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Language and Speech

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781386/acoustic-correlates-of-focus-marking-in-czech-and-polish
#1
Fatima Hamlaoui, Marzena Żygis, Jonas Engelmann, Michael Wagner
Languages vary in the type of contexts that affect prosodic prominence. This paper reports on a production study investigating how different types of foci influence prosody in Polish and Czech noun phrases. The results show that in both languages, focus and givenness are marked prosodically, with pitch and intensity as the main acoustic correlates. Like Germanic languages, Polish and Czech patterns show prosodic focus marking in a broad range of contexts and differ in this regard from other fixed-word-stress languages such as French...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764295/acoustic-sources-of-accent-in-second-language-japanese-speech
#2
Kaori Idemaru, Peipei Wei, Lucy Gubbins
This study reports an exploratory analysis of the acoustic characteristics of second language (L2) speech which give rise to the perception of a foreign accent. Japanese speech samples were collected from American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers ( n = 16 in each group) studying Japanese. The L2 participants and native speakers ( n = 10) provided speech samples modeling after six short sentences. Segmental (vowels and stops) and prosodic features (rhythm, tone, and fluency) were examined. Native Japanese listeners ( n = 10) rated the samples with regard to degrees of foreign accent...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756528/stuttering-frequency-speech-rate-speech-naturalness-and-speech-effort-during-the-production-of-voluntary-stuttering
#3
Jason H Davidow, Heather L Grossman, Robin L Edge
PURPOSE: Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. METHOD: In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629824/making-room-for-second-language-phonotactics-effects-of-l2-learning-and-environment-on-first-language-speech-perception
#4
Matthew T Carlson
Language-specific restrictions on sound sequences in words can lead to automatic perceptual repair of illicit sound sequences. As an example, no Spanish words begin with /s/-consonant sequences ([#sC]), and where necessary (e.g., foreign loanwords) [#sC] is repaired by inserting an initial [e], (e.g. foreign loanwords, cf., esnob, from English snob). As a result, Spanish speakers tend to perceive an illusory [e] before [#sC] sequences. Interestingly, this perceptual illusion is weaker in early Spanish-English bilinguals, whose other language, English, allows [#sC]...
April 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623769/investigating-perceptual-biases-data-reliability-and-data-discovery-in-a-methodology-for-collecting-speech-errors-from-audio-recordings
#5
John Alderete, Monica Davies
This work describes a methodology of collecting speech errors from audio recordings and investigates how some of its assumptions affect data quality and composition. Speech errors of all types (sound, lexical, syntactic, etc.) were collected by eight data collectors from audio recordings of unscripted English speech. Analysis of these errors showed that: (i) different listeners find different errors in the same audio recordings, but (ii) the frequencies of error patterns are similar across listeners; (iii) errors collected "online" using on the spot observational techniques are more likely to be affected by perceptual biases than "offline" errors collected from audio recordings; and (iv) datasets built from audio recordings can be explored and extended in a number of ways that traditional corpus studies cannot be...
April 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589808/on-the-role-of-cognitive-abilities-in-second-language-vowel-learning
#6
Payam Ghaffarvand Mokari, Stefan Werner
This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gains from training in the discrimination of L2 vowel pairs...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577805/impact-of-cyrillic-on-native-english-speakers-phono-lexical-acquisition-of-russian
#7
Catherine E Showalter
We investigated the influence of grapheme familiarity and native language grapheme-phoneme correspondences during second language lexical learning. Native English speakers learned Russian-like words via auditory presentations containing only familiar first language phones, pictured meanings, and exposure to either Cyrillic orthographic forms (Orthography condition) or the sequence <XXX> (No Orthography condition). Orthography participants saw three types of written forms: familiar-congruent (e.g., <KOM>-[kom]), familiar-incongruent (e...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577804/inflectional-morphology-in-fluent-aphasia-a-case-study-in-a-highly-inflected-language
#8
Noémie Auclair-Ouellet, Pauline Pythoud, Monica Koenig-Bruhin, Marion Fossard
Inflectional morphology difficulties are typically reported in non-fluent aphasia with agrammatism, but a growing number of studies show that they can also be present in fluent aphasia. In agrammatism, morphological difficulties are conceived as the consequence of impaired phonological encoding and would affect regular verbs more than irregular verbs. However, studies show that inflectional morphology difficulties concern both regular and irregular verbs, and that their origin could be more conceptual/semantic in nature...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560782/early-l2-spoken-word-recognition-combines-input-based-and-knowledge-based-processing
#9
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552939/the-effect-of-orthography-on-the-lexical-encoding-of-palatalized-consonants-in-l2-russian
#10
Ala Simonchyk, Isabelle Darcy
The current study investigated the potential facilitative or inhibiting effects of orthography on the lexical encoding of palatalized consonants in L2 Russian. We hypothesized that learners with stable knowledge of orthographic and metalinguistic representations of palatalized consonants would display more accurate lexical encoding of the plain/palatalized contrast. The participants of the study were 40 American learners of Russian. Ten Russian native speakers served as a control group. The materials of the study comprised 20 real words, familiar to the participants, with target coronal consonants alternating in word-final and intervocalic positions...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280406/the-role-of-perception-in-the-typology-of-geminate-consonants-effects-of-manner-of-articulation-segmental-environment-position-and-stress
#11
Olga Dmitrieva
