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Microbial Ecology

Jun-Yeong Lee, Geon Goo Han, Jaeyun Choi, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Sang-Kee Kang, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri is getting attention as an alternative to AGPs. In this study, we investigated genetic features of L. reuteri associated with host specificity and antipathogenic effect. We isolated 104 L. reuteri strains from porcine feces, and 16 strains, composed of eight strains exhibiting the higher antipathogenic effect (group HS) and eight strains exhibiting the lower effect (group LS), were selected for genomic comparison...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Erika S Blay, Stacy G Schwabedissen, Timothy S Magnuson, Ken A Aho, Peter P Sheridan, Kathleen A Lohse
Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a composite of mosses, lichens, and bacteria that performs many important soil system functions, including increasing soil stability, protecting against wind erosion, reducing nutrient loss, and mediating carbon and nitrogen fixation cycles. These cold desert and steppe ecosystems are expected to experience directional changes in both climate and disturbance. These include increased temperatures, precipitation phase changes, and increased disturbance from anthropogenic land use...
April 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Iolanda Ramalho da Silva, Francisco Adriano de Souza, Danielle Karla Alves da Silva, Fritz Oehl, Leonor Costa Maia
Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Martín Pablo Porrini, Leonardo Pablo Porrini, Paula Melisa Garrido, Carlos de Melo E Silva Neto, Darío Pablo Porrini, Fernando Muller, Laura Alejandra Nuñez, Leopoldo Alvarez, Pedro Fernandez Iriarte, Martín Javier Eguaras
Besides the incipient research effort, the role of parasites as drivers of the reduction affecting pollinator populations is mostly unknown. Given the worldwide extension of the beekeeping practice and the diversity of pathogens affecting Apis mellifera populations, honey bee colonies are a certain source of parasite dispersion to other species. Here, we communicate the detection of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae, a relatively new parasite of honey bees, in stingless bees (Meliponini) and the social wasp Polybia scutellaris (Vespidae) samples from Argentina and Brazil by means of duplex PCR...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Susma Bhattarai, Chiara Cassarini, Graciela Gonzalez-Gil, Matthias Egger, Caroline P Slomp, Yu Zhang, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
The microbial community inhabiting the shallow sulfate-methane transition zone in coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (The Netherlands) was characterized, and the ability of the microorganisms to carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction was assessed in activity tests. In vitro activity tests of the sediment with methane and sulfate demonstrated sulfide production coupled to the simultaneous consumption of sulfate and methane at approximately equimolar ratios over a period of 150 days...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Valentyna Krashevska, Dorothee Sandmann, Franca Marian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
We investigated the role of leaf litter chemistry and richness in affecting testate amoeba communities of tropical rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. Litterbags containing leaf litter from four dominating tree species (Clusia sp., Myrcia pubescens, Graffenrieda emarginata, and Cecropia andina) with richness 1, 2, and 4 species were established and exposed in the field for 12 months at 2000 m a.s.l. Chemical elements and compounds of leaf litter were analyzed before exposure. At the end of exposure, microbial biomass and litter mass loss were measured, and living testate amoeba species number, density, biomass, and community composition were determined...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
John Christian Gaby, Daniel H Buckley
The measurement of functional gene abundance in diverse microbial communities often employs quantitative PCR (qPCR) with highly degenerate oligonucleotide primers. While degenerate PCR primers have been demonstrated to cause template-specific bias in PCR applications, the effect of such bias on qPCR has been less well explored. We used a set of diverse, full-length nifH gene standards to test the performance of several universal nifH primer sets in qPCR. We found significant template-specific bias in all but the PolF/PolR primer set...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Karoline Morling, Julia Raeke, Norbert Kamjunke, Thorsten Reemtsma, Jörg Tittel
Microbial decomposition of terrestrial carbon may be enhanced by the addition of easily decomposable compounds, a phenomenon referred to as priming effect. We investigated the microbial decomposition of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in one-stage and two-stage flow-through cultures (chemostats) in the absence and presence of growing phytoplankton as phytoplankton-derived organic matter might facilitate the mineralization of more refractory terrestrial compounds. Peat water and soil leachate were used as terrestrial substrates, and only slight DOC decomposition was observed in the absence of phytoplankton for both substrates...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Kimberly K Zitnick-Anderson, Jack E Norland, Luis E Del Río Mendoza, Ann-Marie Fortuna, Berlin D Nelson
Associations between soil properties and Pythium groups on soybean roots were investigated in 83 commercial soybean fields in North Dakota. A data set containing 2877 isolates of Pythium which included 26 known spp. and 1 unknown spp. and 13 soil properties from each field were analyzed. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed with all soil properties to observe any significant correlation between properties. Hierarchical clustering, indicator spp., and multi-response permutation procedures were used to identify groups of Pythium...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Caroline Fromont, Markus Riegler, James M Cook
Most insects are associated with bacterial symbionts. The bacterial diversity and community composition within hosts may play an important role in shaping insect population biology, ecology and evolution. We focussed on the bacterial microbiome of the Australian fig homotomid Mycopsylla fici (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), which can cause defoliation of its only host tree, Ficus macrophylla. This sap-feeding insect is native to mainland Australia and Lord Howe Island (LHI) but also occurs where its host has been planted, notably in New Zealand...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Bianca Trevizan Segovia, Juliana Déo Dias, Adalgisa Fernanda Cabral, Bianca Ramos Meira, Fernando Miranda Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha, Luis Mauricio Bini, Luiz Felipe Machado Velho
After much discussion about the cosmopolitan nature of microbes, the great issue nowadays is to identify at which spatial extent microorganisms may display biogeographic patterns and if temporal variation is important in altering those patterns. Here, planktonic ciliates were sampled from shallow lakes of four Neotropical floodplains, distributed over a spatial extent of ca. 3000 km, during high and low water periods, along with several abiotic and biotic variables potentially affecting the ciliate community...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Daniele V de Oliveira, Luciana S Nunes, Afonso Luís Barth, Sueli T Van Der Sand
The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased worldwide. Although antibiotic-resistant bacteria are usually associated with hospitals, there are a growing number of reports of resistant bacteria in other environments. Concern about resistant microorganisms outside the hospital setting highlights the need to investigate mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in isolates collected from the environment. The present study evaluated the resistance mechanism to β-lactam antibiotics in 40 isolates from hospital sewage and surface water from the Dilúvio Stream, Porto Alegre City, Southern Brazil...
