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Water Resources Research

S Rasconi, R Ptacnik, M J Kainz
Rapid increase in lake temperature can cause a shift toward the dominance of warm temperature tolerant species, including Cyanobacteria that are deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supporting consumer growth and reproduction. To increase our understanding of how changes in physicochemical lake parameters affect phytoplankton composition and the provision of dietary quality to consumers in subalpine oligotrophic lakes, we conducted a multiannual study (2013-2015) in the 34-m-deep Lake Lunz and investigated interannual changes in (a) water temperature, transparency, and lake inflow; (b) seston (<30-μm particle size class) biomass and taxonomy; and (c) seston nutritional quality, assessed by its PUFA composition...
October 2018: Water Resources Research
Grey Nearing, Soni Yatheendradas, Wade Crow, Xiwu Zhan, Jicheng Liu, Fan Chen
Data assimilation is the application of Bayes' theorem to condition the states of a dynamical systems model on observations. Any real-world application of Bayes' theorem is approximate, and therefore we cannot expect that data assimilation will preserve all of the information available from models and observations. We outline a framework for measuring information in models, observations, and evaluation data in a way that allows us to quantify information loss during (necessarily imperfect) data assimilation...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
Yuan Xue, Barton A Forman, Rolf H Reichle
To estimate snow mass across North America, brightness temperature observations collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer from 2002 to 2011 were assimilated into the Catchment model using a support vector machine (SVM) as the observation operator and a one-dimensional ensemble Kalman filter. The performance of the assimilation system is evaluated through comparisons against ground-based measurements and reference snow products. In general, there are no statistically significant skill differences between the domain-averaged, model-only ("open loop", or OL) snow estimates and assimilation estimates...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
B Széles, M Broer, J Parajka, P Hogan, A Eder, P Strauss, G Blöschl
The objective of this study was to understand whether spatial differences in runoff generation mechanisms affect the magnitudes of diurnal streamflow fluctuations during low flow periods and which part of the catchment induces the diurnal streamflow signal. The spatiotemporal variability of the streamflow fluctuations observed at 12 locations in the 66-ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory experimental catchment in Austria was explained by differences in the vegetation cover and runoff generation mechanisms. Almost a quarter of the volume associated with diurnal streamflow fluctuations at the catchment outlet was explained by transpiration from vegetation along the tributaries; more than three quarters was due to transpiration by the riparian forest along the main stream...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
I G Pechlivanidis, H Gupta, T Bosshard
Uncertainties in hydro-climatic projections are (in part) related to various components of the production chain. An ensemble of numerous projections is usually considered to characterize the overall uncertainty; however in practice a small set of scenario combinations are constructed to provide users with a subset that is manageable for decision-making. Since projections are unavoidably uncertain, and multiple projections are typically informationally redundant to a considerable extent, it would be helpful to identify an informationally representative subset in a large model ensemble...
August 2018: Water Resources Research
Randal D Koster, Wade T Crow, Rolf H Reichle, Sarith P Mahanama
Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level-2 soil moisture retrievals collected during 2015-2017 are used in isolation to estimate 10-day warm-season precipitation and streamflow totals within 145 medium-sized (2,000-10,000 km2 ) unregulated watersheds in the conterminous United States. The precipitation estimation algorithm, derived from a well documented approach, includes a locally-calibrated loss function component that significantly improves its performance. For the basin-scale water budget analysis, the precipitation and streamflow algorithms are calibrated with two years of SMAP retrievals in conjunction with observed precipitation and streamflow data and are then applied to SMAP retrievals alone during a third year...
July 2018: Water Resources Research
Chandrakanta Ojha, Manoochehr Shirzaei, Susanna Werth, Donald F Argus, Tom G Farr
The accelerated rate of decline in groundwater levels across California's Central Valley results from overdrafting and low rates of natural recharge and is exacerbated by droughts. The lack of observations with an adequate spatiotemporal resolution to constrain the evolution of groundwater resources poses severe challenges to water management efforts. Here we present SAR interferometric measurements of high-resolution vertical land motion across the valley, revealing multiscale patterns of aquifer hydrogeological properties and groundwater storage change...
