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Clinics in Perinatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144859/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-the-preterm-infant
#1
EDITORIAL
Ira Adams-Chapman, Sara B DeMauro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144858/the-business-of-predicting-long-term-neonatal-outcomes
#2
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144857/prevention-of-prematurity-advances-and-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Balaji Govindaswami, Priya Jegatheesan, Matthew Nudelman, Sudha Rani Narasimhan
Preterm birth (PTB) rate varies widely and has significant racial and ethnic disparities. Although causal mechanisms are ill understood, socioenvironment, phenotype, and genotype provide insight into pathways for preventing PTB. Data suggest varied response to current medical interventions is explicable Approved by underlying pharmacogenomics. Currently, prevention focuses on minimizing iatrogenic PTB and risk reduction especially in those with prior PTB using proven medical and public health strategies. In the future, preventive approaches will be based on better understanding of sociodemography, nutrition, lifestyles, and underlying individual genetic and epigenetic variation...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144856/public-health-implications-of-very-preterm-birth
#4
REVIEW
Wanda D Barfield
With advanced perinatal care and technology, survival among infants born very preterm (<32 weeks gestation) has improved dramatically over the last several decades. However, adverse medical and neurodevelopmental outcomes for those born very preterm remains high, particularly at the lowest gestational ages. Public health plays a critical role in providing data to assess population-based risks associated with very preterm birth, addressing disparities, and identifying opportunities for prevention, including improving the health of reproductive-age women, before, during, and after pregnancy...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144855/burdens-beyond-biology-for-sick-newborn-infants-and-their-families
#5
REVIEW
John A F Zupancic
To date, outcomes in neonatology have focused mainly on the biological outcomes of the babies under our care. In this article, we argue that we must move beyond this proband and biological bias, towards a "Slow Medicine" that recognizes the distinction between the remarkable technical capabilities of the modern medical world and how those intersect with our society, and its values, more broadly. Practically speaking, this involves consideration of the impacts of neonatal intensive care and its sequelae on families, as well as non-biological outcomes such as finances and stress...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144854/the-impact-of-prematurity-on-social-and-emotional-development
#6
REVIEW
Angela Leon Hernandez
Behavioral and emotional problems are one of the most frequent chronic conditions diagnosed among children born prematurely. The high prevalence of these pathologies is a matter of concern because of their impact on family life, school performance, and social interaction, but also because of current limitations in early detection and access to treatment. This is a review of the various mechanisms by which premature birth affects social and emotional development, and a discussion about strategies that may help support emotional and social development in this high-risk population...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144853/behavioral-and-socioemotional-development-in-preterm-children
#7
REVIEW
Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, Justin Schwartz, Andrea C Carcelen
Prematurity is a significant risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include motor, cognitive, language, behavioral, and socioemotional competence. Long-term overall function depends on healthy socioemotional functioning. The vulnerability of the preterm brain during critical periods of development contributes to behavioral and socioemotional problems in preterm children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical features are more frequent in preterm children compared with their full-term counterparts; however, true rates of ASD and ADHD vary across studies...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144852/long-term-functioning-and-participation-across-the-life-course-for-preterm-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-graduates
#8
REVIEW
Frances A Carter, Michael E Msall
To understand the trajectories of risk and resilience in the vulnerable preterm and neonatal brain, clinicians must go beyond survival and critically examine on a population basis the functional outcomes of children, adolescents, and adults across their life course. Evaluations must go well beyond Bayley assessments and counts of neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, sonographic brain injury, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Proactively providing support to families and developmental and educational supports to children can optimize academic functioning and participation in adult learning, physical and behavioral health activities, community living, relationships, and employment...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144851/biological-and-social-influences-on-the-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infants
#9
REVIEW
Alice C Burnett, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Lex W Doyle
Although very preterm birth and very low birthweight are recognized risk factors for longer term developmental difficulties, there is a wide spectrum of outcomes for children and adolescents born preterm. Biological and social variables have the potential to explain this variability. Although current understanding of these influences and how they interact is incomplete, perinatal factors are related to permanent neurosensory impairments such as cerebral palsy, blindness, and deafness. Cognitive and academic outcomes are variably associated with biological and social variables across development, and the most robust correlates of behavior and mental health difficulties include early behavioral problems and family influences...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144850/what-are-we-measuring-as-outcome-looking-beyond-neurodevelopmental-impairment
#10
REVIEW
Howard W Kilbride, Glen P Aylward, Brian Carter
Outcomes of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates have been categorized by rates of neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years old. Although useful as metrics for research, these early childhood assessments may underestimate or overestimate later functional capabilities. Often overlooked are less severe but more prevalent neurobehavioral dysfunctions seen later in childhood, and chronic health concerns that may impact the child's quality of life (QoL). Comprehensive NICU follow-up should include measures of less severe cognitive/learning delays, physical/mental well-being, and the promotion of resilience in children and families...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144849/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#11
REVIEW
Ira Adams-Chapman
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious complication of prematurity that is associated with an increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome secondary to a complex relationship between various morbidities that increase the risk for central nervous system injury. Affected infants are exposed to a variety of circulating cytokines known to be associated with white matter injury. These infants also have an increased risk of secondary blood stream infections and nutritional compromise.
