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Microbial Ecology

Jinzhi He, Qichao Tu, Yichen Ge, Yujia Qin, Bomiao Cui, Xiaoyu Hu, Yuxia Wang, Ye Deng, Kun Wang, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jiyao Li, Jizhong Zhou, Yan Li, Xuedong Zhou
Caries is one of the most prevalent and costly infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. It is initiated by cariogenic supragingival dental plaques forming on saliva-coated tooth surfaces, yet the etiology remains elusive. To determine which microbial populations may predispose a patient to caries, we report here an in-depth and comprehensive view of the microbial community associated with supragingival dental plaque collected from the healthy teeth of caries patients and healthy adults. We found that microbial communities from caries patients had a higher evenness and inter-individual variations but simpler ecological networks compared to healthy controls despite the overall taxonomic structure being similar...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Oreste Gainza, Carolina Ramírez, Alfredo Salinas Ramos, Jaime Romero
The goal of the study was to characterize the intestinal tract bacterial microbiota composition of Penaeus vannamei in intensive commercial ponds in Ecuador, comparing two shrimp-farming phases: nursery and harvest. Bacterial microbiota was examined by sequencing amplicons V2-V3 of the 16S rRNA using Ion Torrent technology. Archaea sequences were detected in both phases. Sequence analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between the nursery phase and the harvest phase in shrimp intestinal microbiota composition...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Rafiqul Hyder, Tuula Piri, Jarkko Hantula, Heikki Nuorteva, Eeva J Vainio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
J Keshri, A S Pradeep Ram, T Sime-Ngando
Bacteria assemblages in lake sediments play a key role in various biogeochemical processes, yet their association with interstitial pore waters has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the seasonal bacterial communities in the sediments and pore waters of three contrasted temperate freshwater lakes, namely Pavin, Aydat, and Grangent (French Massif Central). Despite occupying seemingly similar habitats, bacterial communities differed substantially between sediments and pore waters at all seasons with low sharing of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 6...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Carolina Barbosa Malafaia, Ana Cláudia Silva Jardelino, Alexandre Gomes Silva, Elineide Barbosa de Souza, Alexandre José Macedo, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Márcia Vanusa Silva
This study describes the first antibiofilm and antibacterial screening for plants from Caatinga against Ralstonia solanacearum, a causal agent of bacterial wilt that presents serious difficulties in control. There were prepared 22 aqueous extracts of plants collected in the Vale do Catimbau-PE, Brazil. The potential antibacterial activity was evaluated by absorbance in OD600 and the antibiofilm activity through the crystal violet method, both of them performed in microplate against isolates of R. solanacearum biofilm formers...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Matea Kostric, Katrin Milger, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marion Engel, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Anne Schöler
The lower respiratory tract has been previously considered sterile in a healthy state, but advances in culture-independent techniques for microbial identification and characterization have revealed that the lung harbors a diverse microbiome. Although research on the lung microbiome is increasing and important questions were already addressed, longitudinal studies aiming to describe developmental stages of the microbial communities from the early neonatal period to adulthood are lacking. Thus, little is known about the early-life development of the lung microbiome and the impact of external factors during these stages...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Abhirup Mookherjee, Paramita Bera, Adinpunya Mitra, Mrinal K Maiti
Plant-associated endophytes are recognized as sources of novel bioactive molecules having diverse applications. In this study, an endophytic yeast-like fungal strain was isolated from the fruit of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and identified as Geotrichum candidum through phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. This endophytic G. candidum isolate PF005 was found to emit fruity scented volatiles. The compositional profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol, isopentyl acetate, naphthalene, and isobutyl acetate in significant proportion when analyzed on a time-course basis...
September 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Dongyan Liu, Mizuhiko Nishida, Tomoki Takahashi, Susumu Asakawa
Methanogenic archaea survive under aerated soil conditions in paddy fields, and their community is stable under these conditions. Changes in the abundance and composition of an active community of methanogenic archaea were assessed by analyzing mcrA gene (encoding α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase) and transcripts during a prolonged drained period in a paddy-upland rotational field. Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) was planted in the flooded field and rotated with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) under upland soil conditions...
September 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias, Simone Raposo Cotta, Fernando Dini Andreote, Jan Dirk van Elsas
The ecological competences in microbiomes are driven by the adaptive capabilities present within microbiome members. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) promoted by plasmids provides a rapid adaptive strategy to microbiomes, an interesting feature considering the constantly changing conditions in most environments. This study examined the parA locus, found in the highly promiscuous PromA class of plasmids, as the insertion site for incoming genes. A novel PCR system was designed that enabled examining insertions into this locus...
September 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Marta Gallart, Karen L Adair, Jonathan Love, Dean F Meason, Peter W Clinton, Jianming Xue, Matthew H Turnbull
A central challenge in community ecology is understanding the role that phenotypic variation among genotypes plays in structuring host-associated communities. While recent studies have investigated the relationship between plant genotype and the composition of soil microbial communities, the effect of genotype-by-environment interactions on the plant microbiome remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the influence of tree genetics (G), nitrogen (N) form and genotype-by-environment interaction (G x N) on the composition of the root microbiome...
