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Microbial Ecology

Cintia P J Rua, Louisi S de Oliveira, Adriana Froes, Diogo A Tschoeke, Ana Carolina Soares, Luciana Leomil, Gustavo B Gregoracci, Ricardo Coutinho, Eduardo Hajdu, Cristiane C Thompson, Roberto G S Berlinck, Fabiano L Thompson
Marine sponge holobionts harbor complex microbial communities whose members may be the true producers of secondary metabolites accumulated by sponges. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a typical class of secondary metabolites isolated from sponges that very often display biological activities. Bromine incorporation into secondary metabolites can be catalyzed by either halogenases or haloperoxidases. The diversity of the metagenomes of sponge holobiont species containing bromopyrrole alkaloids (Agelas spp. and Tedania brasiliensis) as well as holobionts devoid of bromopyrrole alkaloids spanning in a vast biogeographic region (approx...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Sunghyun Kim, Jiyoung Kang, J Patrick Megonigal, Hojeong Kang, Jooyoung Seo, Weixin Ding
The rapid expansion of Phragmites australis in brackish marshes of the East Coast of the USA has drawn much attention, because it may change vegetation diversity and ecosystem functions. In particular, higher primary production of Phragmites than that of other native species such as Spartina patens and Schoenoplectus americanus has been noted, suggesting possible changes in carbon storage potential in salt marshes. To better understand the long-term effect of the invasion of Phragmites on carbon storage, however, information on decomposition rates of soil organic matter is essential...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Kunal Jani, Dhiraj Dhotre, Jayashree Bandal, Yogesh Shouche, Mangesh Suryavanshi, Vinay Rale, Avinash Sharma
Kumbh Mela is one of the largest religious mass gathering events (MGE) involving bathing in rivers. The exponential rise in the number of devotees, from around 0.4 million in 1903 to 120 million in 2013, bathing in small specified sites can have a dramatic impact on the river ecosystem. Here, we present the spatiotemporal profiling of bacterial communities in Godavari River, Nashik, India, comprising five sites during the Kumbh Mela, held in 2015. Assessment of environmental parameters indicated deterioration of water quality...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Marco Tasin, Sebastian Larsson Herrera, Alan L Knight, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes Contreras, Ilaria Pertot
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt...
March 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Jane Ludvigsen, Gro V Amdam, Knut Rudi, Trine M L'Abée-Lund
Use of antibiotics in medicine and farming contributes to increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in diverse environments. The ability of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to transfer between bacteria genera contributes to this spread. It is difficult to directly link antibiotic exposure to the spread of ARG in a natural environment where environmental settings and study populations cannot be fully controlled. We used managed honeybees in environments with contrasting streptomycin exposure (USA: high exposure, Norway: low exposure) and mapped the prevalence and spread of transferrable streptomycin resistance genes...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Dawen Gao, Yu Tao, Yuan Fu, Hong Liang
Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. They have significant influences on both aquatic/terrestrial ecosystem and anthropogenic activities. Taking advantage of the governing features of selective stress (Tan and Ng in Water Res 42:1122-1132, 2008; Wei in Water Res 45:863-871, 2011; Dereli in Water Res 59C:11-22, 2014), the evenness of microbial communities in a membrane-centered mesocosm was successfully manipulated. By measuring the biofilm growing rates under different evenness levels of communities, an evenly distributed community favors the formation of biofilms was observed...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Adriano Evandir Marchello, Alexsandro Claudino Dos Santos, Ana Teresa Lombardi, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Graziela Cristina Montanhim
