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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894012/depression-in-cancer-the-many-biobehavioral-pathways-driving-tumor-progression
#1
REVIEW
Beatrice Bortolato, Thomas N Hyphantis, Sara Valpione, Giulia Perini, Michael Maes, Gerwyn Morris, Marta Kubera, Cristiano A Köhler, Brisa S Fernandes, Brendon Stubbs, Nicholas Pavlidis, André F Carvalho
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is common among cancer patients, with prevalence rates up to four-times higher than the general population. Depression confers worse outcomes, including non-adherence to treatment and increased mortality in the oncology setting. Advances in the understanding of neurobiological underpinnings of depression have revealed shared biobehavioral mechanisms may contribute to cancer progression. Moreover, psychosocial stressors in cancer promote: (1) inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress; (2) a decreased immunosurveillance; and (3) a dysfunctional activation of the autonomic nervous system and of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis...
November 16, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888768/multiple-myeloma-treatment-at-relapse-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-a-practical-analysis
#2
REVIEW
F Malard, J L Harousseau, M Mohty
Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of multiple myeloma. Introduction of the so-called novel agents, proteasome inhibitors (PI) and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD), and improved supportive care have resulted in significantly better outcome. Standard first line treatment in fit patients include PI and IMiD based induction, high dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and consolidation/maintenance. However, despite these progresses MM remains incurable for the majority of patients and most patients will relapse...
November 15, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886589/esr1-mutations-moving-towards-guiding-treatment-decision-making-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients
#3
REVIEW
Lindsay Angus, Nick Beije, Agnes Jager, John W M Martens, Stefan Sleijfer
Mutations in the gene coding for the estrogen receptor (ER), ESR1, have been associated with acquired endocrine resistance in patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Functional studies revealed that these ESR1 mutations lead to constitutive activity of the ER, meaning that the receptor is active in absence of its ligand estrogen, conferring resistance against several endocrine agents. While recent clinical studies reported that the occurrence of ESR1 mutations is rare in primary breast cancer tumors, these mutations are more frequently observed in metastatic tissue and circulating cell-free DNA of MBC patients pretreated with endocrine therapy...
November 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886588/the-expanding-role-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-oligometastatic-solid-tumors-what-do-we-know-and-where-are-we-going
#4
REVIEW
Julian C Hong, Joseph K Salama
The spectrum hypothesis posits that there are distinct clinical states of metastatic progression. Early data suggest that aggressive treatment of more biologically indolent metastatic disease, characterized by metastases limited in number and destination organ, may offer an opportunity to alter the disease course, potentially allowing for longer survival, delay of systemic therapy, or even cure. The development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has opened new avenues for the treatment of oligometastatic disease...
November 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866067/escalating-and-de-escalating-treatment-in-her2-positive-early-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Heikki Joensuu
The current standard adjuvant systemic treatment of early HER2-positive breast cancer consists of chemotherapy plus 12months of trastuzumab, with or without endocrine therapy. Several trials have investigated modifications of the standard treatment that are shorter and less resource-demanding (de-escalation) or regimens that aim at dual HER2 inhibition or include longer than 12months of HER2-targeted treatment (escalation). Seven randomized trials investigate shorter than 12months of trastuzumab treatment duration...
November 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889637/cell-membrane-modulation-as-adjuvant-in-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Sara Zalba, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous biological processes, which can exist in parallel, can be complementary, or are engaged when needed and as such can replace each other. This redundancy in possibilities cancer cells have, are fundamental to failure of therapy. However, intrinsic features of tumor cells and tumors as a whole provide also opportunities for therapy. Here we discuss the unique and specific makeup and arrangement of cell membranes of tumor cells and how these may help treatment. Interestingly, knowledge on cell membranes and associated structures is present already for decades, while application of membrane modification and manipulation as part of cancer therapy is lagging...
