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Journal of Personality

Steven G Ludeke, Timothy Bainbridge, Jie Liu, Kun Zhao, Luke D Smillie, Ingo Zettler
OBJECTIVE: The extensive use of two diverging personality taxonomies (the Big Five and HEXACO models) in contemporary research creates a need for understanding how traits connect to each other across taxonomies. Previous research has approached this at both a highly general (domain-) level as well as at a highly specific (facet-) level. The present report is the first to use the intermediate (aspect-) level of the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS) to understand the connections between the two models...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Personality
Jeanette Kubiak, Sonja Rother, Boris Egloff
OBJECTIVE: People often feel anxious prior to performance situations, and this can lead to performance decrements. Thus, applying effective emotion regulation strategies could be crucial for achieving maximum performance. METHOD: We investigated the relation between dispositional precompetition emotion regulation and competition performance. Participants were 310 table tennis players (240 men, Mage = 39.07, SD = 15.99). Self-reported emotion regulation behavior was matched with objective performance data...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Personality
Keith S Cox, Kathrin J Hanek, Abigail L Cassario
OBJECTIVE: Extending research on the incremental validity of life story variables and the importance of particular kinds of story contexts, this paper tested the hypothesis that a single theme (narrative redemption) in a specific life story episode (the low point-or, an episode that challenges the self) can predict well-being, above and beyond covariates. METHOD: Two samples, an emerging adult (N = 144) and a late-midlife sample (N = 158), provided life story episodes with different life story collection methods (written and interview) and completed self-report measures concurrently and longitudinally...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Personality
James N Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D Parker, Baljinder K Sahdra
OBJECTIVE: Compulsive internet use (CIU) has been linked to decrements in mental health and well-being. However relatively little is known about how CIU relates to evaluations of the self, and in particular, whether CIU is antecedent to or is a consequence of negative evaluations of one's social worth (self-esteem) and general efficacy (hope). To examine this, we explored the longitudinal relations between CIU and the development of self-esteem and hope among adolescents over a four-year period...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Personality
Kristina L Steiner, David B Pillemer, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present three studies was to examine experimentally whether writing about life story chapters would increase self-esteem, self-concept clarity, and meaning. METHOD: In study 1, 179 participants rated state self-esteem and self-concept clarity before and after they described either four important life story chapters or four famous Americans. In study 2, 141 new participants completed a similar procedure to study 1 and then returned two days later to complete the procedure a second time...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Personality
Anna M Bardone-Cone, Katherine A Thompson, Alexandra J Miller
In our review, we focus on self-related constructs in the context of eating disorders with four aims. First, we examine a variety of self-related constructs that have been theoretically and empirically linked to the development and course of eating disorders. In addition to the more well-researched constructs of self-esteem and self-efficacy, we also report on findings related to selflessness, contingent self-worth, self-objectification, ego-syntonicity, self-concept clarity, self-compassion, social comparison, self-oriented perfectionism/self-criticism, and narcissism...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Personality
Lameese Eldesouky, Tammy English
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how individual differences in emotion regulation goals predict emotion regulation strategy use in daily life. METHOD: Across three studies, we assessed two common types of emotion regulation goals (hedonic, social) and strategies spanning the entire process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998b). We conducted two studies using global measures with undergraduates (N = 394; 18-25 years; 69% female; 56% European-American) and community members (N = 302; 19-74 years; 50% female; 75% European-American), and a 9-day daily diary study with another community sample (N = 272; 23-85 years; 50% female; 84% European-American)...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Personality
Golan Shahar, Megan L Rogers, Hadar Shalev, Thomas E Joiner
We review the theoretical and empirical literature on the role of the self-concept in suicidal behavior in the context of mood disorders (i.e., unipolar depression and bipolar spectrum disorders). The main themes emanating from this review are then juxtaposed against (1) the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005), and (2) biological research on the role of inflammatory processes in suicidality. Such a juxtaposition paves the way for a bio-cognitive-interpersonal hypothesis: Pathologies of the self-concept-primarily self-criticism-propel mood disorder sufferers to generate interpersonal stress that culminates in two proximal causes of suicidality: thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
Sosja Prinsen, Simone Dohle, Catharine Evers, Denise T D de Ridder, Wilhelm Hofmann
Giving in to food temptations is typically labeled as self-regulation failure. However, when indulgence stems from self-licensing processes, i.e., relying on reasons to justify diet deviations, these instances might actually promote successful goal striving. This research aimed to theoretically define and test under what conditions self-licensing would be considered functional (e.g., when it ultimately serves the long-term goal of weight control) and dysfunctional (e.g., when it threatens successful goal striving) METHOD: First, a pool of items reflecting functional and dysfunctional ways of self-licensing was tested and representative items were selected (Study 1; N = 194)...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Personality
Frances L Wang, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad
OBJECTIVE: Children's effortful control and impulsivity are important predictors of the personality trait, ego-resiliency (i.e., resiliency). Most researchers have not considered the fact that effortful control and impulsivity share substantial conceptual and empirical overlap, yet they also have been shown to be distinct. We tested a bifactor model of effortful control and impulsivity to characterize their shared and unique variance, the prospective prediction of resiliency by the factors of the bifactor model, and moderation by sex and age...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Personality
William L Dunlop, Grace E Hanley
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychologists have begun to consider the predictive ability of comparable personality characteristics at the levels of traits, goals, and narrative identity. Here, we build upon and extend this work by adopting a contextualized personality approach. Doing so entailed exploring the implications of personality characteristics within three social roles and at each level of personality in relation to role-specific and generalized measures of psychological adjustment...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Personality
Martina Luchetti, Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin
OBJECTIVE: Personality is known to predict alcohol consumption, but how alcohol use is related to personality change is less clear, especially at older ages. The present study examined the effects of level of alcohol consumption and history of dependence on change in the Five-Factor Model personality traits in a national cohort of Americans aged over 50. METHOD: Over 10,000 adults who participated in 2006-2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study reported on personality and alcohol use and were followed over 4 years...
