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Microbial Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647755/namib-desert-soil-microbial-community-diversity-assembly-and-function-along-a-natural-xeric-gradient
#1
Vincent Scola, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Aline Frossard, Olivier Zablocki, Evelien M Adriaenssens, Riegardt M Johnson, Mary Seely, Don A Cowan
The hyperarid Namib desert is a coastal desert in southwestern Africa and one of the oldest and driest deserts on the planet. It is characterized by a west/east increasing precipitation gradient and by regular coastal fog events (extending up to 75 km inland) that can also provide soil moisture. In this study, we evaluated the role of this natural aridity and xeric gradient on edaphic microbial community structure and function in the Namib desert. A total of 80 individual soil samples were collected at 10-km intervals along a 190-km transect from the fog-dominated western coastal region to the eastern desert boundary...
June 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646410/symbiont-spillover-from-invasive-to-native-woodwasps
#2
Ann E Hajek, David C Harris, Tonya D Bittner
Hosts and their associated microbes are being increasingly introduced around the world, which can lead to novel host/microbe associations via new sympatries. Woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) are able to utilize wood for its nutrients due to obligate mutualistic associations with white rot fungi in the genus Amylostereum and when invasive woodwasps are introduced to new areas, their symbionts accompany them. There is increasing evidence that woodwasp-fungus associations previously believed to be highly specific are actually flexible...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642992/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-pmqr-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-quinolone-resistant-marine-bacteria-and-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-an-aquacultural-area
#3
Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Alejandro H Buschmann, Henry P Godfrey, Felipe C Cabello
Antimicrobial usage in aquaculture selects for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in the marine environment. The relevance of this selection to terrestrial animal and human health is unclear. Quinolone-resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were chromosomally located in four randomly chosen quinolone-resistant marine bacteria isolated from an aquacultural area with heavy quinolone usage. In quinolone-resistant uropathogenic clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from a coastal area bordering the same aquacultural region, qnrA was chromosomally located in two E...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642991/extensive-overlap-of-tropical-rainforest-bacterial-endophytes-between-soil-plant-parts-and-plant-species
#4
Emmanuel Haruna, Noraziah M Zin, Dorsaf Kerfahi, Jonathan M Adams
The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639032/case-study-microbial-ecology-and-forensics-of-chinese-drywall-elemental-sulfur-disproportionation-as-primary-generator-of-hydrogen-sulfide
#5
Francisco A Tomei Torres
Drywall manufactured in China released foul odors attributed to volatile sulfur compounds. These included hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and sulfur dioxide. Given that calcium sulfate is the main component of drywall, one would suspect bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide as the primary culprit. However, when the forensics, i.e., the microbial and chemical signatures left in the drywall, are studied, the evidence suggests that, rather than dissimilatory sulfate reduction, disproportionation of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate was actually the primary cause of the malodors...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634640/the-microbiome-of-eucalyptus-roots-under-different-management-conditions-and-its-potential-for-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#6
Eduardo da Siva Fonseca, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro, James M Tiedje, Caio Tavora Coelho da Costa Rachid
Eucalyptus plantations offer a cost-effective and renewable source of raw material. There is substantial interest in improving forestry production, especially through sustainable strategies such as the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria. However, little is known about Eucalyptus microbiology. In this study, the endophytic bacterial community was assessed in Eucalyptus urograndis roots using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques with plants grown under different conditions. Three phyla accounted for approximately 95% of the community, with Actinobacteria corresponding to approximately 59%...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634639/the-curious-case-of-achromobacter-eurydice-a-gram-variable-pleomorphic-bacterium-associated-with-european-foulbrood-disease-in-honeybees
#7
REVIEW
Silvio Erler, Oleg Lewkowski, Anja Poehlein, Eva Forsgren
Honeybees are prone to parasite and pathogen infestations/infections due to their social colony life. Bacterial pathogens in particular lead to destructive infections of the brood. European foulbrood is caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius in combination with several other Gram-positive bacteria (Achromobacter eurydice, Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus alvei, Paenibacillus dendritiformis) involved as secondary invaders following the initial infection...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634638/co-existence-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-bacteria-and-denitrifying-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-bacteria-in-sewage-sludge-community-diversity-and-seasonal-dynamics