September 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Alessia L Pepori, Priscilla P Bettini, Cecilia Comparini, Sabrina Sarrocco, Anna Bonini, Arcangela Frascella, Luisa Ghelardini, Aniello Scala, Giovanni Vannacci, Alberto Santini
In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O...
September 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
J Kosiba, W Krztoń, E Wilk-Woźniak
The increasing proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms prolongs the impact of cyanobacteria on aquatic fauna, potentially altering trophic relationships. We hypothesized that any effect of dissolved microcystins (toxins produced by cyanobacteria) on plankton assemblages would be more evident in artificial reservoirs and ponds than in natural ones. The concentrations of dissolved microcystins in the waters we studied ranged widely from 0.07 to 0.81 μg/L. We showed that the artificial ponds were subjected to more frequent and longer-lasting harmful algal blooms...
September 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Lucija Nuskern, Marin Ježić, Zlatko Liber, Jelena Mlinarec, Mirna Ćurković-Perica
Biotic stress caused by virus infections induces epigenetic changes in infected plants and animals, but this is the first report on methylation pattern changes in a fungus after mycovirus infection. As a model pathosystem for mycovirus-host interactions, we used Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) and its host fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, in which deregulation of methylation cycle enzymes upon virus infection was observed previously. Six CHV1 strains of different subtypes were transferred into three different C...
September 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Milko A Jorquera, Stefanie Gabler, Nitza G Inostroza, Jacquelinne J Acuña, Marco A Campos, Daniel Menezes-Blackburn, Ralf Greiner
Phytases are enzymes involved in organic phosphorus cycling in nature and widely used as feed additives in animal diets. Thermal tolerance is a desired property of phytases. The objectives of this study were to screen and characterize bacterial phytases from Chilean hydrothermal environments. In this study, 60% (30 of 63) of screened thermophilic (60 °C) isolates showed phytase activity in crude protein extracts. The characterization of phytase from two selected isolates (9B and 15C) revealed that both isolates produce phytases with a pH optimum at 5...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Alexandro Guterres, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Malachini Maia, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Flávio César Gomes Oliveira, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sergio D'Andrea, Carlos Guerra Schrago, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging serious disease in the Americas, transmitted from wild rodents to humans through inhalation of aerosol containing virus. Herein, we characterized two distinct hantaviruses circulating in rodent species form Central Plateau, Midwestern region of Brazil in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome, an area characterized by small trees and grasses adapted to climates with long dry periods. In this study, we identified the co-circulation of the Araraquara virus and a possible new lineage of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) in Oligoryzomys nigripes...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Hyungmin Rho, Marian Hsieh, Shyam L Kandel, Johanna Cantillo, Sharon L Doty, Soo-Hyung Kim
Endophytes are microbial symbionts living inside plants and have been extensively researched in recent decades for their functions associated with plant responses to environmental stress. We conducted a meta-analysis of endophyte effects on host plants' growth and fitness in response to three abiotic stress factors: drought, nitrogen deficiency, and excessive salinity. Ninety-four endophyte strains and 42 host plant species from the literature were evaluated in the analysis. Endophytes increased biomass accumulation of host plants under all three stress conditions...
August 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Li Han, Li-Mei Zhang, Ji-Zheng He
A substantial gap remains in our understanding of the abundance, diversity, and ecology of viruses in soil although some advances have been achieved in recent years. In this study, four soil samples according to the salinity gradient from shore to inland in East China have been characterized. Results showed that spherical virus particles represented the largest viral component in all of the four samples. The viromes had remarkably different taxonomic compositions, and most of the sequences were derived from single-stranded DNA viruses, especially from families Microviridae and Circoviridae...
August 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Ruo-Nan Wu, Han Meng, Yong-Feng Wang, Wensheng Lan, Ji-Dong Gu
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are the main nitrifiers which are well studied in natural environments, and AOA frequently outnumber AOB by orders especially in acidic conditions, making AOA the most promising ammonia oxidizers. The phylogeny of AOA revealed in related studies, however, often varied and hardly reach a consensus on functional phylotypes. The objective of this study was to compare ammonia-oxidizing communities by amoA gene and transcript based on both genomic DNA and RNA in extremely acidic forest soils (pH <4...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Luigi Vezzulli, L Stagnaro, C Grande, G Tassistro, L Canesi, C Pruzzo
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are two widely farmed bivalve species which show contrasting behaviour in relation to microbial diseases, with C. gigas being more susceptible and M. galloprovincialis being generally resistant. In a recent study, we showed that different susceptibility to infection exhibited by these two bivalve species may depend on their different capability to kill invading pathogens (e.g., Vibrio spp.) through the action of haemolymph components...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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