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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Sumana Posritong, Jung Min Hong, Pierre P Eleniste, Patrick W McIntyre, Jennifer L Wu, Evan R Himes, Vruti Patel, Melissa A Kacena, Angela Bruzzaniti
Bone remodeling is controlled by the actions of bone-degrading osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs). Aging and loss of estrogen after menopause affects bone mass and quality. Estrogen therapy, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), can prevent bone loss and increase bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Although investigations of the effects of estrogen on osteoclast activity are well advanced, the mechanism of action of estrogen on OBs is still unclear. The proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is important for bone formation and female mice lacking Pyk2 (Pyk2-KO) exhibit elevated bone mass, increased bone formation rate and reduced osteoclast activity...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
The extensive database on BPA provides strong evidence of its adverse effects on reproductive, neurobehavioral, metabolic functions and mammary gland. Disruption of estrogenic pathway is central in the mediation of these effects although other modes of action may be involved. BPA has a weak affinity for ERα/β but interaction with extranuclearly located pathways activated by estrogens such as ERRγ and GPER reveals how BPA can act at low doses. The effects are observed later in life after developmental exposure and are associated with pathologies of major societal concern in terms of severity, incidence, impact on quality of life, burden on public health system...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yefei Pang, Peter Thomas
Progesterone effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation and the mechanism were investigated in cultured human umbilical vein VSMCs. Membrane progesterone receptors mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ were highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) had low expression. Progesterone (20 nM) and 02-0 (mPR-selective agonist), but not R5020 (nPR agonist), induced muscle relaxation in both a VSMC collagen gel disk contraction assay and an endothelium-denuded human umbilical artery ring tension assay...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sofia Christakoudi, Manohursingh Runglall, Paula Mobillo, Irene Rebollo-Mesa, Tjir-Li Tsui, Estefania Nova-Lamperti, Sonia Norris, Yogesh Kamra, Rachel Hilton
Steroid conversion (HSD11B1, HSD11B2, H6PD) and receptor genes (NR3C1, NR3C2) were examined in kidney-transplant recipients with "operational tolerance" and chronic rejection (CR), independently and within the context of 88 tolerance-associated genes. Associations with cellular types were explored. Peripheral whole-blood gene-expression levels (RT-qPCR-based) and cell counts were adjusted for immunosuppressant drug intake. Tolerant (n = 17), stable (n = 190) and CR patients (n = 37) were compared...
February 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Shehzad Basaria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
C Beausoleil, C Emond, J P Cravedi, J P Antignac, M Applanat, B M R Appenzeller, R Beaudouin, L P Belzunces, M C Canivenc-Lavier, N Chevalier, C Chevrier, E Elefant, F Eustache, R Habert, M Kolf-Clauw, B Le Magueresse-Battistoni, S Mhaouty-Kodja, C Minier, L Multigner, H Schroeder, P Thonneau, C Viguié, F Pouzaud, J N Ormsby, C Rousselle, L Verines-Jouin, E Pasquier, C Michel
BPA is one of the most investigated substances for its endocrine disruptor (ED) properties and it is at the same time in the center of many ED-related controversies, the analysis on how BPA fits to the regulatory identification as an ED is a challenge in terms of methodology. It is also a great opportunity to test the regulatory framework with a uniquely data-rich substance and learn valuable lessons for future cases. From this extensive database, it was considered important to engage in a detailed analysis so as to provide specific and strong evidences of ED while reflecting accurately the complexity of the response as well the multiplicity of adverse effects...
February 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Chune Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Natia Peradze, Leonie Lang, Jan Straetener, Peter J Feilen, Marcus Alt, Christina Jäger, Katharina Laubner, Nikolaos Perakakis, Jochen Seufert, Günter Päth
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of interest for cell therapy since their secreted factors mediate immunomodulation and support tissue regeneration. This study investigated the direct humoral interactions between MSC and pancreatic β-cells using human telomerase-immortalized MSC (hMSC-TERT) and rat insulinoma-derived INS-1E β-cells. hMSC-TERT supported survival of cocultured INS-1E β-cells during cellular stress by alloxan (ALX) and streptozotocin (STZ), but not in response to IL-1β. Accordingly, hMSC-TERT had no effect on inflammatory cytokine-related signalling via NF-kB and p-JNK but maintained p-Akt and upregulated p-ERK1/2...
