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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822849/cyclic-3-5-adenosine-monophosphate-camp-signaling-in-the-anterior-pituitary-gland-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis
The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors...
August 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811183/deletion-of-protein-kinase-d1-in-osteoprogenitor-cells-results-in-decreased-osteogenesis-in-vitro-and-reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-vivo
#2
Wendy B Bollag, Vivek Choudhary, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Jianrui Xu, Ranya Elsayed, Kanglun Yu, Yun Su, Lakiea J Bailey, Xing-Ming Shi, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Carlos M Isales
Protein kinase D1 (PRKD1) is thought to play a role in a number of cellular functions, including proliferation and differentiation. We hypothesized that PRKD1 in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) could modulate osteogenesis. In BMMSCs from floxed PRKD1 mice, PRKD1 ablation with adenovirus-mediated Cre-recombinase expression inhibited BMMSC differentiation in vitro. In 3- and 6-month-old conditional knockout mice (cKO), in which PRKD1 was ablated in osteoprogenitor cells by osterix promoter-driven Cre-recombinase, bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly reduced compared with floxed control littermates...
August 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807878/sex-dependent-changes-in-lipid-metabolism-ppar-pathways-and-micrornas-that-target-ppars-in-the-fetal-liver-of-rats-with-gestational-diabetes
#3
Daiana Fornes, Verónica White, Romina Higa, Florencia Heinecke, Evangelina Capobianco, Alicia Jawerbaum
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a prevalent disease that impairs fetal metabolism and development. We have previously characterized a rat model of GDM induced by developmental programming. Here, we analyzed lipid content, the levels of the three PPAR isotypes and the expression of microRNAs that regulate PPARs expression in the liver of male and female fetuses of control and GDM rats on day 21 of pregnancy. We found increased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the livers of male fetuses of GDM rats compared to controls, and, oppositely, reduced levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in the livers of female fetuses of GDM rats compared to controls...
August 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801227/estrogen-directly-stimulates-lhb-expression-at-the-pituitary-level-during-puberty-in-female-zebrafish
#4
Gaofei Li, Haipei Tang, Yu Chen, Yike Yin, Satoshi Ogawa, Meifeng Liu, Yin Guo, Xin Qi, Yun Liu, Ishwar S Parhar, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
The LHb expression is up-regulated during puberty in female zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how LHb expression is regulated during puberty remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression levels of lhb, fshb and cyp19a1b were up-regulated along with the puberty onset in zebrafish. Among the three nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs), the esr2b is the only type whose expression is significantly up-regulated during puberty onset in the pituitary. However, in situ hybridization results revealed that lhb mRNA was colocalized with esr1 and esr2a but not esr2b...
August 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789969/tissue-control-of-androgen-action-the-ups-and-downs-of-androgen-receptor-expression
#5
REVIEW
Irene Hunter, Colin W Hay, Bianca Esswein, Kate Watt, Iain J McEwan
The hormone testosterone plays crucial roles during male development and puberty and throughout life, as an anabolic regulator of muscle and bone structure and function. The actions of testosterone are mediated, primarily, through the androgen receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X-chromosome and receptor levels are tightly controlled both at the level of transcription of the gene and post-translationally at the protein level. Sp1 has emerged as the major driver of expression of the androgen receptor gene, while auto-regulation by androgens is associated with both positive and negative regulation in a possible cell-selective manner...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778663/rxr-heterodimers-orchestrate-transcriptional-control-of-neurogenesis-and-cell-fate-specification
#6
REVIEW
Zoltan Simandi, Attila Horvath, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Sascha Sauer, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Laszlo Nagy
Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs) are unique and enigmatic members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family with extensive and complex biological functions in cellular differentiation. On the one hand, RXRs through permissive heterodimerization with other NRs are able to integrate multiple lipid signaling pathways and are believed to play a central role to coordinate the development of the central nervous system. On the other hand, RXRs may have heterodimer-independent functions as well. Therefore, a more RXR-centric analysis is warranted to identify its genomic binding sites and regulated gene networks, which are orchestrating the earliest events in neuronal differentiation...
