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Cancer Treatment Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437679/nodal-recurrence-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-incidence-and-proposed-risk-factors
#1
REVIEW
Krista C J Wink, Angela van Baardwijk, Esther G C Troost, Dirk De Ruysscher
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an alternative to surgery for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are inoperable due to comorbid disease or who refuse surgery. SBRT results in an excellent local control rate of more than 90%, which is comparable to surgery, while short and long-term overall toxicity is low. Surgically treated patients are often more extensively staged pre-operatively, e.g. with endobronchial ultrasound and/or mediastinoscopy, and typically undergo intra-operative lymph node dissection or sampling...
April 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437678/efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-price-of-newly-approved-drugs-in-solid-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Tristan A Barnes, Eitan Amir, Arnoud J Templeton, Susana Gomez-Garcia, Beatriz Navarro, Bostjan Seruga, Alberto Ocana
BACKGROUND: New anti-cancer drugs utilize diverse mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate their differential efficacy, safety, tolerability and price. METHODS: Drugs approved for solid tumor treatment between 2000 and 2015 were identified and analyzed in subgroups: agents targeting oncogenes (group 1), anti-angiogenics (group 2), immunotherapy (group 3), and chemotherapy (group 4). Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted from the registration trials and pooled in a meta-analysis...
April 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431263/epigenetic-therapy-and-chemosensitization-in-solid-malignancy
#3
REVIEW
Sean M Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Anup Sharma, Nita Ahuja
Epigenetic modifications result in dynamic shifts between transcriptionally active and suppressed states. The potentially reversible nature of epigenetic changes underlies the concept of epigenetic therapy, which serves to reprogram cancer cells as opposed to inducing cytotoxicity that occurs with standard chemotherapeutics. There are numerous enzymes involved in epigenetic changes and each can be potentially targetable. Although many investigations have evaluated the clinical potential of the various epigenetic therapies, currently only histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for use in specific hematologic malignancies...
April 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431262/immunologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#4
REVIEW
Leo Rasche, Niels Weinhold, Gareth J Morgan, Frits van Rhee, Faith E Davies
The FDA approval of two monoclonal antibodies in 2015has heralded a new era of targeted immunotherapies for multiple myeloma (MM). In this review we discuss the recent approaches using different immunological components to treat MM. In particular, we review current monoclonal antibody based therapies, engineered T- and NK cell products, 'off-target' immunomodulation, and strategies utilizing allogeneic cell transplantation in MM. We discuss how an immunologic approach offers promise for the treatment of this genetically heterogeneous disease, and how patients with acquired drug resistance may particularly benefit from these therapies...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411479/aged-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-should-we-treat-with-chemotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Climent, Ma Dolores Torregrosa, Sergio Vázquez, Regina Gironés, José Angel Arranz
Prostate cancer largely affects aged men and as life expectancy continues to increase, it is likely to be a growing burden requiring an adequate management. Aging is a heterogeneous process, thus, to assess the individual state of health when making decisions is essential. Comprehensive geriatric assessment allows a detailed evaluation of the state of health of a specific subject and can modify the therapeutic decision. It is still not commonly used because it is time consuming. Chemotherapy should be administered equally in aged well-fit patients as in the general population as per the SIOG (International society of geriatric oncology) recommendations for geriatric evaluation and treatment in prostate cancer patients...
