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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050862/jak-stat-signaling-pathway-gene-expression-is-reduced-following-nelf-knockdown-in-gnrh-neurons
#1
Eun Kyung Ko, Lynn P Chorich, Megan E Sullivan, Richard S Cameron, Lawrence C Layman
Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is crucial for the proper function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, subsequent puberty, and reproduction. When GnRH neuron migration or GnRH regulation is impaired, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results. Mutations in the gene for nasal embryonic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (NELF) have been identified in GnRH-deficient humans. NELF is a predominantly nuclear protein that may participate in gene transcription, but the genes NELF regulates are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042251/effects-of-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-syndecan-4-on-the-insulin-secretory-response-in-a-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-line-min6
#2
Iwao Takahashi, Shuhei Yamada, Koji Nata
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) comprise a core protein to which extracellular glycosaminoglycan chains are attached. Syndecan-4, one of the major HS-containing core proteins, is distributed on the cell surface, where they interact with various protein ligands and regulate a wide range of biological activities. Here, we propose that the core protein of HSPGs is involved in the insulin secretory response. To investigate the participation of HSPGs in the insulin-secretion mechanism, MIN6 cells, a mouse pancreatic β-cell line, were subcloned...
October 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024782/dysregulation-of-%C3%AE-4-3-oxosteroid-5%C3%AE-reductase-in-diabetic-patients-implications-and-mechanisms
#3
Leila Valanejad, Mwlod Ghareeb, Stephanie Shiffka, Christina Nadolny, Yuan Chen, Liangran Guo, Ruchi Verma, Sangmin You, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Ruitang Deng
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member D1 (AKR1D1) is a Δ(4)-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase required for bile acid synthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. Both bile acids and steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids, play important roles in regulating body metabolism and energy expenditure. Currently, our understanding on AKR1D1 regulation and its roles in metabolic diseases is limited. We found that AKR1D1 expression was markedly repressed in diabetic patients. Consistent with repressed AKR1D1 expression, hepatic bile acids were significantly reduced in diabetic patients...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024781/the-role-of-androgen-receptors-in-atherosclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Kaloyan Takov, Junxi Wu, Martin A Denvir, Lee B Smith, Patrick W F Hadoke
Male disadvantage in cardiovascular health is well recognised. However, the influence of androgens on atherosclerosis, one of the major causes of many life-threatening cardiovascular events, is not well understood. With the dramatic increase in clinical prescription of testosterone in the past decade, concerns about the cardiovascular side-effects of androgen supplementation or androgen deprivation therapy are increasing. Potential atheroprotective effects of testosterone could be secondary to (aromatase-mediated) conversion into oestradiol or, alternatively, to direct activation of androgen receptors (AR)...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993239/regulation-of-nadph-oxidase-nox4-by-delta-iodolactone-il-%C3%AE-in-thyroid-cancer-cells
#5
Thomasz Lisa, Romina Oglio, Leonardo Salvarredi, Marina Perona, Luciano Rossich, Silvia Copelli, Mario Pisarev, Guillermo Juvenal
INTRODUCTION: Iodine is not used only by the thyroid to synthesize thyroid hormones but also directly influences a number of thyroid parameters such as thyroid proliferation and function. Several iodinated lipids, biosynthesized by the thyroid, were postulated as intermediaries in the action of iodide. Among these, iodolactone (IL-δ) and 2-iodohexadecanal (2-IHDA) have shown to inhibit several thyroid parameters. The antiproliferative effect of IL-δ is not restricted to the thyroid gland...
October 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987815/authors-response-to-communication-about-mathematical-modeling-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-signaling
#6
LETTER
Amitesh Pratap, Kathryn L Garner, Margaritis Voliotis, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Craig A McArdle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987814/mathematical-modeling-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-signaling
#7
LETTER
George Fink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986302/activation-of-nrf2-might-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-human-granulosa-cells
#8
Nana Akino, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Hiromi Terao, Harunori Honjoh, Wataru Isono, Houju Fu, Mana Hirano, Yuichiro Miyamoto, Michihiro Tanikawa, Miyuki Harada, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasushi Hirota, Kaori Koga, Katsutoshi Oda, Kei Kawana, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is one of the most important defense mechanisms against oxidative stress (OS). It is well documented that equilibration status of OS plays fundamental roles in human reproductive medicine, and the physiological role of Nrf2 in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) has not been determined yet. Herein we aimed to study the function of Nrf2 in GCs. Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry to localize Nrf2 and Keap1 and we detected the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in the human GCs...
