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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552919/administration-of-eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-may-improve-the-remodeling-and-browning-in-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-and-thermogenic-markers-in-brown-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#1
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Larissa Pereira Santos, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
The role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in browning and thermogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we meant to evaluate the effect of EPA and DHA, administered alone or combined, with the activation of browning markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), and thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). C57BL/6 adult male mice received a control diet or a high-fructose diet (HFru) for eight weeks, but after the first three weeks, HFru was divided into new groups: HFru, HFru + EPA, HFru + DHA, and HFru-EPA + DHA...
December 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550815/relaxin-in-liver-transplantation-a-personal-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Shoichi Kageyama, Kojiro Nakamura, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550814/neonatal-exposure-to-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-alters-the-histofunctional-differentiation-of-the-ovaries-and-uterus-in-lambs
#3
Ramiro Alarcón, Paola I Ingaramo, Oscar E Rivera, Gisela H Dioguardi, María R Repetti, Luisina D Demonte, Mercedes M Milesi, Jorgelina Varayoud, Mónica Muñoz-de-Toro, Enrique H Luque
The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of oral and subcutaneous exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) on the female reproductive system, specifically in the ovaries and uterus of prepubertal lambs. To this end, ewe lambs were exposed to a s.c. (n: 5) or an oral (n: 5) environmentally relevant dose of GBH (2 mg/kg/day) or to vehicle (controls, n: 12), from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND14. Serum glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) concentrations were measured on PND15 and PND45...
December 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543878/abacavir-nevirapine-and-ritonavir-modulate-intracellular-calcium-levels-without-affecting-ghrh-mediated-growth-hormone-secretion-in-somatotropic-cells-in-vitro
#4
Giulia Brigante, Laura Riccetti, Clara Lazzaretti, Laura Rofrano, Samantha Sperduti, Francesco Potì, Chiara Diazzi, Flavia Prodam, Giovanni Guaraldi, Andrea G Lania, Vincenzo Rochira, Livio Casarini
Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency is frequent in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We treated GH3 cells with antiretrovirals (nevirapine, ritonavir or abacavir sulfate; 100 pM-1 mM range), after transfection with human growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor cDNA. Cells viability, intracellular cAMP, phosphorylation of CREB and calcium increase, GH production and secretion were evaluated both in basal condition and after GHRH, using MTT, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, western blotting and ELISA...
December 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543877/cystatin-c-in-adipose-tissue-and-stimulation-of-its-production-by-growth-hormone-and-triiodothyronine-in-3t3-l1-cells
#5
Christoph Schmid, Claudia Ghirlanda, Cornelia Zwimpfer, Oliver Tschopp, Richard A Zuellig, Markus Niessen
Cystatin C (CysC) is a marker for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CysC levels may depend not only on clearance/GFR but possibly also on changes in production. Our studies on tissue distribution of CysC protein in mice showed that adipose tissue expresses significant amounts of CysC, suggesting that adipocytes could contribute to circulating CysC levels in vivo. As growth hormone (GH) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) increase both GFR and CysC (increased in acromegaly and hyperthyroidism) in vivo, we studied whether they could increase CysC production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro...
December 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543876/evidence-of-functional-bile-acid-signaling-pathways-in-adipocytes
#6
Andreas Schmid, Jutta Schlegel, Miriam Thomalla, Thomas Karrasch, Andreas Schäffler
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Bile acids (BA) are increasingly recognized as pleiotropic and hormone-like signaling molecules with metabolic and endocrine functions. However, the role of BA in white adipocyte physiology remains somewhat obscure. It was the aim to investigate the BA receptors (FXR, TGR5) and FGFR1 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) as well as Bsep (bile salt export pump) in white adipocytes and in murine and human adipose tissue (AT) and to investigate effects of different BA species in adipocyte physiology...
December 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528377/diabetes-induces-tri-methylation-at-lysine-9-of-histone-3-at-slc2a4-gene-in-skeletal-muscle-a-new-target-to-improve-glycemic-control
#7
Caio Y Yonamine, Ana B Alves-Wagner, João V Esteves, Maristela M Okamoto, Maria L Correa-Giannella, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Ubiratan F Machado
Expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4, encoded by Slc2a4 gene, is reduced in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), contributing to glycemic impairment. The present study investigated epigenetic regulations at the Slc2a4 promoter in skeletal muscle of T1D- and T2D-like experimental models. Slc2a4/GLUT4 repression was observed in T1D and T2D and that was reversed by insulin and resveratrol treatments, respectively. In both T1D-like and T2D-like animals, tri-methylation at lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me3) increased in the Slc2a4 enhancer segment, whereas MEF2A/D binding into this segment was reduced; all effects were reversed by respective treatments...
