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Journal of Personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555752/self-esteem-development-in-the-school-context-the-roles-of-intrapersonal-and-interpersonal-social-predictors
#1
Jenny Wagner, Oliver Lüdtke, Alexander Robitzsch, Richard Göllner, Ulrich Trautwein
OBJECTIVE: When considering that social inclusion is a basic human need, it makes sense that self-esteem is fueled by social feedback and the sense of being liked by others. This is particularly true with respect to early adolescence, when peers become increasingly important. In the current paper, we tested which components of social inclusion are particularly beneficial for the development of self-esteem by differentiating between intrapersonal components (i.e., self-perceptions of social inclusion) and interpersonal components (i...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545162/the-almost-unbearable-lightness-of-personality
#2
Jüri Allik
Researchers seem to believe that accepting the reality of personality traits inevitably leads to a dogma about the incredible complexity of these traits and their judgment. This paper challenges this thesis and its assertion that the accuracy of personality judgment can only be achieved when a "good target" or a "good trait" is being judged using "good information," and when a "good judge" makes the judgment. It is argued that because trait dimensions are universally applicable to all persons there is no stable ranking of good targets...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542910/personal-control-decreases-narcissistic-but-increases-non-narcissistic-in-group-positivity
#3
Aleksandra Cichocka, Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Marta Marchlewska, Michał Bilewicz, Manana Jaworska, Mateusz Olechowski
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of control motivation on in-group positivity. Past research suggests that people compensate for low personal control by increasing support for social in-groups. We predicted that the effect of personal control on in-group positivity would depend on the type of in-group positivity. Low personal control should increase compensatory, narcissistic in-group positivity, while high personal control should increase secure, non-narcissistic in-group positivity...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509415/ratings-of-affective-and-interpersonal-tendencies-differ-for-grandiose-and-vulnerable-narcissism-a-replication-and-extension-of-gore-widiger
#4
Courtland S Hyatt, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam, Thomas A Widiger, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical conceptions of narcissism have long been characterized by two seemingly opposing poles: grandiosity and vulnerability. The goal of the current study was to investigate the extent to which traits associated with one profile are perceived to co-occur with the other within an individual. METHOD: Lay raters (n = 862; 56% female; 80% Caucasian; mean age = 37) recruited from Amazon's MTurk and assigned to one of four conditions in which they rated how often a series of narcissistic traits were displayed by a prototypical grandiose narcissist, vulnerable narcissist, a close friend, or themselves...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509389/a-revised-sociogenomic-model-of-personality-traits
#5
Brent W Roberts
In this paper, I seek to update the sociogenomic model of personality traits (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Specifically, I seek to outline a broader and more comprehensive theoretical perspective on personality traits than offered in the original version of the sociogenomic model of personality traits. First, I review the major points of our 2008 paper. Second, I update our earlier model mostly with insights derived from a deeper reading of evolutionary theoretical systems, such as those found in life-history theory and ecological-evolutionary-developmental biology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509384/individual-differences-in-personality-change-across-the-adult-lifespan
#6
Ted Schwaba, Wiebke Bleidorn
OBJECTIVE: A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the lifespan is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. METHOD: Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509383/arab-levantine-personality-structure-a-psycholexical-study-of-modern-standard-arabic-in-lebanon-syria-jordan-and-the-west-bank
#7
Pia Zeinoun, Lina Daouk-Öyry, Lina Choueiri, Fons J R van de Vijver
OBJECTIVE: The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. METHOD: We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and the West Bank (Palestinian Territories)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509366/on-the-quality-of-adjustment-to-retirement-the-longitudinal-role-of-personality-traits-and-generativity
#8
Rodrigo Serrat, Feliciano Villar, Michael W Pratt, Arthur A Stukas
OBJECTIVE: Although psychological factors have been explored in relation to other life transitions, their influence on retirement adjustment quality has been largely overlooked. This study assessed the contribution of personality traits and generativity before retirement in the prediction of hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing at two temporal points after retirement. METHOD: This article analyses data from the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States) longitudinal sample...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480971/too-much-of-a-good-thing-exploring-the-inverted-u-relationship-between-self-control-and-happiness
#9
Christopher W Wiese, Louis Tay, Angela L Duckworth, Sidney D'Mello, Lauren Kuykendall, Wilhelm Hofmann, Roy F Baumeister, Kathleen D Vohs
OBJECTIVE: Can having too much self-control make people unhappy? Researchers have increasingly questioned the unilateral goodness of self-control and proposed that it is beneficial only up to a certain point, after which it becomes detrimental. The little empirical research on the issue shows mixed results. Hence, we tested whether a curvilinear relationship between self-control and subjective well-being exists. METHOD: We used multiple metrics (questionnaires, behavioral ratings), sources (self-report, other-report), and methods (cross-sectional measurement, dayreconstruction method, experience sampling method) across six studies (Ntotal  = 5,318)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423186/the-dynamics-of-searching-for-meaning-and-presence-of-meaning-in-daily-life
#10
David B Newman, John B Nezlek, Todd M Thrash
OBJECTIVE: Research on searching for meaning in life has focused on trait-level relationships rather than within-person relationships. Our goal was to examine within-person relationships between daily states of searching for meaning in life, daily states of presence of meaning in life, and daily states of well-being. METHOD: To advance our understanding of searching for meaning in life, we conducted a daily diary study with two samples in which 254 undergraduate students (Mage  = 18...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390137/trait-and-perceived-environmental-competitiveness-in-achievement-situations
#11
Andrew J Elliot, Mickael Jury, Kou Murayama
OBJECTIVE: Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance-based goals and performance attainment. METHODS: In Studies 1a (n=387) and 1b (n=322), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388840/the-benefit-of-punishment-sensitivity-on-motor-performance-under-pressure