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144848/the-impact-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-on-childhood-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Sara B DeMauro
The rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants is increasing; this trend reflects, in part, improved survival among extremely premature infants. BPD is associated with adverse developmental and medical outcomes in early childhood and at least through school age. Therefore, BPD imposes a significant burden on infants and children, their families, and society. Many interventions to decrease BPD and the sequelae of BPD have been studied; few to date have been proved to decrease both BPD and later disability...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144847/neuroimaging-for-neurodevelopmental-prognostication-in-high-risk-neonates
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Sewell, Nickie N Andescavage
Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk neonates remains challenging despite advances in neonatal care. Early and accurate characterization of infants at risk for neurodevelopmental delays is necessary to best identify those who may benefit from existing early interventions and novel therapies that become available. Although neuroimaging is a promising biomarker in the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk infants, it requires additional resources and expertise. Despite many advances in neonatal neuroimaging, there remain limitations in relating early neuroimaging findings with long-term outcomes; further studies are necessary to determine the optimal protocols to best identify high-risk patients and improve neurodevelopmental outcome prediction...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144846/early-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebral-palsy-in-children-with-a-history-of-preterm-birth
#14
REVIEW
Alicia J Spittle, Catherine Morgan, Joy E Olsen, Iona Novak, Jeanie L Y Cheong
Infants born preterm are at increased risk of cerebral palsy (CP), with the risk increasing with decreasing gestational age. Although preterm children are at increased risk of CP compared with their term-born peers, most preterm children do not have CP and thus, it is important to have a standardized process for detecting those children at high risk of CP early. A combination of clinical history, neuroimaging, and physical examination is recommended to ensure early, accurate diagnosis. Early detection of CP is essential for timely early intervention to optimize outcomes for children and their families...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144845/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-children-at-school-age-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Anne Synnes, Matthew Hicks
Despite improved survival of preterm infants, there has not been an equivalent improvement in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome rates and severity are inversely related to the degree of prematurity, but only 1.6% are born very preterm and the motor, cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric disabilities in the large moderate and late preterm population have a greater impact. The disability-free preterm adult has a lower educational achievement and income but similar health-related quality of life to term controls...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144844/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-early-childhood
#16
REVIEW
Andrea F Duncan, Melissa A Matthews
Technological advances in neonatal-perinatal medicine have led to a steady increase in the survival of preterm infants. Although the increase in survival is a remarkable success, children born preterm remain at high risk for brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental deficits. Children born preterm may have abnormal muscle tone or movements, cognitive deficits, language impairments, and behavioral problems. This article reviews neurodevelopmental outcomes and factors that influence outcomes in preterm children during early childhood...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747895/unfinished-business-prematurity-birth-asphyxia-and-stillbirths
#17
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747894/collaboratively-understanding-and-improving-outcomes-for-the-mother-fetus-and-infant
#18
EDITORIAL
Ravi Mangal Patel, Tracy A Manuck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747893/perinatal-brain-injury-mechanisms-prevention-and-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Christopher M Novak, Maide Ozen, Irina Burd
Perinatal brain injury may lead to long-term morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment. Improvements in perinatal care have resulted in the survival of more infants with perinatal brain injury. The effects of hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and infection during critical periods of development can lead to a common pathway of perinatal brain injury marked by neuronal excitotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, and microglial activation. Various interventions can prevent or improve the outcomes of different types of perinatal brain injury...
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747892/relationships-between-perinatal-interventions-maternal-infant-microbiomes-and-neonatal-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Gregory Valentine, Derrick M Chu, Christopher J Stewart, Kjersti M Aagaard
The human microbiome acquires its vastness and diversity over a relatively short time period during development. Much is unknown, however, about the precise prenatal versus postnatal timing or its sources and determinants. Given early evidence of a role for influences during pregnancy and early neonatal and infant life on the microbiome and subsequent metabolic health, research investigating the development and shaping of the microbiome in the fetus and neonate is an important arena for study. This article reviews the relevant available literature and future questions on what shapes the microbiome during early development and mechanisms for doing so...
June 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
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