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Microbial Ecology

Oscar Santamaria, Santiago Lledó, Sara Rodrigo, Maria J Poblaciones
Yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus), a valuable pasture species in Mediterranean areas, presents a high diversity of endophytic mycoflora. In the present work, the hypothesis of a significant effect of fungal endophytic species on the parameters of forage production, nutritive value and mineral status of herbage was tested. O. compressus plants were inoculated with each of seven endophytes (four in 2012/2013 and three in 2013/2014). After inoculation, two experiments (under greenhouse and field conditions) were established...
May 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Julia M Maritz, Krysta H Rogers, Tara M Rock, Nicole Liu, Susan Joseph, Kirkwood M Land, Jane M Carlton
Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Laura Tomassone, L A Ceballos, C Ragagli, E Martello, R De Sousa, M C Stella, A Mannelli
During the investigations on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP) range expansion in the Northern Apennines, we captured 107 Podarcis muralis lizards. Sixty-eight animals were infested by immature Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis sulcata and H. punctata. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 3.7% of I. ricinus larvae and 8.0% of nymphs. Together with the species-specific B. lusitaniae, we identified B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. valaisiana. Rickettsia spp. (18.1% larvae, 12.0% nymphs), namely R. monacensis, R...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Juan D Castillo, Jorge M Vivanco, Daniel K Manter
Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 g of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to determine negative and positive correlations between any bacterial genus and P. neglectus and M. chitwoodi. Farms showed differences in bacterial communities, percentage of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes, and numbers of P...
May 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Sergi Compte-Port, Jèssica Subirats, Mireia Fillol, Alexandre Sànchez-Melsió, Rafael Marcé, Pedro Rivas-Ruiz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Carles M Borrego
Archaea inhabiting marine and freshwater sediments have a relevant role in organic carbon mineralization, affecting carbon fluxes at a global scale. Despite current evidences suggesting that freshwater sediments largely contribute to this process, few large-scale surveys have been addressed to uncover archaeal diversity and abundance in freshwater sedimentary habitats. In this work, we quantified and high-throughput sequenced the archaeal 16S rRNA gene from surficial sediments collected in 21 inland waterbodies across the Iberian Peninsula differing in typology and trophic status...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Stefanie Schulz, Angelika Kölbl, Martin Ebli, Franz Buegger, Michael Schloter, Sabine Fiedler
More than 50% of all anthropogenic N2O emissions come from the soil. Drained Histosols that are used for agricultural purposes are particularly potent sources of denitrification due to higher stocks of organic matter and fertiliser application. However, conditions that favour denitrification can vary considerably across a field and change significantly throughout the year. Spatial and temporal denitrifier dynamics were assessed in a drained, intensely managed Histosol by focusing on the genetic nitrite and N2O reduction potential derived from the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ genes...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Dagne Duguma, Michael W Hall, Chelsea T Smartt, Josh D Neufeld
Microbiota associated with mosquito vector populations impact several traits of mosquitoes, including survival, reproduction, control, and immunity against pathogens. The influence of seasonal variations and mosquito species on mosquito gut microbiota is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the mosquito microbiota associated with immature stages of two congeners (Culex coronator and Culex nigripalpus) differ temporally and between the two species. Using high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we characterized bacterial and archaeal communities found in the immature stages of the two Culex mosquito species sampled over three seasons to compare the diversity of bacteria between the two species...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Lauren Brinkac, Alexander Voorhies, Andres Gomez, Karen E Nelson
Ubiquitous in nature, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has existed long before the golden age of antimicrobials. While antimicrobial agents are beneficial to combat infection, their widespread use contributes to the increase in and emergence of novel resistant microbes in virtually all environmental niches. The human microbiome is an important reservoir of AMR with initial exposure occurring in early life. Once seeded with AMR, commensal organisms may be key contributors to the dissemination of resistance due to the interconnectedness of microbial communities...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Jing Li, Yu-Rong Liu, Li-Juan Cui, Hang-Wei Hu, Jun-Tao Wang, Ji-Zheng He
Increasing efforts have been devoted to exploring the impact of environmental stresses on soil bacterial communities, but the work on the archaeal community is seldom. Here, we constructed microcosm experiments to investigate the responses of archaeal communities to the subsequent dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic and red soil) after 6 years of copper pollution. Ten DW cycles were exerted on the two soils with different copper levels, followed by a 6-week recovery period...