The present study seeks to answer the question of whether consonant duration is perceived differently across consonants of different manners of articulation and in different contextual environments and whether such differences may be related to the typology of geminates. The results of the cross-linguistic identification experiment suggest higher perceptual acuity in labeling short and long consonants in sonorants than in obstruents. Duration categories were also more consistently and clearly labeled in the intervocalic than in the preconsonantal environment, in the word-initial than in the word-final position, and after stressed vowels than between unstressed vowels...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280405/lexical-segmentation-in-artificial-word-learning-the-effects-of-converging-sublexical-cues
#12
Odile Bagou, Ulrich Hans Frauenfelder
This study examines how French listeners segment and learn new words of artificial languages varying in the presence of different combinations of sublexical segmentation cues. The first experiment investigated the contribution of three different types of sublexical cues (acoustic-phonetic, phonological and prosodic cues) to word learning. The second experiment explored how participants specifically exploited sublexical prosodic cues. Whereas complementary cues signaling word-initial and word-final boundaries had synergistic effects on word learning in the first experiment, the two manipulated prosodic cues redundantly signaling word-final boundaries in the second experiment were rank-ordered with final pitch variations being more weighted than final lengthening...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280401/spectral-coefficient-analyses-of-word-initial-stop-consonant-productions-suggest-similar-anticipatory-coarticulation-for-stuttering-and-nonstuttering-adults
#13
Santosh Maruthy, Yongqiang Feng, Ludo Max
A longstanding hypothesis about the sensorimotor mechanisms underlying stuttering suggests that stuttered speech dysfluencies result from a lack of coarticulation. Formant-based measures of either the stuttered or fluent speech of children and adults who stutter have generally failed to obtain compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that these individuals differ in the timing or degree of coarticulation. Here, we used a sensitive acoustic technique-spectral coefficient analyses-that allowed us to compare stuttering and nonstuttering speakers with regard to vowel-dependent anticipatory influences as early as the onset burst of a preceding voiceless stop consonant...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#14
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687065/second-language-perception-of-mandarin-vowels-and-tones
#15
Yen-Chen Hao
This study examines the discrimination of Mandarin vowels and tones by native English speakers with varying amounts of Mandarin experience, aiming to investigate the relative difficulty of these two types of sounds for English speakers at different learning stages, and the source of their difficulty. Seventeen advanced learners of Mandarin (Ex group), eighteen beginning learners (InEx group), and eighteen English speakers naïve to Mandarin (Naïve group) participated in an AXB discrimination task. The stimuli were two Mandarin vowel contrasts, /li-ly/ and /lu-ly/, and two tonal contrasts, T1-T4 and T2-T3...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610466/the-effect-of-practice-and-visual-feedback-on-oral-diadochokinetic-rates-for-younger-and-older-adults
#16
Boaz M Ben-David, Michal Icht
Assessments of oral-diadochokinetic rates are commonly performed to evaluate oral-motor skills. However, the appropriate administration protocol is not defined, and varies across therapists, clinics and laboratories. In three experiments and an auxiliary one, this study analyzes the effects of brief (motor) practice and visual feedback on the performance of 98 younger (20-40 years old) and 78 older adults (over 65) with the sequential motion rate (SMR) version. Overall rates were significantly faster for younger over older adults...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565932/information-transfer-capacity-of-articulators-in-american-sign-language
#17
Evie Malaia, Joshua D Borneman, Ronnie B Wilbur
The ability to convey information is a fundamental property of communicative signals. For sign languages, which are overtly produced with multiple, completely visible articulators, the question arises as to how the various channels co-ordinate and interact with each other. We analyze motion capture data of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives, and show that the capacity of information throughput, mathematically defined, is highest on the dominant hand (DH). We further demonstrate that information transfer capacity is also significant for the non-dominant hand (NDH), and the head channel too, as compared to control channels (ankles)...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486862/statistical-speech-segmentation-in-tone-languages-the-role-of-lexical-tones
#18
David M Gómez, Peggy Mok, Mikhail Ordin, Jacques Mehler, Marina Nespor
Research has demonstrated distinct roles for consonants and vowels in speech processing. For example, consonants have been shown to support lexical processes, such as the segmentation of speech based on transitional probabilities (TPs), more effectively than vowels. Theory and data so far, however, have considered only non-tone languages, that is to say, languages that lack contrastive lexical tones. In the present work, we provide a first investigation of the role of consonants and vowels in statistical speech segmentation by native speakers of Cantonese, as well as assessing how tones modulate the processing of vowels...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367672/prosody-improves-detection-of-spoonerisms-versus-both-sensible-and-nonsense-phrases
#19
Damian G Kelty-Stephen, Erik P Raymakers, Krista M Matthews-Saugstad
Prosody is the pattern of inflection, pitch, and intensity that communicates emotional meaning above and beyond the individual meanings of lexical items and gestures during spoken language. Research has often addressed prosody extending most clearly across multiple speech chunks and carrying properties specific to individual speakers and individual intents. However, prosody exerts effects on intended meaning even for relatively brief speech streams with minimal syntactic cues. The present work seeks to test whether prosody may actually clarify the intended meaning of a two-word phrase even when the basic phonemic sequence of the words is distorted...
March 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402164/shhh%C3%A2-i-need-quiet-children-s-understanding-of-american-british-and-japanese-accented-english-speakers
#20
Tessa Bent, Rachael Frush Holt
Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions...
February 1, 2018: Language and Speech
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