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Clinics in Perinatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159214/dairy-cows-famines-and-what-neonatologists-can-learn-from-them
#1
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159213/human-milk-for-preterm-infants
#2
EDITORIAL
Francis B Mimouni, Berthold Koletzko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159212/human-milk-treatment-and-quality-of-banked-human-milk
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Picaud, Rachel Buffin
The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159211/should-women-providing-milk-to-their-preterm-infants-take-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplements
#4
REVIEW
Berthold Koletzko
Based on the available data, a high milk docosahexaenoic acid supply to very low-birth-weight infants and to extremely low-birth-weight infants at levels that support tissue accretion rates similar to the high rates of intrauterine deposition has the potential to enhance the early visual and cognitive development, and to reduce the occurrence of adverse events, such as severe developmental delay, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and allergic manifestations in infancy and early childhood...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159210/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-fed-human-milk-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Beatrice E Lechner, Betty R Vohr
The neurodevelopmental benefits of breast milk feedings for preterm infants have been controversial. However, the effect on preterm infant neurodevelopment is sustained into childhood. The effects of breast milk feeding during the neonatal period and the duration of breastfeeding display effects on cognition into adolescence. The volume of breast milk received is a key factor in these effects. Additionally, emerging studies support the effects of human milk on structural brain development, such as increased white matter development and increased cortical thickness...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159209/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-human-milk-feeding-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Leslie A Parker, Josef Neu
This article summarizes evidence regarding whether a donor human milk (DHM) and/or an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and the dose of human milk (HM) necessary to reduce the risk of NEC in premature infants. Additional research regarding protection afforded by DHM and EHM is necessary as well as research elucidating the exact dose of HM necessary for NEC risk reduction. Research is also needed to determine whether there is a dose-dependent effect of DHM, a combination of mother's own milk and DHM, and an EHM diet on NEC incidence...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159208/the-importance-of-human-milk-for-immunity-in-preterm-infants
#7
REVIEW
Erin D Lewis, Caroline Richard, Bodil M Larsen, Catherine J Field
The immune system of preterm infants is immature, placing them at increased risk for serious immune-related complications. Human milk provides a variety of immune protective and immune maturation factors that are beneficial to the preterm infant's poorly developed immune system. The most studied immune components in human milk include antimicrobial proteins, maternal leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, oligosaccharides, gangliosides, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159207/-bed-side-human-milk-analysis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Gerhard Fusch, Celia Kwan, Gynter Kotrri, Christoph Fusch
Human milk analyzers can measure macronutrient content in native breast milk to tailor adequate supplementation with fortifiers. This article reviews all studies using milk analyzers, including (i) evaluation of devices, (ii) the impact of different conditions on the macronutrient analysis of human milk, and (iii) clinical trials to improve growth. Results lack consistency, potentially due to systematic errors in the validation of the device, or pre-analytical sample preparation errors like homogenization. It is crucial to introduce good laboratory and clinical practice when using these devices; otherwise a non-validated clinical usage can severely affect growth outcomes of infants...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159206/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-the-preterm-infant-a-journey-in-sickness-and-in-health
#9
REVIEW
Sara Moukarzel, Lars Bode
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of approximately 200 different unconjugated sugar structures in human milk proposed to support infant growth and development. Data from several preclinical animal studies and human cohort studies suggest HMOs reduce preterm infant mortality and morbidity by shaping the gut microbiome and protecting against necrotizing enterocolitis, candidiasis, and several other immune-related diseases. Current feeding practices and clinical algorithms do not consider infant HMO intake when assessing dietary adequacy or disease risk...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159205/bioactive-proteins-in-human-milk-potential-benefits-for-preterm-infants
#10
REVIEW
Bo Lönnerdal
Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to be involved in the better outcomes of breast-fed infants compared with those fed infant formula. Bovine milk proteins or protein fractions may be able to provide some of these benefits and may, therefore, be used for preterm infants. Recombinant human milk proteins are likely to exert bioactivities similar to those of the native human milk proteins, but considerable research is needed before they can be used in routine care of preterm infants.
