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Microbial Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331950/how-do-elevated-co2-and-nitrogen-addition-affect-functional-microbial-community-involved-in-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-salt-marsh-system
#1
Seung-Hoon Lee, Patrick J Megonigal, Hojeong Kang
Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326437/steady-state-oxygen-isotope-effects-of-n2o-production-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#2
Carol Barford, Joseph Montoya, Mark Altabet, Ralph Mitchell
Knowledge of isotopic discrimination, or fractionation, by denitrifying bacteria can benefit agricultural fertilizer management, wastewater treatment, and other applications. However, the complexity of N transformation pathways in the environment and the sensitivity of denitrification to environmental conditions warrant better isotopic distinction between denitrification and other processes, especially for oxygen isotopes. Here, we present a dataset of δ(18)O measurements in continuous culture of Paracoccus denitrificans...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314899/variation-in-the-prevalence-and-transmission-of-heritable-symbionts-across-host-populations-in-heterogeneous-environments
#3
Michelle E Sneck, Jennifer A Rudgers, Carolyn A Young, Tom E X Miller
Heritable microbes are abundant in nature and influential to their hosts and the communities in which they reside. However, drivers of variability in the prevalence of heritable symbionts and their rates of transmission are poorly resolved, particularly across host populations experiencing variable biotic and abiotic environments. To fill these gaps, we surveyed 25 populations of two native grasses (Elymus virginicus and Elymus canadensis) across the southern Great Plains (USA). Both grass species host heritable endophytic fungi (genus Epichloё) and can hybridize where their ranges overlap...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303313/significant-change-in-marine-plankton-structure-and-carbon-production-after-the-addition-of-river-water-in-a-mesocosm-experiment
#4
E Fouilland, A Trottet, C Alves-de-Souza, D Bonnet, T Bouvier, M Bouvy, S Boyer, L Guillou, E Hatey, H Jing, C Leboulanger, E Le Floc'h, H Liu, S Mas, B Mostajir, J Nouguier, D Pecqueur, E Rochelle-Newall, C Roques, C Salles, M-G Tournoud, C Vasseur, F Vidussi
Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303312/neutral-evolution-and-dispersal-limitation-produce-biogeographic-patterns-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-populations-of-lake-systems
#5
Sahar Shirani, Ferdi L Hellweger
Molecular observations reveal substantial biogeographic patterns of cyanobacteria within systems of connected lakes. An important question is the relative role of environmental selection and neutral processes in the biogeography of these systems. Here, we quantify the effect of genetic drift and dispersal limitation by simulating individual cyanobacteria cells using an agent-based model (ABM). In the model, cells grow (divide), die, and migrate between lakes. Each cell has a full genome that is subject to neutral mutation (i...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293696/intestinal-microbial-community-dynamics-of-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-an-agroecosystem
#6
M Lisette Delgado, Pallavi Singh, Julie A Funk, Jennifer A Moore, Emily M Cannell, Jeannette Kanesfsky, Shannon D Manning, Kim T Scribner
The intestinal microbiota has important functions that contribute to host health. The compositional dynamics of microbial communities are affected by many factors, including diet and presence of pathogens. In contrast to humans and domestic mammals, the composition and seasonal dynamics of intestinal microbiota of wildlife species remain comparatively understudied. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important wildlife species that inhabits agricultural ecosystems and is known to be a reservoir of enteric pathogens...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289836/prokaryotic-abundance-and-activity-in-permafrost-of-the-northern-victoria-land-and-upper-victoria-valley-antarctica
#7
Rosabruna La Ferla, Maurizio Azzaro, Luigi Michaud, Gabriella Caruso, Angelina Lo Giudice, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Antonella Conte, Alessandro Cosenza, Giovanna Maimone, Maria Papale, Alessandro Ciro Rappazzo, Mauro Guglielmin
Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type...
March 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265694/microbial-communities-as-environmental-indicators-of-ecological-disturbance-in-restored-carbonate-fen-results-of-10%C3%A2-years-of-studies
#8
Tomasz Mieczan, Monika Tarkowska-Kukuryk
Interactions between bacteria and protists are essential to the ecosystem ecology of fens. Until now, however, there has been almost no information on how restoration procedures in carbonate fens affect the functioning of microbial food webs. Changes in vegetation patterns resulting from restoration may take years to be observed, whereas microbial processes display effects even after short-term exposure to changes in environmental conditions caused by restoration. Therefore, microbial processes and patterns can be used as sensitive indicators of changes in environmental conditions...