Mixotrophy is a metabolic strategy in which an organism is autotrophic and heterotrophic simultaneously. Considering that the aquatic environment provides several organic sources of carbon, it is probably common for microalgae to perform mixotrophy and not only photoautotrophy, but little is known about microalgae mixotrophy. The present work aimed at investigating the growth, photosynthetic activity, morphology, and biochemical composition of the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana in mixotrophic and photo-mixotrophic conditions, comparing it with photoautotrophy...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Omar Federico Ordoñez, María Cecilia Rasuk, Mariana Noelia Soria, Manuel Contreras, María Eugenia Farías
Biofilms, microbial mats, and microbialites dwell under highly limiting conditions (high salinity, extreme aridity, pH, and elevated arsenic concentration) in the Andean Puna. Only recent pioneering studies have described the microbial diversity of different Altiplano lakes and revealed their unexpectedly diverse microbial communities. Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism to obtain energy by microorganisms. Members of Bacteria and Archaea are able to exploit arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Kiran R Gadhave, Paul F Devlin, Andreas Ebertz, Arabella Ross, Alan C Gange
The use of microbial inoculants containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a promoter of plant fitness and health is becoming increasingly popular in agriculture. However, whether and how these bacteria affect indigenous bacterial communities in field conditions is sparsely explored. We studied the effects of seed inoculation and field soil application of ubiquitous soil bacteria, B. cereus, B. subtilis, and B. amyloliquefaciens, on the diversity, evenness, and richness of endophytic bacterial communities in sprouting broccoli roots using high-throughput metagenome sequencing...
March 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Riley E Steele, Nawaf A Nasser, R Timothy Patterson, Braden R B Gregory, Helen M Roe, Eduard G Reinhardt
Arcellinida (testate lobose amoebae), a group of benthic protists, were examined from 46 sediment-water interface samples collected from oligotrophic Oromocto Lake, New Brunswick, Canada. To assess (1) assemblage homogeneity at a sub-meter spatial scale and (2) the necessity for collecting samples from multiple stations during intra-lake surveys; multiple samples were collected from three stations (quadrats 1, 2, and 3) across the north basin of Oromocto Lake, with quadrat 1 (n = 16) being the furthest to the west, quadrat 2 (n = 15) situated closer to the center of the basin, and quadrat 3 (n = 15) positioned 300 m south of the mouth of Dead Brook, an inlet stream...
March 4, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Chuan Wang, Shuangyuan Liu, Yi Zhang, Biyun Liu, Feng He, Dong Xu, Qiaohong Zhou, Zhenbin Wu
Submerged vegetation biomass fluctuation usually occurs during the preliminary stage of vegetation restoration in shallow lakes, which impacts the final status and duration for achieving a macrophyte-dominant state. This study uncovered the sediment N characteristics and the sediment bacterial community and their predicted functions during the preliminary stage of vegetation recovery in the West Lake, a typical subtropical degenerated shallow lake in China. Results showed increased amounts of sediment TN and NH4 -N, reaching 3425...
March 3, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Teresa Gomes, José Alberto Pereira, Jacinto Benhadi, Teresa Lino-Neto, Paula Baptista
The diversity and factors influencing fungal assemblages in phyllosphere of Mediterranean tree species have been barely studied, especially when endophytic and epiphytic communities are simultaneously considered. In this work, the endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities from olive tree phyllosphere were studied. This tree species is natural from the Mediterranean region and adapted to grow under adverse climatic conditions. The main objectives were to determine whether there are differences between both fungal communities and to examine whether different abiotic (climate-related) and biotic (plant organs) factors play a pivotal role in structuring these communities...
March 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Dawn E Holmes, Roberto Orelana, Ludovic Giloteaux, Li-Ying Wang, Pravin Shrestha, Kenneth Williams, Derek R Lovley, Amelia-Elena Rotaru
Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcrA) transcripts during an acetate-injection field experiment demonstrated that acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosarcina were enriched after 40 days of acetate amendment. The increased abundance of Methanosarcina corresponded with an accumulation of methane in the groundwater...