July 2018: Water Resources Research
Thomas Sweijen, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Bruno Chareyre, Luwen Zhuang
Dynamics of drainage is analyzed for packings of spheres, using numerical experiments. For this purpose, a dynamic pore-scale model was developed to simulate water flow during drainage. The pore space inside a packing of spheres was extracted using regular triangulation, resulting in an assembly of grain-based tetrahedra. Then, pore units were constructed by identifying and merging tetrahedra that belong to the same pore, resulting in an assembly of pore units. Each pore unit was approximated by a volume-equivalent regular shape (e...
June 2018: Water Resources Research
J R Brooks, D M Mushet, M K Vanderhoof, S G Leibowitz, J R Christensen, B P Neff, D O Rosenberry, W D Rugh, L C Alexander
Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on inputs from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water and remote sensing to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched prairie-pothole wetlands...
March 9, 2018: Water Resources Research
M Carrel, V L Morales, M Dentz, N Derlon, E Morgenroth, M Holzner
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood...
March 2018: Water Resources Research
Ajay Gajanan Bhave, Declan Conway, Suraje Dessai, David A Stainforth
Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India...
February 2018: Water Resources Research
Ying Gao, Qingyang Lin, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J Blunt
We imaged the steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devised an experimental method based on differential imaging to examine how flow rate impacts impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during coinjection. This allows us to elucidate flow regimes (connected, or breakup of the nonwetting phase pathways) for a range of fractional flows at two capillary numbers, Ca , namely 3.0 × 10-7 and 7.5 × 10-6 . At the lower Ca , for a fixed fractional flow, the two phases appear to flow in connected unchanging subnetworks of the pore space, consistent with conventional theory...
December 2017: Water Resources Research
L A Schifman, D L Herrmann, W D Shuster, A Ossola, A Garmestani, M E Hopton
Management of urban hydrologic processes using green infrastructure (GI) has largely focused on stormwater management. Thus, design and implementation of GI usually rely on physical site characteristics and local rainfall patterns, and do not typically account for human or social dimensions. This traditional approach leads to highly centralized stormwater management in a disconnected urban landscape, and can deemphasize additional benefits that GI offers, such as increased property value, greenspace aesthetics, heat island amelioration, carbon sequestration, and habitat for biodiversity...
December 1, 2017: Water Resources Research
Ying Lyu, Mark L Brusseau, Asma El Ouni, Juliana B Araujo, Xiaosi Su
The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in Chemical Engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (x-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for maintaining constant water saturation and for measurement of interfacial area (Aia )...
November 2017: Water Resources Research
Luwen Zhuang, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Chao-Zhong Qin, Arjen de Waal
The difference between average pressures of two immiscible fluids is commonly assumed to be the same as macroscopic capillary pressure, which is considered to be a function of saturation only. However, under transient conditions, a dependence of this pressure difference on the time rate of saturation change has been observed by many researchers. This is commonly referred to as dynamic capillarity effect. As a first-order approximation, the dynamic term is assumed to be linearly dependent on the time rate of change of saturation, through a material coefficient denoted by τ ...
November 2017: Water Resources Research
Man Li, Wenchao Xu, Mark W Rosegrant
This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority-as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability-on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to $141...
September 2017: Water Resources Research
L Zhuang, S M Hassanizadeh, P J Kleingeld, M Th van Genuchten
A series of experiments and related numerical simulations were carried out to study one-dimensional water redistribution processes in an unsaturated soil. A long horizontal Plexiglas box was packed as homogenously as possible with sand. The sandbox was divided into two sections using a very thin metal plate, with one section initially fully saturated and the other section only partially saturated. Initial saturation in the dry section was set to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 in three different experiments. Redistribution between the wet and dry sections started as soon as the metal plate was removed...
September 2017: Water Resources Research
Anna K Liljedahl, Larry D Hinzman, Douglas L Kane, Walter C Oechel, Craig E Tweedie, Donatella Zona
Difficulties in obtaining accurate precipitation measurements have limited meaningful hydrologic assessment for over a century due to performance challenges of conventional snowfall and rainfall gauges in windy environments. Here, we compare snowfall observations and bias adjusted snowfall to end-of-winter snow accumulation measurements on the ground for 16 years (1999-2014) and assess the implication of precipitation underestimation on the water balance for a low-gradient tundra wetland near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska (2007-2009)...
August 2017: Water Resources Research
Pertti Ala-Aho, Doerthe Tetzlaff, James P McNamara, Hjalmar Laudon, Patrick Kormos, Chris Soulsby
Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
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