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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712960/mrtf-a-mediated-fn-and-icam-1-expression-in-ages-induced-rat-glomerular-mesangial-cells-via-activating-stat5
#1
Qiuhong Chen, Junying Huang, Wenyan Gong, Zhiquan Chen, Jiani Huang, Peiqing Liu, Heqing Huang
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed at an accelerated rate under diabetes, play a role in inflammation and fibrosis in mesangial areas in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the transcriptional modulator that mediates the cellular response to AGEs remains largely obscure. Our goal was to determine whether myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A, a key protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle cell phenotype, was responsible for the glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) injury by AGEs, and, if so, how MRTF-A promoted mesangial dysfunction initiated by AGEs...
July 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711609/the-epigenetic-landscape-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell-derivation is the most common endocrine neoplasm with a rapidly increasing incidence. The majority represent papillary carcinomas; more rarely, they are follicular carcinomas. The vast majority have indolent behavior, however a significant proportion progress to develop lymph node metastases and a smaller proportion disseminate systemically. While common and frequent genetic events have been described to underlie the development of these neoplasms, the factors contributing to differing behaviors among tumors with similar genetic alterations remain unclear...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711608/do-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-have-performance-enhancing-effects-in-female-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Grace Huang, Shehzad Basaria
Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among both male and female athletes and is a growing public health problem. Review of historical data of systematic state-sponsored doping programs implemented by the German Democratic Republic in elite female athletes and from the clinical trials of testosterone administration in non-athlete women suggests that AAS have ergogenic effects in women. The use of AAS in female athletes has been associated with adverse effects that include acne, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and menstrual disturbances; life-threatening adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death have also been reported...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711607/epigenetics-of-pituitary-tumors-pathogenetic-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
REVIEW
Shereen Ezzat, Sonia Cheng, Sylvia L Asa
Genetic mutations involving oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes are relatively uncommon in human sporadic pituitary tumors. Instead, increasing evidence has highlighted frequent epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and enhanced miRNA expression. This review covers some of this evidence as it illuminates mechanisms of tumorigenesis and highlights therapeutic opportunities.
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711606/ovarian-aromatase-loss-of-function-mutant-medaka-undergo-ovary-degeneration-and-partial-female-to-male-sex-reversal-after-puberty
#5
Masatoshi Nakamoto, Yasushi Shibata, Kaoru Ohno, Takeshi Usami, Yasuhiro Kamei, Yoshihito Taniguchi, Takeshi Todo, Takashi Sakamoto, Graham Young, Penny Swanson, Kiyoshi Naruse, Yoshitaka Nagahama
Although estrogens have been generally considered to play a critical role in ovarian differentiation in non-mammalian vertebrates, the specific functions of estrogens during ovarian differentiation remain unclear. We isolated two mutants with premature stops in the ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1) gene from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based gene-driven mutagenesis library of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. In XX mutants, gonads first differentiated into normal ovaries containing many ovarian follicles that failed to accumulate yolk...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709956/activation-of-human-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-promotes-down-regulation-of-arhgap18-and-regulates-the-cell-invasion-of-mda-mb-231%C3%A2-cells
#6
Arturo Aguilar-Rojas, Guadalupe Maya-Núñez, Maira Huerta-Reyes, Marco Allán Pérez-Solis, Raúl Silva-García, Nancy Guillén, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin
The Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GnRHR) is expressed mainly in the gonadotrope membrane of the adenohypophysis and its natural ligand, the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), is produced in anterior hypothalamus. Furthermore, both molecules are also present in the membrane of cells derived from other reproductive tissues such as the breast, endometrium, ovary, and prostate, as well as in tumors derived from these tissues. The functions of GnRH receptor and its hormone in malignant cells have been related with the decrease of proliferation and the invasiveness of those tumors however, little is known about the molecules associated with the signaling pathways regulated by both molecules in malignant cells...
July 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694164/a-homologue-of-nr5a1-activates-cyp19a1a-transcription-additively-with-nr5a2-in-ovarian-follicular-cells-of-the-orange-spotted-grouper
#7
Boyang Shi, Huijie Lu, Lihong Zhang, Weimin Zhang
Transcription factors of nuclear receptor 5A (Nr5a) subfamily play pivotal roles in regulation of steroidogenic enzymes in vertebrates including teleosts. In the orange-spotted grouper, the expression of Nr5a1a was only detectable in the ovary, spleen, and head kidney in the female. The immunoreactive Nr5a1a was present in ovarian follicular and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes, Nr5a1a was detected both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and co-localized with Cyp19a1a and Nr5a2...
