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Microbial Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721506/interaction-between-a-bacterivorous-ciliate-aspidisca-cicada-and-a-rotifer-lecane-inermis-doozers-and-fraggles-in-aquatic-flocs
#1
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Janusz Fyda, Krzysztof Wiąckowski
Activated sludge is a semi-natural habitat composed of macroaggregates made by flocculating bacteria and inhabited by numerous protozoans and metazoans, creating a complicated interactome. The activated sludge resembles the biological formation of naturally occurring floc habitats, such as "marine snow." So far, these two types of habitat have been analyzed separately, despite their similarities. We examined the effect of a bacterivorous ciliate, Aspidisca cicada, on the quality of the macroaggregate ecosystem by estimating (i) the floc characteristics, (ii) the proliferation of other bacterivores (rotifers), and (iii) the chemical processes...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721505/distinct-bloom-dynamics-of-toxic-and-non-toxic-microcystis-cyanobacteria-subpopulations-in-hoedong-reservoir-korea
#2
Bum Soo Park, Zhun Li, Yoon-Ho Kang, Hyeon Ho Shin, Jae-Hyoung Joo, Myung-Soo Han
Despite the importance of understanding the bloom mechanisms that influence cyanobacterial toxin production, the dynamics of toxic Microcystis subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we quantified both toxic and entire (i.e., toxic and non-toxic) Microcystis populations based on the microcystin synthetase E (mcyE) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Samples were collected from pelagic water and sediments twice per week from October to December 2011, and we investigated the effects of physicochemical factors (pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, etc...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721504/microbial-community-structure-and-function-decoupling-across-a-phosphorus-gradient-in-streams
#3
Erick S LeBrun, Ryan S King, Jeffrey A Back, Sanghoon Kang
Phosphorus (P) is a key biological element with important and unique biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic phosphorus inputs have been shown to greatly affect natural ecosystems, and this has been shown to be especially true of freshwater systems. While the importance of microbial communities in the P cycle is widely accepted, the role, composition, and relationship to P of these communities in freshwater systems still hold many secrets. Here, we investigated combined bacterial and archaeal communities utilizing 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and computationally predicted functional metagenomes (PFMs) in 25 streams representing a strong P gradient...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721503/salinity-drives-the-virioplankton-abundance-but-not-production-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#4
Pedro C Junger, André M Amado, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Saulo M S Jacques, Vinicius F Farjalla
Viruses are the most abundant components of microbial food webs and play important ecological and biogeochemical roles in aquatic ecosystems. Virioplankton is regulated by several environmental factors, such as salinity, turbidity, and humic substances. However, most of the studies aimed to investigate virioplankton regulation were conducted in temperate systems combining a limited range of environmental variables. In this study, virus abundance and production were determined and their relation to bacterial and limnological variables was assessed in 20 neighboring shallow tropical coastal lagoons that present wide environmental gradients of turbidity (2...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#5
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717834/characterizing-the-adherence-profiles-of-virulent-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-isolates
#6
Alisha M Aagesen, Sureerat Phuvasate, Yi-Cheng Su, Claudia C Häse
The human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne illness in the USA, and infections with V. parahaemolyticus typically result from eating raw or undercooked oysters. V. parahaemolyticus has been shown to be highly resistant to oyster depuration, suggesting that the bacterium possesses specific mechanisms or factors for colonizing oysters and persisting during depuration. In this study, we characterized eight different V. parahaemolyticus strains for differences in resistance to oyster depuration, biofilm formation, and motility...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#7
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712045/dynamics-of-soil-bacterial-communities-over-a-vegetation-season-relate-to-both-soil-nutrient-status-and-plant-growth-phenology
#8
Davide Francioli, Elke Schulz, François Buscot, Thomas Reitz
Soil microorganisms regulate element cycling and plant nutrition, mediate co-existence of neighbors, and stabilize plant communities. Many of these effects are dependent upon environmental conditions and, in particular, on nutrient quality and availability in soils. In this context, we set up a pot experiment in order to examine the combined effects of soil nutrient availability and microbial communities on plant-soil interactions and to investigate assemblage rules for soil bacterial communities under changed nutrient conditions...
