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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928931/oxytocin-alters-the-morphology-of-hypothalamic-neurons-via-the-transcription-factor-myocyte-enhancer-factor-2a-mef-2a
#1
Magdalena Meyer, Ilona Berger, Julia Winter, Benjamin Jurek
Oxytocin (OT) has gained attention not only as anxiolytic drug and as potential treatment option for autistic children; it also acts as a growth and differentiation factor in neuronal cells. While behavioral effects of OT have been studied in detail, knowledge about the cellular effects of OT is relatively sparse. In this study, we present evidence for three hypotheses: 1) OT leads to neurite retraction in hypothalamic neurons via the OT receptor (OTR) 2) The transcription factor MEF-2A is a central regulator of OT-induced neurite retraction, and 3) The MAPK pathway is critical for OT-induced MEF-2A activation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928930/effect-of-estetrol-a-selective-nuclear-estrogen-receptor-modulator-in-mouse-models-of-arterial-and-venous-thrombosis
#2
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Emmanuelle Noirrit-Esclassan, Marion Dupuis, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Anne Briaux, Cendrine Cabou, Cedric Garcia, Olivier Lairez, Jean-Michel Foidart, Bernard Payrastre, Jean-François Arnal
Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver, and the physiological role of this hormone is unknown. Interestingly, E4 was recently evaluated in preclinical and phase II-III clinical studies in combination with a progestin, with the advantage to not increase the circulating level of coagulation factors, at variance to oral estradiol or ethinylestradiol. Here, we evaluated the effect of E4 on hemostasis and thrombosis in mouse. Following chronic E4 treatment, mice exhibited a prolonged tail-bleeding time and were protected from arterial and also venous thrombosis in vivo...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928929/site-specific-differences-in-osteoblast-phenotype-mechanical-loading-response-and-estrogen-receptor-related-gene-expression
#3
Borzo Gharibi, Mandeep S Ghuman, Giuseppe Cama, Simon C F Rawlinson, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Francis J Hughes
The osteoporosis-resistant nature of skull bones implies inherent differences exist between their cellular responses and those of other osteoporosis-susceptible skeletal sites. Phenotypic differences in calvarial and femoral osteoblastic responses to induction of osteogenesis, mechanical loading, estrogen, growth factor and cytokine stimulation were investigated. Primary rat calvarial and femoral adult male osteoblasts were cultured and osteoblastic mineralisation and maturation determined using Alizarin Red staining and expression of osteogenic marker genes assessed...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928928/the-human-genital-tubercle-is-steroidogenic-organ-at-early-pregnancy
#4
I Savchuk, M L Morvan, J P Antignac, K Gemzell-Danielsson, B Le Bizec, O Söder, K Svechnikov
It is generally accepted that androgens produced by fetal Leydig cells (FLC) control proper masculinization of the male external genitalia. Here, we hypothesized that the human genital tubercle (GT) has potential to synthesize androgens independently of FLC at early pregnancy. We observed that human GT of both genders have capacity to synthesize steroids of the Δ4 , Δ5 and alternative pathway of DHT synthesis including the androgen itself. The presence of steroids in the GT was associated with the expression of corresponding steroidogenic enzymes...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928927/an-active-and-selective-molecular-mechanism-mediating-the-uptake-of-sex-steroids-by-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Todd K Parsons, Rachel N Pratt, Li Tang, Yue Wu
Steroid hormones play important roles in normal physiological functions and diseases. Sex steroids hormones are important in the biology and treatment of sex hormone-related cancer such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cells may take up steroids using multiple mechanisms. The conventionally accepted hypothesis that steroids cross cell membrane through passive diffusion has not been tested rigorously. Experimental data suggested that cells may take up sex steroid using an active uptake mechanism. 3 H-testosterone uptake by prostate cancer cells showed typical transporter-mediated uptake kinetic...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913182/the-genetic-architecture-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Denis M Nyaga, Mark H Vickers, Craig Jefferies, Jo K Perry, Justin M O'Sullivan
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterised by loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals, ultimately resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. T1D is most common among children and young adults, and the incidence is on the rise across the world. The aetiology of T1D is hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental factors that result in the T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is a strong genetic risk to T1D; with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identifying over 60 susceptibility regions within the human genome which are marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908751/induction-of-uterine-hyperplasia-after-cafeteria-diet-exposure
#7
María Paula Gastiazoro, Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, Milena Durando, Gisela Paola Lazzarino, María Florencia Andreoli, Oliver Zierau, Enrique Hugo Luque, Jorge Guillermo Ramos, Jorgelina Varayoud
Our aim was to evaluate whether chronic administration of CAF affects the uterus and induces the morphological and molecular changes associated with endometrial hyperplasia. Female Wistar rats exposed to CAF from weaning for 20 weeks displayed increased energy intake, body weight and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The adult uteri showed an increase in glandular volume fraction and stromal area. The epithelial proliferation rate and protein expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were also increased...