July 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689771/immunosuppression-with-tacrolimus-improved-implantation-and-rescued-expression-of-uterine-progesterone-receptor-and-its-co-regulators-fkbp52-and-piasy-at-nidation-in-the-obese-and-diabetic-mice-comparative-studies-with-metformin
#8
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Frederick W K Kan
Diabesity is often associated with subfertility and recurrent miscarriages. Evidence links systemic and local uterine cytotoxicity to the pathogenesis of implantation failure (IF) in diabetes. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus improved pregnancy outcomes in obese and diabetic mice and repeated IF in women with elevated Th1/Th2 blood cell ratios. However the mode of action of tacrolimus in protecting against IF and the molecular mechanisms associated with recurrent miscarriages in the obese and diabetic subjects are yet to be elucidated...
July 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689770/vip-induces-the-decidualization-program-and-conditions-the-immunoregulation-of-the-implantation-process
#9
Esteban Grasso, Soledad Gori, Daniel Paparini, Elizabeth Soczewski, Laura Fernández, Lucila Gallino, Gabriela Salamone, Gustavo Martinez, Marcela Irigoyen, Claudio Ruhlmann, Claudia Pérez Leirós, Rosanna Ramhorst
The decidualization process involves phenotype and functional changes on endometrial cells and the modulation of mediators with immunoregulatory properties as the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We investigate VIP contribution to the decidualization program and to immunoregulation throughout the human embryo implantation process. The decidualization of Human endometrial stromal cell line (HESC) with Medroxyprogesterone-dibutyryl-cAMP increased VIP/VPAC-receptors system. In fact, VIP could induce decidualization increasing differentiation markers (IGFBP1, PRL, KLF13/KLF9 ratio, CXCL12, CXCL8 and CCL2) and allowing Blastocyst-like spheroids (BLS) invasion in an in vitro model of embryo implantation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688959/from-gene-to-therapy-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-are-we-there-yet
#10
REVIEW
Maria Pennuto, Carlo Rinaldi
Abnormal polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) cause a muscular condition, known as Kennedy's disease or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). The disease is transmitted in an X-linked fashion and is clinically characterized by weakness, atrophy and fasciculations of the limb and bulbar muscles as a result of a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Notably, affected males also show signs of androgen insensitivity, such as gynaecomastia and reduced fertility. The characterization of the natural history of the disease, the increasing understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and the elucidation of the functions of normal and mutant AR have offered a momentum for developing a rational therapeutic strategy for this disease...
July 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687451/possible-roles-for-glucocorticoid-signalling-in-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Keely M McNamara, Ayako Kannai, Hironobu Sasano
Our understanding of breast cancer biology, and our ability to manipulate breast cancers have grown exponentially in the last 20 years. Much of that expansion has focused on the roles of steroids in driving these neoplasms. Initially this research focused on estrogens and progesterone receptors, and more recently on androgen actions in breast cancers. This review aims to make the case for glucocorticoids as the next essential steroid subclass that contributes significantly to our understanding of steroidogenic regulation of these neoplasms...
July 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687450/role-of-androgens-in-the-ovary
#12
REVIEW
K A Walters, D J Handelsman
It has been well established for decades that androgens, namely testosterone (T) plays an important role in female reproductive physiology as the precursor for oestradiol (E2). However, in the last decade a direct role for androgens, acting via the androgen receptor (AR), in female reproductive function has been confirmed. Deciphering the specific roles of androgens in ovarian function has been hindered as complete androgen resistant females cannot be generated by natural breeding. In addition, androgens can be converted into estrogens which has caused confusion when interpreting findings from pharmacological studies, as observed effects could have been mediated via the AR or estrogen receptor...
July 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684291/lysine-demethylase-inhibition-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-apoptosis-and-improves-%C3%AE-cell-function
#13
Marie Balslev Backe, Jan Legaard Andersson, Karl Bacos, Dan Ploug Christensen, Jakob Bondo Hansen, Jerzy Jòzef Dorosz, Michael Gajhede, Tina Dahlby, Madhusudhan Bysani, Line Hyltoft Kristensen, Charlotte Ling, Lars Olsen, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
Transcriptional changes control β-cell survival in response to inflammatory stress. Posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone transcriptional regulators activate or repress gene transcription, but the link to cell-fate signaling is unclear. Inhibition of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) protects β cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and reduces type 1 diabetes incidence in animals. We hypothesized that also lysine demethylases (KDMs) regulate β-cell fate in response to inflammatory stress. Expression of the demethylase Kdm6B was upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines suggesting a possible role in inflammation-induced β-cell destruction...
