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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527781/steroid-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-where-are-we-and-what-are-we-missing
#1
REVIEW
Donita Africander, Karl-Heinz Storbeck
It is well-known that breast cancer is hormone-dependent and that steroid hormones exert their mitogenic effects by binding to estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors. Vital to our understanding and treatment of this malignancy, is the local metabolism of steroid hormones in breast cancer tissue. This review summarises our current knowledge on steroid producing pathways in the adrenal, ovary and breast, while focussing on the availability of specific circulating hormone precursors and steroidogenic enzymes involved in the local synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones in the breast...
May 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522271/medroxyprogesterone-acetate-drives-m2-macrophage-differentiation-toward-a-phenotype-of-decidual-macrophage
#3
Yung-Chieh Tsai, Joseph T Tseng, Chia-Yih Wang, Mei-Tsz Su, Jyun-Yuan Huang, Pao-Lin Kuo
M1 macrophage differentiation plays a crucial role in enhanced inflammation during pregnancy, which may lead to pregnancy complications. Therefore, modulation of macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype is desirable to ensure a successful pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a potent progestin with an anti-inflammatory property, but its effect on macrophage differentiation is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether MPA can induce an M2 macrophage differentiation by using the human monocytes cell line THP-1 or primary monocytes...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504114/a-shortened-tamoxifen-induction-scheme-to-induce-creer-recombinase-without-side-effects-on-the-male-mouse-skeleton
#4
Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen exerts estrogen agonistic or antagonistic actions on several tissues, including bone. The off-target effects of tamoxifen are one of the most widely recognized pitfalls of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinases (CreERs), potentially confounding the phenotypic findings. Still, the validation of tamoxifen induction schemes that minimize the side effects of the drug has not been addressed. Here, we compared the side effects on the skeleton and other androgen-responsive targets of a shortened tamoxifen regimen (2 doses of 190 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) to a standard protocol (4 doses) and determined their efficiency in inducing CreER-mediated gene deletion...
May 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501574/androgen-production-in-pediatric-adrenocortical-tumors-may-occur-via-both-the-classic-and-or-the-alternative-backdoor-pathway
#5
Nesa Marti, Jana Malikova, José A Galván, Maude Aebischer, Marco Janner, Zdenek Sumnik, Barbora Obermannova, Genevieve Escher, Aurel Perren, Christa E Flück
Children with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) often present with virilization due to high tumoral androgen production, with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as most potent androgen. Recent work revealed two pathways for DHT biosynthesis, the classic and the backdoor pathway. Usage of alternate routes for DHT production has been reported in castration-resistant prostate cancer, CAH and PCOS. To assess whether the backdoor pathway may contribute to the virilization of pediatric ACTs, we investigated seven children suffering from androgen producing tumors using steroid profiling and immunohistochemical expression studies...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501573/alterations-of-dna-methylation-in-parathyroid-tumors
#6
REVIEW
V Guarnieri, L A Muscarella, C Verdelli, S Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors are common endocrine neoplasias associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a metabolic disorder characterized by parathormone hypersecretion. Parathyroid neoplasia are frequently benign adenomas or multiple glands hyperplasia, while malignancies are rare. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors has just begun to be decoded: DNA methylation, histones and chromatin modifiers expression have been investigated so far. The main findings suggest that DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling are active and deregulated in parathyroid tumors, cooperating with genetic alterations to drive the tumor phenotype: the tumor suppressors menin and parafibromin, involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis, interact with chromatin modifiers, defining distinct epigenetic derangements...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501572/quercetin-inhibited-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-diabetic-rats-high-glucose-cultured-lens-and-sra01-04-cells-through-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-pathway
#7
Lei Du, Meng Hao, Chengcheng Li, Wenya Wu, Wenwen Wang, Zhongxuan Ma, Tingting Yang, Nan Zhang, Adelusi Temitope Isaac, Xia Zhu, Ying Sun, Qian Lu, Xiaoxing Yin
Diabetic cataract (DC), an identified life-threatening secondary complication of diabetes mellitus, has proven to be a dilemma because of its multifactorial caused and progression. An increasing number of studies have shown that in addition to the maillard reaction, enhanced polyol pathway, and oxidative insults, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to the prevalence of DC. Quercetin, a classic flavonoid with multiple pharmacological effects has been reported to possess therapeutic efficacy in the management and treatment of this disease...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495457/effects-of-arsenic-on-adipocyte-metabolism-is-arsenic-an-obesogen