November 9, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883925/factors-associated-with-failure-of-oncology-drugs-in-late-stage-clinical-development-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Denis L Jardim, Eric S Groves, Philip P Breitfeld, Razelle Kurzrock
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the reasons for failure of experimental anticancer drugs in late-stage clinical development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the PharmaProjects database (https://citeline.com/products/pharmaprojects/) for anticancer drugs discontinued between 01/01/2009 and 06/30/2014. Drug programs that reached phase III trials, but never gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval were compared to 37 anti-cancer drugs achieving FDA approval in this time period...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842279/approach-to-evaluation-of-fever-in-ambulatory-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
M K Krzyzanowska, C Walker-Dilks, A M Morris, R Gupta, R Halligan, C T Kouroukis, K McCann, C L Atzema
PURPOSE: To define the optimal model of care for patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy who experience a fever. Fever is a common symptom in patients receiving chemotherapy, but the approach to evaluation of fever is not standardized. METHODS: We conducted a search for existing guidelines and a systematic review of the primary literature from database inception to November 2015. Full-text reports and conference abstracts were considered for inclusion. The search focused on the following topics: the relationship between temperature and poor outcome; predictors for the development of febrile neutropenia (FN); the timing, location, and personnel involved in fever assessment; and the provision of information to patients receiving chemotherapy...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865140/overcoming-dynamic-molecular-heterogeneity-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-multikinase-inhibition-with-regorafenib-and-the-case-of-rechallenge-with-anti-egfr
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Salvatore Siena, Giuseppe Tonini, Alberto Bardelli, Daniele Santini
In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), fluorouracil-based combination therapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan is the mainstay of first-line treatment. Patient survival has been significantly improved with the introduction of monoclonal antibodies against VEGF (bevacizumab), VEGFR2 (ramucirumab) or EGFR (cetuximab or panitumumab) in first- and second-line therapies. However, all patients treated with chemotherapy and targeted therapies will eventually relapse, and recently the emergence of alterations in EGFR, RAS, BRAF, ERB-B2, MET and possibly in other genes has been shown to jeopardize response to EGFR blockade...
October 29, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838401/the-evolving-role-of-microsatellite-instability-in-colorectal-cancer-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Fabio Gelsomino, Monica Barbolini, Andrea Spallanzani, Giuseppe Pugliese, Stefano Cascinu
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular marker of a deficient mismatch repair (MMR) system and occurs in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), more frequently in early than late-stage of disease. While in sporadic cases (about two-thirds of MSI-H CRCs) MMR deficiency is caused by an epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 gene, the remainder are associated with Lynch syndrome, that is linked to a germ-line mutation of one of the MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2). MSI-H colorectal cancers have distinct clinical and pathological features such as proximal location, early-stage (predominantly stage II), poor differentiation, mucinous histology and association with BRAF mutations...
October 27, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788386/roles-of-oct4-in-tumorigenesis-cancer-therapy-resistance-and-prognosis
#11
REVIEW
Emilly Schlee Villodre, Franciele Cristina Kipper, Mariana Brutschin Pereira, Guido Lenz
OCT4 (POU5F1) is a major regulator of cell pluripotency and plays an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in tumorigenesis. It has been studied in various types of cancers, since stemness is an important factor for cancer growth and therapy. Here we present basic information about the OCT4 gene, its isoforms and pseudogenes besides discussing the current literature in which OCT4 is linked to cancer, emphasizing its roles in tumorigenesis and therapy. The majority of studies indicated a negative correlation between the expression of OCT4 and prognosis, and only in testicular germ cell tumor this correlation was positive...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768919/stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-critical-literature-review-of-predictive-factors-of-relapse
#12
Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Florent Martinetti, Olaf Mercier, Samar Krhili, François-Georges Riet, Rodrigue Mbagui, Hanh To, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has become the standard treatment for peripheral medically non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous attempts of trials to compare SABR and surgery have failed and new randomized studies (SABRtooth, STABLEMATES, and VALOR) are ongoing. While predictive factors of relapse have been extensively studied in patients receiving surgery, there is scarce data on such putative factors in SABR patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze such predictive factors through a critical review of the literature...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768918/current-perspectives-of-sentinel-lymph-node-dissection-at-the-time-of-radical-surgery-for-prostate-cancer
