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Water Resources Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197456/sustained-groundwater-loss-in-california-s-central-valley-exacerbated-by-intense-drought-periods
#1
Chandrakanta Ojha, Manoochehr Shirzaei, Susanna Werth, Donald F Argus, Tom G Farr
The accelerated rate of decline in groundwater levels across California's Central Valley results from overdrafting and low rates of natural recharge and is exacerbated by droughts. The lack of observations with an adequate spatiotemporal resolution to constrain the evolution of groundwater resources poses severe challenges to water management efforts. Here we present SAR interferometric measurements of high-resolution vertical land motion across the valley, revealing multiscale patterns of aquifer hydrogeological properties and groundwater storage change...
July 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147157/dynamic-pore-scale-model-of-drainage-in-granular-porous-media-the-pore-unit-assembly-method
#2
Thomas Sweijen, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Bruno Chareyre, Luwen Zhuang
Dynamics of drainage is analyzed for packings of spheres, using numerical experiments. For this purpose, a dynamic pore-scale model was developed to simulate water flow during drainage. The pore space inside a packing of spheres was extracted using regular triangulation, resulting in an assembly of grain-based tetrahedra. Then, pore units were constructed by identifying and merging tetrahedra that belong to the same pore, resulting in an assembly of pore units. Each pore unit was approximated by a volume-equivalent regular shape (e...
June 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681665/estimating-wetland-connectivity-to-streams-in-the-prairie-pothole-region-an-isotopic-and-remote-sensing-approach
#3
J R Brooks, D M Mushet, M K Vanderhoof, S G Leibowitz, J R Christensen, B P Neff, D O Rosenberry, W D Rugh, L C Alexander
Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on inputs from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water and remote sensing to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched prairie-pothole wetlands...
March 9, 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780184/pore-scale-hydrodynamics-in-a-progressively-bioclogged-three-dimensional-porous-medium-3-d-particle-tracking-experiments-and-stochastic-transport-modeling
#4
M Carrel, V L Morales, M Dentz, N Derlon, E Morgenroth, M Holzner
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood...
March 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706676/water-resource-planning-under-future-climate-and-socioeconomic-uncertainty-in-the-cauvery-river-basin-in-karnataka-india
#5
Ajay Gajanan Bhave, Declan Conway, Suraje Dessai, David A Stainforth
Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India...
February 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576662/situating-green-infrastructure-in-context-a-framework-for-adaptive-socio-hydrology-in-cities
#6
L A Schifman, D L Herrmann, W D Shuster, A Ossola, A Garmestani, M E Hopton
Management of urban hydrologic processes using green infrastructure (GI) has largely focused on stormwater management. Thus, design and implementation of GI usually rely on physical site characteristics and local rainfall patterns, and do not typically account for human or social dimensions. This traditional approach leads to highly centralized stormwater management in a disconnected urban landscape, and can deemphasize additional benefits that GI offers, such as increased property value, greenspace aesthetics, heat island amelioration, carbon sequestration, and habitat for biodiversity...
December 1, 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662253/the-gas-absorption-chemical-reaction-method-for-measuring-air-water-interfacial-area-in-natural-porous-media
#7
Ying Lyu, Mark L Brusseau, Asma El Ouni, Juliana B Araujo, Xiaosi Su
The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in Chemical Engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (x-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for maintaining constant water saturation and for measurement of interfacial area (Aia )...
November 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398729/experimental-investigation-of-hysteretic-dynamic-capillarity-effect-in-unsaturated-flow
#8
Luwen Zhuang, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Chao-Zhong Qin, Arjen de Waal
The difference between average pressures of two immiscible fluids is commonly assumed to be the same as macroscopic capillary pressure, which is considered to be a function of saturation only. However, under transient conditions, a dependence of this pressure difference on the time rate of saturation change has been observed by many researchers. This is commonly referred to as dynamic capillarity effect. As a first-order approximation, the dynamic term is assumed to be linearly dependent on the time rate of change of saturation, through a material coefficient denoted by τ ...
November 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200529/irrigation-risk-aversion-and-water-right-priority-under-water-supply-uncertainty
#9
Man Li, Wenchao Xu, Mark W Rosegrant
This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority-as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability-on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to $141...
September 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200528/revisiting-the-horizontal-redistribution-of-water-in-soils-experiments-and-numerical-modeling
#10
L Zhuang, S M Hassanizadeh, P J Kleingeld, M Th van Genuchten
A series of experiments and related numerical simulations were carried out to study one-dimensional water redistribution processes in an unsaturated soil. A long horizontal Plexiglas box was packed as homogenously as possible with sand. The sandbox was divided into two sections using a very thin metal plate, with one section initially fully saturated and the other section only partially saturated. Initial saturation in the dry section was set to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 in three different experiments. Redistribution between the wet and dry sections started as soon as the metal plate was removed...
September 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081549/tundra-water-budget-and-implications-of-precipitation-underestimation
#11
Anna K Liljedahl, Larry D Hinzman, Douglas L Kane, Walter C Oechel, Craig E Tweedie, Donatella Zona
Difficulties in obtaining accurate precipitation measurements have limited meaningful hydrologic assessment for over a century due to performance challenges of conventional snowfall and rainfall gauges in windy environments. Here, we compare snowfall observations and bias adjusted snowfall to end-of-winter snow accumulation measurements on the ground for 16 years (1999-2014) and assess the implication of precipitation underestimation on the water balance for a low-gradient tundra wetland near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska (2007-2009)...
