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Journal of Personality

D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin, M Brent Donnellan, Tricia K Neppl
OBJECTIVE: Depressed parents have negatively distorted views of the personalities and behaviors of their children. Our goal was to evaluate how other internalizing symptoms and personality traits relate to perceptions of child temperament using data from mothers and fathers as well as novel statistical method for modeling multi-informant data. METHOD: We applied the trifactor model (Bauer et al., 2013) to data collected from the parents of 273 children (ages 3-5 years)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Personality
Shira Peleg, Noa Vilchinsky, William A Fisher, Abed Khaskia, Morris Mosseri
OBJECTIVE: To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. METHOD: A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N=106) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including socio-demographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
OBJECTIVE: Although conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. We aim to clarify facet-level associations, and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via neuroticism) accounts for their associations. METHOD: 450 participants (Mage =42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain and facet-level traits (i...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Personality
Monischa B Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, And Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The dispositional inability to self-regulate own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present paper was to examine if high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Personality
Kate Sweeny, Angelica Falkenstein
OBJECTIVE: The present research examined whether the tendency to brace for the worst by becoming pessimistic as news approaches varies across people, namely people who differ in their trait-like outlooks on the future (dispositional optimism, defensive pessimism). METHOD: Across 9 studies in laboratory and field settings, we examined the roles of dispositional optimism and defensive pessimism in the propensity to brace for the worst when awaiting uncertain news...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Nejra Van Zalk, Michael E Lamb, Peter Jason Rentfrow
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated a) how a composite measure of shyness comprising introversion and neuroticism relates to other well-known constructs involving social fears, and b) whether mean-levels of shyness vary for men and women depending on the adoption of various social roles. METHOD: Study I used a sample of 211 UK participants aged 17-70 (64% female; Mage = 47.90). Study II used data from a large cross-sectional data set with UK participants aged 17-70 (Ntarget = 552,663; 64% female; Mage = 34...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Jennifer C Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Although research often relies on retrospective affect self-reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro-longitudinal study examines personality (neuroticism, extraversion) and emotional salience (peak, recent affect) associations with retrospective-momentary affect report discrepancies over different timeframes. METHOD: 179 adults aged 20-78 (M = 48...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher J Hopwood, Richard E Lucas
Theory and research have emphasized the impact of life events on personality trait change. In this article, we review prospective research on personality trait change in response to 9 major life events in the broader domains of love and work. We expected to find that life events lead to personality trait change to the extent that they have a lasting influence on individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Moreover, we predicted that love-related life events such as marriage or parenthood would be more strongly related to changes in traits that emphasize affective content whereas work-related life events would be more likely to lead to change in traits that reflect behavioral or cognitive content...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Maika Rawolle, Oliver C Schultheiss, Alexandra Strasser, Hugo M Kehr
OBJECTIVE: Visionary images are identity-relevant, picture-like mental representations of a desirable and attainable future appearing regularly in a person's stream of thought. Prior research indicates that both mental and real images provide access to implicit motives. We therefore proposed that visionary images motivate people by arousing their implicit motives and tested this hypothesis in two experimental studies. METHOD: We used guided visualizations to administer motive-domain-specific visionary images (Study 1: achievement and neutral, age: M = 24...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Erika N Carlson, Aidan G C Wright, Hira Imam
OBJECTIVE: Problematic interpersonal behavior might stem from and be maintained by the beliefs people have about how others see them (i.e., metaperceptions). The current study tested whether people with interpersonal problems formed more or less accurate metaperceptions about their personality (meta-accuracy), if they thought others saw them in more or less positive ways (positivity), and if they underestimated or overestimated how much others saw them as they saw themselves (transparency)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
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December 2016: Journal of Personality
Barbora Nevicka, Matthijs Baas, Femke S Ten Velden