March 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265693/membrane-lipids-as-indicators-for-viable-bacterial-communities-inhabiting-petroleum-systems
#9
Andrea Gruner, Kai Mangelsdorf, Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand, Brian Horsfield, Geert M van der Kraan, Thomas Köhler, Christoph Janka, Brandon E L Morris, Heinz Wilkes
Microbial activity in petroleum reservoirs has been implicated in a suite of detrimental effects including deterioration of petroleum quality, increases in oil sulfur content, biofouling of steel pipelines and other infrastructures, and well plugging. Here, we present a biogeochemical approach, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), for detecting viable bacteria in petroleum systems. Variations within the bacterial community along water flow paths (producing well, topside facilities, and injection well) can be elucidated in the field using the same technique, as shown here within oil production plants in the Molasse Basin of Upper Austria...
March 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255686/reducing-virulence-and-biofilm-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-potential-quorum-sensing-inhibitor-carotenoid-zeaxanthin
#10
Barış Gökalsın, Busecan Aksoydan, Burak Erman, Nüzhet Cenk Sesal
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can regulate its virulence gene expressions by using a signal system called quorum sensing. It is known that inhibition of quorum sensing can block biofilm formation and leave the bacteria defenseless. Therefore, it is necessary to determine natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing the carotenoid zeaxanthin to reduce the expressions of P. aeruginosa virulence factors through quorum sensing inhibition...
March 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255685/effects-of-planted-versus-naturally-growing-vallisneria-natans-on-the-sediment-microbial-community-in-west-lake-china
#11
Chuan Wang, Shuangyuan Liu, Yi Zhang, Biyun Liu, Lei Zeng, Feng He, Qiaohong Zhou, Zhenbin Wu
Submerged macrophytes play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, which has led to an increase in studies on vegetation recovery in polluted lakes from which submerged macrophytes have disappeared. The comparison of microbial communities in sediment cloned with planted and naturally growing submerged macrophytes is an interesting but rarely studied topic. In this investigation, Maojiabu and Xilihu, two adjacent sublakes of West Lake (Hangzhou, China), were selected as aquatic areas with planted and naturally growing macrophytes, respectively...
March 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255684/defining-disturbance-for-microbial-ecology
#12
Craig J Plante
Disturbance can profoundly modify the structure of natural communities. However, microbial ecologists' concept of "disturbance" has often deviated from conventional practice. Definitions (or implicit usage) have frequently included climate change and other forms of chronic environmental stress, which contradict the macrobiologist's notion of disturbance as a discrete event that removes biomass. Physical constraints and disparate biological characteristics were compared to ask whether disturbances fundamentally differ in microbial and macroorganismal communities...
March 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246922/investigating-the-microbial-degradation-potential-in-oil-sands-fluid-fine-tailings-using-gamma-irradiation-a-metagenomic-perspective
#13
Danielle VanMensel, Subba Rao Chaganti, Ryan Boudens, Thomas Reid, Jan Ciborowski, Christopher Weisener
Open-pit mining of the Athabasca oil sands has generated large volumes of waste termed fluid fine tailings (FFT), stored in tailings ponds. Accumulation of toxic organic substances in the tailings ponds is one of the biggest concerns. Gamma irradiation (GI) treatment could accelerate the biodegradation of toxic organic substances. Hence, this research investigates the response of the microbial consortia in GI-treated FFT materials with an emphasis on changes in diversity and organism-related stimuli. FFT materials from aged and fresh ponds were used in the study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243679/ligninolytic-activity-at-0%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-of-fungi-on-oak-leaves-under-snow-cover-in-a-mixed-forest-in-japan
#14
Toshizumi Miyamoto, Keiichi Koda, Arata Kawaguchi, Yasumitsu Uraki
Despite the importance of litter decomposition under snow cover in boreal forests and tundra, very little is known regarding the characteristics and functions of litter-decomposing fungi adapted to the cold climate. We investigated the decomposition of oak leaves in a heavy snowfall forest region of Japan. The rate of litter weight loss reached 26.5% during the snow cover period for 7 months and accounted for 64.6% of the annual loss (41.1%). Although no statistically significant lignin loss was detected, decolourization portions of oak leaf litter, which was attributable to the activities of ligninolytic fungi, were observed during snow cover period...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238016/seasonal-pattern-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-the-causative-agent-of-buruli-ulcer-in-the-environment-in-ghana
#15
Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Kobina Assan Ampah, Amanda Ross, Prince Asare, Isaac Darko Otchere, Janet Fyfe, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ecology by analysing both clinical and environmental samples collected from ten communities along two major river basins (Offin and Densu) associated with Buruli ulcer (BU) at different seasons. We collected clinical samples from presumptive BU cases and environmental samples from ten communities. Following DNA extraction, clinical samples were confirmed by IS2404 PCR and environmental samples were confirmed by targeting MU-specific genes, IS2404, IS2606 and the ketoreductase (KR) using real-time PCR...
