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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508410/arteries-and-veins-of-the-sylvian-fissure-and-insula-microsurgical-anatomy
#1
Matthieu Delion, Philippe Mercier, Gilles Brassier
We present a vascular anatomical study of the arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure and insula.A good knowledge of the sylvian fissure, the insula, and their vascular relationship would seem mandatory before performing surgery in this area, whatever the type of surgery (aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, insular tumors).We start with the sylvian fissure and insula morphology, followed by the MCA description and its perforators, with special attention paid to the insular perforators. We demonstrate that the long insular perforators penetrating in the superior part of the posterior short gyrus and long gyri vascularize, respectively, the corticonuclear and corticospinal fasciculi...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508409/intracranial-meningiomas-a-30-year-experience-and-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
H Maximilian Mehdorn
Intracranial meningiomas are tumors arising from the covering cells of the arachnoid layer of the dura mater or from the intraventricular choroid plexus. While mostly benign tumors, they still represent a major challenge to neurosurgeons and other medical disciplines involved in their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Although this review intends to give some state-of-the-art information from the literature, it is mainly based on personal experiences since more than 30 years caring for more than 1500 meningioma patients and point to a few new strategies to further improve on patient outcome...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508408/spinal-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Shimon Maimon, Yehudit Luckman, Ido Strauss
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disease, the etiology of which is not entirely clear. It is the most common vascular malformation of the spinal cord, comprising 60-80 % of the cases. The clinical presentation and imaging findings may be nonspecific and misleading, often mistaking it for other entities like demyelinating or degenerative diseases of the spine.This chapter describes the imaging findings, clinical signs, and symptoms of this disease and also the available treatment options according to the current literature...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508407/clinical-relevance-of-prognostic-and-predictive-molecular-markers-in-gliomas
#4
REVIEW
Tali Siegal
Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Therefore, molecular markers have become an integral part of tumor assessment in modern neuro-oncology and biomarker status now guides clinical decisions in some subtypes of gliomas...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508406/5-aminolevulinic-acid-protoporphyrin-ix-fluorescence-guided-surgery-of-high-grade-gliomas-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jacques Guyotat, Johan Pallud, Xavier Armoiry, Vladislav Pavlov, Philippe Metellus
The current first-line treatment of malignant gliomas consists in surgical resection (if possible) as large as possible. The existing tools don't permit to identify the limits of tumor infiltration, which goes beyond the zone of contrast enhancement on MRI. The fluorescence-guided malignant gliomas surgery was started 15 years ago and had become a standard of care in many countries. The technique is based on fluorescent molecule revelation using the filters, positioned within the surgical microscope. The fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is converted in tumoral cells from 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), given orally before surgery...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508405/merits-and-limits-of-tractography-techniques-for-the-uninitiated
#6
REVIEW
Christopher Nimsky, Miriam Bauer, Barbara Carl
The implementation of fiber tracking or tractography modules in commercial navigation systems resulted in a broad availability of visualization possibilities for major white matter tracts in the neurosurgical community. Unfortunately the implemented algorithms and tracking approaches do not represent the state of the art of tractography strategies and may lead to false tracking results. The application of advanced tractography techniques for neurosurgical procedures poses even additional challenges that relate to effects of the individual anatomy that might be altered by edema and tumor, to stereotactic inaccuracies due to image distortion, as well as to registration inaccuracies and brain shift...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508404/hearing-outcomes-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-vestibular-schwannomas-mechanism-of-hearing-loss-and-how-to-preserve-hearing
#7
REVIEW
Jung Ho Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun Ha Paek, Hee-Won Jung
The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) expanded to include the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in 1969; since then, efforts to increase tumour control and to reduce cranial neuropathy have continued. Using the currently recommended marginal dose of 12-13 Gy, long-term reported outcomes after SRS include not only excellent tumour control rates of 92-100 % but also outstanding functional preservation of the trigeminal and facial nerves, with values of 92-100 % and 94-100 %, respectively. Nonetheless, hearing preservation remains in the range of 32-81 %...
2016: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411149/minor-and-repetitive-head-injury
#8
REVIEW
Andras Buki, Noemi Kovacs, Endre Czeiter, Kara Schmid, Rachel P Berger, Firas Kobeissy, Domenico Italiano, Ronald L Hayes, Frank C Tortella, Emese Mezosi, Attila Schwarcz, Arnold Toth, Orsolya Nemes, Stefania Mondello
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Severe TBI has long been recognized to be a major socioeconomical health-care issue as saving young lives and sometimes entirely restituting health with a timely intervention can indeed be extremely cost efficient...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411148/optic-pathway-gliomas
#9
REVIEW
Ben Shofty, Liat Ben-Sira, Anat Kesler, Shlomi Constantini
Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are among the most challenging neoplasms in modern pediatric neuro-oncology. Recent technological advances in imaging, surgery, and chemotherapy may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology and better clinical results. This chapter reviews these advances and the current treatment paradigms.