December 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521848/novel-metabolic-disorders-in-skeletal-muscle-of-lipodystrophic-bscl2-seipin-deficient-mice
#8
Wenqiong Xu, Hongyi Zhou, Hongzhuan Xuan, Pradip Saha, Gongxian Wang, Weiqin Chen
Bscl2-/- mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatosteatosis, muscular hypertrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic defects in Bscl2-/- mice with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle have never been investigated. Here, we identified Bscl2-/- mice displayed reduced intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content but increased glycogen storage predominantly in oxidative type I soleus muscle (SM)...
December 4, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513342/cellular-prion-protein-regulates-the-differentiation-and-function-of-adipocytes-through-autophagy-flux
#9
Jae-Kyo Jeong, Ju-Hee Lee, Sung-Wook Kim, Jeong-Min Hong, Jae-Won Seol, Sang-Youel Park
The role of autophagy modulation in adipogenic differentiation and the possible autophagy modulators targeting adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether normal cellular prion protein (PrP<C>) is involved in the modulation of autophagy and affects adipogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Surprisingly, autophagy flux signals were activated in the adipose tissue of prion protein-deficient mice and PrP<C>-deleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The activation of autophagy flux mediated by PrP<C> deletion was confirmed in the adipose tissue via transmission electron microscopy...
December 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508571/germ-cell-neoplasia-in-situ-complicating-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-3-deficiency
#10
REVIEW
Lisal J Folsom, Mariam Hjaige, Jiayan Liu, Erica A Eugster, Richard J Auchus
17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of male sex development that results in defective testosterone biosynthesis. Although mutations in the cognate HSD17B3 gene cause a spectrum of phenotypic manifestations, the majority of affected patients are genetic males having female external genitalia. Many cases do not present until puberty, at which time peripheral conversion of androgen precursors causes progressive virilization. Measurement of the testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio is useful to screen for 17βHSD3 deficiency, and genetic analysis can confirm the diagnosis...
November 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508570/17b-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-as-acyl-thioester-metabolizing-enzymes
#11
REVIEW
J Kalervo Hiltunen, Alexander J Kastaniotis, Kaija J Autio, Guangyu Jiang, Zhijun Chen, Tuomo Glumoff
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD17B) catalyze the oxidation/reduction of 17β-hydroxy/keto group in position C17 in C18- and C19 steroids. Most HSD17Bs are also catalytically active with substrates other than steroids. A subset of these enzymes is able to process thioesters of carboxylic acids. This group of enzymes includes HSD17B4, HSD17B8, HSD17B10 and HSD17B12, which execute reactions in intermediary metabolism, participating in peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial oxidation of 3R-hydroxyacyl-groups, breakdown of isoleucine and fatty acid chain elongation in endoplasmic reticulum...
November 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503377/recombinant-human-glucagon-like-peptide-1-protects-against-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-by-improving-myocardial-energy-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#12
Lichan Tao, Long Wang, Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaohong Jiang, Fei Hua
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease associated with intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin used as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and advanced heart failure. However, whether GLP-1 can protect against IH-induced cardiac injury is still unclear. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human GLP-1 (rhGLP-1) on cardiac health in mice...
November 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476562/modulation-of-rxr-dna-complex-assembly-by-dna-context
#13
Judit Osz, Alastair G McEwen, Justine Wolf, Pierre Poussin-Courmontagne, Carole Peluso-Iltis, Yassmine Chebaro, Bruno Kieffer, Natacha Rochel
Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs) act as dimer partners for several nuclear receptors including itself, binding to genomic DNA response elements and regulating gene transcription with cell and gene specificity. As homodimers, RXRs bind direct repeats of the half-site (A/G)G(G/T)TCA separated by 1 nucleotide (DR1) and little variability of this consensus site is observed for natural DR1s. However, these variations are responsible of the modulation of RXR receptors function through differential binding affinity and conformational changes...
November 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476561/cellular-stress-is-a-prerequisite-for-glucose-induced-mitochondrial-matrix-alkalinization-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Isabelle Chareyron, Christopher Wall, Jonathan Thevenet, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Andreas Wiederkehr
Changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic pH alter the chemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The proton chemical gradient contributes to mitochondrial ATP synthesis as well as the uptake and release of metabolites and ions from the organelle. Here mitochondrial pH and ΔpH were studied for the first time in human pancreatic β-cells. Adenoviruses were used for rat insulin promoter dependent expression of the pH sensor SypHer targeted to either the mitochondrial matrix or the cytosol. The matrix pH in resting human β-cells is low (pH = 7...