December 2018: Journal of Personality
Kassandra Cortes, Joanne V Wood
OBJECTIVE: Having a responsive partner is important for the well-being of relationships. Unfortunately, people with low self-esteem (LSEs) perceive their partners to be less responsive than do people with high self-esteem (HSEs). Although the common assumption has been that LSEs' negative partner perceptions are "all in their heads"-a reflection of their negative self-projection-we argue that LSEs' views of lower partner responsiveness are, in fact, warranted. METHOD: Across two studies (NStudy1  = 122 couples, Mage  = 22...
December 2018: Journal of Personality
Anissa Mike, Hannah King, Thomas F Oltmanns, Joshua J Jackson
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of Conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined...
December 2018: Journal of Personality
Richard M Ryan, Bart Soenens, Maarten Vansteenkiste
This special issue brings together seven contributions which, in spite of the diversity of the topics and theories being covered, all make use of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as their guiding, complementary, or contrasting framework. In this commentary we first reflect on how SDT has developed organically and conservatively from "within," based on emerging patterns of evidence, as well through ongoing challenges from other models and frameworks. We then discuss each of the various contributions to this special issue, addressing themes that include SDT's breadth of methods, and its relevance to topics such as narcissism, wisdom, individual differences, big-five traits, and the neuropsychology of motivation, among others...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
Christopher J Hopwood, Evan W Good
OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal dysfunction is an important marker of individual differences in personality and well-being. Existing research on interpersonal dysfunction focuses primarily on the problematic behaviors of individuals without considering how sensitivity to others' behavior impacts functioning. In this study, we test the structure and correlates of a model of relationship dysfunction that integrates the problems individuals bring to relationships with their sensitivities to others' behavior...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miranda Giacomin, Christian H Jordan
OBJECTIVE: We examine why people form positive first impressions of grandiose narcissists, even though they can identify others' narcissism. We test whether this occurs because narcissists are perceived to have especially high self-esteem, which is socially valued. METHOD: Across four studies, undergraduate perceivers viewed photographs of targets (for whom narcissism and self-esteem were known) and rated perceptions of their narcissism, self-esteem, and how much they liked them...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Alex J Benson, Jessica Jeschke, Christian H Jordan, Mark W Bruner, Steven Arnocky
OBJECTIVE: Using the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC) as a guiding framework, the current research examines how ingroup affiliation and devaluation are connected to the self-enhancing and self-threatening properties of ingroups for narcissists. METHOD: Participants (N = 374) completed a group decision-making task and received feedback that factorially manipulated both individual and group performance. Across the four combinations of performance feedback, we examined the conditional effects of narcissistic admiration and rivalry on social identity, perceptions of group member ability, desire to abandon the group, and desire to expel group members...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Marie Forgeard, Kathrin Herzhoff, Eranda Jayawickreme, Eli Tsukayama, Courtney Beard, Thröstur Björgvinsson
OBJECTIVE: Research examining relationships between trait Openness to Experience, psychopathology, and well-being has produced contradictory findings. Examining temporary manifestations of Openness may provide further insight into the interplay between Openness and symptoms in clinical populations. METHOD: The present study validated a brief new measure to assess daily Openness in 271 adults (Mage = 34 years, 52% women, 83% White) taking part in 7 days of intensive treatment for acute psychopathology...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nicola Toschi, Luca Passamonti
OBJECTIVE: Differences in myelination across the cortical mantle are important neurobiological mediators of variability in cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning. Past studies have found that personality traits reflecting such variability are linked to neuroanatomical and functional changes in prefrontal and temporo-parietal cortices. Whether these effects are partially mediated by differences in intra-cortical myelin remains to be established. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we employed vertex-wise intra-cortical myelin maps in n=1,003 people from the Human Connectome Project...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
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