July 15, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707145/numerical-relationships-between-archaeal-and-bacterial-amoa-genes-vary-by-icelandic-andosol-classes
#9
Hendrikus J Laanbroek, Peter T M Veenhuizen, Rosalinde M Keijzer, Mariet M Hefting
Bacterial amoA genes had not been detectable by qPCR in freshly sampled Icelandic Andosols thus far. Hence, a new primer set yielding shorter gene fragments has been designed to verify the absence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in different Icelandic Andosol classes. At the same time, a new primer set was also constructed for archaeal amoA genes that should improve the quality of PCR products. Although a large part of the soil samples were found to be amoA-negative, bacterial amoA genes were detectable with new as well as old primer sets...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702708/microbial-composition-and-diversity-patterns-in-deep-hyperthermal-aquifers-from-the-western-plain-of-romania
#10
Cecilia M Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Edina Szekeres, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragoș, Cristian Coman
A limited number of studies have investigated the biodiversity in deep continental hyperthermal aquifers and its influencing factors. Here, we present the first description of microbial communities inhabiting the Pannonian and Triassic hyperthermal aquifers from the Western Plain of Romania, the first one being considered a deposit of "fossilized waters," while the latter is embedded in the hydrological cycle due to natural refilling. The 11 investigated drillings have an open interval between 952 and 3432 m below the surface, with collected water temperatures ranging between 47 and 104 °C, these being the first microbial communities characterized in deep continental water deposits with outflow temperatures exceeding 80 °C...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702707/host-specificity-of-endophytic-mycobiota-of-wild-nicotiana-plants-from-arid-regions-of-northern-australia
#11
Khondoker M G Dastogeer, Hua Li, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam, Michael G K Jones, Stephen J Wylie
In arid regions of northern Australia, plants survive under water deficit, high temperatures, intense solar radiation and nutrient-impoverished soils. They employ various morpho-physiological and biochemical adaptations including interaction with microbial symbionts. We evaluated identity, host and tissue association with geographical distribution of fungal endophytes isolated from above- and below-ground tissues of plants of three indigenous Australian Nicotiana species. Isolation frequency and α-diversity were significantly higher for root endophyte assemblages than those of stem and leaf tissues...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702706/metagenomic-analysis-of-subtidal-sediments-from-polar-and-subpolar-coastal-environments-highlights-the-relevance-of-anaerobic-hydrocarbon-degradation-processes
#12
Fernando Espínola, Hebe M Dionisi, Sharon Borglin, Colin J Brislawn, Janet K Jansson, Walter P Mac Cormack, JoLynn Carroll, Sara Sjöling, Mariana Lozada
In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702705/wolbachia-in-the-genus-bicyclus-a-forgotten-player
#13
Anne Duplouy, Oskar Brattström
Bicyclus butterflies are key species for studies of wing pattern development, phenotypic plasticity, speciation and the genetics of Lepidoptera. One of the key endosymbionts in butterflies, the alpha-Proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis, is affecting many of these biological processes; however, Bicyclus butterflies have not been investigated systematically as hosts to Wolbachia. In this study, we screen for Wolbachia infection in several Bicyclus species from natural populations across Africa as well as two laboratory populations...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699015/sponge-prokaryote-communities-in-taiwanese-coral-reef-and-shallow-hydrothermal-vent-ecosystems
#14
F J R C Coelho, D F R Cleary, N C M Gomes, A R M Pólonia, Y M Huang, L-L Liu, N J de Voogd
Previously, it was believed that the prokaryote communities of typical 'low-microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'non-symbiont harboring' sponges were merely subsets of the prokaryote plankton community. Recent research has, however, shown that these sponges are dominated by particular clades of Proteobacteria or Cyanobacteria. Here, we expand on this research and assess the composition and putative functional profiles of prokaryotic communities from LMA sponges collected in two ecosystems (coral reef and hydrothermal vent) from vicinal islands of Taiwan with distinct physicochemical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681143/seasonal-stability-in-the-microbiomes-of-temperate-gorgonians-and-the-red-coral-corallium-rubrum-across-the-mediterranean-sea
#15
Jeroen A J M van de Water, Christian R Voolstra, Cecile Rottier, Silvia Cocito, Andrea Peirano, Denis Allemand, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Populations of key benthic habitat-forming octocoral species have declined significantly in the Mediterranean Sea due to mass mortality events caused by microbial disease outbreaks linked to high summer seawater temperatures. Recently, we showed that the microbial communities of these octocorals are relatively structured; however, our knowledge on the seasonal dynamics of these microbiomes is still limited. To investigate their seasonal stability, we collected four soft gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa and Leptogorgia sarmentosa) and the precious red coral (Corallium rubrum) from two coastal locations with different terrestrial impact levels in the Mediterranean Sea, and used next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
July 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674774/antagonistic-interactions-and-biofilm-forming-capabilities-among-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-egg-surfaces-of-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens
#16
M Fujimoto, B Lovett, R Angoshtari, P Nirenberg, T P Loch, K T Scribner, T L Marsh
Characterization of interactions within a host-associated microbiome can help elucidate the mechanisms of microbial community formation on hosts and can be used to identify potential probiotics that protect hosts from pathogens. Microbes employ various modes of antagonism when interacting with other members of the community. The formation of biofilm by some strains can be a defense against antimicrobial compounds produced by other taxa. We characterized the magnitude of antagonistic interactions and biofilm formation of 25 phylogenetically diverse taxa that are representative of isolates obtained from egg surfaces of the threatened fish species lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) at two ecologically relevant temperature regimes...
