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Journal of Personality

Constantine Sedikides, Nikos Ntoumanis, Kennon M Sheldon
OBJECTIVE: This theoretical article discusses the relevance of self-determination theory (SDT) for narcissism, a classic topic in self-theory. METHOD AND RESULTS: The trait of narcissism reflects a self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative interpersonal orientation that feeds on exaggerated perceptions of agency, but not communion. The article embeds narcissism in the five mini-theories of SDT (organismic integration, causality orientations, basic needs, cognitive evaluation, and goal contents) and considers research directions that can explore synergies between key constructs from SDT and narcissism...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
John B Nezlek, Emilia Mochort, Marzena Cypryańska
OBJECTIVE: To examine the self-presentational motives underlying people's selection of their daily dress and relationships between these motives and public self-consciousness. METHOD: Participants in this study, 61 working adults, described their motives for choosing what they wore each day for 2 weeks. They also provided trait level measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, and self-monitoring. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling analyses found positive relationships between public self-consciousness and the strength of various self-presentational motives for why people chose the clothes they wore each day...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jennifer C Lay, Theresa Pauly, Peter Graf, Jeremy C Biesanz, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Solitude is a ubiquitous experience, often confused with loneliness, yet sometimes sought out in daily life. This study aimed to identify distinct types of solitude experiences from everyday affect/thought patterns and to examine how and for whom solitude is experienced positively versus negatively. METHOD: 100 community-dwelling adults aged 50-85 years (64% female, 56% East Asian, 36% European, 8% Other/Mixed heritage) and 50 students aged 18-28 years (92% female, 42% East Asian, 22% European, 36% Other/Mixed) each completed approximately 30 daily life assessments over 10 days on their current and desired social situation, thoughts, and affect...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Ella Daniel, Maya Benish-Weisman
OBJECTIVE: Value change stability was examined in a longitudinal sample of Jewish and Arab Israeli adolescents. METHOD: Adolescents (N = 520; 55.4% girls, Mage  = 13.76, SD = .52, at initial assessment) reported value importance at four annual evaluations. RESULTS: Adolescents increased in values' internal coherence and rank-order stability. Their value hierarchy was consistent and differentiated from the hierarchy of adults. Latent growth curve analyses indicated a similar pattern of mean-level value change for both ethnic groups: an increase in power and a decrease in tradition values; an increase in self-direction values among Jewish adolescents but not among Arab participants...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miao Miao, Yiqun Gan
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effectiveness of a photographic intervention method on meaning in life (MIL) and further investigated the self-regulatory mechanism responsible for the effect of MIL in the promotion of proactive coping. METHOD: Participants were 145 Chinese adults (Mage = 27.82; 71.3% female), who were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: intervention (taking photos and writing expressively), a taking photos only control, or an assessment only control...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Mike Prentice, Eranda Jayawickreme, William Fleeson
We explore and explicate some promising points of integration between Self-Determination Theory (SDT: Ryan & Deci, 2000) and Whole Trait Theory (WTT; Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015). Integrating SDT and WTT can offer an example for navigating challenges that have long confronted integrating trait-descriptive and motivational-explanatory views of personality. We review SDT and WTT in turn. The review of SDT is organized around the emergence of its six mini-theories. The review of WTT will introduce the descriptive and explanatory elements as aspects of whole traits, and it will also provide a functional view of traits as tools for goal pursuit...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Tiffany Jenzer, Jennifer P Read, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Mark A Prince
OBJECTIVE: The study of coping has far-reaching implications for understanding psychopathology and resilience, as well as for the treatment of psychological disorders. Developmental work has examined how the ability to cope changes across time in children and adolescents; however, work in emerging adulthood is still lacking. Coping is thought to emerge from basic biological and psychological processes, such as temperament and gender, which may influence the trajectory of coping use over time...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Julian M Etzel, Oliver Lüdtke, Jenny Wagner, Gabriel Nagy
OBJECTIVE: Our study addressed three questions concerning the similarity of vocational interests within families: 1) How similar are vocational interests of mothers and fathers? 2) How similar are vocational interest of parents and their children? 3) Is the inference about parent-child profile similarity affected by mother-father profile similarity?. METHOD: Data from N = 1,624 tenth graders and their parents were used to analyze interest profile similarity by means of a pseudo-coupling approach...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Elise L Hartley, Werner G K Stritzke, Andrew C Page, Caroline A Blades, Kylee T Parentich
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the role of individual differences in neuroticism in conferring increased reactivity to the interpersonal antecedents for suicide proposed by the interpersonal theory of suicide. METHOD: Undergraduate students (N = 113) were screened and selected to form high (n = 58) and low (n = 55) neuroticism groups and an experimental computer task was used to manipulate participants' experience of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jack J Bauer, Laura E Graham, Elissa A Lauber, Bridget P Lynch
OBJECTIVE: We disentangled three growth-relevant concepts (redemption, self-improvement, and eudaimonic growth) in personal narratives of high, low, and turning points and tested their relations to well-being. METHOD: In two studies, participants (Study 1 n = 111, Study 2 n = 150; overall ages 17-83, 56% women, 75% white) wrote narratives of high points, low points, and turning points. Researchers coded each narrative for redemption sequences (i.e., affectively valenced changes in life from bad to good), self-improvement sequences (i...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Michele Vecchione, Guido Alessandri, Sonia Roccas, Gian Vittorio Caprara
OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the longitudinal association between basic personal values and the Big Five personality traits. METHOD: A sample of 546 young adults (57% females) with a mean age of 21.68 years (SD = 1.60) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Big Five Questionnaire at three-time points, each separated by an interval of four years. Cross-lagged models were used to investigate the possible reciprocal relations between traits and values, after the stability of the variables was taken into account...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Pierce D Ekstrom, Christopher M Federico
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the relations between the Big Five personality traits and political preferences develop over a campaign. METHOD: We rely on a 6-wave nationwide longitudinal survey from the 2008 U.S. election that included 20,000 respondents. Mean age: 49 (SD=15). 53% of respondents were women, 47% men. 82% were White, 8% Black, 6% Hispanic/Latino, 1% Asian, 1% Native American, and 2% other. Survey weights were applied to approximate a representative sample of the U...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Abdel Abdellaoui, Hsi-Yuan Chen, Gonneke Willemsen, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Karin J H Verweij, Michel G Nivard, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma, John T Cacioppo
OBJECTIVE: Loneliness is an aversive response to a discrepancy between desired and actual social relationships and correlates with personality. We investigate the relationship of loneliness and personality in twin-family and molecular genetic data. METHOD: Phenotypic correlations between loneliness and the Big Five personality traits were estimated in 29,625 adults, and in a group with genome-wide genotype data (N=4,222), genetic correlations were obtained. We explored whether genetic correlations may reflect causal relationships by investigating within monozygotic twin-pair differences (Npairs =2,662), by longitudinal within-subject changes in personality and loneliness (N=4,260-9,238 longitudinal comparisons), and by longitudinal cross-lagged panel analyses (N=15,628)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miranda Giacomin, Nicholas O Rule
OBJECTIVE: Though initially charming and inviting, narcissists often engage in negative interpersonal behaviors. Identifying and avoiding narcissists therefore carries adaptive value. Whereas past research has found that people can judge others' grandiose narcissism from their appearance (including their faces), the cues supporting these judgments require further elucidation. Here, we investigated which facial features underlie perceptions of grandiose narcissism and how they convey that information...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nils Myszkowski, Martin Storme, Jean-Louis Tavani
OBJECTIVE: Because of their length and objective of broad content coverage, very short scales can show limited internal consistency and structural validity. We argue that it is because their objectives may be better aligned with formative investigations than with reflective measurement methods that capitalize on content overlap. As proofs of concept of formative investigations of short scales, we investigate the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). METHOD: In Study 1, we administered the TIPI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to 938 adults, and fitted a formative Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model, which consisted of the TIPI items forming 5 latent variables, which in turn predicted the 5 BFI scores...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Martin M Smith, Simon B Sherry, Samantha Chen, Donald H Saklofske, Christopher Mushquash, Gordon L Flett, Paul L Hewitt
OBJECTIVE: Over 50 years of research implicates perfectionism in suicide. Yet the role of perfectionism in suicide needs clarification due to notable between-study inconsistencies in findings, underpowered studies, and uncertainty about whether perfectionism confers risk for suicide. We addressed this by meta-analyzing perfectionism's relationship with suicide ideation and attempts. We also tested whether self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism predicted increased suicide ideation, beyond baseline ideation...
June 2018: Journal of Personality
Zhuo Job Chen, Kung-Yu Hsu, Xinyue Zhou, Gerard Saucier
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of American English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: tradition-oriented religiousness (TR), subjective spirituality (SS), communal rationalism (CR), unmitigated self-interest (USI), and inequality aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese-language isms structures in both mainland China and Taiwan. METHOD AND RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses with 915 mainland Chinese subjects uncovered four interpretable factors dimensionalizing 165 mainland Chinese dictionary isms terms...
June 2018: Journal of Personality
Alexander E Wong, Robin R Vallacher
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that self-knowledge and goal perseverance are mutually reinforcing because of the roles of self-knowledge in directing goal pursuit, and of goal pursuit in structuring the self-concept. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we used a daily diary design with 97 college-aged participants for 40 days to assess whether daily self-concept clarity and grit predict one another's next-day levels. Data were analyzed using multilevel cross-lagged panel modeling...
June 2018: Journal of Personality
William J Chopik, Shinobu Kitayama
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are characterized by both stability and change across the life span. Many of the mechanisms hypothesized to cause personality change (e.g., the timing of various social roles, physical health, and cultural values) differ considerably across culture. Moreover, personality consistency is valued highly in Western societies, but less so in non-Western societies. Few studies have examined how personality changes differently across cultures. METHOD: We employed a multilevel modeling approach to examine age-related changes in Big Five personality traits in two large panel studies of Americans (n = 6,259; Mage  = 46...
June 2018: Journal of Personality
Maaike Verhagen, Gerine M A Lodder, Roy F Baumeister
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has linked high levels of belongingness needs to low well-being, suggesting that high desire for social connection causes problems. Against that view, we hypothesized that problems stem especially from unmet belongingness needs. To examine this, discrepancies between belongingness needs and relationship satisfaction were measured. METHOD: A total of 1,342 adolescents (Mage  = 13.94 years, 48.6% boys) completed questionnaires about belongingness needs, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem...
June 2018: Journal of Personality
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