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Language and Speech

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610466/the-effect-of-practice-and-visual-feedback-on-oral-diadochokinetic-rates-for-younger-and-older-adults
#1
Boaz M Ben-David, Michal Icht
Assessments of oral-diadochokinetic rates are commonly performed to evaluate oral-motor skills. However, the appropriate administration protocol is not defined, and varies across therapists, clinics and laboratories. In three experiments and an auxiliary one, this study analyzes the effects of brief (motor) practice and visual feedback on the performance of 98 younger (20-40 years old) and 78 older adults (over 65) with the sequential motion rate (SMR) version. Overall rates were significantly faster for younger over older adults...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606010/orthographic-input-and-the-acquisition-of-german-final-devoicing-by-native-speakers-of-english
#2
Rachel Hayes-Harb, Kelsey Brown, Bruce L Smith
We present an artificial lexicon study designed to test the hypothesis that native English speakers experience interference from written input when acquiring surface voicing in German words. Native English speakers were exposed to German-like words (e.g., /ʃtɑit/ and /ʃtɑid/, both pronounced [ʃtɑit]) along with pictured meanings, and in some cases, their written forms (e.g., <Steit> and <Steid>). At test, participants whose input included the written forms were more likely to produce final voiced obstruents when naming the pictures, indicating that access to the written forms in the input interfered with their acquisition of target-like surface forms...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581344/exploring-the-bilingual-phonological-space-early-bilinguals-discrimination-of-coronal-stop-contrasts
#3
Yevgeniy Vasilyevich Melguy
It is well known that the way monolingual listeners discriminate speech sounds is strongly influenced by their native (L1) sound system. Moreover, such perceptual constraints are not limited to monolinguals: multiple studies have found evidence of language-specificity in bilingual speech perception. However, the question of whether bilinguals have simultaneous access to both of their phonologies during non-native contrast discrimination has not been systematically examined. Namely, very few studies of bilinguals have specifically examined cases where a non-native contrast pair straddles the boundary between two sound systems, with one sound corresponding to a sound in the L1, and the other to a sound in the second language (L2), but with neither the L1 nor the L2 containing both...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565932/information-transfer-capacity-of-articulators-in-american-sign-language
#4
Evie Malaia, Joshua D Borneman, Ronnie B Wilbur
The ability to convey information is a fundamental property of communicative signals. For sign languages, which are overtly produced with multiple, completely visible articulators, the question arises as to how the various channels co-ordinate and interact with each other. We analyze motion capture data of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives, and show that the capacity of information throughput, mathematically defined, is highest on the dominant hand (DH). We further demonstrate that information transfer capacity is also significant for the non-dominant hand (NDH), and the head channel too, as compared to control channels (ankles)...
May 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486862/statistical-speech-segmentation-in-tone-languages-the-role-of-lexical-tones
#5
David M Gómez, Peggy Mok, Mikhail Ordin, Jacques Mehler, Marina Nespor
Research has demonstrated distinct roles for consonants and vowels in speech processing. For example, consonants have been shown to support lexical processes, such as the segmentation of speech based on transitional probabilities (TPs), more effectively than vowels. Theory and data so far, however, have considered only non-tone languages, that is to say, languages that lack contrastive lexical tones. In the present work, we provide a first investigation of the role of consonants and vowels in statistical speech segmentation by native speakers of Cantonese, as well as assessing how tones modulate the processing of vowels...
May 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367672/prosody-improves-detection-of-spoonerisms-versus-both-sensible-and-nonsense-phrases
#6
Damian G Kelty-Stephen, Erik P Raymakers, Krista M Matthews-Saugstad
Prosody is the pattern of inflection, pitch, and intensity that communicates emotional meaning above and beyond the individual meanings of lexical items and gestures during spoken language. Research has often addressed prosody extending most clearly across multiple speech chunks and carrying properties specific to individual speakers and individual intents. However, prosody exerts effects on intended meaning even for relatively brief speech streams with minimal syntactic cues. The present work seeks to test whether prosody may actually clarify the intended meaning of a two-word phrase even when the basic phonemic sequence of the words is distorted...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345401/the-prosody-of-topic-transition-in-interaction-pitch-register-variations
#7
Marine Riou
In conversation, speakers can mobilize a variety of prosodic cues to signal a switch in topics. This paper uses a mixed-methods approach combining Conversation Analysis and Instrumental Prosody to investigate the prosody of topic transition in American English, and analyzes the ways in which speakers can play on register level and on register span. A cluster of three prosodic parameters was found to be predictive of transitions: a higher maximum fundamental frequency (F0), a higher median F0 (key), and an expanded register span...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#8
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326993/imitation-of-non-speech-oral-gestures-by-8-month-old-infants
#9
Heidi Diepstra, Sandra E Trehub, Alice Eriks-Brophy, Pascal Hhm van Lieshout
This study investigates the oral gestures of 8-month-old infants in response to audiovisual presentation of lip and tongue smacks. Infants exhibited more lip gestures than tongue gestures following adult lip smacks and more tongue gestures than lip gestures following adult tongue smacks. The findings, which are consistent with predictions from Articulatory Phonology, imply that 8-month-old infants are capable of producing goal-directed oral gestures by matching the articulatory organ of an adult model.
