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Microbial Ecology

Rachele Bernasconi, Michael Stat, Annette Koenders, Megan J Huggett
Scleractinian corals form the framework of coral reefs and host abundant and diverse microbial communities that are fundamental to their success. A very limited number of studies have examined the co-occurrence of multiple partners within the coral 'holobiont' and their pattern of specificity over different geographical scales. In this study, we explored two molecular sequence datasets representing associations between corals and dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium and between corals and bacteria, across the globe...
September 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Smritikana Biswas, Prithwiraj Mukherjee, Tuhin Manna, Kunal Dutta, Kartik Chandra Guchhait, Amit Karmakar, Monalisha Karmakar, Parimal Dua, Amiya Kumar Panda, Chandradipa Ghosh
Vibrio cholerae, the Gram-negative bacterium causing lethal diarrheal disease cholera, forms biofilm on solid surfaces to gain adaptive advantage for successful survival in aquatic reservoirs. Expression of exopolysaccharide (EPS), an extracellular matrix material, has been found critical for biofilm-based environmental persistence. In a subset of epidemic-causing V. cholerae, absence of flagellum but not motility was identified to induce elevated exopolysaccharide expression. Identification of the role played by quorum sensing autoinducer molecules, i...
September 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
Variation in environmental conditions can result in disparate associations between hosts and microbial symbionts. As such, it is imperative to evaluate how environmental variables (e.g., habitat quality) can influence host-associated microbiome composition. Within wildlife conservation programs, captive conditions can negatively influence the establishment and maintenance of "wild-type" microbiotas within a host. Alternative microbial communities can result in the proliferation of disease among captive stock or upon reintroduction...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
B S Manjunatha, Sangeeta Paul, Chetana Aggarwal, S Bandeppa, V Govindasamy, Ajinath S Dukare, Maheshwar S Rathi, C T Satyavathi, K Annapurna
Genetic and functional diversity of osmotolerant bacterial endophytes colonizing the root, stem, and leaf tissues of pearl millet genotypes differing in their drought susceptibility was assessed. Two genotypes of pearl millet, viz., the drought tolerant genotype TT-1 and the drought susceptible genotype PPMI-69, were used in the present study. Diazotrophs were found to be the predominant colonizers, followed by the Gram positive bacteria in most of the tissues of both the genotypes. Higher proportion of bacterial endophytes obtained from the drought tolerant genotype was found to be osmotolerant...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Aicha Asma Houfani, Tomáš Větrovský, Oscar U Navarrete, Martina Štursová, Vojtěch Tláskal, Robert G Beiko, Nawel Boucherba, Petr Baldrian, Said Benallaoua, Milko A Jorquera
Soil microorganisms are important mediators of carbon cycling in nature. Although cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading bacteria have been isolated from Algerian ecosystems, the information on the composition of soil bacterial communities and thus the potential of their members to decompose plant residues is still limited. The objective of the present study was to describe and compare the bacterial community composition in Algerian soils (crop, forest, garden, and desert) and the activity of cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Abid Ullah, Adnan Akbar, Qingqing Luo, Aamir Hamid Khan, Hakim Manghwar, Muhammad Shaban, Xiyan Yang
Climate change contributes to drought stress and subsequently affects crop growth, development, and yield. The microbial community, such as fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere, is of special importance to plant productivity. In this study, soil collected from a cotton research field was used to grow cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Jin668) under controlled environment conditions. Drought stress was applied at flowering stage, while control plants were regularly watered. At the same time, the soil without plants was also subjected to drought, while control pots were regularly watered...
September 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Joanna Stańczak, Stella Cieniuch, Edyta Podsiadły, Tomasz Postawa, Jerzy Michalik
The original version of this article published online (27 August 2018) unfortunately contained a mistake regarding an affiliation of Dr. Edyta Podsiadły, one of the authors.
