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Cancer Treatment Reviews

Amparo Sánchez-Gastaldo, Emmanuelle Kempf, Aránzazu González Del Alba, Ignacio Duran
Kidney cancer represents about 5% of all new cancer diagnoses. The most common form of kidney cancer arises from renal epithelium, named renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This entity comprises different histological and molecular subtypes. Unraveling the molecular biology and cytogenetic of RCC has enabled the development of several targeted agents that have improved treatment outcomes of these patients. This article reviews all the agents currently approved for the treatment of RCC, and discuss upcoming molecules...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Shakeel Inder, Sinead O'Rourke, Niamh McDermott, Rustom Manecksha, Stephen Finn, Thomas Lynch, Laure Marignol
The Notch pathway is a highly conserved pathway increasingly implicated with the progression of human cancers. Of the four existing receptors associated with the pathway, the deregulation in the expression of the Notch-3 receptor is associated with more aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Selective targeting of this receptor has the potential to enhance current anti-cancer treatments. Molecular profiling strategies are increasingly incorporated into clinical decision making. This review aims to evaluate the clinical potential of Notch-3 within this new era of personalised medicine...
September 1, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Carlos Alfaro, Miguel F Sanmamed, María E Rodríguez-Ruiz, Álvaro Teijeira, Carmen Oñate, Álvaro González, Mariano Ponz, Kurt A Schalper, José L Pérez-Gracia, Ignacio Melero
Interleukin-8 (CXCL8) was originally described asa chemokine whose main function is the attraction of a polymorphonuclear inflammatory leukocyte infiltrate acting on CXCR1/2. Recently, it has been found that tumors very frequently coopt the production of this chemokine, which in this malignant context exerts different pro-tumoral functions. Reportedly, these include angiogenesis, survival signaling for cancer stem cells and attraction of myeloid cells endowed with the ability to immunosuppress and locally provide growth factors...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Edouard Auclin, Nathalie Chaput, Benjamin Besse
Immunotherapy has dramatically changed the therapeutic scenario in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), extending overall survival, with a favorable safety profile. However, there is still a gap of knowledge about the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in elderly patients. Data from randomized clinical trials testing ICIs are conflicting and often lack adequate statistical power. Although two large meta-analyses suggested an absence of a significant survival benefit in patients older than 75years, expanded access programs and retrospective cohort studies of ICIs in the real-life setting, showed comparable survival outcomes and safety profiles between older and younger patients...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Hadar Goldvaser, Ibrahim AlGorashi, Domen Ribnikar, Bostjan Seruga, Arnoud J Templeton, Alberto Ocana, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown improvements in breast cancer outcomes from extending treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) beyond the initial 5years after diagnosis. Consistency of this effect in common clinicopathologically defined subgroups was not been reported systematically. METHODS: We identified RCTs comparing extended AIs to placebo or no treatment using a systematic search of MEDLINE and a review of abstracts from key conferences between 2013 and 2016...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Markus V Heppt, Theresa Steeb, Justin Gabriel Schlager, Stefanie Rosumeck, Corinna Dressler, Thomas Ruzicka, Alexander Nast, Carola Berking
BACKGROUND: The use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) for uveal melanoma (UM) is little established. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ICB in patients with UM. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature research covering MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL. Abstracts of pertinent conferences and trial registers were handsearched for relevant studies. RESULTS: Out of 1327 records initially identified, 12 eligible studies were included in the qualitative synthesis...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Francesca Tartari, Matteo Santoni, Mirco Pistelli, Rossana Berardi
BACKGROUND: In this study, we estimated the current and future costs related to the use of targeted agents in patients with HER2-positive and negative advanced breast cancer (BC), aimed at identifying the subgroup associated with the higher cost in the coming years. METHODS: We calculated the patient cost considering an ideal patient who received therapeutic sequences including all approved agents for HER2-positive or negative BC. The duration of treatment was estimated by the median Progression-Free Survival (PFS) reported in the phase III trials which have led to the approval of these drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Marta Chiaravalli, Michele Reni, Eileen M O'Reilly
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall 5-year survival of 8% for all stages combined. The majority of patients present with stage IV disease at diagnosis and these patients have an overall 5-year survival of 3%. Currently, the standard of care for metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma is combination cytotoxic therapy, namely FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel for good performance status patients. Given the challenges and the rising incidence of PDAC expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death by 2030, there is a major unmet need to develop more effective therapies...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
S Pilotto, L Carbognin, N Karachaliou, P C Ma, R Rosell, G Tortora, E Bria
The discovery of druggable oncogenic drivers (i.e. EGFR and ALK), along with the introduction of comprehensive tumor genotyping techniques into the daily clinical practice define non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) asa group of heterogeneous diseases, requiring a context-personalized clinico-therapeutical approach. Among the most investigated biomarkers, the MET proto-oncogene has been extensively demonstrated to play a crucial role throughout the lung oncogenesis, unbalancing the proliferation/apoptosis signaling and influencing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasive phenotype...
August 20, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Bishal Gyawali, Saroj Niraula
BACKGROUND: One year of trastuzumab, chosen empirically, improves survival of women with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer but also adds substantially to cost, toxicity, and inconvenience. Longer treatment does not improve outcomes, but potentiates toxicities. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and major conference proceedings were searched systematically in June 2017 to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing one year versus shorter durations of trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer...