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326992/thai-rate-varied-vowel-length-perception-and-the-impact-of-musical-experience
#10
Angela Cooper, Yue Wang, Richard Ashley
Musical experience has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the perception of non-native speech contrasts. The present study examined whether or not musical experience facilitated the normalization of speaking rate in the perception of non-native phonemic vowel length contrasts. Native English musicians and non-musicians (as well as native Thai control listeners) completed identification and AX (same-different) discrimination tasks with Thai vowels contrasting in phonemic length at three speaking rates...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326991/the-effects-of-language-experience-and-speech-context-on-the-phonetic-accommodation-of-english-accented-spanish-voicing
#11
Fernando Llanos, Alexander L Francis
Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326990/native-and-non-native-perception-of-stress-in-mapudungun-assessing-structural-maintenance-in-the-phonology-of-an-endangered-language
#12
Benjamin J Molineaux
Today, virtually all speakers of Mapudungun (formerly Araucanian), an endangered language of Chile and Argentina, are bilingual in Spanish. As a result, the firmness of native speaker intuitions-especially regarding perceptually complex issues such as word-stress-has been called into question. Even though native intuitions are unavoidable in the investigation of stress position, efforts can be made in order to clarify what the actual sources of the intuitions are, and how consistent and 'native' they remain given the language's asymmetrical contact conditions...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326989/perception-of-nonnative-accented-sentences-by-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults-the-role-of-phonological-processing-skills
#13
Tessa Bent, Eriko Atagi
To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326988/discrimination-and-identification-of-a-third-formant-frequency-cue-to-place-of-articulation-by-young-children-and-adults
#14
Kelly Richardson, Joan E Sussman
Typically-developing children, 4 to 6 years of age, and adults participated in discrimination and identification speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/. The seven-step synthetic /da/-/ga/ continuum was created by adjusting the first 40 ms of the third formant frequency transition. For the discrimination task, listeners participated in a Change/No-Change paradigm with four different stimuli compared to the endpoint-1 /da/ token. For the identification task, listeners labeled each token along the /da/-/ga/ continuum as either "DA" or "GA...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326987/language-and-speech-call-for-editors
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#16
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193124/what-s-in-a-word-observing-the-contribution-of-underlying-and-surface-representations
#17
Yu-Fu Chien, Joan A Sereno, Jie Zhang
underlying representations play a crucial role in capturing predictable relations among different phonetic categories in phonological theory. Tone sandhi is a tonal alternation phenomenon in which a tone changes to a different tone in certain phonological environments. This study investigates whether Taiwanese listeners are more sensitive to the surface form of the tones or the underlying tonal representations of tone sandhi words. An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to examine priming effects between monosyllabic primes and disyllabic target words (tone sandhi T51 → T55 and sandhi T24 → T33)...
February 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193135/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-motivation-and-late-second-language-speech-learning-in-classroom-settings
#18
Kazuya Saito, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Keiko Hanzawa
The current study set out to examine the role of learner motivation in second language (L2) speech learning in English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. The motivational orientations of 40 first-year university Japanese students were surveyed via a tailored questionnaire and linked to their spontaneous speech development, elicited via a timed picture description task at the onset and end of one academic semester, in terms of perceived comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) and accentedness (i.e., linguistic nativelikeness)...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139167/a-quantitative-study-of-right-dislocation-in-cantonese-spoken-discourse
#19
Christy Choi-Ting Lai, Sam-Po Law, Anthony Pak-Hin Kong
Right Dislocation (RD) has been suggested to be a focus marking device carrying an affective function motivated by limited planning time in conversation. The current study investigated the effects of genre type, planning load and affective function on the use of RD in Cantonese monologues. Discourse data were extracted from a recently developed corpus of oral narratives in Cantonese Chinese containing language samples from 144 native Cantonese speakers evenly distributed in age, education levels and gender...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112017/word-level-prominence-in-persian-an-experimental-study
#20
Vahid Sadeghi
Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
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