April 4, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Jean-François Briand, Aude Barani, Cédric Garnier, Karine Réhel, Félix Urvois, Christophe LePoupon, Agnès Bouchez, Didier Debroas, Christine Bressy
Surface colonization in seawater first corresponds to the selection of specific microbial biofilm communities. By coupling flow cytometry, microscopy and high throughput sequencing (HTS, 454 pyrosequencing) with artificial surfaces and environmental analyses, we intend to identify the contribution of biofilm community drivers at two contrasted French sites, one temperate and eutrophic (Lorient, Atlantic coast) and the other at a mesotrophic but highly contaminated bay (Toulon, North-Western Mediterranean Sea)...
April 3, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Tongtong Li, Huan Li, François-Joël Gatesoupe, Rong She, Qiang Lin, Xuefeng Yan, Jiabao Li, Xiangzhen Li
Fish gut microbiota play important roles in fish immunity, nutrition, and the adaptation to environmental changes. To date, few studies have focused on the interactions among environmental factors, fish diseases, and gut microbiota compositions. We compared the gut bacterial communities of healthy crucian carps (Carassius auratus) with those of individuals affected by "red-operculum" disease and corresponding water and sediment microbiota in four fish farm ponds. Distinct gut bacterial communities were observed in healthy and diseased fish...
April 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Zoë L Grange, Patrick J Biggs, Shanna P Rose, Brett D Gartrell, Nicola J Nelson, Nigel P French
Translocation and isolation of threatened wildlife in new environments may have unforeseen consequences on pathogen transmission and evolution in host populations. Disease threats associated with intensive conservation management of wildlife remain speculative without gaining an understanding of pathogen dynamics in meta-populations and how location attributes may determine pathogen prevalence. We determined the prevalence and population structure of an opportunistic pathogen, Salmonella, in geographically isolated translocated sub-populations of an endangered New Zealand flightless bird, the takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri)...
March 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Chengbin Liu, Yi Jiang, Xinyu Wang, Dongbo Chen, Xiu Chen, Lisong Wang, Li Han, Xueshi Huang, Chenglin Jiang
Lichens are structured associations of a fungus with a cyanobacteria and/or green algae in a symbiotic relationship, which provide specific habitats for diverse bacterial communities, including actinomycetes. However, few studies have been performed on the phylogenetic relationships and biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes across lichen species. In the present study, a total of 213 actinomycetes strains were isolated from 35 lichen samples (22 lichen genera) collected in Yunnan Province, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed an unexpected level of diversity among these isolates, which were distributed into 38 genera, 19 families, and 9 orders within the Actinobacteria phylum...
March 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Catalina Zúñiga, Diego Leiva, Margarita Carú, Julieta Orlando
Photobiont availability is one of the main factors determining the success of the lichenization process. Although multiple sources of photobionts have been proposed, there is no substantial evidence confirming that the substrates on which lichens grow are one of them. In this work, we obtained cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the substrates underlying 186 terricolous Peltigera cyanolichens from localities in Southern Chile and maritime Antarctica and compared them with the sequences of the cyanobionts of these lichens, in order to determine if cyanobacteria potentially available for lichenization were present in the substrates...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Seung-Hoon Lee, Patrick J Megonigal, Hojeong Kang
Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Carol Barford, Joseph Montoya, Mark Altabet, Ralph Mitchell
Knowledge of isotopic discrimination, or fractionation, by denitrifying bacteria can benefit agricultural fertilizer management, wastewater treatment, and other applications. However, the complexity of N transformation pathways in the environment and the sensitivity of denitrification to environmental conditions warrant better isotopic distinction between denitrification and other processes, especially for oxygen isotopes. Here, we present a dataset of δ(18)O measurements in continuous culture of Paracoccus denitrificans...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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