#8
REVIEW
Zeltzin A Ceja-Galicia, Alberto Daniel, Ana María Salazar, Pablo Pánico, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor
The environmental obesogen model proposes that in addition to a high-calorie diet and diminished physical activity, other factors such as environmental pollutants and chemicals are involved in the development of obesity. Although arsenic has been recognized as a risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes with a specific mechanism, it is still uncertain whether arsenic is also an obesogen. The impairment of white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism is crucial in the onset of obesity, and distinct studies have evaluated the effects of arsenic on it, however only in some of them for obesity-related purposes...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495456/crosstalk-between-stat5-activation-and-pi3k-akt-functions-in-normal-and-transformed-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
REVIEW
Patrick D Rädler, Barbara L Wehde, Kay-Uwe Wagner
Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) have been shown to function downstream of several peptide hormones and cytokines that are required for postnatal development and secretory function of the mammary gland. As part of an extended network, these signal transducers can engage in crosstalk with other pathways to facilitate synergistic, and sometimes antagonistic, actions of different growth factors. Specifically, signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 cascade has been demonstrated to be indispensable for the specification, proliferation, differentiation, and survival of secretory mammary epithelial cells...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487236/upregulation-of-mir-195-accelerates-oxidative-stress-induced-retinal-endothelial-cell-injury-by-targeting-mitofusin-2-in-diabetic-rats
#10
Rui Zhang, Qian Garrett, Huimin Zhou, Xiaoxi Wu, Yueran Mao, Ximing Cui, Bing Xie, Zanchao Liu, Dongsheng Cui, Lei Jiang, Qingfu Zhang, Shunjiang Xu
This study was performed to investigate the oxidative stress-induced miRNA changes in relation to pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to establish a functional link between miRNAs and oxidative stress-induced retinal endothelial cell injury. Our results demonstrated that oxidative stress could induce alterations of miRNA expression profile, including up-regulation of miR-195 in the diabetic retina or cultured HMRECs after exposed to H2O2 or HG (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress also resulted in a significant reduction of MFN2 expression in diabetic retina or HMRECs (P < 0...
May 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483704/genome-wide-analysis-of-ar-binding-and-comparison-with-transcript-expression-in-primary-human-fetal-prostate-fibroblasts-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#11
REVIEW
Claire Nash, Nadia Boufaied, Ian G Mills, Omar E Franco, Simon W Hayward, Axel A Thomson
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor, and key regulator of prostate development and cancer, which has discrete functions in stromal versus epithelial cells. AR expressed in mesenchyme is necessary and sufficient for prostate development while loss of stromal AR is predictive of prostate cancer progression. Many studies have characterized genome-wide binding of AR in prostate tumour cells but none have used primary mesenchyme or stroma. We applied ChIPseq to identify genomic AR binding sites in primary human fetal prostate fibroblasts and patient derived cancer associated fibroblasts, as well as the WPMY1 cell line overexpressing AR...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483703/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-soy-glyceollins-and-17-%C3%AE-estradiol-effects-on-transcript-abundance-in-the-female-mouse-brain
#12
REVIEW
Sanaya F Bamji, Eric Rouchka, Yan Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Ted Kalbfleisch, Cynthia Corbitt
Glyceollins (Glys) are produced by soy plants in response to stress and are known for their anti-estrogenic activity both in vivo and in vitro in cancer cell lines as well as peripheral tissues. Glys can also exhibit non-estrogen receptor (ER) mediated effects. The effects of Glys on gene expression in the brain are still unclear. For this study, 17-β estradiol (E2) or placebo slow-release pellets were implanted into ovariectomized CFW mice followed by 11 days of exposure to either Glys or vehicle i.p. injections...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479375/estrogen-receptor-related-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-testicular-steroidogenesis-through-direct-and-indirect-regulation-of-steroidogenic-gene-expression
#13
Eunsook Park, Sudeep Kumar, Bobae Lee, Kyung-Jin Kim, Jeong-Eun Seo, Hueng-Sik Choi, Keesook Lee
Biosynthesis of testosterone, which mainly occurs in testicular Leydig cells, is controlled by steroidogenic proteins, such as StAR and P450c17. Although estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ), an orphan nuclear receptor, is expressed in the testis, its role is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of ERRγ in Leydig cells and its molecular action on testicular steroidogenesis. ERRγ is expressed in mouse Leydig cells from pre-pubertal stages. ERRγ overexpression in primary Leydig cells elevated the production of testosterone with a marked increase of P450c17 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, albeit decreased expression of StAR...