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411147/cavernous-sinus-meningiomas-imaging-and-surgical-strategy
#10
REVIEW
Marc Sindou, Mustapha Nebbal, Bulent Guclu
Cavernous sinus (CS) meningiomas which are by definition those meningiomas which originate from the parasellar region are difficult skull base tumors to deal with. For deciding the most appropriate surgical strategy, surgeons need detailed preoperative neuroimaging. The vicinity of the tumor with the vital and highly functional neurovascular structures, tumor extensions into the basal cisterns and skull base structures, and the arterial vascularization and venous drainage pathways, as they shape operative strategy, are important preoperative data to take into account...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411146/pineal-lesions-a-multidisciplinary-challenge
#11
REVIEW
Manfred Westphal, Pedram Emami
The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411145/is-there-a-place-for-microsurgical-vascular-decompression-of-the-brainstem-for-apparent-essential-blood-hypertension-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Marc Sindou
There are anatomical and physiological evidences that the ventrolateral (VL) region of the medulla plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and that dysfunction at this level may generate hypertension (HT). Vascular compression by a megadolicho-artery from the vertebrobasilar arterial system at the root entry/exit zone (REZ) of the glossopharyngeal (IXth) and vagal (Xth) cranial nerves (CNs) and the adjacent VL aspect of the medulla has been postulated as a causal factor for HT from neurogenic origin...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411144/state-of-the-art-endovascular-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Guy Raphaeli, Mikael Mazighi, Vitor Mendes Pereira, Francis Turjman, Jonathan Striefler
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA. An estimated 795,000 new or recurrent stroke events occur annually, mostly ischemic in nature. Arterial recanalization and subsequent reperfusion performed shortly after symptom onset can help to restore brain function in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The only treatment currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration is intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, administered within 4.5 h of symptom onset. However, this short window often precludes effective intervention...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411143/occipital-nerve-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Antonios Mammis, Nitin Agarwal, Alon Y Mogilner
Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411142/neuromodulation-in-cluster-headache
#15
REVIEW
Denys Fontaine, Clair Vandersteen, Delphine Magis, Michel Lanteri-Minet
Medically refractory chronic cluster headache (CH) is a severely disabling headache condition for which several surgical procedures have been proposed as a prophylactic treatment. None of them have been evaluated in controlled conditions, only open studies and case series being available. Destructive procedures (radiofrequency lesioning, radiosurgery, section) and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve or the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) have induced short-term improvement which did not maintain on long term in most of the patients...
2015: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309924/juvenile-chronic-arthritis-and-the-craniovertebral-junction-in-the-paediatric-patient-review-of-the-literature-and-management-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Jasper F C Wolfs, Mark P Arts, Wilco C Peul
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) is a systemic disease of childhood affecting particularly joints. JCA is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory joint disorders with onset before the age of 16 years and is comprised of 7 subtype groups. The pathogenesis of JCA seen in the cervical spine is synovial inflammation, hyperaemia, and pannus formation at the occipitoatlantoaxial joints resulting in characteristic craniovertebral junction findings. Treatment of craniovertebral junction instability as a result of JCA is a challenge...
2014: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309923/pedicle-based-non-fusion-stabilization-devices-a-critical-review-and-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Jochen Obernauer, Pujan Kavakebi, Sebastian Quirbach, Claudius Thomé
Over the last decades, spinal fusion has become one of the most important principles in surgical treatment of spinal pathologies. Despite the undoubted benefits of fusion surgery, there are several drawbacks associated with this technique, including adjacent segment degeneration and pseudoarthrosis. Based on biomechanical data, dynamic stabilization of the spine is intended to ameliorate adjacent level degeneration by stabilizing vertebral motion in defined planes and mimicking natural spine movements.In this paper, we review the literature and discuss past and present pedicle-based non-fusion dynamic stabilization devices...
2014: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309922/cervical-disc-arthroplasty-a-critical-review-and-appraisal-of-the-latest-available-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Andreas K Demetriades, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been a very successful procedure in the management of cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. Concerns with adjacent segment disease and the desire to preserve physiological motion have led to technological and clinical efforts for cervical disc arthroplasty. The suggested move to cervical disc replacement has led to this latter procedure being one of the most scrutinised surgical treatments in the twenty-first century. Short- and medium-term prospective randomised clinical trials and systematic reviews show cervical disc replacement to be at least as good as ACDF as regards the clinical outcomes in the management of degenerative cervical spondylosis...
2014: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309921/surgery-for-kyphosis
#19
Mehmet Zileli
Kyphosis is a difficult topic of spinal surgery, and its management contains many controversies. Surgical management needs consideration of different aspects of the kyphotic deformity such as neurological status, the presence of spinal cord compression, angle of the kyphosis, the quality of bone, and accompanying diseases. In case of significant cord compression and neurological compromise, anterior surgery should have the priority. However, in smooth-angled kyphosis and ankylosing spondylitis patients, deformity can easily be reduced by a posterior-only approach...
2014: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309920/novel-surgical-approach-in-the-management-of-longitudinal-pathologies-within-the-spinal-canal-the-split-laminotomy-and-archbone-technique-alternative-to-multilevel-laminectomy-or-laminotomy
#20
Peter Banczerowski, László Bognár, Zvi Harry Rappaport, Róbert Veres, János Vajda
Multilevel laminectomy to open the spinal canal carries the risk of spinal deformities and instability. With the aim of preserving and reconstructing the posterior structures the authors developed a novel, minimally invasive, multilevel spinous process splitting and distracting laminotomy approach with or without complementary corticocancellous iliac crest or PEEK cage "archbone" grafting. The technique allows exploration of the spinal canal and the removal of intramedullary pathologies. Moderate enlargement of the spinal canal with preservation of the majority of posterior structures is also possible, so that muscle attachments remain intact and postoperative complications are substantially reduced...
2014: Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
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