April 3, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402908/current-treatment-trends-and-the-need-for-better-predictive-tools-in-the-management-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-of-the-breast
#6
REVIEW
Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Arran K Turnbull, Gregory E Ekatah, Laura M Arthur, Andrew H Sims, Jeremy S Thomas, J Michael Dixon
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents a group of heterogeneous non-invasive lesions the incidence of which has risen dramatically since the advent of mammography screening. In this review we summarise current treatment trends and up-to-date results from clinical trials studying surgery and adjuvant therapy alternatives, including the recent consensus on excision margin width and its role in decision-making for post-excision radiotherapy. The main challenge in the clinical management of DCIS continues to be the tailoring of treatment to individual risk, in order to avoid the over-treatment of low-risk lesions or under-treatment of DCIS with higher risk of recurring or progressing into invasion...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427013/the-accelerated-path-of-ceritinib-translating-pre-clinical-development-into-clinical-efficacy
#7
REVIEW
Tony S K Mok, Lucio Crino, Enriqueta Felip, Ravi Salgia, Tommaso De Pas, Daniel S W Tan, Laura Q M Chow
The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007 led to the development and subsequent approval of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib in 2011. However, despite its clinical efficacy, resistance to crizotinib invariably develops. There is now a next generation of ALK inhibitors, including two that have been approved-ceritinib and alectinib-and others that are in development-brigatinib, lorlatinib and X-396. Ceritinib and the other next-generation ALK inhibitors are more potent than crizotinib and can overcome tumor cell resistance mechanisms...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399491/metformin-and-improved-treatment-outcomes-in-radiation-therapy-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Nur Atiqah Binte Samsuri, Michelle Leech, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND: Metformin, a primary treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, is associated with improved outcomes for diabetic cancer patients fuelling further investigation on its mechanisms of action. The radiosensitising properties of metformin are increasingly reported in pre-clinical studies. This review discusses whether metformin should be offered to radiotherapy (RT) cancer patients as a means to improve their treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search was conducted for articles published with metformin as the main intervention between 2010 and 2016...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371665/mutation-matters-in-precision-medicine-a-future-to-believe-in
#9
REVIEW
Nandini Dey, Casey Williams, Brian Leyland-Jones, Pradip De
As a genetic disease [1] cancer dysregulates key oncogenic pathways that influence cell growth, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Among the major determinants that enable cancer cells to acquire malignant traits are genomic diversity and instability. In the post human genome project era, cancer-specific genomic maps are redesigning tumor taxonomy. The treatment modalities, as well as the overall management of cancer as a disease in today's clinic, have started depending heavily on the molecular pathology of the individual tumor(s) in addition to the fundamental classification of cancers by histopathology...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363142/local-co-administration-of-gene-silencing-rna-and-drugs-in-cancer-therapy-state-of-the-art-and-therapeutic-potential
#10
REVIEW
Mikael Larsson, Wei-Ting Huang, Dean-Mo Liu, Dusan Losic
Gene-silencing miRNA and siRNA are emerging as attractive therapeutics with potential to suppress any genes, which could be especially useful in combination cancer therapy to overcome multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer. Nanomedicine aims to advance cancer treatment through functional nanocarriers that delivers one or more therapeutics to cancer tissue and cells with minimal off-target effects and suitable release kinetics and dosages. Although much effort has gone into developing circulating nanocarriers with targeting functionality for systemic administration, another alternative and straightforward approach is to utilize formulations to be administered directly to the site of action, such as pulmonary and intratumoral delivery...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342938/the-impact-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-on-the-histopathological-features-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Stephan Schorn, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Carmen Mota Reyes, Cemil Saricaoglu, Nicole Samm, Rebekka Schirren, Elke Tieftrunk, Daniel Hartmann, Helmut Friess, Güralp Onur Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Due to increased rates of curative tumor resections exceeding 60% after FOLFIRINOX-treatment, neoadjuvant therapy/NTx is increasingly recognized as an effective therapy option for downstaging borderline or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma/PDAC. Yet, the effects of NTx on the common histopathological features of PDAC have not been systematically analysed. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact of NTx on relevant histopathological features of PDAC...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342334/oncogene-addiction-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focus-on-ros1-inhibition
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Facchinetti, Giulio Rossi, Emilio Bria, Jean-Charles Soria, Benjamin Besse, Roberta Minari, Luc Friboulet, Marcello Tiseo
Detection of molecular aberrations driving the biology and the clinical behavior of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) allows the adoption of specific therapeutic strategies dramatically impacting disease courses. Among these, ROS1 rearrangements are present in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas. Thanks to similarities between ALK and ROS1 oncogenes, lessons inferred from ALK can be applied to ROS1-positive NSCLC; nevertheless, disparities exist between diseases mastered by these two fusion genes. In the absence of more common genetic alterations detected in NSCLC (e...