July 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684292/the-polymorphic-insertion-of-the-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-inslq-show-a-negative-association-to-lhr-gene-expression-and-to-the-follicular-fluid-hormonal-profile-in-human-small-antral-follicles
#14
T Borgbo, J Chrudimska, M Macek, J V Jeppesen, J A Bøtkjær, S G Kristensen, K T Macklon, E Ernst, L L Hansen, C Yding Andersen
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684290/neurotransmitter-receptors-as-signaling-platforms-in-anterior-pituitary-cells
#15
REVIEW
Hana Zemková, Stanko S Stojilkovic
The functions of anterior pituitary cells are controlled by two major groups of hypothalamic and intrapituitary ligands: one exclusively acts on G protein-coupled receptors and the other activates both G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated receptor channels. The second group of ligands operates as neurotransmitters in neuronal cells and their receptors are termed as neurotransmitter receptors. Most information about pituitary neurotransmitter receptors was obtained from secretory studies, RT-PCR analyses of mRNA expression and immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses, all of which were performed using a mixed population of pituitary cells...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676429/the-role-of-armc5-in-human-cell-cultures-from-nodules-of-primary-macronodular-adrenocortical-hyperplasia-pmah
#16
Isadora P Cavalcante, Mirian Nishi, Maria Claudia N Zerbini, Madson Q Almeida, Vania B Brondani, Maria Luiza Anhaia de Arruda Botelho, Fabio Y Tanno, Victor Srougi, José Luis Chambo, Berenice B Mendonca, Jérôme Bertherat, Claudimara F P Lotfi, Maria Candida B V Fragoso
The participation of aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH in hyperplastic tissue are considered mechanisms that regulate hypercortisolism in PMAH. Additionally, germline ARMC5 mutations have been described as the most frequent genetic abnormality found in patients diagnosed with PMAH. Previous functional studies analyzed ARMC5 role using H295R cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARMC5 in cell cultures obtained from PMAH nodules containing steroidogenic cells, aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH...
July 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669826/endocrine-functions-of-vitamin-d
#17
EDITORIAL
Carsten Carlberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655627/title-cpg-methylation-and-the-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2-are-required-for-restraining-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-gene-expression
#18
Shreyas A Bhave, Rosalie M Uht
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a critical role in mounting a stress response and maintaining homeostasis. A dysregulated HPA axis and elevated levels of CRH are associated with a number of disorders. Although extensive research has been devoted to understanding molecular events associated with stimulated CRH gene, less is known about the mechanisms that restrain CRH expression. Using a cell culture system, we report here two molecular aspects of CRH gene regulation that are required for maintenance of basal level of CRH gene expression...
June 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652171/common-and-diverse-elements-of-ion-channels-and-receptors-underlying-electrical-activity-in-endocrine-pituitary-cells
#19
REVIEW
Patrick A Fletcher, Arthur Sherman, Stanko S Stojilkovic
The pituitary gland contains six types of endocrine cells defined by hormones they secrete: corticotrophs, melanotrophs, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, somatotrophs, and lactotrophs. All these cell types are electrically excitable, and voltage-gated calcium influx is the major trigger for their hormone secretion. Along with hormone intracellular content, G-protein-coupled receptor and ion channel expression can also be considered as defining cell type identity. While many aspects of the developmental and activity dependent regulation of hormone and G-protein-coupled receptor expression have been elucidated, much less is known about the regulation of the ion channels needed for excitation-secretion coupling in these cells...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652170/role-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-urothelial-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Satoshi Inoue, Taichi Mizushima, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Men have had a substantially higher risk of developing bladder cancer than women. This has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in urothelial cancer. Indeed, increasing preclinical evidence indicates that AR activation correlates with the promotion of urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth. In this article, we summarize and discuss available data suggesting the involvement of androgens and the AR pathway in the development and progression of urothelial cancer. Although precise mechanisms for the functions of AR and related signals in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current observations may offer effective chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches for urothelial cancer...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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