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Cancer Treatment Reviews

Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Florent Martinetti, Olaf Mercier, Samar Krhili, François-Georges Riet, Rodrigue Mbagui, Hanh To, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has become the standard treatment for peripheral medically non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous attempts of trials to compare SABR and surgery have failed and new randomized studies (SABRtooth, STABLEMATES, and VALOR) are ongoing. While predictive factors of relapse have been extensively studied in patients receiving surgery, there is scarce data on such putative factors in SABR patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze such predictive factors through a critical review of the literature...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Gavish Munbauhal, Thomas Seisen, Florie D Gomez, Benoit Peyronnet, Olivier Cussenot, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Carmen Criscitiello, Angela Esposito, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
It is well recognized that the immune system plays an essential role in tumor defense. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reflects an individual immunological response. In early breast cancer, the presence of TILs is associated with a more favorable outcome and response to therapy. In this review, we describe how TILs are assessed. Also, we discuss their role as prognostic and predictive biomarker in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings as well as in residual disease. Moreover, we discuss the possible implementation of TILs in daily clinical practice as well as in future clinical trials in order to fine tune prognosis and improve treatments...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Mark C Markowski, Michael A Carducci
Since 2010, five new antineoplastic therapies have been FDA approved for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. With additional treatment options, questions arose about the optimal sequence of these agents. Until recently, chemotherapy has been deferred until later in the disease course in favor of next-generation androgen deprivation therapy. Prior to the development of abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, clinical trials were opened investigating the combination of chemotherapy with androgen deprivation therapy in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive disease...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rafael Morales-Barrera, Cristina Suárez, Ana Martínez de Castro, Fabricio Racca, Claudia Valverde, Xavier Maldonado, Juan Maria Bastaros, Juan Morote, Joan Carles
Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the United States. About 25% of patients with bladder cancer have advanced disease (muscle-invasive or metastatic disease) at presentation and are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. In the setting of metastatic disease, use of cisplatin-based regimens improves survival. However, despite initial high response rates, the responses are typically not durable leading to recurrence and death in the vast majority of these patients with median overall survival of 15months and a 5-year survival rate of ⩽10%...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
John Coutsouvelis, Sharon Avery, Michael Dooley, Carl Kirkpatrick, Andrew Spencer
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, previously known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD/SOS), is a complication in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Severe VOD/SOS, including progression to multi-organ failure, has resulted in a mortality of greater than 80%. Defibrotide's varying pharmacological actions, particularly on endothelial cells, make it is a useful agent to consider for prophylaxis and treatment of VOD/SOS. Barriers to its routine use include the high acquisition cost and the fact that neither the oral or parenteral formulations are licensed products in many countries at this time...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Krzysztof Adamowicz, Everardo D Saad, Jacek Jassem
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is often used as an endpoint in cancer clinical trials. We assessed the frequency and correlates of HRQOL use in phase III trials in advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed for phase III trials published between January 1998 and December 2014, as well as for companion papers reporting on HRQOL separately. We excluded papers reporting on correlative biology or prognostic factors in isolation from the main trial results, as well as trials on supportive care and on local therapy...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
E Sawicki, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, B Nuijen
Dissolution from the pharmaceutical formulation is a prerequisite for complete and consistent absorption of any orally administered drug, including anticancer agents (oncolytics). Poor dissolution of an oncolytic can result in low oral bioavailability, high variability in blood concentrations and with that suboptimal or even failing therapy. This review discusses pharmaceutical formulation aspects and absorption pharmacokinetics of currently licensed orally administered oncolytics. In nearly half of orally dosed oncolytics poor dissolution is likely to play a major role in low and unpredictable absorption...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Nathalie LeVasseur, Mark Clemons, Brian Hutton, Risa Shorr, Carmel Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced lung cancer commonly have bone metastases. Compared with other malignancies, the use of bone-targeted agents (e.g. bisphosphonates and denosumab) is less common in lung cancer patients. This may be due to the perception that bone-targeted agents are less effective in this population. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to evaluate data from randomized trials of bone-targeted agents in lung cancer patients with bone metastases...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Saroj Niraula, Alberto Ocana
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is heterogeneous at different levels: biologic subtypes, intratumoral areas, and sites of metastases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) classify metastatic sites as visceral or non-visceral, but this has little influence in treatment decisions, particularly in the absence of clinical urgency. Indeed, it is unclear if response to treatments differs among sites of metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RCTs investigating 3 different anticancer strategies in metastatic breast cancer were identified: (1) new hormonal therapy, (2) new targeted therapies in hormone receptor positive tumours (everolimus or palbociclib), and (3) new anti-HER2 therapies...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Phanthira Simapivapan, Anna Boltong, Allison Hodge
BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol intake and breast cancer recurrence or development of second primary breast cancer in the survivor population is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence to assess the extent to which alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer recurrence and second primary breast cancer. METHODS: Six databases (Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched using the following search phrase: (breast cancer OR breast adenocarcinoma OR breast neoplasm OR breast tumour) AND (alcohol(∗) OR alcohol intake OR alcohol consumption OR ethanol) AND (recurrence OR second primary)...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Bradley J Monk, Domenica Lorusso, Antoine Italiano, Stan B Kaye, Miguel Aracil, Adnan Tanović, Maurizio D'Incalci
Trabectedin is a marine-derived product that was originally isolated from the Caribbean sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata and the first anticancer marine drug to be approved by the European Union. It is currently used as a single agent for the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma after failure of anthracyclines and ifosfamide, or for those patients who are unsuited to receive these agents, and in patients with relapsed, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rosaria Chilà, Federica Guffanti, Giovanna Damia
Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is important for productive transcription. Deregulated transcription-CDKs have been reported in different human cancers. Until recently CDK9 was the only transcription-CDK with a causative role in cancer, but evidence is cumulating of the importance of CDK12. This review summarizes the role of CDK12 in transcription and RNA processing, in maintaining genomic stability/integrity and in tumorigenesis. CDK12 mutations have been reported in many cancers and have been suggested as a cause of defective DNA repair in ovarian carcinoma...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Francesco Schettini, Mario Giuliano, Sabino De Placido, Grazia Arpino
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼10-20% of breast cancers and is associated with relatively poor prognosis, earlier disease recurrence and higher number of visceral metastases. Despite an increasing understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of TNBC, clinical trials of targeted agents have thus far been disappointing; chemotherapy, in particular with anthracycline and taxanes, remains the backbone medical management for both early and metastatic TNBC. Nab-paclitaxel is a solvent-free, albumin-bound, nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel and represents a novel formulation of an established, effective chemotherapeutic agent...
September 12, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Amanda R Townsend, Li Chia Chong, Christos Karapetis, Timothy J Price
Liver metastases are often the dominant site of metastatic disease in colorectal cancer. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) involves embolising radiolabeled spheres (SIR-Spheres) into the arterial supply of the liver. This review assesses the effectiveness and toxicity of SIRT in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer liver metastasis when given alone or with systemic or regional hepatic artery chemotherapy. We reviewed only randomised controlled trials comparing SIRT and chemotherapy (systemic and/or regional) with chemotherapy alone, or comparing SIRT alone with best supportive care...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Gwenaëlle Gravis, François Audenet, Jacques Irani, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Philippe Barthelemy, Philippe Beuzeboc, Aude Fléchon, Claude Linassier, Stéphane Oudard, Xavier Rebillard, Pierre Richaud, Morgan Rouprêt, Antoine Thiery Vuillemin, Sébastien Vincendeau, Laurence Albiges, François Rozet
Data from the literature support with strong evidence the addition of docetaxel to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with metastatic prostate cancer, and starting therapy for the first time. A meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials showed a significant improvement of overall survival when ADT was combined with docetaxel when compared to ADT alone (HR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.87; p<0.0001). Consequently, combination therapy should be considered presently as the new standard of care, using 6 cycles of docetaxel, without prednisone...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Tejaswi Kandula, Susanna B Park, Richard J Cohn, Arun V Krishnan, Michelle A Farrar
BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors over the last 60years has made monitoring and minimising long term side effects of cancer treatment increasingly important. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been described with many commonly used chemotherapy agents. This article provides a critical overview of pediatric CIPN, its incidence, clinical manifestations, late effects, and recent advances in understanding of risk factors and pharmacogenomics as well as evaluating current assessment strategies and treatment approaches...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Emiliano Calvo, Manuela Schmidinger, Daniel Y C Heng, Viktor Grünwald, Bernard Escudier
Survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has improved since the advent of targeted therapy. Approved agents include the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, and lenvatinib (approved in combination with everolimus), the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) targeted immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Vinicius Ernani, Mukesh Kumar, Amy Y Chen, Taofeek K Owonikoko
Although rare, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) exemplifies the value that ever-expanding knowledge of molecular pathways and mechanisms brings to managing challenging cancers. Although surgery can be curative for MTC in many patients, a substantial proportion of patients present with locoregional or distant metastatic disease. Once distant disease occurs, treatment options are limited, and conventional cancer treatments such as cytotoxic chemotherapy are of minimal benefit. Biomarkers such as calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen are important correlates of disease burden as well as predictors of disease progress, including recurrence and survival...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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