (blood OR plasma OR serum) AND biomarker AND (DNA OR RNA OR cfDNA OR cell-free DNA OR RNA OR CTC)...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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