May 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479374/cafeteria-diet-differentially-alters-the-expression-of-feeding-related-genes-through-dna-methylation-mechanisms-in-individual-hypothalamic-nuclei
#14
Gisela Paola Lazzarino, María Florencia Andreoli, María Florencia Rossetti, Cora Stoker, María Virgina Tschopp, Enrique Hugo Luque, Jorge Guillermo Ramos
We evaluated the effect of cafeteria diet (CAF) on the mRNA levels and DNA methylation state of feeding-related neuropeptides, and neurosteroidogenic enzymes in discrete hypothalamic nuclei. Besides, the expression of steroid hormone receptors was analyzed. Female rats fed with CAF from weaning increased their energy intake, body weight, and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The increase in energy intake was related to an orexigenic signal of paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, given principally by upregulation of AgRP and NPY...
May 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478304/klotho-protects-human-monocytes-from-lps-induced-immune-impairment-associated-with-immunosenescent-like-phenotype
#15
Jennifer Mytych, Maria Romerowicz-Misielak, Marek Koziorowski
In this study, we provide a new evidence on immunosenescent-like phenotype induction in low density monocytes due to the long-term treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS caused oxidative and nitrosative stress through zinc downregulation and calcium accumulation. In turn, increased amounts of ROS/RNS and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 led to the irreversible DNA damage, persistent DDR activation, proliferation inhibition, reduction in cell growth and immune impairment. Furthermore, we provide evidence that klotho reduced levels of ROS/RNS and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as upregulated secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in LPS-treated monocytes, thus the observed DNA damage was less severe, promptly and properly fixed and cells quickly resumed normal proliferation and maintained their immune functionality...
May 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478303/the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-mediates-podocyte-heparanase-expression-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#16
Xiaofei An, Lin Zhang, Qiuming Yao, Ling Li, Bin Wang, Jisheng Zhang, Ming He, Jinan Zhang
Heparanase degrades heparan sulfate in glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and plays an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, its regulating mechanisms remain to be deciphered. Our present study showed that the major advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), CML-BSA, significantly increased heparanase expression in cultured podocytes and the effect was blocked by the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) knockdown, antibody and antagonist. In addition, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation was elevated and the increased heparanase expression and secretion upon CML-BSA could be attenuated by NF-κB inhibitor PDTC...
May 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461075/rfsh-in-medically-assisted-procreation-evidence-for-ovarian-follicular-hyperplasia-and-interest-of-mass-spectrometry-to-measure-17-hydroxyprogesterone-and-%C3%AE-4-androstenedione-in-serum
#17
M C Menet, M L Hebert-Schuster, N Lahlou, L Marcellin, M C Leguy, V Gayet, J Guibourdenche
Ovarian monitoring requires the determination of serum estradiol and progesterone levels. We investigated whole follicular steroidogenesis under rFSH in medically assisted procreation (MAP: 26 IVF, 24 ICSI) compared to 11 controls (IUI). Estrone, estradiol, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were measured by immunoassay and mass spectrometry except for estrogens. At the start of a spontaneous or induced cycle, steroids levels fluctuated within normal ranges: estradiol (314-585 pmol/L), estrone (165-379 pmol/L) testosterone (1...
April 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461074/vitamin-d-endocrinology-on-the-cross-road-between-immunity-and-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
An-Sofie Vanherwegen, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu
The effects of vitamin D on the immune function have been recognized for more than a quarter of a century. However, our understanding of the multifactorial nature of the effects of vitamin D at the cellular, molecular and metabolic level in different immune subsets of the innate and adaptive system has dramatically progressed during the last decades. In this review, we summarize the main metabolic pathways preferentially used in different subsets of T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells as well as the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on these cells...
April 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457949/%C3%A3-ngstrom-size-exocytotic-fusion-pore-implications-for-pituitary-hormone-secretion
#19
REVIEW
Marko Kreft, Jernej Jorgačevski, Matjaž Stenovec, Robert Zorec
In the past, vesicle content release was thought to occur immediately and completely after triggering of exocytosis. However, vesicles may merge with the plasma membrane to form an Ångstrom diameter fusion pore that prevents the exit of secretions from the vesicle lumen. The advantage of such a narrow pore is to minimize the delay between the trigger and the release. Instead of stimulating a sequence of processes, leading to vesicle merger with the plasma membrane and a formation of a fusion pore, the stimulus only widens the pre-established fusion pore...
April 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456475/advanced-glycation-end-products-and-strontium-ranelate-promote-osteogenic-differentiation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-preventive-role-of-vitamin-d
#20
María Silvina Molinuevo, Juan Manuel Fernández, Ana María Cortizo, Antonio Desmond McCarthy, León Schurman, Claudia Sedlinsky
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been demonstrated to induce the osteogenic trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti-osteoporotic agent that has both anti-catabolic and anabolic actions on bone tissue. However, in the last years SR has been associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that SR can increase the osteoblastic trans-differentiation of VSMC and the induction of extracellular calcifications, an effect that could be potentiated in the presence of AGE and inhibited by simultaneous administration of vitamin D...
April 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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