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159204/the-use-of-multinutrient-human-milk-fortifiers-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-of-unanswered-questions
#11
REVIEW
Francis B Mimouni, Natalie Nathan, Ekhard E Ziegler, Ronit Lubetzky, Dror Mandel
There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159203/preterm-human-milk-macronutrient-and-energy-composition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Francis B Mimouni, Ronit Lubetzky, Sivan Yochpaz, Dror Mandel
This study is a systematic review of the macronutrient and energy composition of preterm human milk to enable the practicing neonatologist to make informed nutritional decisions in preterm infants. Meta-analyses were conducted in all the studies that reported total energy, true protein, fat, and lactose. Protein content decreased massively (by one-half) and significantly from day 1 to 3 at week 10 to 12. There was a significant linear increase in fat, lactose, and energy content during the same timeframe. Theoretic calculations on energy and macronutrient intake of preterm infants must be made according to a lactation time-specific manner...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159202/variation-of-metabolite-and-hormone-contents-in-human-milk
#13
REVIEW
Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko
Animal studies show that the lactation period contributes to metabolic programming of the offspring and that oral leptin and insulin show bioactivity. Stage of lactation, duration of gestation, maternal body composition, and maternal diet seem to influence the concentrations of small molecules in human milk. Variability of small molecule concentrations seems higher in preterm milk than in term milk. Insulin in human milk shows concentrations similar to plasma. Leptin concentration is lower in milk than in plasma and reflects maternal body mass index...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159201/ensuring-safety-in-donor-human-milk-banking-in-neonatal-intensive-care
#14
REVIEW
Ben T Hartmann
The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159200/postnatal-cytomegalovirus-infection-through-human-milk-in-preterm-infants-transmission-clinical-presentation-and-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Klaus Hamprecht, Rangmar Goelz
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reactivated in the lactating breast in up to 96% of CMV seropositive mothers. There is a relevant entity of postnatally acquired symptomatic CMV infection and disease of preterm infants through raw breast milk (BM). Actual data support negative influence on long-term cognitive development. Concerning prevention, only heat inactivation eliminates virus infectivity, and short-term heat inactivation is most preservative; this can be applied effectively under routine conditions. Short-term heat inactivation for 5 minutes at 62°C maintains the benefits of feeding BM without the disadvantages of CMV transmission...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159199/evidence-based-methods-that-promote-human-milk-feeding-of-preterm-infants-an-expert-review
#16
REVIEW
Paula P Meier, Tricia J Johnson, Aloka L Patel, Beverly Rossman
Best practices translating the evidence for high-dose human milk (HM) feeding for preterm infants during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization have been described, but their implementation has been compromised. Although the rates of any HM feeding have increased over the last decade, efforts to help mothers maintain HM provision through to NICU discharge have remained problematic. Special emphasis should be placed on prioritizing the early lactation period of coming to volume so that mothers have sufficient HM volume to achieve their personal HM feeding goals...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837762/assisted-ventilation-in-newborns-less-may-be-more
#17
EDITORIAL
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837761/noninvasive-ventilation
#18
EDITORIAL
Bradley A Yoder, Haresh Kirpalani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837760/nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-for-preterm-neonates-synchronized-or-not
#19
REVIEW
Markus Waitz, Lars Mense, Haresh Kirpalani, Brigitte Lemyre
Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective strategy to prevent invasive ventilation, failure rates are high and many babies require endotracheal intubation. Prolonged exposure to mechanical ventilation is linked with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other morbidities. Different techniques of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) have been proposed as an alternative to CPAP. Bilevel NIPPV and conventional mechanical ventilator-driven NIPPV are used in clinical practice...
December 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837759/noninvasive-support-does-it-really-decrease-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#20
REVIEW
Clyde J Wright, Richard A Polin
Noninvasive support of preterm infants with respiratory distress is an evidenced-based strategy to decrease the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the only noninvasive strategy with sufficient evidence to support its use in acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is unclear if one method for delivering CPAP is superior to another. Future research will focus on strategies (eg, sustained lung inflation, and administration of surfactant using a thin plastic catheter) that increase the likelihood of success with CPAP, especially in infants with a gestational age of less than 26 weeks...
December 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
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