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Microbial Ecology

G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Gabriela Soto, Cintia Jozefkowicz, Nicolás Ayub
As other legume crops, alfalfa cultivation increases the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Since legume-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria play a crucial role in this emission, it is important to understand the possible impacts of rhizobial domestication on the evolution of denitrification genes. In comparison with the genomes of non-commercial strains, those of commercial alfalfa inoculants exhibit low total genome size, low number of ORFs and high numbers of both frameshifted genes and pseudogenes, suggesting a dramatic loss of genes during bacterial domestication...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Francisco J Choix, Cecilia Guadalupe López-Cisneros, Hugo Oscar Méndez-Acosta
Mutualism interactions of microalgae with other microorganisms are widely used in several biotechnological processes since symbiotic interaction improves biotechnological capabilities of the microorganisms involved. The interaction of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense was assessed with three microalgae genus, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, and Chlamydomonas, during CO2 fixation under high CO2 concentrations. The results in this study have demonstrated that A. brasilense maintained a mutualistic interaction with the three microalgae assessed, supported by the metabolic exchange of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan (Trp), respectively...
January 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Sarah J Wolfson, Abigail W Porter, Julia K Campbell, Lily Y Young
Over-the-counter pharmaceutical compounds can serve as microbial substrates in wastewater treatment processes as well as in the environment. The metabolic pathways and intermediates produced during their degradation, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate an anaerobic wastewater community that metabolizes naproxen via demethylation. Enriched cultures, established from anaerobic digester inocula receiving naproxen as the sole carbon source, transformed naproxen to 6-O-desmethylnaproxen (DMN) within 22 days...
January 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Pu Yang, Renata Oliveira da Rocha Calixto, Jan Dirk van Elsas
The movement of bacterial cells along with fungal hyphae in soil (the mycosphere) has been reported in several previous studies. However, how local soil conditions affect bacterial migration direction in the mycosphere has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the influence of two soil parameters, pH and soil moisture content, on the migration, and survival, of Paraburkholderia terrae BS001 in the mycosphere of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten in microcosms containing a loamy sand soil. The data showed that bacterial movement along the hyphal networks took place in both the "forward" and the "backward" directions...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Filipe Martins Santos, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The present work aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella in mammals and ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil. For this purpose, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, 7 Leopardus pardalis, 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled. DNA samples were submitted to a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Positive samples in qPCR were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting other five protein-coding genes. Thirty-five wild rodents and three Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi flea pools showed positive results in qPCR for Bartonella spp...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Tianxiao Li, Yulan Hu, Bingjian Zhang, Xiaoru Yang
Feilaifeng is a cultural heritage site that contains unique Buddhist statues which date back to the Five Dynasties period (907 AD-960 AD). The site was inscribed on world heritage list by UNESCO in 2011. Various patinas, which may be caused by fungi, have covered the surface of the limestone and have severely diminished the esthetic value of the statues and altered the limestone structure. Culture-dependent method was used to isolate and identify the fungi. After incubation on modified B4 medium, the calcifying fungi were identified by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive analysis...
January 6, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Adam J Solon, Lara Vimercati, J L Darcy, Pablo Arán, Dorota Porazinska, C Dorador, M E Farías, S K Schmidt
The aim of this study was to understand the spatial distribution of microbial communities (18S and 16S rRNA genes) across one of the harshest terrestrial landscapes on Earth. We carried out Illumina sequencing using samples from two expeditions to the high slopes (up to 6050 m.a.s.l.) of Volcán Socompa and Llullaillaco to describe the microbial communities associated with the extremely dry tephra compared to areas that receive water from fumaroles and ice fields made up of nieves penitentes. There were strong spatial patterns relative to these landscape features with the most diverse (alpha diversity) communities being associated with fumaroles...
January 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Lindsey K Deignan, Joseph R Pawlik, Patrick M Erwin
The brown tube sponge Agelas tubulata (cf. Agelas conifera) is an abundant and long-lived sponge on Caribbean reefs. Recently, a disease-like condition, Agelas wasting syndrome (AWS), was described from A. tubulata in the Florida Keys, where prevalence of the syndrome increased from 7 to 35% of the sponge population between 2010 and 2015. In this study, we characterized the prokaryotic symbiont community of A. tubulata for the first time from individuals collected within the same monitoring plots where AWS was described...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Ecology
G Angelella, V Nalam, P Nachappa, J White, I Kaplan
Insect endosymbionts (hereafter, symbionts) can modify plant virus epidemiology by changing the physiology or behavior of vectors, but their role in nonpersistent virus pathosystems remains uninvestigated. Unlike propagative and circulative viruses, nonpersistent plant virus transmission occurs via transient contamination of mouthparts, making direct interaction between symbiont and virus unlikely. Nonpersistent virus transmission occurs during exploratory intracellular punctures with styletiform mouthparts when vectors assess potential host-plant quality prior to phloem feeding...