November 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476560/effects-of-spermatogenic-cycle-on-stem-leydig-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#15
Xiaojui Guan, Fenfen Chen, Panpan Chen, Xingxing Zhao, Hongxia Mei, June Liu, Qingquan Lian, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen
We reported previously that stem Leydig cells (SLC) on the surfaces of rat testicular seminiferous tubules are able to differentiate into Leydig cells. The proliferation and differentiation of SLCs seem likely to be regulated by niche cells, including nearby germ and Sertoli cells. Due to the cyclical nature of spermatogenesis, we hypothesized that the changes in the germ cell composition of the seminiferous tubules as spermatogenesis proceeds may affect tubule-associated SLC functions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the ability of SLCs associated with tubules at different stages of the cycle to differentiate into Leydig cells in vitro...
November 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476559/factors-contributing-to-the-resistance-of-the-thyrocyte-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#16
Chiraz Ghaddhab, Aglaia Kyrilli, Natacha Driessens, Emmanuel Van Den Eeckhaute, Olivier Hancisse, Xavier De Deken, Jacques-Emile Dumont, Vincent Detours, Françoise Miot, Bernard Corvilain
We studied the mechanism that may explain the relative resistance of thyrocytes to H2 O2 compared to other cell types. Ability to degrade H2 O2 , glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, cell survival and capacity to repair DNA damage after H2 O2 exposure or irradiation were measured in human thyrocytes in primary culture and compared to the values obtained in human T-cells and different cell lines. Compared to other cell types, thyrocytes presented a low mortality rate after H2 O2 exposure, rapidly degraded extracellular H2 O2 and presented a high basal seleno-dependent GPx activity...
November 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476558/glu-2-53-90-of-the-gnrh-receptor-is-part-of-the-conserved-g-protein-coupled-receptor-structure-and-does-not-form-a-salt-bridge-with-lys-3-32-121
#17
Ashmeetha Manilall, B Andre Stander, Michael T Madziva, Robert P Millar, Colleen A Flanagan
GnRH receptor mutations, Glu2.53(90) Lys and Glu2.53(90) Asp, cause congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The Glu2.53(90) side-chain has been proposed to form an intramolecular salt-bridge with Lys3.32(121) , but conserved intramolecular interaction networks in G protein-coupled receptor crystal structures predict that it interacts with Ser3.35(124) and Trp6.48(280) . We investigated interhelical interactions of Glu2.53(90) that stabilise GnRH receptor folding using functional analyses and computational modelling of mutant receptors...
November 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465874/moderate-intensity-continuous-training-reverses-the-detrimental-effects-of-ovariectomy-on-ryr1-phosphorylation-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#18
M Zügel, F Wehrstein, S Qiu, P Diel, J M Steinacker, U Schumann
High 17β-Estradiol (E2) concentrations in isolated ventricular myocytes as well as a lack of ovarian hormones in cardiac muscle of ovariectomized (OVX) rodents has been shown to lead to arrhythmogenic effects by inducing post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2). The effects of estrogens on the phosphorylation status of the RyR1 in skeletal muscle have not been investigated before. Furthermore, while high intensity exercise has been shown to increase RyR phosphorylation, there is no data on the effects of moderate intensity continuous training (MICT)...
November 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447248/trophoblastic-micrornas-are-downregulated-in-a-diabetic-pregnancy-through-an-inhibition-of-drosha
#19
S Mareike Pendzialek, Julia M Knelangen, Maria Schindler, Jacqueline Guerke, Katarzyna J Grybel, Elen Gocza, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
MicroRNAs are promising biological markers for prenatal diagnosis. They regulate placental development and are present in maternal plasma. Maternal metabolic diseases are major risk factors for placental deterioration. We analysed the influence of a maternal insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on microRNA expression in maternal plasma and in blastocysts employing an in vivo rabbit diabetic pregnancy model and an in vitro embryo culture in hyperglycaemic and hypoinsulinaemic medium. Maternal diabetes led to a marked downregulation of Dicer protein in embryoblast cells and Drosha protein in trophoblast cells...
November 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447247/male-mammary-gland-development-and-methylation-status-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-wistar-rats-are-modified-by-the-developmental-exposure-to-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide
#20
Ayelen L Gomez, Gabriela A Altamirano, Jorgelina Leturia, Verónica L Bosquiazzo, Mónica Muñoz-de-Toro, Laura Kass
Postnatal treatment with glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) induces endocrine-disrupting effects on the male rat mammary gland. In this study, the effects of developmental exposure to GBH on mammary gland growth and development, and the possible molecular mechanisms involved, were evaluated in pre- and post-pubertal male rats. To this end, pregnant rats were orally exposed through the food to 0, 3.5 or 350 mg GBH/kg bw/day from gestational day 9 until weaning. Mammary gland development and estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) serum levels of male offspring were evaluated on postnatal day (PND)21 and PND60...
November 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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