August 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983132/modeling-the-isotopic-evolution-of-snowpack-and-snowmelt-testing-a-spatially-distributed-parsimonious-approach
#12
Pertti Ala-Aho, Doerthe Tetzlaff, James P McNamara, Hjalmar Laudon, Patrick Kormos, Chris Soulsby
Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919651/land-use-change-impacts-on-floods-at-the-catchment-scale-challenges-and-opportunities-for-future-research
#13
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078915/tradeoff-between-cost-and-accuracy-in-large-scale-surface-water-dynamic-modeling
#14
Augusto Getirana, Christa Peters-Lidard, Matthew Rodell, Paul D Bates
Recent efforts have led to the development of the local inertia formulation (INER) for an accurate but still cost-efficient representation of surface water dynamics, compared to the widely used kinematic wave equation (KINE). In this study, both formulations are evaluated over the Amazon basin in terms of computational costs and accuracy in simulating streamflows and water levels through synthetic experiments and comparisons against ground-based observations. Varying time steps are considered as part of the evaluation and INER at 60-second time step is adopted as the reference for synthetic experiments...
June 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931957/the-k%C3%A3-htai-data-set-25-years-of-lysimetric-snow-pillow-and-meteorological-measurements
#15
P Krajči, R Kirnbauer, J Parajka, J Schöber, G Blöschl
Snow measurements at the Kühtai station in Tirol, Austria, (1920 m.a.s.l.) are described. The data set includes snow water equivalent from a 10 m(2) snow pillow, snow melt outflow from a 10 m(2) snow lysimeter placed at the same location as the pillow, meteorological data (precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation, reflected shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, and wind speed), and other data (snow depths, snow temperatures at seven heights) from the period October 1990 to May 2015...
June 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081548/a-two-dimensional-analytical-model-of-vapor-intrusion-involving-vertical-heterogeneity
#16
Yijun Yao, Iason Verginelli, Eric M Suuberg
In this work, we present an analytical chlorinated vapor intrusion (CVI) model that can estimate source-to-indoor air concentration attenuation by simulating two-dimensional (2-D) vapor concentration profile in vertically heterogeneous soils overlying a homogenous vapor source. The analytical solution describing the 2-D soil gas transport was obtained by applying a modified Schwarz-Christoffel mapping method. A partial field validation showed that the developed model provides results (especially in terms of indoor emission rates) in line with the measured data from a case involving a building overlying a layered soil...
May 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943669/effect-of-low-concentration-rhamnolipid-biosurfactant-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-transport-in-natural-porous-media
#17
Guansheng Liu, Hua Zhong, Yongbing Jiang, Mark L Brusseau, Jiesheng Huang, Liangsheng Shi, Zhifeng Liu, Yang Liu, Guangming Zeng
The effect of low-concentrations of monorhamnolipid biosurfactant on transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 in natural porous media (silica sand and a sandy soil) was studied with miscible-displacement experiments using artificial groundwater as the background solution. Transport of two types of cells was investigated, glucose- and hexadecane-grown cells with lower and higher cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), respectively. The effect of hexadecane presence as a residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPLs) on transport was also examined...
January 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983456/precipitation-estimation-using-l-band-and-c-band-soil-moisture-retrievals
#18
Randal D Koster, Luca Brocca, Wade T Crow, Mariko S Burgin, Gabrielle J M De Lannoy
An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) mission. The precipitation estimates so obtained are evaluated against in situ (gauge-based) precipitation observations from across the globe. The precipitation estimation skill achieved using the L-band SMAP and SMOS datasets is higher than that obtained with the C-band product, as might be expected given that L-band is sensitive to a thicker layer of soil and thereby provides more information on the response of soil moisture to precipitation...
September 2016: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917006/measuring-spatiotemporal-variation-in-snow-optical-grain-size-under-a-subalpine-forest-canopy-using-contact-spectroscopy
#19
Noah P Molotch, David M Barnard, Sean P Burns, Thomas H Painter
The distribution of forest cover exerts strong controls on the spatiotemporal distribution of snow accumulation and snowmelt. The physical processes that govern these controls are poorly understood given a lack of detailed measurements of snow states. In this study, we address one of many measurement gaps by using contact spectroscopy to measure snow optical grain size at high spatial resolution in trenches dug between tree boles in a subalpine forest. Trenches were collocated with continuous measurements of snow depth and vertical profiles of snow temperature and supplemented with manual measurements of snow temperature, geometric grain size, grain type, and density from trench walls...
September 2016: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840456/a-fuzzy-bayesian-approach-to-flood-frequency-estimation-with-imprecise-historical-information
#20
José Luis Salinas, Andrea Kiss, Alberto Viglione, Reinhard Viertl, Günter Blöschl
This paper presents a novel framework that links imprecision (through a fuzzy approach) and stochastic uncertainty (through a Bayesian approach) in estimating flood probabilities from historical flood information and systematic flood discharge data. The method exploits the linguistic characteristics of historical source material to construct membership functions, which may be wider or narrower, depending on the vagueness of the statements. The membership functions are either included in the prior distribution or the likelihood function to obtain a fuzzy version of the flood frequency curve...
September 2016: Water Resources Research
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