December 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Katrin Kellner, M R Kardish, J N Seal, T A Linksvayer, U G Mueller
Group-living can promote the evolution of adaptive strategies to prevent and control disease. Fungus-gardening ants must cope with two sets of pathogens, those that afflict the ants themselves and those of their symbiotic fungal gardens. While much research has demonstrated the impact of specialized fungal pathogens that infect ant fungus gardens, most of these studies focused on the so-called higher attine ants, which are thought to coevolve diffusely with two clades of leucocoprinaceous fungi. Relatively few studies have addressed disease ecology of lower Attini, which are thought to occasionally recruit (domesticate) novel leucocoprinaceous fungi from free-living populations; coevolution between lower-attine ants and their fungi is therefore likely weaker (or even absent) than in the higher Attini, which generally have many derived modifications...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Kathrin Engel, Jan Sauer, Sebastian Jünemann, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Andreas Tauch, Barbara A Caspers
An animals' body is densely populated with bacteria. Although a large number of investigations on physiological microbial colonisation have emerged in recent years, our understanding of the composition, ecology and function of the microbiota remains incomplete. Here, we investigated whether songbirds have an individual-specific skin microbiome that is similar across different body regions. We collected skin microbe samples from three different bird species (Taeniopygia gutatta, Lonchura striata domestica and Stagonopleura gutatta) at two body locations (neck region, preen gland area)...
December 27, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Karen E Sullam, Samuel Pichon, Tobias M M Schaer, Dieter Ebert
Host-associated microbiota vary across host individuals and environmental conditions, but the relative importance of their genetic background versus their environment is difficult to disentangle. We sought to experimentally determine the factors shaping the microbiota of the planktonic Crustacean, Daphnia magna. We used clonal lines from a wide geographic distribution, which had been kept under standardized conditions for over 75 generations. Replicate populations were kept for three generations at 20 and 28 °C...
December 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Letícia Menezes, Thabata Maria Alvarez, Gabriela Félix Persinoti, João Paulo Franco, Fábio Squina, Edimar Agnaldo Moreira, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo Paixão, Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo, Vinícius Xavier da Silva, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici, Alberto Arab
It has been suggested that food storage inside the nest may offer termites with a nutritional provision during low resource availability. Additionally, feces employed as construction material provide an excellent environment for colonization by microorganisms and, together with the storage of plant material inside the nest, could thus provide some advantage to the termites in terms of lignocellulose decomposition. Here, we conducted for the first time a comprehensive study of the microbial communities associated to a termite exhibiting food storage behavior using Illumina sequencing of the 16S and (ITS2) regions of rRNA genes, together with enzymatic assays and data collected in the field...
December 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Loredana Stabili, Cinzia Gravili, Graziano Pizzolante, Marco Lezzi, Salvatore Maurizio Tredici, Mario De Stefano, Ferdinando Boero, Pietro Alifano
Recently, genetic approaches have revealed a surprising bacterial world as well as a growing knowledge of the enormous distribution of animal-bacterial interactions. In the present study, the diversity of the microorganisms associated to the hydroid Aglaophenia octodonta was studied with epifluorescence, optical, and scanning electron microscopy. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing with "universal" and taxon-specific primers allowed the assignment of the microalgae to Symbiodinium and the peritrich ciliates to Pseudovorticella, while the luminous vibrios were identified as Vibrio jasicida of the Harvey clade...
December 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Ana R A Soares, Emma S Kritzberg, Ioana Custelcean, Martin Berggren
Increases in the terrestrial export of dissolved organic carbon (C) to rivers may be associated with additional loading of organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal zone. However, little is known about how these resources interact in the regulation of heterotrophic bacterioplankton metabolism in boreal coastal ecosystems. Here, we measured changes in bacterioplankton production (BP) and respiration (BR) in response to full-factorial (C, N, and P) enrichment experiments at two sites within the Öre estuary, northern Sweden...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Juan José Soler, Ángela Martínez-García, Laura Arco, Natalia Juárez-García-Pelayo, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Manuel Martínez-Bueno
Mutualistic symbioses between animals and bacteria depend on acquisition of appropriate symbionts while avoiding exploitation by non-beneficial microbes. The mode of acquisition of symbionts would determine, not only the probability of encountering but also evolutionary outcomes of mutualistic counterparts. The microbiome inhabiting the uropygial gland of the European hoopoe (Upupa epops) includes a variety of bacterial strains, some of them providing antimicrobial benefits. Here, the mode of acquisition and stability of this microbiome is analyzed by means of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis and two different experiments...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Alessia L Pepori, Priscilla P Bettini, Cecilia Comparini, Sabrina Sarrocco, Anna Bonini, Arcangela Frascella, Luisa Ghelardini, Aniello Scala, Giovanni Vannacci, Alberto Santini
The article Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association, written by Alessia L. Pepori, Priscilla P. Bettini, Cecilia Comparini, Sabrina Sarrocco, Anna Bonini, Arcangela Frascella, Luisa Ghelardini, & Aniello Scala, Giovanni Vannacci, Alberto Santini.
December 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Daniel C Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Ian Burke, Scot Hulbert, Timothy Paulitz
Glyphosate is the most-used herbicide worldwide and an essential tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of glyphosate on soil microbial communities. We examined the impact of repeated glyphosate application on bulk and rhizosphere soil fungal communities of wheat grown in four soils representative of the dryland wheat production region of Eastern Washington, USA. Further, using soils from paired fields, we contrasted the response of fungal communities that had a long history of glyphosate exposure and those that had no known exposure...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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