August 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774781/estrogen-signaling-deregulation-related-with-local-immune-response-modulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Damian Jacenik, Adam I Cygankiewicz, Jakub Fichna, Anna Mokrowiecka, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Wanda M Krajewska
The etiology and pathogenesis underlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal disorder are still unclear. Cumulating data suggest dysregulation of inflammatory and immune response pathways and changes of epithelial barrier function. The role of estrogens albeit varied, in responses of immune system is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate estrogen receptors engagment in IBS subtypes, i.e. constipation predominant (IBS-C) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D). Furthermore, we analyzed whether estrogen signaling is accompanied by alteration in expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and microRNAs that can regulate among others genes involved in immune responses...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774780/differentially-expressed-genes-in-ppar%C3%AE-deficient-mscs
#8
REVIEW
Yun Su, Xiaona Shen, Jie Chen, Carlos M Isales, Jing Zhao, Xing-Ming Shi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipogenesis. It is also a central player in energy metabolism, inflammation and immunity. As an important nuclear transcription factor, PPARγ can regulate the expression and function of genes or biological processes directly or indirectly via association with other factors and thus modulate their activities. To better understand the impact of PPARγ on the global gene expression profile, we evaluated the bioinformatic data, which revealed the changes that occurred in genes and their pathways in the absence of PPARγ...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774779/extensive-and-functional-overlap-of-the-stat6-and-rxr-cistromes-in-the-active-enhancer-repertoire-of-human-cd14-monocyte-derived-differentiating-macrophages
#9
REVIEW
Zsolt Czimmerer, Zsuzsanna S Nagy, Gergely Nagy, Attila Horvath, Timea Silye-Cseh, Agnes Kriston, David Jonas, Sascha Sauer, Laszlo Steiner, Bence Daniel, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Laszlo Nagy
Macrophages are able to differentiate into classically polarized (M1) or alternatively polarized (M2) states upon encountering pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN) γ or anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -4/IL-13, respectively. Moreover, macrophages are known to regulate lipid metabolism via multiple members of the nuclear hormone receptor family, including the retinoid X receptors (RXR). It has been also documented that cytokines are able to modulate macrophage responses to lipid signals but the nature of these interactions and the underlying mechanisms of these processes especially at the level of the chromatinized genome are not well understood...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#10
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774777/insights-into-the-role-of-hepatocyte-ppar%C3%AE-activity-in-response-to-fasting
#11
REVIEW
Marion Régnier, Arnaud Polizzi, Yannick Lippi, Edwin Fouché, Géraldine Michel, Céline Lukowicz, Sarra Smati, Alain Marrot, Frédéric Lasserre, Claire Naylies, Aurélie Batut, Fanny Viars, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Catherine Postic, Nicolas Loiseau, Walter Wahli, Hervé Guillou, Alexandra Montagner
The liver plays a central role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Hepatocytes are highly sensitive to nutrients and hormones that drive extensive transcriptional responses. Nuclear hormone receptors are key transcription factors involved in this process. Among these factors, PPARα is a critical regulator of hepatic lipid catabolism during fasting. This study aimed to analyse the wide array of hepatic PPARα-dependent transcriptional responses during fasting. We compared gene expression in male mice with a hepatocyte specific deletion of PPARα and their wild-type littermates in the fed (ad libitum) and 24-h fasted states...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760601/a-functional-drug-re-purposing-screening-identifies-carfilzomib-as-a-drug-preventing-17%C3%AE-estradiol-er%C3%AE-signaling-and-cell-proliferation-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Claudia Busonero, Stefano Leone, Cinzia Klemm, Filippo Acconcia
Most cases of breast cancer (BC) are estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα+) at diagnosis. The presence of ERα drives the therapeutic approach for this disease, which often consists of endocrine therapy (ET). 4OH-Tamoxifen and faslodex (i.e., fulvestrant - ICI182,780) are two ETs that render tumor cells insensitive to 17β-estradiol (E2)-dependent proliferative stimuli and prevent BC progression. However, ET has limitations and serious failures in different tissues and organs. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel drugs to fight BC in the clinic...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760599/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-signaling-an-information-theoretic-approach
#13
REVIEW
Margaritis Voliotis, Kathryn L Garner, Hussah Alobaid, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Craig A McArdle
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide hormone that mediates central control of reproduction, acting via G-protein coupled receptors that are primarily Gq coupled and mediate GnRH effects on the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. A great deal is known about the GnRH receptor signaling network but GnRH is secreted in short pulses and much less is known about how gonadotropes decode this pulsatile signal. Similarly, single cell measures reveal considerable cell-cell heterogeneity in responses to GnRH but the impact of this variability on signaling is largely unknown...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760600/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-abnormalities-occur-downstream-of-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Rodrigo S Carraro, Gabriela F Souza, Carina Solon, Daniela S Razolli, Bruno Chausse, Roberta Barbizan, Sheila C Victorio, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a common feature of experimental obesity. Studies have identified at least three mechanisms involved in the development of hypothalamic neuronal defects in diet-induced obesity: i, inflammation; ii, endoplasmic reticulum stress; and iii, mitochondrial abnormalities. However, which of these mechanisms is activated earliest in response to the consumption of large portions of dietary fats is currently unknown. Here, we used immunoblot, real-time PCR, mitochondrial respiration assays and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate markers of inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the hypothalamus of Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet for up to seven days...