#8
Sai Xu, Wenjing Lu, Muhammad Farooq Mustafa, Luis Miguel Caicedo, Hanwen Guo, Xindi Fu, Hongtao Wang
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) have been recently discovered as relevant processes in the carbon and nitrogen cycles of wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the seasonal dynamics of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacterial community structures and their abundance in sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment plants were analysed. Results indicated that ANAMMOX and DAMO bacteria co-existed in sewage sludge in different seasons and their abundance was positively correlated (P < 0...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631214/identification-of-bufadienolides-from-the-boreal-toad-anaxyrus-boreas-active-against-a-fungal-pathogen
#9
Kelly Barnhart, Megan E Forman, Thomas P Umile, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie, Irene Salinas, Kevin P C Minbiole, Douglas C Woodhams
Amphibian granular glands provide a wide range of compounds on the skin that defend against pathogens and predators. We identified three bufadienolides-the steroid-like compounds arenobufagin, gamabufotalin, and telocinobufagin-from the boreal toad, Anaxyrus boreas, through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Compounds were detected both after inducing skin gland secretions and in constitutive mucosal rinses from toads. We described the antimicrobial properties of each bufadienolide against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an amphibian fungal pathogen linked with boreal toad population declines...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624904/the-effect-of-light-on-bacterial-activity-in-a-seaweed-holobiont
#10
Sergio A Coelho-Souza, Stuart R Jenkins, Antonio Casarin, Maria Helena Baeta-Neves, Leonardo T Salgado, Jean R D Guimaraes, Ricardo Coutinho
Holobionts are characterized by the relationship between host and their associated organisms such as the biofilm associated with macroalgae. Considering that light is essential to macroalgae survival, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of light on the heterotrophic activity in biofilms of the brown macroalgae Sargassum furcatum during its growth cycle. Measurements of heterotrophic activity were done under natural light levels at different times during a daily cycle and under an artificial extinction of natural light during the afternoon...
June 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623391/survey-of-high-affinity-h2-oxidizing-bacteria-in-soil-reveals-their-vast-diversity-yet-underrepresentation-in-genomic-databases
#11
Sarah Piché-Choquette, Mondher Khdhiri, Philippe Constant
While high-affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria (HA-HOB) serve as the main sink of atmospheric H2, the ecology of this specialist functional group is rather unknown due to its recent discovery. The main purpose of our study is to provide the first extensive survey of HA-HOB in farmland, larch, and poplar soils exposed to 0.5 and 10,000 ppmv H2. Using qPCR and qRT-PCR assays along with PCR amplicon high-throughput sequencing of hhyL gene encoding for the large subunit of high-affinity [NiFe]-hydrogenases (HAH), we found that hhyL gene expression ratio explained better variation in measured H2 oxidation rates than HA-HOB species richness...
June 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620785/microbial-interspecies-interactions-affect-arsenic-fate-in-the-presence-of-mn-ii
#12
Jinsong Liang, Yaohui Bai, Jiuhui Qu
Biotransformation of arsenic (As) plays an important role in its environmental fate. However, the impact of direct microbial interspecies interactions on valence state and migration of As is rarely reported and cognized. Here, by co-cultivating two aerobic As(V)-reducing bacteria (Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 and Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31) in a culture medium containing initial As(V) (10 μM) and bivalent manganese (Mn(II), 175 μM), we demonstrated how the interactions between strains affect valence state and partition of As...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620784/inhibitory-effect-of-taurine-on-biofilm-formation-during-alkane-degradation-in-acinetobacter-oleivorans-dr1
#13
Hyo Jung Eom, Woojun Park
Taurine, 2-aminoethanesulfonate, is known to function as an antioxidant or membrane stabilizer in eukaryotic cells, but its role in bacteria has been poorly characterized. Biofilm formation of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 was significantly reduced by taurine only during alkane degradation, suggesting that taurine affects alkane-induced cell surface. Structurally similar compounds harboring an amine group such as hypotaurine or ethylenediamine have a similar effect, which was not observed with sulfonate-containing chemicals such as ethanesulfonic acid, hexanesulfonic acid...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601973/attack-phase-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-responses-to-extracellular-nutrients-are-analogous-to-those-seen-during-late-intraperiplasmic-growth
#14
Mohammed Dwidar, Hansol Im, Jeong Kon Seo, Robert J Mitchell
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory bacterium which lives by invading the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria and consuming them from within. This predator was thought to be dependent upon prey for nutrients since it lacks genes encoding for critical enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. This study, however, found that planktonic attack-phase predators are not just dependent upon prey for nutrients, but rather, they respond to nutrients in the surrounding medium and, subsequently, synthesize and secrete proteases in a nutrient-dependent manner...
