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Journal of Personality

Jessie Sun, Scott Barry Kaufman, Luke D Smillie
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are associated with well-being, but the precise correlates vary across well-being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well-being dimensions. METHOD: Two samples of U.S. participants (Total N = 706, Mage = 36.17, 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well-being...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Personality
Lily Assaad, Edward P Lemay
OBJECTIVE: Social anhedonia is a deficiency in the capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions. This study examined the implications of social anhedonia for romantic relationship functioning, including the association of social anhedonia with sentiments towards romantic partners that are central to relationship functioning (satisfaction, commitment, regard for the partner, and care for the partner's welfare) and analogous perceptions of the partner's sentiments. METHODS: Data were collected from 281 participants who were involved in romantic relationships...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Personality
Anu Realo, Peter J van der Most, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko, Bertus F Jeronimus, Liisi Kööts-Ausmees, René Mõttus, Felix C Tropf, Harold Snieder, Johan Ormel
OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to estimate the proportion of the phenotypic variance of Neuroticism and its facet scales that can be attributed to common SNPs in two adult populations from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 3,292) and the Netherlands (Lifelines; N = 13,383). METHOD: Genomic-Relatedness-Matrix Restricted Maximum Likelihood (GREML) using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software was employed. To build upon previous research, we used self- and informant-reports of the 30-facet NEO personality inventories and analyzed both the usual sum scores and the residual facet scores of Neuroticism...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
Wolfgang Tschacher, Fabian Ramseyer, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The social present is a novel descriptor of dyadic nowness and social sharing, extending research on individual nowness (James' specious present) to the interpersonal and intersubjective domain. We wished to connect this descriptor to personality attributes. METHOD: We define the social present by the duration of significant nonverbal synchrony, based on the phenomenon of movement synchrony that generally emerges in social interactions. It is thus an implicit and objective measure that can be implemented by automated video analyses...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
Anne C Holding, Nora H Hope, Brenda Harvey, Ariane S Marion Jetten, Richard Koestner
OBJECTIVE: Action crises describe the intrapsychic conflicts individuals experience when they feel torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. The present investigation introduces autonomous and controlled motivation as independent predictors of action crisis severity, beyond known personality level predictors (action orientation), and novel personality level predictors (neuroticism and conscientiousness). METHOD: Using a multi-wave prospective longitudinal design and multilevel modeling (MLM) we followed students pursuing 3 personal goals across an academic semester (N = 425 undergraduates, 76% female, 57% Caucasian, Mage = 20...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin, M Brent Donnellan, Tricia K Neppl
OBJECTIVE: Depressed parents have negatively distorted views of the personalities and behaviors of their children. Our goal was to evaluate how other internalizing symptoms and personality traits relate to perceptions of child temperament using data from mothers and fathers as well as novel statistical method for modeling multi-informant data. METHOD: We applied the trifactor model (Bauer et al., 2013) to data collected from the parents of 273 children (ages 3-5 years)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Personality
Shira Peleg, Noa Vilchinsky, William A Fisher, Abed Khaskia, Morris Mosseri
OBJECTIVE: To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. METHOD: A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N=106) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including socio-demographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
OBJECTIVE: Although conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. We aim to clarify facet-level associations, and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via neuroticism) accounts for their associations. METHOD: 450 participants (Mage =42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain and facet-level traits (i...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Personality
Monischa B Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, And Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The dispositional inability to self-regulate own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present paper was to examine if high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Personality
Kate Sweeny, Angelica Falkenstein
OBJECTIVE: The present research examined whether the tendency to brace for the worst by becoming pessimistic as news approaches varies across people, namely, people who differ in their trait-like outlooks on the future (dispositional optimism, defensive pessimism). METHOD: Across nine studies in laboratory and field settings, we examined the roles of dispositional optimism and defensive pessimism in the propensity to brace for the worst when awaiting uncertain news...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Nejra Van Zalk, Michael E Lamb, Peter Jason Rentfrow