Narcissistic individuals have highly positive self-views and overestimate their abilities. Consequently, they tend to react aggressively whenever they receive information that does not match their high self-views (ego threat). We argue that focusing on aggression merely portrays a one-sided view of narcissistic individuals and the manner in which they counter ego threats. We propose that following ego threat, narcissism can also fuel performance. In four studies, we measured nonclinical narcissism and allocated Dutch undergraduate university students (N1  = 175, N2  = 142, N3  = 159, N4  = 174) to either an ego threat or a no ego threat condition...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Stephanie S Spielmann, Geoff MacDonald, Samantha Joel, Emily A Impett
This research investigated whether people who fear being single have a more difficult time letting go of ex-partners following a romantic breakup. Data were collected in a cross-sectional study (N = 209, 64% women, Mage  = 30 years old) as well as a 1-month daily experience study of individuals who just went through a romantic breakup (N = 117, 44% women, Mage  = 27 years old). Findings from both studies revealed that those with stronger fear of being single (Spielmann et al., 2013) reported greater longing for their ex-partners...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Maria G Mens, Michael F Scheier
Breast cancer can seriously disrupt a person's important life goals. As such, the ability to adjust one's goals may be critical for well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between disengagement/reengagement capacity and well-being among women with breast cancer, as well as several potential mechanisms (intrusive thoughts, life purpose, and physical activity) that could explain these relationships. The sample consisted of 230 women with early-stage (n = 172) or late-stage (n = 58) breast cancer, who were followed prospectively for 8 months...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Marleen Gillebaart, Iris K Schneider, Denise T D De Ridder
Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; Mage  = 33...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Sarah S Dermody, Aidan G C Wright, JeeWon Cheong, Karissa G Miller, Matthew F Muldoon, Janine D Flory, Peter J Gianaros, Anna L Marsland, Stephen B Manuck
Varying associations are reported between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we further examine dispositional correlates of cardiometabolic risk within a hierarchical model of personality that proposes higher-order traits of Stability (shared variance of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, inverse Neuroticism) and Plasticity (Extraversion, Openness), and we test hypothesized mediation via biological and behavioral factors. In an observational study of 856 community volunteers aged 30-54 years (46% male, 86% Caucasian), latent variable FFM traits (using multiple-informant reports) and aggregated cardiometabolic risk (indicators: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, adiposity) were estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Frank Martela, Richard M Ryan
Pro-social behaviors have been associated with enhanced well-being, but what psychological mechanisms explain this connection? Some theories suggest that beneficence-the sense of being able to give-inherently improves well-being, whereas evidence from self-determination theory (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010) shows that increases in well-being are mediated by satisfaction of innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Here we simultaneously assess these two explanations. Study 1 (N = 335) used a cross-sectional survey with an Internet sample to develop a measure to assess beneficence satisfaction...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Todd B Kashdan, Fallon R Goodman, Travis T Mallard, C Nathan DeWall
Why do people experience anger? Most of our knowledge on anger-triggering events is based on the study of reactions at a single time point in a person's life. Little research has examined how people experience anger in their daily life over time. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the situational determinants of anger over the course of 3 weeks. Using daily diary methodology, people (N = 173; 2,342 anger episodes) reported their most intense daily anger and, with an open-ended format, described the trigger...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Guy Roth, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Avi Assor
Two studies explored the role of parents' unconditional positive regard (UCPR) as perceived by adolescents and young adults in promoting the effectiveness of specific parenting practices that may support offspring's academic autonomous motivation. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that UCPR predicts rationale-giving and choice-provision practices and, at the same time, moderates their relations with adolescents' autonomous motivation. Study 2 replicated the association between UCPR and the parental practices, and further explored the role of parents' authenticity as an antecedent of UCPR and parental autonomy support...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
Nora Hope, Richard Koestner, Anne Holding, Brenda Harvey
Kasser and Ryan (1993,1996) have contrasted two types of life values: intrinsic aspirations, which include community contribution, building close relationships, and self-growth, and extrinsic aspirations, which include fame, wealth, and physical beauty. Prioritization of extrinsic relative to intrinsic aspirations has been related cross-sectionally to decreased well-being (Kasser, 2002). However, the influence of close others in the etiology of young adults' prioritization of extrinsic aspirations, and the prospective effects of aspirations on well-being, are not well understood...
December 2016: Journal of Personality
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