June 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908223/unidirectional-transport-of-igg-by-neonatal-fc-receptor-in-human-thyrocytes-varies-across-different-igg-subclasses
#8
Chenxu Zhao, Ying Gao, Nan Yu, Tiancheng Li, Yang Zhang, Hong Zhang, Guizhi Lu, Yanming Gao, Xiaohui Guo
Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is down-regulated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) thyrocytes and mediates IgG endocytosis in thyrocytes. The serum distribution of IgG subclasses (of TgAb and TPOAb) differs between HT patients and normal individuals. We aimed to explore the direction and regulation of FcRn-mediated IgG transport in thyrocyte monolayers and the difference between various IgG subclass transport. IgG was transported by FcRn from the basolateral to apical side in the thyrocyte monolayers grown on Transwell filters and the transport was inhibited by IFN-γ and TNF-α...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902497/micrornas-and-diabetic-kidney-disease-systematic-review-and-bioinformatic-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M de Souza, Andrea C Bauer, Daisy Crispim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Emerging evidence has suggested a role for miRNAs in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), indicating that miRNAs may represent potential biomarkers of this disease. However, results are still inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the subject, followed by bioinformatic analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify all studies that compared miRNA expressions between patients with DKD and diabetic patients without this complication or healthy subjects...
June 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894708/activation-of-membrane-progesterone-receptor-alpha-increases-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-glioblastoma-cells
#10
Juan Carlos González-Orozco, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Paulina Valadez-Cosmes, Walter Nicolas-Ortega, Yenifer Bastida-Beristain, Marisol De La Fuente-Granada, Aliesha González-Arenas, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive brain tumor due to its high capacity to migrate and invade normal brain tissue. The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) contributes to the progression of glioblastoma by promoting proliferation, migration, and cellular invasion through the activation of its intracellular receptor (PR). However, the use of PR antagonist RU486 partially blocks the effects of P4, suggesting the participation of signaling pathways such as those mediated by membrane receptors to P4 (mPRs)...
June 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890211/silencing-of-the-fto-gene-inhibits-insulin-secretion-an-in-vitro-study-using-grinch-cells
#11
Jalal Taneera, Rashmi B Prasad, Sarah Dhaiban, Abdul Khader Mohammed, Leena Haataja, Peter Arvan, Mawieh Hamad, Leif Groop, Claes B Wollheim
Expression of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) in human islets is inversely correlated with HbA1c . However, their impact on insulin secretion is still ambiguous. Here in, we investigated the role of FTO and ARL15 using GRINCH (Glucose-Responsive Insulin-secreting C-peptide-modified Human proinsulin) clonal rat β-cells. GRINCH cells have inserted GFP into the human C-peptide insulin gene. Hence, secreted CpepGFP served to monitor insulin secretion. mRNA silencing of FTO in GRINCH cells showed a significant reduction in glucose but not depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas ARL15 silencing had no effect...
June 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883690/prevention-of-autoimmune-diabetes-and-islet-allograft-rejection-by-beta-cell-expression-of-xiap-insight-into-possible-mechanisms-of-local-immunomodulation
#12
Mercè Obach, Azadeh Hosseini-Tabatabaei, Joel Montane, Katarina Wind, Galina Souchkatcheva, Derek Dai, John J Priatel, Paul C Orban, C Bruce Verchere
Overexpression of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) prevents islet allograft rejection. We constructed an adeno-associated virus expressing XIAP driven by the rat insulin promoter (dsAAV8-RIP-XIAP) for long-term beta-cell gene expression in vivo. Pancreatic delivery of dsAAV8-RIP-XIAP prevented autoimmune diabetes in 70% of NOD mice, associated with decreased insulitis. Islets from Balb/c mice transduced with dsAAV8-RIP-XIAP were protected following transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic Bl/6 recipients, associated with decreased graft infiltration...
June 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870755/c-ebp%C3%AE-lip-and-c-jun-synergize-to-regulate-expression-of-the-murine-progesterone-receptor
#13
Weizhong Wang, Han Ngoc Do, Mark D Aupperlee, Srinivasan Durairaj, Emily E Flynn, Richard J Miksicek, Sandra Z Haslam, Richard C Schwartz
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is required for murine mammary ductal morphogenesis and alveologenesis. Progesterone is critical for proliferation and alveologenesis in adult mammary glands, and there is a similar requirement for progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) in alveologenesis. We examined C/EBPβ regulation of PR expression. All three C/EBPβ isoforms, including typically inhibitory LIP, transactivated the PR promoter. LIP, particularly, strongly synergized with c-Jun to drive PR transcription...
