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Microbial Ecology

Elias Broman, Lingni Li, Jimmy Fridlund, Fredrik Svensson, Catherine Legrand, Mark Dopson
Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively...
July 17, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sayantan Banerjee, Ojasvi Mehta, Jyoti Verma, Mayanka Dayal, Anbumani Desigamani, Pawan Kumar, Bipasa Saha, Saurabh Kedia, Vineet Ahuja, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Bhabatosh Das
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial species that resides in complex ecosystems is a natural phenomenon. Indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in healthcare, livestock, and agriculture provides an evolutionary advantage to the resistant variants to dominate the ecosystem. Ascendency of resistant variants threatens the efficacy of most, if not all, of the antimicrobial drugs commonly used to prevent and/or cure microbial infections. Resistant phenotype is very common in enteric bacteria. The most common mechanisms of AMR are enzymatic modifications to the antimicrobials or their target molecules...
July 16, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Victoria Miranda, Carolina Rothen, Natalia Yela, Adriana Aranda-Rickert, Johana Barros, Javier Calcagno, Sebastián Fracchia
Subterranean rodents are considered major soil engineers, as they can locally modify soil properties by their burrowing activities. In this study, the effect of a subterranean rodent of the genus Ctenomys on soil properties and root endophytic fungal propagules in a shrub desert of northwest Argentina was examined. Our main goal was to include among root endophytic fungi not only arbuscular mycorrhiza but also the dark septate endophytes. We compared the abundance of fungal propagules as well as several microbiological and physicochemical parameters between soils from burrows and those from the surrounding landscape...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
William L King, Cheryl Jenkins, Jeffrey Go, Nachshon Siboni, Justin R Seymour, Maurizio Labbate
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is a key commercial species that is cultivated globally. In recent years, disease outbreaks have heavily impacted C. gigas stocks worldwide, with many losses incurred during summer. A number of infectious agents have been associated with these summer mortality events, including viruses (particularly Ostreid herpesvirus 1, OsHV-1) and bacteria; however, cases where no known aetiological agent can be identified are common. In this study, we examined the microbiome of disease-affected and disease-unaffected C...
July 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Patrick J Kearns, Ashley N Bulseco-McKim, Helen Hoyt, John H Angell, Jennifer L Bowen
Enrichment of ecosystems with excess nutrients is occurring at an alarming rate and has fundamentally altered ecosystems worldwide. Salt marshes, which lie at the land-sea interface, are highly effective at removing anthropogenic nutrients through the action of macrophytes and through microbial processes in coastal sediments. The response of salt marsh bacteria to excess nitrogen has been documented; however, the role of fungi and their response to excess nitrogen in salt marsh sediments is not fully understood...
July 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
María J Ferrándiz, María I Cercenado, Miriam Domenech, José M Tirado-Vélez, María S Escolano-Martínez, Jose Yuste, Ernesto García, Adela G de la Campa, Antonio J Martín-Galiano
Proteins belonging to the Gls24 superfamily are involved in survival of pathogenic Gram-positive cocci under oligotrophic conditions and other types of stress, by a still unknown molecular mechanism. In Firmicutes, this superfamily includes three different valine-rich orthologal families (Gls24A, B, C) with different potential interactive partners. Whereas the Streptococcus pneumoniae Δgls24A deletion mutant experienced a general long growth delay, the Δgls24B mutant grew as the parental strain in the semisynthetic AGCH medium but failed to grow in the complex Todd-Hewitt medium...
July 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Mattia Pierangelini, Karin Glaser, Tatiana Mikhailyuk, Ulf Karsten, Andreas Holzinger
Streptophyte algae are the ancestors of land plants, and several classes contain taxa that are adapted to an aero-terrestrial lifestyle. In this study, four basal terrestrial streptophytes from the class Klebsormidiophyceae, including Hormidiella parvula; two species of the newly described genus Streptosarcina (S. costaricana and S. arenaria); and the newly described Streptofilum capillatum were investigated for their responses to radiation, desiccation and temperature stress conditions. All the strains showed low-light adaptation (Ik  < 70 μmol photons m-2  s-1 ) but differed in photoprotective capacities (such as non-photochemical quenching)...
July 4, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Marta Nesvorna, Vaclav Bittner, Jan Hubert
The effect of short-term nutrient deprivation was studied in five populations of the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae with different microbiomes. The fresh weight, nutrient status, respiration, and population growth of the mites were observed for the five mite population-scale samples. The starvation caused the larvae and nymphs to be eliminated, resulting in a significant increase in the fresh weight of starved adult specimens. Three populations were negatively influenced by starvation, and the starved specimens were characterized by a decrease in nutrient status, respiration, and population growth...
July 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Fanshu Xiao, Yonghong Bi, Xinghao Li, Jie Huang, Yuhe Yu, Zhicai Xie, Tao Fang, Xiuyun Cao, Zhili He, Philippe Juneau, Qingyun Yan
Bacterioplankton are both primary producers and primary consumers in aquatic ecosystems, which were commonly investigated to reflect environmental changes, evaluate primary productivity, and assess biogeochemical cycles. However, there is relatively less understanding of their responses to anthropogenic disturbances such as constructions of dams/tunnels/roads that may significantly affect the aquatic ecosystem. To fill such gap, this study focused on the bacterioplankton communities' diversity and turnover during a tunnel construction across an urban lake (Lake Donghu, Wuhan, China), and five batches of samples were collected within 2 months according to the tunnel construction progress...