#13
Gavish Munbauhal, Thomas Seisen, Florie D Gomez, Benoit Peyronnet, Olivier Cussenot, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744144/prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-early-breast-cancer
#14
Carmen Criscitiello, Angela Esposito, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
It is well recognized that the immune system plays an essential role in tumor defense. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reflects an individual immunological response. In early breast cancer, the presence of TILs is associated with a more favorable outcome and response to therapy. In this review, we describe how TILs are assessed. Also, we discuss their role as prognostic and predictive biomarker in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings as well as in residual disease. Moreover, we discuss the possible implementation of TILs in daily clinical practice as well as in future clinical trials in order to fine tune prognosis and improve treatments...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756009/magnetic-nanoparticle-induced-hyperthermia-with-appropriate-payloads-paul-ehrlich-s-magic-nano-bullet-for-cancer-theranostics
#15
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720577/early-use-of-chemotherapy-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#16
Mark C Markowski, Michael A Carducci
Since 2010, five new antineoplastic therapies have been FDA approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. With additional treatment options, questions arose about the optimal sequence of these agents. Until recently, chemotherapy has been deferred until later in the disease course in favor of next-generation androgen deprivation therapy. Prior to the development of abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, clinical trials were opened investigating the combination of chemotherapy with androgen deprivation therapy in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive disease...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743530/targeting-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptors-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-bladder-cancer-new-direction-and-new-hope
#17
Rafael Morales-Barrera, Cristina Suárez, Ana Martínez de Castro, Fabricio Racca, Claudia Valverde, Xavier Maldonado, Juan Maria Bastaros, Juan Morote, Joan Carles
Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the United States. About 25% of patients with bladder cancer have advanced disease (muscle-invasive or metastatic disease) at presentation and are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. In the setting of metastatic disease, use of cisplatin-based regimens improves survival. However, despite initial high response rates, the responses are typically not durable leading to recurrence and death in the vast majority of these patients with median overall survival of 15months and a 5-year survival rate of ⩽10%...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721142/defibrotide-for-the-management-of-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-in-patients-who-undergo-haemopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
John Coutsouvelis, Sharon Avery, Michael Dooley, Carl Kirkpatrick, Andrew Spencer
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, previously known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD/SOS), is a complication in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Severe VOD/SOS, including progression to multi-organ failure, has resulted in a mortality of greater than 80%. Defibrotide's varying pharmacological actions, particularly on endothelial cells, make it is a useful agent to consider for prophylaxis and treatment of VOD/SOS. Barriers to its routine use include the high acquisition cost and the fact that neither the oral or parenteral formulations are licensed products in many countries at this time...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718458/health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-in-contemporary-phase-iii-trials-in-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#19
Krzysztof Adamowicz, Everardo D Saad, Jacek Jassem
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is often used as an endpoint in cancer clinical trials. We assessed the frequency and correlates of HRQOL use in phase III trials in advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed for phase III trials published between January 1998 and December 2014, as well as for companion papers reporting on HRQOL separately. We excluded papers reporting on correlative biology or prognostic factors in isolation from the main trial results, as well as trials on supportive care and on local therapy...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776286/inventory-of-oral-anticancer-agents-pharmaceutical-formulation-aspects-with-focus-on-the-solid-dispersion-technique
#20
E Sawicki, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, B Nuijen
Dissolution from the pharmaceutical formulation is a prerequisite for complete and consistent absorption of any orally administered drug, including anticancer agents (oncolytics). Poor dissolution of an oncolytic can result in low oral bioavailability, high variability in blood concentrations and with that suboptimal or even failing therapy. This review discusses pharmaceutical formulation aspects and absorption pharmacokinetics of currently licensed orally administered oncolytics. In nearly half of orally dosed oncolytics poor dissolution is likely to play a major role in low and unpredictable absorption...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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