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Journal of Personality

Timothy A Allen, Bridget E Carey, Carolina McBride, R Michael Bagby, Colin G DeYoung, Lena C Quilty
OBJECTIVE: Research has shown that three personality traits-neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness-moderate one another in a three-way interaction that predicts depressive symptoms in healthy populations. We test the hypothesis that this effect is driven by three-lower order traits: withdrawal, industriousness, and enthusiasm. We then replicate this interaction within a clinical population for the first time. METHOD: Sample 1 included 376 healthy adults...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
Andreas B Neubauer, Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess whether people differ in the degree to which their well-being is affected by fulfillment of the need for competence. Specifically, we want to examine (a) if inter-individual differences in the within-person coupling of competence satisfaction and well-being (called "competence satisfaction effect"), and of competence dissatisfaction and well-being (called "competence dissatisfaction effect") exist, and (b) if these differences moderate the effects of an experimentally induced frustration of the need for competence...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Christin Köber, Tilmann Habermas
OBJECTIVE: Although parents are acknowledged to be a part of their children's personality and narrative identity and to remain important across the lifespan, narrative personality research has not yet explored the spontaneous presentation of parents in life stories. Therefore this study examined longitudinally the place given to parents when crafting one's life narrative and how this changes with age. Furthermore, in contrast to prior studies, we focused on spontaneous mentions of parents...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Personality
Kate C McLean, Jennifer P Lilgendahl, Chelsea Fordham, Elizabeth Alpert, Emma Marsden, Kathryn Szymanowski, Dan P McAdams
OBJECTIVE: The great majority of research on identity and personality development has focused on individual processes of development, to the relative neglect of the cultural context of development. We employ a recently articulated framework for the examination of identity development in context, centered on the construct of master narratives, or culturally shared stories. METHOD: Across three studies we asked emerging and mid-life adults (n = 512) to narrate personal experiences of deviations from these master narratives...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Personality
James N Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D Parker, Baljinder K Sahdra, Sarah L Marshall, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Self-compassion has been framed as a healthy alternative to self-esteem, as it is non-evaluative. However rather than being alternatives, it may be that the two constructs develop in a mutually-reinforcing way. The present study tested this possibility among adolescents. METHOD: A large adolescent sample (N = 2,809; 49.8% female) reported levels of trait self-esteem and self-compassion annually for four years. Auto-regressive cross-lagged structural equation models were used to estimate the reciprocal longitudinal relations between the two constructs...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Personality
Gentiana Sadikaj, D S Moskowitz, David C Zuroff
OBJECTIVE: We examined the influence of attachment orientation on the accuracy of perception of negative affect in close relationships. We hypothesized that tracking accuracy of perceiving negative affect (1) would be lower among perceivers and targets with higher attachment avoidance, and (2) would be lowest when both the target and perceiver were high on attachment avoidance. Tracking accuracy would be (3) higher among perceivers and targets with higher attachment anxiety, and (4) highest when both the target and perceiver were high on attachment anxiety...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Personality
Hyunji Kim, Ulrich Schimmack, Shigehiro Oishi, Yoshiro Tsutsui
OBJECTIVE: Previous research on Extraversion and life satisfaction suggests that extraverted individuals are more satisfied with their lives. However, existing studies provide inflated effect sizes as they were based on simple correlations. In five studies, the authors provide better estimates of the relationship between Extraversion and life satisfaction. METHOD: The current study examined student and nationally representative samples from Canada, US, UK, Germany and Japan (Study 1, N = 1,460; Study 2, N = 5,882; Study 3, N =18,683; Study 4, N = 13,443; Study 5, Japan N = 952 and US N = 891)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Personality
Angelina R Sutin, Heather A Flynn, Antonio Terracciano
OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing disorders. The purpose of this research is to examine whether MSDP is also associated with variations in normal personality traits in childhood and adulthood. METHOD: This study uses four independent samples (total N=16,323) to examine whether there are mean-level differences in offspring personality traits by MSDP, controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Personality
Thomas Czikmantori, Birk Hagemeyer, Stefan Engeser
OBJECTIVE: Employing a couple-centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. METHOD: Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners' self-reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self-reported indicators of relationship functioning...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Personality
Dylan T Gatner, Kevin S Douglas, Stephen D Hart
OBJECTIVE: The Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathic personality comprises three domains: Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. The present study aimed to clarify conceptual overlap between contemporary definitions of psychopathy, with particular emphasis given to the relevance of Boldness (i.e., social dominance, venturesomeness, emotional resiliency)-a topic of recent debate. METHOD: Undergraduate students (N = 439) compared the lexical similarity of Triarchic domains with two contemporary models of psychopathy: the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2012) and Five Factor Model of psychopathy (FFM; Widiger & Lynam, 1998)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Personality
Martin M Smith, Simon B Sherry, Samantha Chen, Donald H Saklofske, Christopher Mushquash, Gordon L Flett, Paul L Hewitt
OBJECTIVE: Over 50 years of research implicates perfectionism in suicide. Yet the role of perfectionism in suicide needs clarification due to notable between-study inconsistencies in findings, underpowered studies, and uncertainty about whether perfectionism confers risk for suicide. We addressed this by meta-analyzing perfectionism's relationship with suicide ideation and attempts. We also tested whether self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism predicted increased suicide ideation, beyond baseline ideation...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Personality
Zhuo Job Chen, Kung-Yu Hsu, Xinyue Zhou, Gerard Saucier
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of American English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: tradition-oriented religiousness (TR), subjective spirituality (SS), communal rationalism (CR), unmitigated self-interest (USI), and inequality aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese-language isms structures in both mainland China and Taiwan. METHOD AND RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses with 915 mainland Chinese subjects uncovered four interpretable factors dimensionalizing 165 mainland Chinese dictionary isms terms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Personality
Alexander E Wong, Robin R Vallacher
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that self-knowledge and goal-perseverance are mutually reinforcing because of the roles of self-knowledge in directing goal pursuit, and of goal pursuit in structuring the self-concept. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we used a daily diary design with 97 college-aged participants for 40 days to assess whether daily self-concept clarity and grit predict one another's next day levels. Data were analyzed using multilevel cross-lagged panel modeling...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Personality
Emilie Auger, Danielle Menzies-Toman, John E Lydon
OBJECTIVE: Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. METHOD: Sixty-three couples participated in a 2-week event-contingent diary study. RESULTS: On a daily basis, experiencing more partner transgressions than usual predicted decreases in relationship well-being and increases in negative affect...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Yael Sela, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Bernhard Fink
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. METHOD: In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2)...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
James N Donald, Paul W B Atkins, Philip D Parker, Alison M Christie, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioral effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This article is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. METHOD: Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201; Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress-related thoughts, measured using the individual-difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behavior, controlling for stress-related appraisals...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Christin M Ogle, Ilene C Siegler, Jean C Beckham, David C Rubin
OBJECTIVE: Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the cognitive-affective processes through which neuroticism leads to greater PTSD symptom severity. METHOD: Community-dwelling adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to DSM-IV-TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Lisa Legault, Netta Weinstein, Jahlil Mitchell, Michael Inzlicht, Kristen Pyke, Afzal Upal
OBJECTIVE: Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences-particularly negative aspects-is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. OBJECTIVE: We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Denise Janicki Deverts, Sheldon Cohen, William J Doyle
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. METHOD: Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (Mage  = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R Maio, Paul H P Hanel, Brigitte Bardin
OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHOD: Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
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