June 27, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Shoyo Sakoda, Kana Aisu, Hiroki Imagami, Yosuke Matsuda
Various bacteria are associated with ectomycorrhizal roots, which are symbiotic complexes formed between plant roots and fungi. Among these associated bacteria, actinomycetes have received attention for their ubiquity and diverse roles in forest ecosystems. Here, to examine the association of actinomycetes with ectomycorrhizal root tips, we compared the bacterial and actinomycete communities on the surface and inside of root tips of coastal Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) colonized by the fungus Cenococcum geophilum...
June 26, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Hiroshi Arai, Tatsuya Hirano, Naoya Akizuki, Akane Abe, Madoka Nakai, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue
Endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia interacts with host in either a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Wolbachia is frequently identified in various arthropod species, and to date, Wolbachia infections have been detected in different insects. Here, we found a triple Wolbachia infection in Homona magnanima, a serious tea pest, and investigated the effects of three infecting Wolbachia strains (wHm-a, -b, and -c) on the host. Starting with the triple-infected host line (Wabc ), which was collected in western Tokyo in 1999 and maintained in laboratory, we established an uninfected line (W- ) and three singly infected lines (Wa , Wb , and Wc ) using antibiotics...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Iris Schaub, Christel Baum, Rhena Schumann, Ulf Karsten
Early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs), a consortium of bacteria, cyanobacteria, and other microalgae, are one of the first settlement stages on temperate coastal sand dunes. In this study, we investigated the algal biomass (Chlorophyll a (Chl a)), algal (Calgal ) and microbial carbon (Cmic ), elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P), and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity (AcidPA and AlkPA) of two algae-dominated BSCs from a coastal white dune (northeast Germany, on the southwestern Baltic Sea) which differed in the exposure to wind forces...
June 20, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Wahida Ghiloufi, Juyoung Seo, Jinhyun Kim, Mohamed Chaieb, Hojeong Kang
Arid ecosystems constitute 41% of land's surface and play an important role in global carbon cycle. In particular, biological soil crusts (BSC) are known to be a hotspot of carbon fixation as well as mineralization in arid ecosystems. However, little information is available on carbon decomposition and microbes in BSC and key controlling variables for microbial activities in arid ecosystems. The current study, carried out in South Mediterranean arid ecosystem, aimed to evaluate the effects of intact and removed cyanobacteria/lichen crusts on soil properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial abundances (bacteria and fungi)...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Fábio José Inforsato, Quimi Vidaurre Montoya, Bruna Gomes Rossin, Nadia Regina Nascimento, André Rodrigues, Lara Durães Sette
Extreme environments such as the Antarctic can lead to the discovery of new microbial taxa, as well as to new microbial-derived natural products. Considering that little is known yet about the diversity and the genetic resources present in these habitats, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the fungal communities from extreme environments collected at Aldmiralty Bay (Antarctica). A total of 891 and 226 isolates was obtained from soil and marine sediment samples, respectively. The most abundant isolates from soil samples were representatives of the genera Leucosporidium, Pseudogymnoascus, and a non-identified Ascomycota NIA6...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Li'an Lin, Wenwen Liu, Manping Zhang, Xiaolan Lin, Yihui Zhang, Yun Tian
In the southernmost part of coast of China, two height forms of Spartina alterniflora, tall and short, have invaded Leizhou Peninsula within the last decade. However, the effect of different height forms of Spartina alterniflora on plant-microbe interaction has not been clarified. Here, the community structures of rhizosphere bacteria and the abundance of N- and S-cycling functional genes associated with selected S. alterniflora were investigated in the field and a common garden. The community structure of tall-form S...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Casper N Kamutando, Surendra Vikram, Gilbert Kamgan-Nkuekam, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Michelle Greve, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Don A Cowan, Angel Valverde
Plant-microbe interactions mediate both the invasiveness of introduced plant species and the impacts that they have in invaded ecosystems. Although the phylogenetic composition of the rhizospheric microbiome of Acacia dealbata (an invasive Australian tree species) has been investigated, little is known about the functional potential of the constituents of these altered microbial communities. We used shotgun DNA sequencing to better understand the link between bacterial community composition and functional capacity in the rhizospheric microbiomes associated with invasive A...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Charles J Mason, Alexander M Campbell, Erin D Scully, Kelli Hoover
Microbial symbionts play pivotal roles in the ecology and physiology of insects feeding in woody plants. Both eukaryotic and bacterial members occur in these systems where they facilitate digestive and nutrient provisioning. The larval gut of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is associated with a microbial consortium that fulfills these metabolic roles. While members of the community vary in presence and abundance among individuals from different hosts, A. glabripennis is consistently associated with a fungus in the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC)...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Jim Maki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Maria Väisänen, Konstantin Gavazov, Eveline J Krab, Ellen Dorrepaal
Warming-induced increases in microbial CO2 release in northern tundra may positively feedback to climate change. However, shifts in microbial extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) may alter the impacts of warming over the longer term. We investigated the in situ effects of 3 years of winter warming in combination with the in vitro effects of a rapid warming (6 days) on microbial CO2 release and EEAs in a subarctic tundra heath after snowmelt in spring. Winter warming did not change microbial CO2 release at ambient (10 °C) or at rapidly increased temperatures, i...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Ivan S Mikhailov, Yulia R Zakharova, Yuri S Bukin, Yuri P Galachyants, Darya P Petrova, Maria V Sakirko, Yelena V Likhoshway
The pelagic zone of Lake Baikal is an ecological niche where phytoplankton bloom causes increasing microbial abundance in spring which plays a key role in carbon turnover in the freshwater lake. Co-occurrence patterns revealed among different microbes can be applied to predict interactions between the microbes and environmental conditions in the ecosystem. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes to study bacterial and microbial eukaryotic communities and their co-occurrence patterns at the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal during a spring phytoplankton bloom...
June 7, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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