#12
Harry Manley, Stuart Beattie, Ross Roberts, Gavin P Lawrence, Lew Hardy
OBJECTIVE: Humans are often required to perform demanding cognitive and motor tasks under pressure. However, in such environments there is considerable inter-individual variability in the ability to successfully execute actions. Here, we consider how individual differences in self-reported sensitivity to punishment influence skilled motor performance under pressure and whether this relationship is moderated by the temporal detection of threat. METHOD: Across two studies, one hundred and sixty UK participants (Study 1, n = 80, MAge = 21...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388833/cognitive-adaptive-trait-theory-a-shift-in-perspective-on-personality
#13
Gerald Matthews
Traditional, biologically based trait theories have deservedly gained broad acceptances, but some longstanding core issues of personality research remain unresolved. Recent research questions whether (1) there can be a single universal structural model of personality superfactors, (2) current theory adequately specifies the processes that mediate behavioral and emotional expressions of traits, and (3) brain-based accounts of traits adequately explain their role in real-world functioning and adaptation. This article reviews the perspective on these issues provided by cognitive-adaptive trait theory...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380675/social-comparison-in-coping-with-occupational-uncertainty-self-improvement-self-enhancement-and-the-regional-context
#14
Maria K Pavlova, Clemens M Lechner, Rainer K Silbereisen
OBJECTIVE: Taking into account the regional context, we investigated whether social comparison in coping with occupational uncertainty served self-improvement (i.e., adaptive coping) or self-enhancement (i.e., subjective well-being). METHOD: Respondents were 620 German adults aged 16 to 43, 59% female, who participated in three yearly follow-ups of a larger survey. The number of observations was 1,309 for contemporaneous and 1,079 for longitudinal analyses. Participants reported on perceived occupational uncertainty (e...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808279/personality-traits-predict-the-developmental-course-of-externalizing-a-four-wave-longitudinal-study-spanning-age-17-to-age-29
#15
Kate E Walton, Robert F Krueger, Irene Elkins, Cassandra D'Accordo, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The objective of the present study was to determine whether and how personality predicts the developmental course of externalizing problems, including antisocial behavior and substance dependence. In a large, population-based longitudinal study (N = 1,252), the 11 personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were measured at age 17, and DSM diagnoses of adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were obtained at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. We fit a quadratic multiple indicator latent growth model where the three diagnoses loaded onto an externalizing factor...
June 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710321/living-in-the-past-present-and-future-measuring-temporal-orientation-with-language
#16
Gregory Park, H Andrew Schwartz, Maarten Sap, Margaret L Kern, Evan Weingarten, Johannes C Eichstaedt, Jonah Berger, David J Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, Lyle H Ungar, Martin E P Seligman
Temporal orientation refers to individual differences in the relative emphasis one places on the past, present, or future, and it is related to academic, financial, and health outcomes. We propose and evaluate a method for automatically measuring temporal orientation through language expressed on social media. Judges rated the temporal orientation of 4,302 social media messages. We trained a classifier based on these ratings, which could accurately predict the temporal orientation of new messages in a separate validation set (accuracy/mean sensitivity = ...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691745/who-reaps-the-benefits-of-social-change-exploration-and-its-socioecological-boundaries
#17
Clemens M Lechner, Martin Obschonka, Rainer K Silbereisen
We investigated the interplay between the personality trait exploration and objective socioecological conditions in shaping individual differences in the experience of two individual-level benefits of current social change: new lifestyle options, which arise from the societal trend toward individualization, and new learning opportunities, which accrue from the societal trend toward lifelong learning. We hypothesized that people with higher trait exploration experience a greater increase in lifestyle options and learning opportunities--but more so in social ecologies in which individualization and lifelong learning are stronger, thus offering greater latitude for exploring the benefits of these trends...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691600/individual-differences-in-good-manners-rather-than-compassion-predict-fair-allocations-of-wealth-in-the-dictator-game
#18
Kun Zhao, Eamonn Ferguson, Luke D Smillie
One of the most common tools for studying pro-sociality is the dictator game, in which allocations to one's partner are often described in terms of altruism. However, the motivations driving these allocations may represent either emotional concern for others (compassion), adherence to social norms regarding fairness (politeness), or both. In this article, we apply personality psychology to the study of behavior in the dictator game, in which we examine the discriminant validity of distinct pro-social constructs from the Big Five and HEXACO models in relation to allocations of wealth...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691417/just-world-beliefs-are-associated-with-lower-levels-of-metabolic-risk-and-inflammation-and-better-sleep-after-an-unfair-event
#19
Cynthia S Levine, Devika Basu, Edith Chen
This study's goal was to conduct a preliminary test of the theory that just world beliefs can buffer against negative physiological outcomes after people experience certain types of negative life events by testing associations between just world beliefs and physiological outcomes among people with different life event histories. In a sample of 247 adults (Mage  = 46.01; 24.31% men; 60.78% White), this research investigated the relationship between just world beliefs and metabolic symptoms, inflammation, and sleep among people who had recently experienced an unfair event, another type of negative event, or no negative event...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691245/capturing-the-dsm-5-alternative-personality-disorder-model-traits-in-the-five-factor-model-s-nomological-net
#20
Takakuni Suzuki, Sarah A Griffin, Douglas B Samuel
Several studies have shown structural and statistical similarities between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) alternative personality disorder model and the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, no study to date has evaluated the nomological network similarities between the two models. The relations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with relevant criterion variables were examined in a sample of 336 undergraduate students (Mage  = 19...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
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