October 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986304/molecular-profiles-of-oxyphilic-and-chief-cell-parathyroid-adenoma
#9
Ming Lu, Hanna Kjellin, Omid Fotouhi, Linkiat Lee, Inga-Lena Nilsson, Felix Haglund, Anders Höög, Janne Lehtiö, Catharina Larsson
CONTEXT: Parathyroid adenomas may be composed of chief cells (conventional or water-clear), oxyphilic cells or a mixture of both cells. The molecular background is rarely studied. OBJECTIVE: To molecularly characterize parathyroid adenomas of different cell type composition. DESIGN: Chief and oxyphilic cell adenomas were compared in a cohort of 664 sporadic cases. Extensive analyses of parathyroid tissues were performed in subgroup. Gene expressions of known parathyroid-related genes were quantified by qRT-PCR...
October 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986303/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-can-selectively-stimulate-glucose-uptake-in-corticotropinoma-via-glucose-transporter-1
#10
Jie Lu, Blake K Montgomery, Grégoire P Chatain, Alejandro Bugarini, Qi Zhang, Xiang Wang, Nancy A Edwards, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Marsha J Merrill, Russell R Lonser, Prashant Chittiboina
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative detection of corticotropin (ACTH) secreting microadenomas causing Cushing's disease (CD) improves surgical outcomes. Current best magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect up to 40% of these microadenomas. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is specific, but not sensitive in detecting corticotropinomas. Theoretically, secretagogue stimulation with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) could improve detection of adenomas with (18)F-FDG PET...
October 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965973/menin-loss-as-a-tissue-specific-driver-of-tumorigenesis
#11
REVIEW
Janet W Y Li, Xianxin Hua, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, Brian R Untch
The MEN1 gene encodes MENIN, a tumor suppressor that plays a role in multiple cellular processes. Germline and somatic mutations in MEN1 have been identified in hereditary and sporadic tumors of neuroendocrine origins suggesting context-specific functions. In this review, we focus on the development of mutational Men1 in vivo models, the known cellular activities of MENIN and efforts to identify vulnerabilities in tumors with MENIN loss.
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965972/estrogen-induced-transcription-factor-egr1-regulates-c-kit-transcription-in-the-mouse-uterus-to-maintain-uterine-receptivity-for-embryo-implantation
#12
Mira Park, Hye-Ryun Kim, Yeon Sun Kim, Seung Chel Yang, Jung Ah Yoon, Sang Woo Lyu, Hyunjung Jade Lim, Seok-Ho Hong, Haengseok Song
Early growth response 1 (Egr1) is a key transcription factor that mediates the action of estrogen (E2) to establish uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. However, few direct target genes of EGR1 have been identified in the uterus. Here, we demonstrated that E2 induced EGR1-regulated transcription of c-Kit, which plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions. Spatiotemporal expression of c-Kit followed that of EGR1 in uteri of ovariectomized mice at various time points after E2 treatment. E2 activated ERK1/2 and p38 to induce EGR1, which then activated c-Kit expression in the uterus...
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962892/effects-of-metformin-on-cell-growth-and-ampk-activity-in-pituitary-adenoma-cell-cultures-focusing-on-the-interaction-with-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-signals
#13
Lara Faggi, Andrea Giustina, Giovanni Tulipano
For a few years we have been investigating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a target for drug therapy of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of metformin, which causes AMPK activation in different cell types, on rat pituitary adenoma cell growth and on related cell signalling pathways. Our results suggest that metformin can exert a growth-inhibitory activity in rat pituitary tumor cells mediated by AMPK activation, although multiple mechanisms are most likely involved...
September 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962894/sympathetic-innervation-is-essential-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-in-adult-rats
#14
REVIEW
Kelly V Prates, Júlio C de Oliveira, Ananda Malta, Camila C I Matiusso, Rosiane A Miranda, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Flávio A Francisco, Claudinéia C S Franco, Veridiana M Moreira, Vander S Alves, Rosana Torrezan, Paulo C F Mathias, Luiz F Barella
Obesity is associated with an imbalance in the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), specifically in the organs involved in energy metabolism. The pancreatic islets are richly innervated by the ANS, which tunes the insulin release due to changes in energy demand. Therefore, changes in the sympathetic input that reach the pancreas can lead to metabolic dysfunctions. To evaluate the role of the sympathetic ends that innervate the pancreas, 60-day-old male Wistar rats were subjected to sympathectomy (SYM) or were sham-operated (SO)...
