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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445712/consider-the-context-ras-erk-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-outcomes-are-pituitary-cell-type-specific
#1
REVIEW
Allyson K Roof, Arthur Gutierrez-Hartmann
Conserved signaling pathways are critical regulators of pituitary homeostasis and, when dysregulated, contribute to adenoma formation. Pituitary adenomas are typically benign and rarely progress to malignant cancer. Pituitary and other neuroendocrine cell types often display non-proliferative responses to ERK and PI3K, in contrast to non-endocrine cell types which typically proliferate in response to ERK and PI3K activation. These differences likely contribute to the infrequent progression to malignancy in many endocrine tumors...
April 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435049/exposure-of-decidualized-hiesc-to-low-oxygen-tension-and-leucine-deprivation-results-in-increased-igfbp-1-phosphorylation-and-reduced-igf-i-bioactivity
#2
Majida Abu Shehab, Kyle Biggar, Sahil Sagar Singal, Karen Nygard, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Thomas Jansson, Madhulika B Gupta
Phosphorylation of decidual IGFBP-1 enhances binding of IGF-I, limiting the bioavailability of this growth factor which may contribute to reduced placental and fetal growth. The mechanisms regulating decidual IGFBP-1 phosphorylation are incompletely understood. Using decidualized human immortalized endometrial stromal cell () we tested the hypothesis that low oxygen tension or reduced leucine availability, believed to be common in placental insufficiency, increase the phosphorylation of decidual IGFBP-1. Multiple reaction monitoring-MS (MRM-MS) was used to identify/quantify IGFBP-1 phosphorylation...
April 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428045/sco2-deficient-mice-develop-increased-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Shauna Hill, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Pavithra Premkumar, Daniel Pulliam, Yuhong Liu, Vanessa Y Soto, Kathleen E Fischer, Holly Van Remmen
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is an essential transmembrane protein complex (Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory electron chain. Mutations in genes responsible for the assembly of COX are associated with Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy, spinal muscular atrophy and other fatal metabolic disorders in humans. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the COX assembly protein Surf1 (Surf1(-/-) mice) paradoxically show a number of beneficial metabolic phenotypes including increased insulin sensitivity, upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of stress response pathways and increased lifespan...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428044/transcriptional-co-activator-yap-regulates-camp-signaling-in-sertoli-cells
#4
Souvik Sen Sharma, Subeer S Majumdar
FSH mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling is crucial for function of testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) during puberty. Yes-kinase Associated Protein (YAP), a transcriptional co-activator, regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. However, its role in testicular function is not known. In present study, we have identified YAP as an important regulator of cAMP signaling in Sc, in-vitro. Verteporfin, a YAP-inhibitor, down regulated the expression of cAMP responsive genes necessary for spermatogenesis in Sc. Action of forskolin, which acts via cAMP, was also antagonized by verteporfin, limiting expression of these genes...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428043/effects-of-bone-marrow-on-the-microenvironment-of-the-human-pancreatic-islet-a-protein-profile-approach
#5
Joseph William Kim, Souriya Vang, John Luo, William Newton, Luguang Luo
Stem cells are a new therapeutic modality that may support the viability and function of human organs and tissue. Our previous studies have revealed that human allogeneic bone marrow (BM) sustains pancreatic β cell function and survival. This paper examines whether BM creates a microenvironment that supports human pancreatic islets in vitro by evaluating 107 proteins in culture media from BM, islet, and islet/bone marrow (IB) with mass spectrometry. Proteins were considered up- or down-regulated if p-values < 0...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416325/involvement-of-the-nuclear-progestin-receptor-in-lh-induced-expression-of-membrane-type-2-matrix-metalloproteinase-required-for-follicle-rupture-during-ovulation-in-the-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#6
Katsueki Ogiwara, Takayuki Takahashi
Hormonal regulation of the expression of Mmp15, a proteolytic enzyme indispensable for ovulation in the teleost medaka, was investigated. In an in vitro culture system using preovulatory follicles, Mmp15 expression and ovulation were induced in the presence of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLh). Both rLh-induced Mmp15 expression and ovulation were 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one-dependent, suggesting the involvement of a nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr). In vitro follicle ovulation and Mmp15 expression were reduced by treatment with the Pgr antagonist RU-486...
