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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322989/role-of-micrornas-in-endocrine-cancer-metastasis
#1
Cilene Rebouças Lima, Cibele Crastequini Gomes, Marinilce Fagundes Santos
The deregulation of transcription and processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), as well as their function, has been involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer. Despite advances in therapeutic approaches, cancer still represents one of the major health problems worldwide. Cancer metastasis is an aggravating factor in tumor progression, related to increased treatment complexity and a worse prognosis. After more than one decade of extensive studies of miRNAs, the fundamental role of these molecules in cancer progression and metastasis is beginning to be elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315703/molecular-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d-on-the-epigenome-level
#2
REVIEW
Carsten Carlberg
The molecular endocrinology of vitamin D is based on the facts that i) its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the high affinity ligand of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ii) the transcription factor VDR is the unique target of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nucleus. Short-term alterations of the epigenome are primarily changes in the post-translational modification status of nucleosome-forming histone proteins, the consequences of which are i) a local increase or decrease in chromatin accessibility and ii) the activation or repression of gene transcription...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315704/interleukin-6-and-prostate-cancer-current-developments-and-unsolved-questions
#3
Zoran Culig, Martin Puhr
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in prostate tumors and in the stromal tumor micro-enviroment. It is known to regulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and differentiation. The signaling pathway of Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, which is activated by IL-6, is in the focus of scientific investigations for improved treatment approaches. Different effects of IL-6 and/or STAT3 on tumor cell growth have been observed in human and murine prostate cancer (PCa) models...
March 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315377/patient-derived-xenografts-a-platform-for-accelerating-translational-research-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Alastair H Davies, Yuzhuo Wang, Amina Zoubeidi
Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDX) models. Numerous PDX models have been established for prostate cancer and, importantly, retain the principal molecular, genetic, and histological characteristics of the donor tumour. As such, these models provide significant improvements over standard cell line xenograft models for biological studies, preclinical drug development, and personalized medicine strategies. This review summarizes the current state of the art in this field, illustrating the opportunities and limitations of PDX models in translational prostate cancer research...
March 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315378/epigenetic-regulation-of-ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-and-non-coding-rnas-in-mtc
#5
Lauren Jin Suk Joo, Jing Ting Zhao, Matti L Gild, Anthony R Glover, Stan B Sidhu
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an aggressive and rare cancer with limited treatment options for metastatic disease. Due to this, there is a need for a better understanding of MTC biology in the hope of improved treatments. One area of improved understanding of cancer biology is epigenetics. Epigenetics is defined as cellular processes which alter gene expression independent of changes in the primary DNA sequence. These processes include modifications such as DNA methylation, microRNA deregulation and post-translational histone modifications, all of which have been implicated in tumorigenesis of MTC...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288905/bioinformatic-approaches-to-interrogating-vitamin-d-receptor-signaling
#6
Moray J Campbell
Bioinformatics applies unbiased approaches to develop statistically-robust insight into health and disease. At the global, or "20,000 foot" view bioinformatic analyses of vitamin D receptor (NR1I1/VDR) signaling can measure where the VDR gene or protein exerts a genome-wide significant impact on biology; VDR is significantly implicated in bone biology and immune systems, but not in cancer. With a more VDR-centric, or "2000 foot" view, bioinformatic approaches can interrogate events downstream of VDR activity...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288904/thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cell-biology
#7
Carla Frau, Matthias Godart, Michelina Plateroti
The gastrointestinal tract is a well-characterized target of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone nuclear receptors TRs, as extensively described in the literature. The paradigm is its important remodelling in amphibians during thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. Interestingly, several studies have described the conservation of this hormonal signal during intestinal development in mammals. Additional data suggested that it may also play a role in intestinal homeostasis, stem cell physiology and progenitor commitment as well as in tumour development...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288903/silencing-of-htert-blocks-growth-and-migration-of-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-cells