September 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962893/the-increase-in-fiber-size-in-male-rat-gastrocnemius-after-chronic-central-leptin-infusion-is-related-to-activation-of-insulin-signaling
#15
Emma Burgos-Ramos, Sandra Canelles, Amaia Rodríguez, Laura M Frago, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Julie A Chowen, Gema Frühbeck, Jesús Argente, Vicente Barrios
Insulin potentiates leptin effects on muscle accrual and glucose homeostasis. However, the relationship between leptin's central effects on peripheral insulin sensitivity and the associated structural changes remain unclear. We hypothesized that central leptin infusion modifies muscle size through activation of insulin signaling. Muscle insulin signaling, enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fiber area were analyzed in the gastrocnemius of chronic central infused (L), pair-fed (PF) and control rats...
September 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943276/detection-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-by-elite-athletes-and-by-members-of-the-general-public
#16
REVIEW
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943275/mifepristone-enhances-insulin-stimulated-akt-phosphorylation-and-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#17
Izela Bernal-Sore, Mario Navarro-Marquez, César Osorio-Fuentealba, Francisco Díaz-Castro, Andrea Del Campo, Camila Donoso-Barraza, Omar Porras, Sergio Lavandero, Rodrigo Troncoso
Mifepristone is the only FDA-approved drug for glycaemia control in patients with Cushing's syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mifepristone also has beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes and patients with antipsychotic treatment-induced obesity. However, the mechanisms through which Mifepristone produces its beneficial effects are not completely elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of mifepristone on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on a model of L6 rat-derived skeletal muscle cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942102/skov3-cells-containing-a-truncated-arid1a-protein-have-a-restricted-genome-wide-response-to-glucocorticoids
#18
F E Stubbs, M T Birnie, S C Biddie, S L Lightman, B L Conway-Campbell
AT-rich interacting domain subunit 1a (ARID1a) is an essential SWI/SNF component frequently mutated in human cancers. ARID1a mutations have also been associated with glucocorticoid resistance, potentially related to the well-established role of the SWI/SNF complex in glucocorticoid target gene regulation. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones important for regulating many physiological processes through the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). As GR interacts directly with ARID1a, we hypothesized that a truncating ARID mutation would interfere with GR-dependent gene regulation...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939401/inefficient-ugt-conjugation-of-adrenal-11%C3%AE-hydroxyandrostenedione-metabolites-highlights-c11-oxy-c19-steroids-as-the-predominant-androgens-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Therina du Toit, Amanda C Swart
Although the adrenal C19 steroids, androstenedione and testosterone, contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) progression the full complement of adrenal androgens, including the C11-oxy C19 steroids, 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) and 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11OHT) and their androgenic metabolites, 11keto-testosterone (11KT) and 11keto-dihydrotestosterone (11KDHT) have, to date, not been considered. This study investigated the contribution of 11OHA4 and 11OHT to the pool of active androgens in the prostate...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935545/integrated-molecular-analysis-of-tamoxifen-resistant-invasive-lobular-breast-cancer-cells-identifies-mapk-and-grm-mglur-signaling-as-therapeutic-vulnerabilities
#20
REVIEW
Hillary Stires, Mary M Heckler, Xiaoyong Fu, Zhao Li, Catherine S Grasso, Michael J Quist, Joseph A Lewis, Uwe Klimach, Alan Zwart, Akanksha Mahajan, Balázs Győrffy, Luciane R Cavalli, Rebecca B Riggins
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is an understudied malignancy with distinct clinical, pathological, and molecular features that distinguish it from the more common invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Mounting evidence suggests that estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER+) ILC has a poor response to Tamoxifen (TAM), but the mechanistic drivers of this are undefined. In the current work, we comprehensively characterize the SUM44/LCCTam ILC cell model system through integrated analysis of gene expression, copy number, and mutation, with the goal of identifying actionable alterations relevant to clinical ILC that can be co-targeted along with ER to improve treatment outcomes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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