April 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416324/e4bp4-mediates-glucocorticoid-regulated-adipogenesis-through-cox2
#7
Yang Yang, Hongkui Wei, Tongxing Song, Anle Cai, Yuanfei Zhou, Jie Peng, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Adipogenesis is mediated by glucocorticoids via transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target genes. However, the mechanism by which GR participates in adipogenesis has hitherto been poorly characterized. In this study, E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4) was found to have a critical role in adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies revealed that E4BP4 acts as a positive regulator of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. E4BP4 was markedly induced by glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) via GR and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) during adipogenesis...
April 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414049/spotlight-on-vitamin-d-receptor-lipid-metabolism-and-mitochondria-some-preliminary-emerging-issues
#8
REVIEW
Francesca Silvagno, Gianpiero Pescarmona
Transcriptional control and modulation of calcium fluxes underpin the differentiating properties of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). In the latest years however few studies have pointed out the relevance of the mitochondrial effects of the hormone. It is now time to focus on the metabolic results of vitamin D receptor (VDR) action in mitochondria, which can explain the pleiotropic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and may elucidate few contrasting aspects of its activity. The perturbation of lipid metabolism described in VDR knockout mice and vitamin D deficient animals can be revisited based on the newly identified mechanism of action of 1,25(OH)2D3 in mitochondria...
April 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412522/small-non-coding-rnas-in-adipocyte-biology-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Ez-Zoubir Amri, Marcel Scheideler
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions world-wide and constitutes a substantial risk factor for hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. So far, regulation of energy intake by dietary and pharmacological treatments has met limited success. The main interest of current research is focused on understanding the role of different pathways involved in adipose tissue function and modulation of its mass. Whole-genome sequencing studies revealed that the majority of the human genome is transcribed, with thousands of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNA), which comprise small and long ncRNAs...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412521/a-lamprey-view-on-the-origins-of-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-the-thyroid-axis
#10
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower, Krist N Hausken
This mini review summarizes the current knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine system in lampreys, jawless vertebrates. Lampreys and hagfish are the only two extant members of the class of agnathans, the oldest lineage of vertebrates. The high conservation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in lampreys makes the lamprey model highly appropriate for comparative and evolutionary analyses. However, there are still many unknown questions concerning the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in its regulation of thyroid activities in lampreys...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412520/nutrition-modulation-of-human-aging-the-calorie-restriction-paradigm
#11
Sai Krupa Das, Priya Balasubramanian, Yasoma K Weerasekara
Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408161/novel-thyroid-hormone-analogues-enzyme-inhibitors-and-mimetics-and-their-action
#13
REVIEW
Santanu Mondal, Govindasamy Mugesh
Thyroid hormones (THs) play key roles in modulating the overall metabolism of the body, protein synthesis, fat metabolism, neuronal and bone growth, and cardiovascular as well as renal functions. In this review, we discuss on the thyroid hormone synthesis and activation, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and mechanism of action, applications of thyroid hormone analogues, particularly the compounds that are selective ligands for TRβ receptors, or enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of thyroidal disorders with a specific focus on thyroid peroxidase and iodothyronine deiodinases...
April 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400273/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-the-endocrinology-controlling-calcium-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
James C Fleet
Vitamin D and its' metabolites are a crucial part of the endocrine system that controls whole body calcium homeostasis. The goal of this hormonal control is to regulate serum calcium levels so that they are maintained within a very narrow range. To achieve this goal, regulatory events occur in coordination at multiple tissues, e.g. the intestine, kidney, bone, and parathyroid gland. Production of the vitamin D endocrine hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) is regulated by habitual dietary calcium intake and physiologic states like growth, aging, and the menopause...