#8
Valentina Maggisano, Marilena Celano, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Saverio Massimo Lepore, Marialuisa Sponziello, Francesca Rosignolo, Antonella Verrienti, Federica Baldan, Efisio Puxeddu, Cosimo Durante, Sebastiano Filetti, Giuseppe Damante, Diego Russo, Stefania Bulotta
Mutations in the hTERT promoter responsible for constitutive telomerase activity are the most frequent genetic alteration detected in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and proposed as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in these tumours. In this study we analyzed hTERT expression in a series of human ATCs and investigated the effects of small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of hTERT on viability and migration and invasive properties of three human ATC cell lines. Expression of hTERT mRNA resulted increased in 8/10 ATCs compared to normal thyroid tissues...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288902/3-piperidylethoxypterocarpan-a-potential-bone-anabolic-agent-that-improves-bone-quality-and-restores-trabecular-micro-architecture-in-ovariectomized-osteopenic-rats
#9
Ashutosh Raghuvanshi, Amit Kumar, Abdul M Tyagi, Jyoti Kureel, Pallavi Awasthi, Deepak Purohit, Mohd Nizam Mansoori, Priyanka Shukla, Kamini Srivastava, Abnish K Gautam, Ruchi Saxena, Anila Dwivedi, Divya Singh, Atul Goel
A series of new 6H-benzofuro[3, 2-c]chromenes (BFC, pterocarpans) with structure-activity relationships were investigated for their potential use in osteoporosis treatment. One of the BFCs 3-piperidylethoxypterocarpan 20 promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization at a dose as low as 1 pM via activation of ER/P38MAPK/BMP-2 pathway. When evaluated for in-vivo osteogenic activity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, BFC 20 increased bone mineral density and new bone formation, compared with control at 1...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286327/the-actions-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-the-nucleus
#10
Kristen R Vella, Anthony N Hollenberg
Thyroid hormones are a critical regulator of mammalian physiology. Much of their action is due to effects in the nucleus where T3 engages thyroid hormone receptor isoforms to mediate its effects. In order to function properly the TR isoforms must be recruited to regulatory sequences within genes that they up-regulate. On these positive regulated target genes the TR can activate or repress depending upon whether the receptor is bound to T3 or not and the type of co-regulatory proteins present in that cell type...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284988/frequencies-of-pd-1-positive-t-cd3-cd4-t-cd3-cd8-and-b%C3%A2-cd19-lymphocytes-in-female-patients-with-graves-disease-and-healthy-controls-preliminary-study
#11
Aleksandra Pyzik, Ewelina Grywalska, Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Agata Smoleń, Dawid Pyzik, Jacek Roliński
PD-1 maintains tolerance and inhibits autoimmune responses. Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases of unclear etiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage and absolute counts of PD-1 positive T and B cells in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with hyperthyroidism due to GD. The study group included 30 patients and the control group comprised of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Results showed significantly higher frequencies and absolute counts of PD-1 positive CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells and CD19+B cells in patients with GD in comparison to the healthy volunteers...
March 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286232/steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-can-regulate-osteoblastogenesis-independently-of-estrogen
#12
R J Watters, R J Hartmaier, H U Osmanbeyoglu, R M Gillihan, J Rae, L Liao, K Chen, W Li, X Lu, S Oesterreich
Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), a well-studied coactivator of estrogen receptor (ER), is known to play an important and functional role in the development and maintenance of bone tissue. Previous reports suggest SRC-1 maintains bone mineral density primarily through its interaction with ER. Here we demonstrate that SRC-1 can also affect bone development independent of estrogen signaling as ovariectomized SRC-1 knockout (SRC-1 KO) mouse had decreased bone mineral density. To identify estrogen-independent SRC-1 target genes in osteoblastogenesis, we undertook an integrated analysis utilizing ChIP-Seq and mRNA microarray in transformed osteoblast-like U2OS-ERα cells...
March 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274736/zebrafish-an-emerging-model-system-to-explore-thyroid-hormone-transporters
#13
David Zada, Einat Blitz, Lior Appelbaum
Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate a variety of fundamental physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of the brain. For decades, it was thought that THs enter the cells by passive diffusion. However, it is now clear that TH transport across the cell membrane requires specific transporter proteins that facilitate the uptake and efflux of THs. Several thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTTs) have been identified, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), MCT10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1)...