June 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842904/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-neuroprotective-role-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-in-experimental-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Mikahela A López-Morales, María Castelló-Ruiz, María C Burguete, Teresa Jover-Mengual, Alicia Aliena-Valero, José M Centeno, Enrique Alborch, Juan B Salom, Germán Torregrosa, Francisco J Miranda
Along with its role in regulating blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, the natriuretic peptide system could be also part of an endogenous protective mechanism against brain damage. We aimed to assess the possibility that exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) could protect against acute ischemic stroke, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Three groups of rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, intraluminal filament technique, 60 min) received intracerebroventricular vehicle, low-dose ANP (0...
May 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792912/heat-shock-protein-b1-is-required-for-the-prolactin-induced-cytoprotective-effects-on-pancreatic-islets
#15
Rosangela Am Wailemann, Letícia F Terra, Talita C de Oliveira, Ancély F Dos Santos, Vinícius M Gomes, Leticia Labriola
The success of islet transplantation has improved lately. Unfortunately, it is still compromised by cell loss. We have shown that prolactin (PRL) inhibits beta-cell apoptosis and up-regulates the antiapoptotic Heat Shock Protein B1 (HSPB1) in human islets. Since its function in pancreatic islets has not been studied, we explored the role of HSPB1 in PRL-induced beta-cell survival. The significant PRL-induced cytoprotection in control cells was abrogated in HSPB1 silenced cells, overexpression of HSPB1 recovered survival...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777728/testosterone-induced-downregulation-of-migration-and-proliferation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-androgen-receptor-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#16
Aulona Gaba, Mario Mairhofer, Zyhdi Zhegu, Nadja Leditznig, Ladislaus Szabo, Walter Tschugguel, Christian Schneeberger, Iveta Yotova
Recent research has emphasized the potential unfavorable effects of declining testosterone (T) levels in men and the putative beneficial effect of androgen therapy in select women. Some controversy surrounding the mechanism of action and the effects of T on endothelium remains. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism of T action on pooled primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) of mixed gender by focusing on two important processes, proliferation and migration. In our in vitro model system, we found that only the supra-physiological dose of T affected these two processes irrespective of the ratio of male to female cells in the pools...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775626/microrna-21-up-regulates-metalloprotease-by-down-regulating-timp3-during-cumulus-cell-oocyte-complex-in-vitro-maturation
#17
Bo Pan, Julang Li
Cumulus cells and the remodeling of their extracellular matrix around oocytes are essential for oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary. An important extracellular metalloprotease, ADAMTS1, and its partner VERSICAN, mediate essential cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC) structural remodeling. However, how the expression of these proteinases is regulated during oocyte maturation is unclear. Here we report that both ADAMTS1 and VERSICAN significantly increased in porcine cumulus cells during COC in vitro maturation (IVM)...
May 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753772/increase-in-hyaluronic-acid-degradation-decreases-the-expression-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-mcf7-breast-cancer-cell-line
#18
Vincent Hanoux, Judith Eguida, Emmanuelle Fleurot, Jérôme Levallet, Pierre-Jacques Bonnamy
The loss of estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in breast cancer constitutes a major hallmark of tumor progression to metastasis and is generally correlated to a strong increase in Hyaluronic Acid (HA) turnover. The aim of our study was to search for a putative link between these two major events of breast cancer progression in the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The increase in HA turnover was performed by stable overexpression of the standard CD44 (CD44S) isoform and also by treatment with exogenous Hyaluronidase (Hyal) to allow an increase in HA catabolism...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753771/mir-199a-3p-regulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-through-mtor-signaling-pathway
#19
Yao Gao, Yan Cao, Xianwei Cui, Xingyun Wang, Yahui Zhou, Fangyan Huang, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, Pengfei Xu, Xirong Guo, Lianghui You, Chenbo Ji
Recent discoveries of functional brown adipocytes in mammals illuminates their therapeutic potential for combating obesity and its associated diseases. However, on account of the limited amount and activity in adult humans of brown adipocyte depots, identification of miRNAs and characterization their regulatory roles in human brown adipogenesis are urgently needed. This study focused on the role of microRNA (miR)-199a-3p in human brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic capacity. A decreased expression pattern of miR-199a-3p was consistently observed during the differentiation course of brown adipocytes in mice and humans...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753026/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-promotes-meta-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-in-adipose-tissue-implications-of-nitric-oxide
#20
Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Saraswati Patel, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Sanchita Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anil N Gaikwad
Various imperative studies support the notion that hyperinsulinemia (HI) itself serves as the common link between adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of HI mediated ATI and its metabolic consequences are yet to be explored. We induced chronic HI per se in mice by administration of exogenous insulin for 8 weeks through mini-osmotic pumps. For the reduction of circulating insulin in response to excess calorie intake, we have partially ablated β-cells by using streptozotocin (STZ) in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic mice models (db/db)...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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