August 19, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Elisa Roca, Cristina Gurizzan, Vito Amoroso, William Vermi, Vittorio Ferrari, Alfredo Berruti
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma can transform to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) when resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) develops. This phenomenon has repeatedly been described in several case reports and small patient series. The characteristics and treatment outcomes of this population, however, have not been comprehensively reported. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the published literature to obtain explorative information on the clinical and pathological features and prognosis of the reported cases...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Abrahim Al-Mamgani, Erik van Werkhoven, Arash Navran, Baris Karakullukcu, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Melanie Machiels, Lilly-Ann van der Velden, Wouter V Vogel, W Martin Klop
BACKGROUND: The head and neck region has rich regional lymphatic network, with a theoretical risk on contralateral metastasis from oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). There is a long-standing convention to irradiate the great majority of these tumors electively to both sides of the neck to reduce the risk of contralateral regional failure (cRF), but this can induce significant toxicity. We aimed to identify patient groups where elective contralateral irradiation may safely be omitted. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for original full-text articles in English with a combination of search terms related to the end points: cRF in OPC primarily treated by radiotherapy only to the ipsilateral neck and identifying predictive factors for increased incidence of cRF...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Filip Janku
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway that has regulatory roles in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, and a critical role in tumorigenesis. In cancer, multiple studies have investigated the therapeutic targeting of the PI3K pathway, and multiple inhibitors targeting PI3K and its isoforms, protein kinase B/AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and other pathway proteins have been developed. For the treatment of solid tumors, only allosteric mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus and temsirolimus, are currently approved for clinical use...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Primož Strojan, Katherine A Hutcheson, Avraham Eisbruch, Jonathan J Beitler, Johannes A Langendijk, Anne W M Lee, June Corry, William M Mendenhall, Robert Smee, Alessandra Rinaldo, Alfio Ferlito
Radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat approximately 80% of patients with cancer of the head and neck. Despite enormous advances in RT planning and delivery, a significant number of patients will experience radiation-associated toxicities, especially those treated with concurrent systemic agents. Many effective management options are available for acute RT-associated toxicities, but treatment options are much more limited and of variable benefit among patients who develop late sequelae after RT. The adverse impact of developing late tissue damage in irradiated patients may range from bothersome symptoms that negatively affect their quality of life to severe life-threatening complications...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Hadar Goldvaser, Domen Ribnikar, Rouhi Fazelzad, Bostjan Seruga, Arnoud J Templeton, Alberto Ocana, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: The presence of non-measurable disease is common in metastatic breast cancer. It is unknown whether treatment effect on progression free survival (PFS) is consistent among patients with measurable and non-measurable disease. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in metastatic breast cancer that reported outcomes in patients with non-measurable and measurable disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were computed to compare the individual trial treatment effect on PFS in non-measurable versus measurable disease...
July 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Sagun Parakh, Hui K Gan, Adam C Parslow, Ingrid J G Burvenich, Antony W Burgess, Andrew M Scott
The development of HER2-directed monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have provided benefits to cancer patients, as well as produced many insights into the biology of the ErbB receptor family. Current therapies based on ErbB family members have resulted in improved overall survival with associated improvements in quality of life for the cancer patients that respond to treatment. Compared to monotherapy using either two antibodies to block the HER2 receptor blockade or combinatorial approaches with HER2 antibodies and standard therapies has provided additional benefits...
July 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Andrea Kühnl, David Cunningham, Ian Chau
After decades of intense research on genetic alterations in cancer and successful implementation of genetically-based targeted therapies, the field of cancer epigenetics is only beginning to be fully recognized. The discovery of frequent mutations in genes modifying the epigenome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has highlighted the outstanding role of epigenetic deregulation in this disease. Identification of epigenetically-driven DLBCL subgroups and development of novel epigenetic drugs have rapidly advanced...
September 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Matteo Santoni, Federico Guerra, Alessandro Conti, Alessandra Lucarelli, Silvia Rinaldi, Laura Belvederesi, Alessandro Capucci, Rossana Berardi
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicityis a serious side effect of molecularly targeted agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and Relative Risk (RR) of developing all-grade and high-grade cardiotoxicity in patients with solid tumors receiving targeted agents through a revised meta-analysis of available clinical trials. METHODS: The scientific literature regarding cardiotoxicity was extensively analyzed using MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)...
September 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Jole Ventriglia, Immacolata Paciolla, Carmela Pisano, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Marilena Di Napoli, Rosa Tambaro, Daniela Califano, Simona Losito, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Laura Arenare, Sandro Pignata, Chiara Della Pepa
The tumors of the female genital tract represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Substantial progresses have been made in ovarian cancer, with the increasing knowledge about BRCA mutated tumors and the recent development of PARP inhibitors, and in cervical cancer, thanks to extensive screening and widespread of vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus. Nevertheless many needs remain unmet, advanced stage diseases are still incurable and cervical and endometrial carcinoma, as well as platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma, can certainly be classifiable among the cancers with poor sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy...
September 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Paola Queirolo, Francesco Spagnolo
Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) drugs nivolumab and pembrolizumab were recently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other solid tumors. Atypical patterns of response (i.e. tumor shrinkage or stabilization after initial progression) were observed in about 10% of metastatic melanoma patients treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) drug ipilimumab and were associated with improved survival; however, the rate of atypical response patterns to anti-PD-1 therapy is not clear...
September 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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