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Journal of Personality

Kassandra Cortes, Joanne V Wood
OBJECTIVE: Having a responsive partner is important for the well-being of relationships. Unfortunately, people with low self-esteem (LSEs) perceive their partners to be less responsive than do high self-esteem people (HSEs). Although the common assumption has been that LSEs' negative partner perceptions are "all in their heads"-a reflection of their negative self-projection-we argue that LSEs' views of lower partner responsiveness are, in fact, warranted. METHOD: Across two studies (NStudy1 = 122 couples; Mage = 22...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Personality
Karl-Andrew Woltin, Anat Bardi
OBJECTIVE: Values are often phrased as ideals that people seek to approach, but they can also be conceptualized as counter-ideals that people seek to avoid. We aimed to test whether individuals endorse more strongly values that are framed in line with their predominant self-regulatory motivation, using individual difference scales in promotion/prevention (Higgins, 1997) and in behavioral approach/inhibition (Carver & White, 1994). To address this systematically, we developed approach- and avoidance-framed versions of the Portrait Value Questionnaire-RR (PVQ-RR; Schwartz et al...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Personality
Anissa Mike, Hannah King, Thomas F Oltmanns, Joshua J Jackson
OBJECTIVE: OCPD is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet-level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined. METHOD: The study relied on a sample of 1630 adults who completed self-reports of personality and OCPD...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Personality
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Deon Meiring, Fons J R van de Vijver, J Alewyn Nel, François De Kock
OBJECTIVE: Despite the importance of self-other agreement for the validity of trait models, few studies have assessed cultural differences systematically. We examined self-other agreement in traits and profiles in the more collectivistic Black group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa. METHOD: Participants were 172 Black and 198 White students, and one relative and one friend of each student. Participants completed a behavior-based and a trait-adjective-based inventory...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Personality
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shachar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory (SDT) conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (n = 90) IER, ED, and a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Golan Shahar, Sheera F Lerman, Maayan Topaz, Silviu Brill, Hadar Shalev, Zvia Rudich
BACKGROUND: Chronic physical pain is one of modern medicine's principal challenges. Recently, there has been a keen research interest in the role of Depressive Personality Vulnerability (DPV) in the course of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: This is the first attempt to examine the role of three leading DPV dimensions - sociotropy, autonomy, and self-criticism - in chronic pain. METHOD: Chronic pain patients (N = 428) were assessed four times as to their pain, disability, anxious-depression, and pain-based catastrophizing...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Jonathan M Adler
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychology has largely ignored the experiences of people with disabilities. This paper strives to bring the thriving, interdisciplinary field of disability studies to personality psychology via a case study of Samantha (N=1). Samantha feels that she grew up as a hearing person who could not hear and is now a deaf person who can hear. METHOD: Narrative identity provides the theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for the rich, qualitative examination of Samantha's life story, interwoven with approaches from disability studies and intersectionality theory...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Maciel M Hernández, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Tracy L Spinrad, Rebecca H Berger, Sarah K VanSchyndel, Kassondra M Silva, Anjolii Diaz, Marilyn S Thompson, Diana E Gal, Jody Southworth
OBJECTIVE: We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or non-classroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. METHOD: Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' reports of children's school engagement and relationship quality with teachers and peers. RESULTS: In longitudinal panel models, greater teacher-student conflict and lower student engagement in kindergarten predicted greater negative expressivity in both school contexts...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Personality
Trevor F Williams, Leonard J Simms
Objective Dimensional personality trait models have gained favor as an alternative to categorical personality disorder (PD) diagnosis; however, debate persists regarding whether these traits should be conceptualized as maladaptive at both extremes (i.e., maladaptively bipolar) or just one trait pole (i.e., unipolar) Method To inform the debate on maladaptive bipolarity, linear and nonlinear relations between personality traits and dysfunction were examined in a large psychiatric patient sample (N = 365). Participants self-reported on normal-range and pathological personality domains, life satisfaction, specific interpersonal problems, and broad psychosocial functioning...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Personality
Benjamin W Hadden, Zachary G Baker, C Raymond Knee
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present research is to better understand how relationship autonomy-having more self-determined reasons for being committed to a relationship-contributes to pro-relationship responses to transgressions in romantic relationships (e.g., forgiveness and accommodation). METHODS: Study 1 employed a cross-sectional design (N=350) and Study 2 used a weekly diary (N=121) to test associations between relationship autonomy and pro-relationship responses to transgressions...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Personality