September 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Ales Eichmeier, Tomas Kiss, Tomas Necas, Eliska Penazova, Dorota Tekielska, Marketa Bohunicka, Lucie Valentova, Radek Cmejla, Daniel Morais, Petr Baldrian
"Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" (CPp) is a highly destructive phytopathogenic agent in many stone fruit-growing regions in Europe and the surrounding countries. In this work, we focused on documenting entire bacterial community in the phloem tissues of 60 stone fruit trees. Nested PCR and two real-time PCR assays were used to select CPp-positive (group A) and CPp-negative samples (group B). Afterwards, high-throughput amplicon sequencing was performed to assess bacterial community compositions in phloem tissues...
September 7, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Andrea M Tarnecki, Nathan P Brennan, Ryan W Schloesser, Nicole R Rhody
The skin-associated microbiota of fish competes against pathogens for space and nutrients, preventing colonization by harmful bacteria encountered during environmental transitions such as those faced during stock enhancement. Thus, alterations in bacterial community structure during release of cultured fish have important implications for health of these individuals. This study investigated microbiota structure during acclimation of juvenile hatchery-reared common snook Centropomus undecimalis to the wild by comparing skin-associated microflora among snook in captivity, after 48 h of acclimation at release sites, and from the wild...
September 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Ya-Fan Chan, Kuo-Ping Chiang, Yun Ku, Gwo-Ching Gong
Mixotrophic haptophytes comprise one of several important groups of mixotrophic nanoflagellates in the pelagic environment. This study aimed to investigate if phagotrophy in mixotrophic haptophytes is regulated by light or other factors in the surface (SE) and bottom (BE) of the euphotic zone in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. We estimated the rates of bacterial ingestion by haptophytes using fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLBs) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Haptophyte diversity and abundance were also investigated in the same sampling area...
September 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Adriana Vallesi, Andreas Sjödin, Dezemona Petrelli, Pierangelo Luporini, Anna Rita Taddei, Johanna Thelaus, Caroline Öhrman, Elin Nilsson, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Gabriel Gutiérrez, Eduardo Villalobo
The study of the draft genome of an Antarctic marine ciliate, Euplotes petzi, revealed foreign sequences of bacterial origin belonging to the γ-proteobacterium Francisella that includes pathogenic and environmental species. TEM and FISH analyses confirmed the presence of a Francisella endocytobiont in E. petzi. This endocytobiont was isolated and found to be a new species, named F. adeliensis sp. nov.. F. adeliensis grows well at wide ranges of temperature, salinity, and carbon dioxide concentrations implying that it may colonize new organisms living in deeply diversified habitats...
September 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Wei-Fang Xu, Hui-Shuang Ren, Ting Ou, Ting Lei, Jun-Hong Wei, Chuan-Shu Huang, Tian Li, Gary Strobel, Ze-Yang Zhou, Jie Xie
Bacillus sp. 7PJ-16, an endophytic bacterium isolated from a healthy mulberry stem and previously identified as Bacillus tequilensis 7PJ-16, exhibits strong antifungal activity and has the capacity to promote plant growth. This strain was studied for its effectiveness as a biocontrol agent to reduce mulberry fruit sclerotiniose in the field and as a growth-promoting agent for mulberry in the greenhouse. In field studies, the cell suspension and supernatant of strain 7PJ-16 exhibited biocontrol efficacy and the lowest disease incidence was reduced down to only 0...
September 3, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Anna Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Agnieszka Wolińska, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Zofia Stępniewska, Mieczysław Błaszczyk
Methanotrophic bacteria are able to use methane (CH4 ) as a sole carbon and energy source. Photochemical oxidation of methane takes place in the stratosphere, whereas in the troposphere, this process is carried out by methanotrophic bacteria. On the one hand, it is known that the efficiency of biological CH4 oxidation is dependent on the mode of land use but, on the other hand, the knowledge of this impact on methanotrophic activity (MTA) is still limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the CH4 oxidation ability of methanotrophic bacteria inhabiting selected arable and no-tillage soils from the Lublin region (Albic Luvisol, Brunic Arenosol, Haplic Chernozem, Calcaric Cambisol) and to identify bacteria involved in this process...