June 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600590/do-multi-year-applications-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-for-control-of-mosquito-larvae-affect-the-abundance-of-b-cereus-group-populations-in-riparian-wetland-soils
#15
Salome Schneider, Tania Tajrin, Jan O Lundström, Niels B Hendriksen, Petter Melin, Ingvar Sundh
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-borne bacterium affiliated to the Bacillus cereus group (Bcg) and has been used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae for several decades. However, knowledge is limited on whether long-term Bti application can affect the structure of indigenous communities of Bcg and the overall abundance of Bti. Using species- and group-specific quantitative PCR assays, we measured the Bcg- and Bti-abundances in riparian wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains of central Sweden...
June 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589212/erratum-to-a-new-deep-sea-suctorian-nematode-epibiosis-loricophrya-tricoma-from-the-blanes-submarine-canyon-nw-mediterranean
#16
Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans, Sara Román, Daniel Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577167/bacterial-rhizoplane-colonization-patterns-of-buchloe-dactyloides-growing-in-metalliferous-mine-tailings-reflect-plant-status-and-biogeochemical-conditions
#17
Linnea K Honeker, Julia W Neilson, Robert A Root, Juliana Gil-Loaiza, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Plant establishment during phytostabilization of legacy mine tailings in semiarid regions is challenging due to low pH, low organic carbon, low nutrients, and high toxic metal(loid) concentrations. Plant-associated bacterial communities are particularly important under these harsh conditions because of their beneficial services to plants. We hypothesize that bacterial colonization profiles on rhizoplane surfaces reflect deterministic processes that are governed by plant health and the root environment. The aim of this study was to identify associations between bacterial colonization patterns on buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) rhizoplanes and both plant status (leaf chlorophyll and plant cover) and substrate biogeochemistry (pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and rhizosphere microbial community)...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560606/biological-invasion-influences-the-outcome-of-plant-soil-feedback-in-the-invasive-plant-species-from-the-brazilian-semi-arid
#18
Tancredo Augusto Feitosa de Souza, Leonaldo Alves de Andrade, Helena Freitas, Aline da Silva Sandim
Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata)...
May 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550339/effect-of-fungal-endophytes-on-biomass-yield-nutritive-value-and-accumulation-of-minerals-in-ornithopus-compressus
#19
Oscar Santamaria, Santiago Lledó, Sara Rodrigo, Maria J Poblaciones
Yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus), a valuable pasture species in Mediterranean areas, presents a high diversity of endophytic mycoflora. In the present work, the hypothesis of a significant effect of fungal endophytic species on the parameters of forage production, nutritive value and mineral status of herbage was tested. O. compressus plants were inoculated with each of seven endophytes (four in 2012/2013 and three in 2013/2014). After inoculation, two experiments (under greenhouse and field conditions) were established...
May 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540488/an-18s-rrna-workflow-for-characterizing-protists-in-sewage-with-a-focus-on-zoonotic-trichomonads
#20
Julia M Maritz, Krysta H Rogers, Tara M Rock, Nicole Liu, Susan Joseph, Kirkwood M Land, Jane M Carlton
Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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