March 12, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340451/the-role-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-focus-on-abiraterone-acetate-prednisone-and-enzalutamide
#13
REVIEW
Marzia Del Re, Stefano Fogli, Lisa Derosa, Francesco Massari, Paul De Souza, Stefania Crucitta, Sergio Bracarda, Daniele Santini, Romano Danesi
Elderly patients with cancer may have comorbidities, each requiring additional pharmacologic treatment. Therefore, the occurrence of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions is very likely, and the risk of adverse reactions (ADRs), due to the narrow therapeutic window of anticancer drugs, is increased. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may occur in prostate cancer patients due to inhibition by abiraterone of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent enzymes CYP2C8 and 2D6, which are involved in the metabolism of approximately 25% of all drugs, and induction by enzalutamide of CYP3A4, 2C9 and 2C19, which metabolize up to 50% of medications...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320564/anti-angiogenic-treatment-for-breast-cancer
#14
LETTER
Johannes Pieter van Netten, Stephen Hoption Cann, Ian Thornton, Rory P Finegan, Chris Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340450/health-promotion-and-psychological-interventions-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Natalie Katrina Bradford, Raymond Javan Chan
BACKGROUND: The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. METHODS: The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314175/choosing-wisely-preclinical-test-models-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Konrad Klinghammer, Wolfgang Walther, Jens Hoffmann
Through the introduction of a steadily growing variety of preclinical test models drug development and biomarker research has advanced. Next to classical used 2D cell line cultures, tissue-slice cultures, 3D organoid cell cultures, genetically engineered mouse models, cell line derived mouse models and patient derived xenografts may be selected for a specific question. All models harbor advantages and disadvantages. This review focuses on the available preclinical test models, novel developments such as humanized mice and discusses for which question a particular model should be employed...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351781/geis-guidelines-for-gastrointestinal-sarcomas-gist
#17
REVIEW
Andrés Poveda, Xavier García Del Muro, Jose Antonio López-Guerrero, Ricardo Cubedo, Virginia Martínez, Ignacio Romero, César Serrano, Claudia Valverde, Javier Martín-Broto
Gastrointestinal stromal sarcomas (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours originating in the digestive tract. They have a characteristic morphology, are generally positive for CD117 (c-kit) and are primarily caused by activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA genes(1). On rare occasions, they occur in extravisceral locations such as the omentum, mesentery, pelvis and retroperitoneum. GISTs have become a model of multidisciplinary work in oncology: the participation of several specialties (oncologists, pathologists, surgeons, molecular biologists, radiologists…) has forested advances in the understanding of this tumour and the consolidation of a targeted therapy, imatinib, as the first effective molecular treatment in solid tumours...
March 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314176/metronomic-and-metronomic-like-therapies-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-rationale-and-clinical-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Ioana Lambrescu, Simona Fica, Diana Martins, Francesca Spada, Chiara Cella, Emilio Bertani, Manila Rubino, Bianca Gibelli, Chiara Grana, Guido Bonomo, Luigi Funicelli, Davide Ravizza, Eleonora Pisa, Dario Zerini, Antonio Ungaro, Nicola Fazio
Metronomic therapy is characterized by the administration of regular low doses of certain drugs with very low toxicity. There have been numerous debates over the empirical approach of this regimen, but fewest side effects are always something to consider in order to improve patients' quality of life. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare malignancies relatively slow-growing; therefore their treatment is often chronic, involving several different therapies for tumor growth control. Knowing that these tumors are highly vascularized, the anti-angiogenic aspect is highly regarded as something to be targeted in all patients harboring NETs...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288389/ovarian-ablation-for-premenopausal-breast-cancer-a-review-of-treatment-considerations-and-the-impact-of-premature-menopause
#19
REVIEW
Melica Nourmoussavi, Gary Pansegrau, Jason Popesku, Geoffrey L Hammond, Janice S Kwon, Mark S Carey
Historically, ovarian ablation (OA) was used as therapy for women with recurrent hormone-receptor-positive (HRP) premenopausal breast cancer. With the publication of the SOFT (Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial) and TEXT (Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial) randomized trials, there is considerable interest in OA as an adjuvant treatment, either in combination with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor (AI). Thus, we have reviewed current guidelines and key studies on this important topic and have highlighted the relevant biological and pharmacological aspects of the various endocrine therapies...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279895/systematic-analysis-of-early-phase-clinical-studies-for-patients-with-breast-cancer-inclusion-of-patients-with-brain-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
R Costa, N Gill, A W Rademaker, B A Carneiro, Y K Chae, P Kumthekar, W J Gradishar, R Kurzrock, F J Giles
PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to better define the limitations and patterns with which patients with MBC and CNS metastasis are enrolled into early phase developmental therapeutics trials. METHODS: In June 2016, PubMed search was conducted using the following keywords: "Breast cancer". Drug-development phase 1, phase 2 or phase 1/2 trials for patients with MBC were included. Multiple-histology trials and trials without an efficacy endpoint were excluded. RESULTS: In total, 1474 studies were included; Inclusion criteria for 423 (29%) allowed for CNS metastasis, 770 (52%) either excluded or did not document eligibility of patients with CNS disease...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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