July 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756250/vaspin-suppresses-cytokine-induced-inflammation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-inhibition-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Konstanze Zieger, Juliane Weiner, Kerstin Krause, Maximilian Schwarz, Martin Kohn, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, John T Heiker
Vaspin expression is increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice and rats and is supposed to compensate HFD-induced inflammatory processes and insulin resistance in adipose tissue by counteracting pro-inflammatory gene expression in obesity. Multiple studies have also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects in vascular and skin cells. Here, we used vaspin treated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 cells with stable vaspin expression to investigate the effect of exogenous and endogenous vaspin on inflammatory processes and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
July 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754352/3-iodothyronamine-reduces-insulin-secretion-in-vitro-via-a-mitochondrial-mechanism
#16
Ina Lehmphul, Carolin S Hoefig, Josef Köhrle
PURPOSE: 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM), a decarboxylated and deiodinated thyroid hormone metabolite, leads at pharmacological doses to hypoinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia and hyperglycemia in vivo. As the pancreatic Langerhans islets express thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT), we tested the hypothesis that not only plasma membrane-mediated 3-T1AM binding to and activation of G-protein coupled receptors, but also 3-T1AM metabolite(s) generated by 3-T1AM uptake and metabolism might decrease glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754351/the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-involved-in-a-direct-inhibitory-effect-of-nicotine-on-gnrh-release-in-vitro-studies
#17
Elio Messi, Federica Pimpinelli, Valentina Andrè, Chiara Rigobello, Cecilia Gotti, Roberto Maggi
The activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) inhibits the reproductive axis; however, it is not clear whether nicotine may directly modulate the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Experiments carried out in GT1-1 immortalized GnRH neurons reveal the presence of a single class of high affinity α4β2 and α7 nAchR subtypes. The exposure of GT1-1 cells to nicotine does not modify the basal accumulation of GnRH. However, nicotine was found to modify GnRH pulsatility in perifusion experiments and inhibits, the release of GnRH induced by prostaglandin E1 or by K(+)-induced cell depolarization; these effects were reversed by D-tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754350/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-epigallocatechin-gallate-alone-and-in-combination-with-exendin-4-in-high-fat-diabetic-mice
#18
Nupur M Pathak, Paul J B Millar, Varun Pathak, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
OBJECTIVE: Significant attempts are being made to generate multifunctional, hybrid or peptide combinations as novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes, however this presents key challenges including design and pharmaceutical development. In this study, we evaluated metabolic properties of oral nutritional supplement epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 in a mouse model of dietary-induced diabetes and obesity. METHODS: EGCG, exendin-4 or combination of both were administered twice-daily over 28 days to high fat (HF) mice on background of low-dose streptozotocin...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754349/effect-of-steviol-steviol-glycosides-and-stevia-extract-on-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-normal-and-cancer-blood-cells
#19
Christina Panagiotou, Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, George Brauhli, Olga Katsarou, Paraskevi Moutsatsou
The use of steviol glycosides as non-caloric sweeteners has proven to be beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, recent data demonstrate that steviol and stevioside might act as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists and thus correlate with adverse effects on metabolism. Herein, we evaluated the impact of steviol, steviol glycosides, and a Greek-derived stevia extract on a number of key steps of GR signaling cascade in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in Jurkat leukemia cells...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751134/long-non-coding-rnas-in-thyroid-cancer-biological-functions-and-clinical-significance
#20
REVIEW
Fang Sui, Meiju Ji, Peng Hou
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant tumor with rapidly increasing incidence in recent decades. Although the majority of thyroid cancers are relatively indolent, some cases still have a risk of developing into more aggressive and lethal forms of thyroid cancers. Similar to other malignancies, thyroid tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving the accumulation of a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, determination of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis is an urgent need for thyroid cancer treatment...
July 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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