July 3, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669057/a-combination-of-stable-isotope-probing-illumina-sequencing-and-co-occurrence-network-to-investigate-thermophilic-acetate-and-lactate-utilizing-bacteria
#17
Weimin Sun, Valdis Krumins, Yiran Dong, Pin Gao, Chunyan Ma, Min Hu, Baoqin Li, Bingqing Xia, Zijun He, Shangling Xiong
Anaerobic digestion is a complicated microbiological process that involves a wide diversity of microorganisms. Acetate is one of the most important intermediates, and interactions between acetate-oxidizing bacteria and archaea could play an important role in the formation of methane in anoxic environments. Anaerobic digestion at thermophilic temperatures is known to increase methane production, but the effects on the microbial community are largely unknown. In the current study, stable isotope probing was used to characterize acetate- and lactate-oxidizing bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion...
July 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667427/variation-of-synechococcus-pigment-genetic-diversity-along-two-turbidity-gradients-in-the-china-seas
#18
Xiaomin Xia, Hongbin Liu, Donghan Choi, Jae Hoon Noh
Synechococcus are important and widely distributed picocyanobacteria that encompass a high pigment diversity. In this study, we developed a primer set (peBF/peAR) for amplifying the cpeBA operon sequence from Synechococcus genomic DNA to study Synechococcus pigment diversity along two turbidity gradients in the China seas. Our data revealed that all previously reported pigment types occurred in the South (SCS) and East (ECS) China Seas. In addition, a novel pigment genetic type (type 3f), represented by the high phycourobilin Synechococcus sp...
July 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660292/bartonella-in-rodents-and-ectoparasites-in-the-canary-islands-spain-new-insights-into-host-vector-pathogen-relationships
#19
Estefania Abreu-Yanes, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Natalia Martin-Carrillo, Katherine Garcia Livia, Alessandro Marrero-Gagliardi, Basilio Valladares, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
Bartonella genus is comprised of several species of zoonotic relevance and rodents are reservoirs for some of these Bartonella species. As there were no data about the range of Bartonella species circulating among rodents in the Canary Islands, our main aim was to overcome this lack of knowledge by targeting both the citrate synthase (gltA) and the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) genes. A total of 181 small mammals and 154 ectoparasites were obtained in three of the Canary Islands, namely Tenerife, La Palma, and Lanzarote...
June 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647755/namib-desert-soil-microbial-community-diversity-assembly-and-function-along-a-natural-xeric-gradient
#20
Vincent Scola, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Aline Frossard, Olivier Zablocki, Evelien M Adriaenssens, Riegardt M Johnson, Mary Seely, Don A Cowan
The hyperarid Namib desert is a coastal desert in southwestern Africa and one of the oldest and driest deserts on the planet. It is characterized by a west/east increasing precipitation gradient and by regular coastal fog events (extending up to 75 km inland) that can also provide soil moisture. In this study, we evaluated the role of this natural aridity and xeric gradient on edaphic microbial community structure and function in the Namib desert. A total of 80 individual soil samples were collected at 10-km intervals along a 190-km transect from the fog-dominated western coastal region to the eastern desert boundary...
June 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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