April 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400274/characterization-of-gnrh-gnih-elements-in-the-olfacto-retinal-system-and-ovary-during-zebrafish-ovarian-maturation
#15
Sheryll Corchuelo, Emanuel R M Martinez, Arno J Butzge, Lucas B Doretto, Tanda N Valentin, Laura S O Nakaghi, Gustavo M Somoza, Rafael H Nóbrega
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of the key players of brain-pituitary-gonad axis, exerting overall control over vertebrate reproduction. In zebrafish, two variants were characterized and name as Gnrh2 and Gnrh3. In this species, Gnrh3, the hypohysiotropic form, is expressed by neurons of the olfactory-retinal system, where it is related with food detection, intra/interspecific recognition, visual acuity and retinal processing modulation. Previous studies have reported the presence of Gnrh receptors in the zebrafish retina, but not yet in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium...
April 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400272/epigenetic-processes-in-sporadic-parathyroid-neoplasms
#16
REVIEW
Angelica M Silva-Figueroa, Nancy D Perrier
Parathyroid tumors (PTs) are highly variable in their genetic background. Increasing evidence demonstrates that endocrine diseases can be caused by epigenetic alterations. The present review is focused on epigenetic aberrations related to PTs. DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modification, and noncoding RNAs are epigenetic mechanisms involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis. The information in this review has the potential to define epigenetic signatures associated with PTs for future use as diagnostic markers and lead to the development of new epigenetic drugs with therapeutic applications for these tumors...
April 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392411/regulation-of-stem-cell-aging-by-sirt1-linking-metabolic-signaling-to-epigenetic-modifications
#17
An Yu, Weiwei Dang
In mammals, profound changes in the population and functions of adult stem cells occur with age and these changes are thought to underlie functional decline and pathophysiology at the tissue and organismal levels associated with aging. SIRT1, a member of the conserved sirtuin family, functions as an anti-aging regulator for adult stem cells. Mediated through its regulatory roles in AMPK and mTORC1 pathways as well as gene expression, SIRT1 modulate the activities of genes maintaining stem cell functions and delays cellular senescence...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392410/differential-roles-of-pkc-isoforms-pkcs-in-gnrh-stimulation-of-mapk-phosphorylation-in-gonadotrope-derived-cells
#18
REVIEW
Shany Mugami, Masha Dobkin-Bekman, Liat Rahamim-Ben Navi, Zvi Naor
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKCs) in GnRH-stimulated MAPK [ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation was examined in gonadotrope derived cells. GnRH induced a protracted activation of ERK1/2 and a slower and more transient activation of JNK1/2 and p38MAPK. Gonadotropes express conventional PKCα and PKCβII, novel PKCδ, PKCε and PKCθ, and atypical PKC-ι/λ. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-PKCs constructs revealed that GnRH induced rapid translocation of PKCα and PKCβII to the plasma membrane, followed by their redistribution to the cytosol...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390954/the-effects-of-ramps-upon-cell-signalling
#19
Sarah J Routledge, Graham Ladds, David R Poyner
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a vital role in signal transduction. It is now clear that numerous other molecules within the cell and at the cell surface interact with GPCRs to modulate their signalling properties. Receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a group of single transmembrane domain proteins which have been predominantly demonstrated to interact with Family B GPCRs, but interactions with Family A and C receptors have recently begun to emerge. These interactions can influence cell surface expression, ligand binding preferences and G protein-coupling, thus modulating GPCR signal transduction...
April 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390953/pannexin-2-deficiency-sensitizes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-cytokine-induced-apoptosis-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-impairs-glucose-tolerance-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Lukas A Berchtold, Michela Miani, Thi A Diep, Andreas N Madsen, Valentina Cigliola, Maikel Colli, Jelena M Krivokapic, Flemming Pociot, Decio L Eizirik, Paolo Meda, Birgitte Holst, Nils Billestrup, Joachim Størling
Pannexins (Panx's) are membrane proteins involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell death signaling and immune functions. The role and functions of Panx's in pancreatic β-cells remain to be clarified. Here, we show Panx1 and Panx2 expression in isolated islets, primary β-cells, and β-cell lines. The expression of Panx2, but not Panx1, was downregulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plus interferon-γ (IFNγ), two pro-inflammatory cytokines suggested to contribute to β-cell demise in type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
April 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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