February 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
S Alexandra Garcia-Moreno, Michael P Plebanek, Blanche Capel
A fundamental goal in biology is to understand how distinct cell types containing the same genetic information arise from a single stem cell throughout development. Sex determination is a key developmental process that requires a unidirectional commitment of an initially bipotential gonad towards either the male or female fate. This makes sex determination a unique model to study cell fate commitment and differentiation in vivo. We have focused this review on the accumulating evidence that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the bipotential state of the fetal gonad and to the regulation of chromatin accessibility during and immediately downstream of the primary sex-determining switch that establishes the male fate...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Paulina Kober, Joanna Boresowicz, Nataliia Rusetska, Maria Maksymowicz, Krzysztof Goryca, Jacek Kunicki, Wiesław Bonicki, Janusz Aleksander Siedlecki, Mateusz Bujko
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are among the most frequent intracranial tumors but their molecular background, including changes in epigenetic regulation, remains poorly understood. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 34 NFPAs and normal pituitary samples. Methylation status of the selected genomic regions and expression level of corresponding genes were assessed in a group of 75 patients. NFPAs exhibited distinct global methylation profile as compared to normal pituitary. Aberrant DNA methylation appears to contribute to deregulation of the cancer-related pathways as shown by preliminary functional analysis...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Verónica Rey-Ares, Soledad Paola Rossi, Kim-Gwendolyn Dietrich, Frank-Michael Köhn, J Ulrich Schwarzer, Harald Welter, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Artur Mayerhofer
In man, blockage of prostaglandin (PG)-production e.g. by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) may have negative testicular side effects, implying beneficial actions of PGs in the testis. We examined human testicular samples and isolated human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs) to explore sites of PG-synthesis and targets. HTPCs express cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and secrete PGE2. Receptors (EP1, 2, 4) were specifically identified in peritubular cells. In HTPCs PGE2 significantly increased mRNA levels of the contractility protein calponin, but did not induce contractions...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Morten Dall, Melanie Penke, Karolina Sulek, Madlen Matz-Soja, Birgitte Holst, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Jonas T Treebak
Dietary supplementation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. In the liver, NAD+ is primarily generated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and hepatic levels of NAMPT and NAD+ have been reported to be dependent on age and body composition. The aim of the present study was to identify time-course-dependent changes in hepatic NAD content and NAD+ salvage capacity in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Marco Bugliani, Farooq Syed, Flavia M M Paula, Bilal A Omar, Mara Suleiman, Sandra Mossuto, Francesca Grano, Francesco Cardarelli, Ugo Boggi, Fabio Vistoli, Franco Filipponi, Paolo De Simone, Lorella Marselli, Vincenzo De Tata, Bo Ahren, Decio L Eizirik, Piero Marchetti
It has been reported that the incretin system, including regulated GLP-1 secretion and locally expressed DPP-4, is present in pancreatic islets. In this study we comprehensively evaluated the expression and role of DPP-4 in islet alpha and beta cells from non-diabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, including the effects of its inhibition on beta cell function and survival. Isolated islets were prepared from 25 ND and 18 T2D organ donors; studies were also performed with the human insulin-producing EndoC-βH1 cells...
January 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Zaida Moreno-Villegas, Antonio Martín-Duce, César Aparicio, Sergio Portal-Núñez, Raúl Sanz, Samuel A Mantey, Robert T Jensen, Oscar Lorenzo, Jesús Egido, Nieves González
BRS-3 has an important role in glucose homeostasis. Its expression was reduced in skeletal muscle from obese and/or diabetic patients, and BRS-3 KO-mice developed obesity. In this work, focused on rat/human adipose tissue, BRS-3 gene-expression was lower than normal-levels in hyperlipidemic, type-2-diabetic (T2D), and type-1-diabetic rats and also in obese (OB) and T2D patients. Moreover, BRS-3 protein levels were decreased in diabetic rat and in obese and diabetic human fat pieces; but neither mutation nor even polymorphism in the BRS-3-gene was found in OB or T2D patients...