February 25, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214969/attached-and-suspended-denitrifier-communities-in-pristine-limestone-aquifers-harbor-high-fractions-of-potential-autotrophs-oxidizing-reduced-iron-and-sulfur-compounds
#16
M Herrmann, S Opitz, R Harzer, K U Totsche, K Küsel
Oxygen and nitrate availability as well as the presence of suitable organic or inorganic electron donors are strong drivers of denitrification; however, the factors influencing denitrifier abundance and community composition in pristine aquifers are not well understood. We explored the denitrifier community structure of suspended and attached groundwater microorganisms in two superimposed limestone aquifer assemblages with contrasting oxygen regime in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Germany). Attached communities were retrieved from freshly crushed parent rock material which had been exposed for colonization in two groundwater wells (12...
February 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197647/the-overproduction-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-iaa-in-endophytes-upregulates-nitrogen-fixation-in-both-bacterial-cultures-and-inoculated-rice-plants
#17
Roberto Defez, Anna Andreozzi, Carmen Bianco
Endophytic bacteria from roots and leaves of rice plants were isolated and identified in order to select the diazotrophs and improve their nitrogen-fixing abilities. The nitrogen-fixing endophytes were identified by PCR amplification of the nifH gene fragment. For this purpose, two isolates, Enterobacter cloacae RCA25 and Klebsiella variicola RCA26, and two model bacteria (Herbaspirillum seropedicae z67 and Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234) were transformed to increase the biosynthesis of the main plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188331/urnula-sp-an-endophyte-of-dicksonia-antarctica-making-a-fragrant-mixture-of-biologically-active-volatile-organic-compounds
#18
Gary Strobel, Amy Ericksen, Joe Sears, Jie Xie, Brad Geary, Bryan Blatt
Urnula sp. was isolated as an endophyte of Dicksonia antarctica and identified primarily on the basis of its ITS sequence and morphological features. The anamorphic state of the fungus appeared as a hyphomyceteous-like fungus as based on its features in culture and scanning electron microscopy examination of its spores. On potato dextrose agar (PDA), the organism makes a characteristic fragrance resembling peach pie with vanilla overtones. A GC/MS analysis done on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism, trapped by carbotrap methodology, revealed over 150 compounds with high MS matching quality being noted for 44 of these...
February 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175972/changes-in-microbiota-in-rumen-digesta-and-feces-due-to-a-grain-based-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-sara-challenge
#19
Jan C Plaizier, Shucong Li, Anne Mette Danscher, Hooman Derakshani, Pia H Andersen, Ehsan Khafipour
The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on bacteria in the rumen and feces of lactating dairy cows were determined. Six lactating, rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with two periods. Periods included two cows on a control diet and two cows on a SARA challenge. The control diet was a total mixed ration containing 45.5% dry matter (DM), 43.8% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 19.6% DM starch. The SARA challenge was conducted by gradually substituting the control diet with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley over 3 days to reach a diet containing 55...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168354/the-endophytic-fungus-phomopsis-liquidambari-increases-nodulation-and-n2-fixation-in-arachis-hypogaea-by-enhancing-hydrogen-peroxide-and-nitric-oxide-signalling
#20
Xing-Guang Xie, Wan-Qiu Fu, Feng-Min Zhang, Xiao-Min Shi, Ying-Ting Zeng, Hui Li, Wei Zhang, Chuan-Chao Dai
The continuous cropping obstacles in monoculture fields are a major production constraint for peanuts. Application of the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari has increased peanut yields, and nodulation and N2 fixation increases have been considered as important factors for P. liquidambari infection-improved peanut yield. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. This work showed that compared with only Bradyrhizobium inoculation, co-inoculation with P. liquidambari significantly elevated endogenous H2O2 and NO levels in peanut roots...
February 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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