March 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267601/non-mammalian-models-reveal-the-role-of-alternative-ligands-for-thyroid-hormone-receptors
#14
Aurea Orozco, Iván Lazcano, Gabriela Hernández-Puga, Aurora Olvera
Thyroid hormones, or THs, are well-known regulators of a wide range of biological processes that occur throughout the lifespan of all vertebrates. THs act through genomic mechanisms mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). The main product of the thyroid gland is thyroxine or T4, which can be further transformed by different biochemical pathways to produce at least 15 active or inactive molecules. T3, a product of T4 outer-ring deiodination, has been recognized as the main bioactive TH. However, growing evidence has shown that other TH derivatives are able to bind to, and/or activate TRs, to induce thyromimetic effects...
March 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245998/history-and-epidemiology-of-anabolic-androgens-in-athletes-and-non-athletes
#15
Gen Kanayama, Harrison G Pope
The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. However it was not until the 1980s that widespread AAS use emerged from the elite athletic world and into the general population...
March 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257829/a-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-syndrome-mutant-operates-through-the-target-gene-repertoire-of-the-wild-type-thyroid-hormone-receptor
#16
Robyn Jimenez, Martin L Privalsky
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play crucial roles in vertebrates. Wild-type (WT) TRs function primarily as hormone-regulated transcription factors. A human endocrine disease, Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH)-Syndrome, is caused by inheritance of mutant TRs impaired in the proper regulation of target gene expression. To better understand the molecular basis of RTH we compared the target genes regulated by an RTH-TRβ1 mutant (R429Q) to those regulated by WT-TRβ1. With only a few potential exceptions, the vast majority of genes we were able to identify as regulated by the WT-TRβ1, positively or negatively, were also regulated by the RTH-TRβ1 mutant...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257828/directional-thyroid-hormone-distribution-via-the-blood-stream-to-target-sites
#17
Susanne T Janssen, Onno E Janssen
Thyroid hormones are bound to three major serum transport proteins, thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR) and human serum albumin (HSA). TBG has the strongest affinity for thyroid hormones, TTR is also found in the cerebrospinal fluid and HSA is the most abundant protein in plasma. Combination defects of either a high affinity TTR or HSA variant do not compensate TBG deficiency, underscoring the dominant role of TBG among the thyroid hormone transport proteins. On the other hand, coexistence of raised affinity TTR and HSA variants causes an augmented hyperthyroxinemia...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257827/recent-advances-on-bisphenol-a-and-endocrine-disruptor-effects-on-human-prostate-cancer
#18
Marzia Di Donato, Gustavo Cernera, Pia Giovannelli, Giovanni Galasso, Antonio Bilancio, Antimo Migliaccio, Gabriella Castoria
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made substances widespread in the environment that include, among many others, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorinated pesticides and hormone derivatives detectable in meat from animals raised in concentrated animal feeding operations. Increasing evidence indicates that EDCs have a negative impact on human health as well as on male and female fertility. They may also be associated with some endocrine diseases and increased incidence of breast and prostate cancer. This review aims to summarize available data on the (potential) impact of some common EDCs, focusing particularly on BPA, prostate cancer and their mechanisms of action...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257826/structural-aspects-of-vitamin-d-endocrinology
#19
Natacha Rochel, Ferdinand Molnár
1α,25-Dihydroxvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the hormonally active form of vitamin D3. Its synthesis and its metabolites, their transport and elimination as well as action on transcriptional regulation involves the harmonic cooperation of diverse proteins with vitamin D binding capacities such as vitamin D binding protein (DBP), cytochrome P450 enzymes or the nuclear vitamin receptor (VDR). The genomic mechanism of 1,25(OH)2D3 action involves its binding to VDR that functionally acts as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254490/lh-signaling-induced-ptgs2a-expression-is-required-for-ovulation-in-zebrafish
#20
Haipei Tang, Yun Liu, Jianzhen Li, Gaofei Li, Yu Chen, Yike Yin, Yin Guo, Christopher H K Cheng, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
It is well known that ovulation is induced by luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. However, the down-stream factors that mediating LH surge induced ovulation are less clear. The cyclooxygenases (also known as PTGS) as key enzymes for prostaglandins synthesis appear to be important for ovulation in mammals, but their functional roles and molecular mechanism in regulation of fish ovulation are largely unexplored. In this study, we have systematically investigated the expression, regulation and functional roles of cox genes during zebrafish ovulation...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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