Kennon M Sheldon, Mike Prentice
In this introductory article we first describe the impetus for this special issue. What made us think that Self-Determination Theory (SDT) might provide a sort of foundation for the rest of personality psychology? For readers unfamiliar with SDT, we then provide a historical overview which covers the evolution of the six "mini-theories" that currently comprise SDT: cognitive evaluation theory, causality orientations theory, organismic integration theory, basic psychological needs theory, goal contents theory, and relational motivation theory...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sarah H Sperry, Donald P Lynam, Thomas R Kwapil
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity appears to be best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. For example, the UPPS-P model posits that there are five underlying facets of impulsivity. The present study examined the expression of the UPPS-P facets in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM). A specific goal of the study was to examine positive urgency, a facet added to the original UPPS model, and its convergence and divergence from the negative urgency facet. METHODS: A large non-clinical sample of young adults (n=294) completed the UPPS-P scale and were signaled to complete questionnaires assessing daily affect, cognitions, sense of self, and impulsive behaviors eight times a day for seven days in their daily life...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Michael L Crowe, University Of Georgia, Donald R Lynam, Purdue University, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: Although there are several models of the lower-order structure of Agreeableness, empirically derived descriptions of this domain are largely non-existent. We examined the factor structure of Agreeableness items from multiple scales in order to empirically determine the facet-level structure of the domain. METHOD: Participants (N = 1205; 73% female; 84% White; M age = 35.5, SD = 17.26) completed 131 items from 22 scales measuring Agreeableness. RESULTS: A series of factor analyses were conducted on 104 items to identify factor emergence of the domain, from a single factor to increasingly more specific factors...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality
Caroline Schlinkert, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVES: People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. METHODS: Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; Mage = 21...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Personality
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Shulamith Kreitler
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered...
February 2018: Journal of Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
OBJECTIVE: Although Conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We aim to clarify facet-level associations and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of Conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via Neuroticism) accounts for their associations. METHOD: A total of 450 participants (Mage  = 42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain- and facet-level traits (i...
December 2017: Journal of Personality
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Elyse N Mowle, Karolina Sörman
OBJECTIVE: The validity of self-report psychopathy measures may be undermined by characteristics thought to be defining features of the construct, including poor self-awareness, pathological lying, and impression management. The current study examined agreement between self- and informant perceptions of psychopathic traits captured by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowler, & Krueger, 2009) and the extent to which psychopathic traits are associated with socially desirable responding. METHOD: Participants were undergraduate roommate dyads (N = 174; Mage  = 18...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Florian Müller, Klaus Rothermund
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the fit between individuals' motives and goal properties predicts efficiency of implicit self-regulation. METHOD: Participants' (German university students; Mage  = 22; 64% female) implicit motives measurement (Multi-Motive Grid) was followed by assessment of implicit self-regulation in differently framed tasks. In Study 1 (N = 45), positive implicit evaluations of stimuli relating to an achievement goal (studying) were used as an indicator of implicit self-regulation...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sonia Sengsavang, Michael W Pratt, Susan Alisat, Pamela Sadler
OBJECTIVE: In this longitudinal, mixed-methods project, the primary focus was to examine the rank-order stability and mean-level change in the life story during the period of emerging to young adulthood, while also investigating how the transition to parenthood may impact the life story. METHOD: Seventy-two participants described three key life story scenes at age 26 and again at 32 (28% attrition from age 26 to 32). The narratives were coded for a range of features, including motivational themes (agency, communion), affective themes (emotional tone), an integrative meaning theme (coherent positive resolution), and a structural property (narrative complexity)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Emilie Auger, Danielle Menzies-Toman, John E Lydon
OBJECTIVE: Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. METHOD: Sixty-three couples participated in a 2-week event-contingent diary study. RESULTS: On a daily basis, experiencing more partner transgressions than usual predicted decreases in relationship well-being and increases in negative affect...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
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