January 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Andreas Schmid, Jens Albrecht, Judith Brock, Maria Koukou, Efthymia Arapogianni, Andreas Schäffler, Thomas Karrasch
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Natriuretic peptides (NPs) and their receptors gain attention regarding adipocyte function. It was the aim to investigate the expression of natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A, NPR-B, NPR-C during adipocyte differentiation (AD), upon stimulation with fatty acids (FA), and in murine and human adipose tissue depots (AT) of patients undergoing bariatric surgery (n = 44). PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: The postprandial regulation of NT-proANP and NT-proBNP levels was measured by ELISA and was studied in two cohorts of healthy individuals undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n = 100) and an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) (n = 100)...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Haiyan Xu, Yi Yang, Yiping Chen, Uwe Muller, Sharanya Iyer, Jeremy Presland, Ruojing Yang, Ilona Kariv
Min6 cells, a mouse β cell line derived from transgenic mouse expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 in pancreatic beta cells, are commonly utilized as an in vitro cellular model for investigating targets involved in insulin secretion. Epac2, an exchange protein that can be directly activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), is critical for pharmacologic stimuli-induced insulin secretion and has been hypothesized to be a direct target of sulfonylurea. Previous loss of function studies only specifically knocked out EPAC2 isoform A, leaving the other two isoforms intact...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
M Varela-Guruceaga, F I Milagro, J A Martínez, C de Miguel
Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipose tissue, which have been related to the development of hypoxia and insulin resistance. On the other hand, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), one of the main proteins of caveolae, promotes insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of insulin signaling. In this work we investigated the effect of hypoxia on Cav-1 regulation and the status of insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that hypoxia inhibited adipogenesis and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Soledad Paola Rossi, Lena Walenta, Verónica Rey-Ares, Frank-Michael Köhn, J Ullrich Schwarzer, Harald Welter, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Artur Mayerhofer
Stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and is linked to impaired fertility in man. We hypothesized that catecholamines by acting on testicular cells have a role in these events, possibly by fostering an inflammatory environment. The cells of the wall of seminiferous tubules, human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), express adrenergic receptors (ADRs) α1B, α1D, β1 and β2. A selective α1-ADR agonist, phenylephrine, increased intracellular Ca2+-levels in cultured HTPCs and induced COX-2, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression without affecting IL-1β mRNA...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Z Z Kirshner, R B Gibbs
Western blot is routinely used to quantify differences in the levels of target proteins in tissues. Standard methods typically use measurements of housekeeping proteins to control for variations in loading and protein transfer. This is problematic, however, when housekeeping proteins also are affected by experimental conditions such as injury, disease, and/or gonadal hormone manipulations. Our goal was to evaluate an alternative and perhaps superior method for conducting Western blot analysis of brain tissue homogenates from rats with distinct physiologically relevant gonadal hormone states...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yuko Mitsuishi, Hirotaka Shibata, Isao Kurihara, Sakiko Kobayashi, Kenichi Yokota, Ayano Murai-Takeda, Takeshi Hayashi, Rie Jo, Toshifumi Nakamura, Mitsuha Morisaki, Hiroshi Itoh
Activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is evoked by aldosterone, and it induces hypertension and cardiovascular disease when it's concomitant with excessive salt loading. We have proposed the notion of "MR-associated hypertension", in which add-on therapy of MR blockers is effective even though serum aldosterone level is within normal range. To elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism, we focused on the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation on MR activity...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Michael L Rossetti, Jennifer L Steiner, Bradley S Gordon
Androgen-deficiency promotes muscle atrophy in part by increasing autophagy-mediated muscle protein breakdown during the fasted state, but factors contributing to this remain undefined. To identify novel factors, mice were subjected to sham or castration surgery. Seven-weeks post-surgery, mice were fasted overnight, refed for 30 min, and fasted another 4.5 h before sacrifice. BNIP3-mediated turnover of mitochondria was increased within the atrophied tibialis anterior (TA) of castrated mice and related to the magnitude of muscle atrophy and autophagy activation (i...
January 25, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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