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated a) how a composite measure of shyness comprising introversion and neuroticism relates to other well-known constructs involving social fears, and b) whether mean-levels of shyness vary for men and women depending on the adoption of various social roles. METHOD: Study I used a sample of 211 UK participants aged 17-70 (64% female; Mage = 47.90). Study II used data from a large cross-sectional data set with UK participants aged 17-70 (Ntarget = 552,663; 64% female; Mage = 34...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Jennifer C Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Although research often relies on retrospective affect self-reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro-longitudinal study examines personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion) and emotional salience (peak and recent affect) associations with retrospective-momentary affect report discrepancies over different time frames. METHOD: Participants were 179 adults aged 20-78 (M = 48...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
Christopher T Barry, Joyce H L Lui, Lauren M Lee-Rowland, Erin V Moran
OBJECTIVE: The present study extended recent work on communal narcissism to a sample of at-risk adolescents. Although narcissism is widely considered an agentic personality construct, Gebauer and colleagues (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio, 2012) demonstrated the existence and utility of a communal narcissism construct in adults. The extent to which this variant of narcissism applies to adolescents is not yet known. Because communal narcissism (e.g., feeling that one is the most helpful, is a great influence on others, will bring about world peace) may actually be aversive to others, we investigated the associated self- and peer perceptions of adolescent communal narcissism...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Terry Ng-Knight, Ingrid Schoon
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that individual differences in self-control emerge early in childhood and predict a range of important outcomes throughout childhood and adulthood. There is, however, less knowledge about the social origins of self-control, including the mechanisms by which early socioeconomic adversity may lead to lower levels of self-control. This study aimed to extend understanding of the link between socioeconomic adversity and self-control by (a) testing which individual aspects of socioeconomic risk uniquely predict lower self-control; (b) testing whether objective socioeconomic risk operates independently of, or via, subjective parental stress; and (c) examining the interplay of socioeconomic risk factors and individual differences in children's temperament as predictors of early self-control...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Susan C South, Nayla R Hamdi, Robert F Krueger
For more than a decade, biometric moderation models have been used to examine whether genetic and environmental influences on individual differences might vary within the population. These quantitative Gene × Environment interaction models have the potential to elucidate not only when genetic and environmental influences on a phenotype might differ, but also why, as they provide an empirical test of several theoretical paradigms that serve as useful heuristics to explain etiology-diathesis-stress, bioecological, differential susceptibility, and social control...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Matt McGue, Aldo Rustichini, William G Iacono
There is considerable evidence that college attainment is associated with family background and cognitive and noncognitive skills. Behavioral genetic methods are used to determine whether the family background effect is mediated through cognitive and noncognitive skill development. We analyze data from two longitudinal behavioral genetic studies: the Minnesota Twin Family Study, consisting of 1,382 pairs of like-sex twins and their parents, and the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, consisting of 409 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families with two offspring and their rearing parents...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Lauren Schmitz, Dalton Conley
This overview develops new empirical models that can effectively document Gene × Environment (G×E) interactions in observational data. Current G×E studies are often unable to support causal inference because they use endogenous measures of the environment or fail to adequately address the nonrandom distribution of genes across environments, confounding estimates. Comprehensive measures of genetic variation are incorporated into quasi-natural experimental designs to exploit exogenous environmental shocks or isolate variation in environmental exposure to avoid potential confounders...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Jeremy Freese, Yu-Han Jao
Classical behavioral genetics models for twin and other family designs decompose traits into heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment components. Estimates of heritability of adult traits are pervasively observed to be far higher than those of shared environment, which has been used to make broad claims about the impotence of upbringing. However, the most commonly studied nondemographic variable in many areas of social science, educational attainment, exhibits robustly high estimates both for heritability and for shared environment...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
René Mõttus, Riccardo Marioni, Ian J Deary
Associations between markers of ostensible psychological characteristics and social and health inequalities are pervasive but difficult to explain. In some cases, there may be causal influence flowing from social and health inequalities to psychological differences, whereas sometimes it may be the other way around. Here, we focus on the possibility that some markers that we often consider as indexing different domains of individual differences may in fact reflect at least partially overlapping genetic and/or phenotypic bases...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Rebecca Waller, Daniel S Shaw, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Jody M Ganiban, Misaki N Natsuaki, David Reiss, Christopher J Trentacosta, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predicts severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
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