March 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Yaling Zhang, Manyun Zhang, Li Tang, Rongxiao Che, Hong Chen, Tim Blumfield, Sue Boyd, Mone Nouansyvong, Zhihong Xu
Harvest residues contain large stores of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in forest plantations. Decomposing residues can release labile C and N into soil and thus provide substrates for soil bacterial communities. Previous studies showed that residue retention could increase soil C and N pools and activate bacterial communities in the short term (≤ 10 years). The current study examined the effects of a long-term (19-year) harvest residue retention on soil total and water and hot water extractable C and N pools, as well as bacterial communities via Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
March 1, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Mathias Lenaers, Wouter Reyns, Jan Czech, Robert Carleer, Indranil Basak, Wim Deferme, Patrycja Krupinska, Talha Yildiz, Sherilyn Saro, Tony Remans, Jaco Vangronsveld, Frederik De Laender, Francois Rineau
Comprehending the decomposition process is crucial for our understanding of the mechanisms of carbon (C) sequestration in soils. The decomposition of plant biomass has been extensively studied. It revealed that extrinsic biomass properties that restrict its access to decomposers influence decomposition more than intrinsic ones that are only related to its chemical structure. Fungal biomass has been much less investigated, even though it contributes to a large extent to soil organic matter, and is characterized by specific biochemical properties...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Sina Schorn, Heribert Cypionka
Achromatium is the largest freshwater bacterium known to date and easily recognised by conspicuous calcite bodies filling the cell volume. Members of this genus are highly abundant in diverse aquatic sediments and may account for up to 90% of the bacterial biovolume in the oxic-anoxic interfaces. The high abundance implies that Achromatium is either rapidly growing or hardly prone to predation. As Achromatium is still uncultivated and does not appear to grow fast, one could assume that the cells might escape predation by their unusual shape and composition...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Ecology
James Skelton, Michelle A Jusino, You Li, Craig Bateman, Pham Hong Thai, Chengxu Wu, Daniel L Lindner, Jiri Hulcr
Separating symbioses from incidental associations is a major obstacle in symbiosis research. In this survey of fungi associated with Asian bark and ambrosia beetles, we used quantitative culture and DNA barcode identification to characterize fungal communities associated with co-infesting beetle species in pines (Pinus) of China and Vietnam. To quantitatively discern likely symbioses from coincidental associations, we used multivariate analysis and multilevel pattern analysis (a type of indicator species analysis)...
February 24, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Margarita Stritzler, Gabriela Soto, Nicolás Ayub
There are increasing evidences that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a critical mechanism of bacterial evolution, while its complete impact remains unclear. A main constraint of HGT effects on microbial evolution seems to be the conservation of the function of the horizontally transferred genes. From this perspective, inflexible nomenclature and functionality criteria have been established for some mobile genetic elements such as pathogenic and symbiotic islands. Adhesion is a universal prerequisite for both beneficial and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, and thus, adhesion systems (e...
February 23, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Daniel F R Cleary, Ana R M Polónia, Nicole J de Voogd
Marine lakes are small bodies of landlocked seawater that are isolated from the open sea and have been shown to house numerous rare and unique taxa. The environmental conditions of the lakes are also characterised by lower pH and salinity and higher temperatures than generally found in the open sea. In the present study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach and a predictive metagenomic approach (PICRUSt) to examine bacterial composition and function in three distinct biotopes (sediment, water and the sponge species Biemna fortis) in three habitats (two marine lakes and the open sea) of the Berau reef system, Indonesia...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Adriana Cabal, Se-Ran Jun, Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Visanu Wanchai, Intawat Nookaew, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mary J Burgess, Atul Kothari, Trudy M Wassenaar, David W Ussery
Infections due to Clostridioides difficile (previously known as Clostridium difficile) are a major problem in hospitals, where cases can be caused by community-acquired strains as well as by nosocomial spread. Whole genome sequences from clinical samples contain a lot of information but that needs to be analyzed and compared in such a way that the outcome is useful for clinicians or epidemiologists. Here, we compare 663 public available complete genome sequences of C. difficile using average amino acid identity (AAI) scores...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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