September 1, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Zhanshan Sam Ma
SAR (species area relationship) is a classic ecological theory that has been extensively investigated and applied in the studies of global biogeography and biodiversity conservation in macro-ecology. It has also found important applications in microbial ecology in recent years thanks to the breakthroughs in metagenomic sequencing technology. Nevertheless, SAR has a serious limitation for practical applications-ignoring the species abundance and treating all species as equally abundant. This study aims to explore the biogeography discoveries of human microbiome over 18 sites of 5 major microbiome habitats, establish the baseline DAR (diversity-area scaling relationship) parameters, and perform comparisons with the classic SAR...
August 28, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Joanna Stańczak, Stella Cieniuch, Edyta Podsiadły, Tomasz Postawa, Jerzy Michalik
Hematophagous Spinturnix myoti mites and their host, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis), were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In total, Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified in 28% of 134 mite pools and in 25% of 59 bats tested by PCR targeting a fragment of citrate synthase gltA gen. Adult mites were at least threefold more frequently infected compared to immature stages. The overall infection prevalence among mite pools from cave-dwelling bats was higher than for those collected from attic shelters...
August 27, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Hai Li, Mrinal Mishra, Shaoxiong Ding, Michael M Miyamoto
Bugula neritina is a common invasive cosmopolitan bryozoan that harbors (like many sessile marine invertebrates) a symbiotic bacterial (SB) community. Among the SB of B. neritina, "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" continues to receive the greatest attention, because it is the source of bryostatins. The bryostatins are potent bioactive polyketides, which have been investigated for their therapeutic potential to treat various cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and AIDS. In this study, we compare the metagenomics sequences for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the SB communities from different geographic and life cycle samples of Chinese B...
August 23, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Yongwook Choi, Anirban Banerjee, Sean McNish, Kara S Couch, Manolito G Torralba, Sarah Lucas, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Ramana Madupu, Shibu Yooseph, Karen E Nelson, Victoria K Shanmugam, Agnes P Chan
Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to heal after 3 months of appropriate wound care. Previous reports have identified a diverse collection of bacteria in chronic wounds, and it has been postulated that bacterial profile may contribute to delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to perform a microbiome assessment of the Wound Healing and Etiology (WE-HEAL) Study cohort, including underlying comorbidities less commonly studied in the context of chronic wounds, such as autoimmune diseases, and investigate possible relationships of the wound microbiota with clinical healing trends...
August 23, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Kevin Vikström, Johan Wikner
Bacterial respiration contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide accumulation and development of hypoxia and is a critical, often overlooked, component of ecosystem function. This study investigates the concept that maintenance respiration is a significant proportion of bacterial respiration at natural nutrient levels in the field, advancing our understanding of bacterial living conditions and energy strategies. Two river-sea transects of respiration and specific growth rates were analyzed representing low- and high-productivity conditions (by in situ bacterial biomass production) in a subarctic estuary, using an established ecophysiological linear model (the Pirt model) estimating maintenance respiration...
August 22, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Scott Hotaling, Corey R Quackenbush, Julian Bennett-Ponsford, Daniel D New, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Michael Tobler, Joanna L Kelley
Extreme environments typically require costly adaptations for survival, an attribute that often translates to an elevated influence of habitat conditions on biotic communities. Microbes, primarily bacteria, are successful colonizers of extreme environments worldwide, yet in many instances, the interplay between harsh conditions, dispersal, and microbial biogeography remains unclear. This lack of clarity is particularly true for habitats where extreme temperature is not the overarching stressor, highlighting a need for studies that focus on the role other primary stressors (e...
August 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Michele Castelli, Valentina Serra, Marcus V X Senra, Charan K Basuri, Carlos A G Soares, Sergei I Fokin, Letizia Modeo, Giulio Petroni
Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are widespread and may have significant impact on the evolutionary history of symbiotic partners. The order Rickettsiales is a lineage of intracellular Alphaproteobacteria characterized by an obligate association with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, including several unicellular organisms, such as ciliates and amoebas. In this work, we characterized the Rickettsiales symbionts associated with two different genotypes of the freshwater ciliate Paramecium caudatum originated from freshwater environments in distant geographical areas...
August 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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