May 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Dayanna Souza Sampaio, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza Almeida, Hugo E de Jesus, Alexandre S Rosado, Lucy Seldin, Diogo Jurelevicius
Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica...
May 8, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Roksana Majewska, Bart Van de Vijver, Ali Nasrolahi, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Federico Bolaños, Franco Iamunno, Mario Santoro, Mario De Stefano
The first reports of diatoms growing on marine mammals date back to the early 1900s. However, only recently has direct evidence been provided for similar associations between diatoms and sea turtles. We present a comparison of diatom communities inhabiting carapaces of green turtles Chelonia mydas sampled at two remote sites located within the Indian (Iran) and Atlantic (Costa Rica) Ocean basins. Diatom observations and counts were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. Techniques involving critical point drying enabled observations of diatoms and other microepibionts still attached to sea turtle carapace and revealed specific aspects of the epizoic community structure...
May 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Sofia R Prado-Irwin, Alicia K Bird, Andrew G Zink, Vance T Vredenburg
Resident microbial communities living on amphibian skin can have significant effects on host health, yet the basic ecology of the host-microbiome relationship of many amphibian taxa is poorly understood. We characterized intraspecific variation in the skin microbiome of the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica, a subspecies composed of four genetically distinct populations distributed throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, USA. We found that salamanders from four geographically and genetically isolated populations harbor similar skin microbial communities, which are dominated by a common core set of bacterial taxa...
May 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Alexis Durand, François Maillard, Julie Foulon, Hyun S Gweon, Benoit Valot, Michel Chalot
Characterization of microbial communities in stressful conditions at a field level is rather scarce, especially when considering fungal communities from aboveground habitats. We aimed at characterizing fungal communities from different poplar habitats at a Hg-contaminated phytomanagement site by using Illumina-based sequencing, network analysis approach, and direct isolation of Hg-resistant fungal strains. The highest diversity estimated by the Shannon index was found for soil communities, which was negatively affected by soil Hg concentration...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Damian W Rivett, Andrew K Lilley, Gary J Connett, Mary P Carroll, Julian P Legg, Kenneth D Bruce
Bacterial diversity underpins many ecosystem functions; however, the impact of within-species variation on the relationship between diversity and function remains unclear. Processes involving strain differentiation, such as niche radiation, are often overlooked in studies that focus on phylogenetic variation. This study used bacterial isolates assembled in two comparable microcosm experiments to test how species variation affected ecosystem function. We compared the relationship between diversity and activity (CO2 production) in increasingly diverse multispecies microcosms and with multiple ecotypes of a single species...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Jun-Yeong Lee, Geon Goo Han, Jaeyun Choi, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Sang-Kee Kang, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri is getting attention as an alternative to AGPs. In this study, we investigated genetic features of L. reuteri associated with host specificity and antipathogenic effect. We isolated 104 L. reuteri strains from porcine feces, and 16 strains, composed of eight strains exhibiting the higher antipathogenic effect (group HS) and eight strains exhibiting the lower effect (group LS), were selected for genomic comparison...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Erika S Blay, Stacy G Schwabedissen, Timothy S Magnuson, Ken A Aho, Peter P Sheridan, Kathleen A Lohse
Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a composite of mosses, lichens, and bacteria that performs many important soil system functions, including increasing soil stability, protecting against wind erosion, reducing nutrient loss, and mediating carbon and nitrogen fixation cycles. These cold desert and steppe ecosystems are expected to experience directional changes in both climate and disturbance. These include increased temperatures, precipitation phase changes, and increased disturbance from anthropogenic land use...
April 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Iolanda Ramalho da Silva, Francisco Adriano de Souza, Danielle Karla Alves da Silva, Fritz Oehl, Leonor Costa Maia
Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Martín Pablo Porrini, Leonardo Pablo Porrini, Paula Melisa Garrido, Carlos de Melo E Silva Neto, Darío Pablo Porrini, Fernando Muller, Laura Alejandra Nuñez, Leopoldo Alvarez, Pedro Fernandez Iriarte, Martín Javier Eguaras
Besides the incipient research effort, the role of parasites as drivers of the reduction affecting pollinator populations is mostly unknown. Given the worldwide extension of the beekeeping practice and the diversity of pathogens affecting Apis mellifera populations, honey bee colonies are a certain source of parasite dispersion to other species. Here, we communicate the detection of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae, a relatively new parasite of honey bees, in stingless bees (Meliponini) and the social wasp Polybia scutellaris (Vespidae) samples from Argentina and Brazil by means of duplex PCR...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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