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Journal of Personality

Abdel Abdellaoui, Hsi-Yuan Chen, Gonneke Willemsen, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Karin J H Verweij, Michel G Nivard, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma, John T Cacioppo
OBJECTIVE: Loneliness is an aversive response to a discrepancy between desired and actual social relationships and correlates with personality. We investigate the relationship of loneliness and personality in twin-family and molecular genetic data. METHOD: Phenotypic correlations between loneliness and the Big Five personality traits were estimated in 29,625 adults, and in a group with genome-wide genotype data (N=4,222), genetic correlations were obtained. We explored whether genetic correlations may reflect causal relationships by investigating within monozygotic twin-pair differences (Npairs =2,662), by longitudinal within-subject changes in personality and loneliness (N=4,260-9,238 longitudinal comparisons), and by longitudinal cross-lagged panel analyses (N=15,628)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miranda Giacomin, Nicholas O Rule
OBJECTIVE: Though initially charming and inviting, narcissists often engage in negative interpersonal behaviors. Identifying and avoiding narcissists therefore carries adaptive value. Whereas past research has found that people can judge others' grandiose narcissism from their appearance (including their faces), the cues supporting these judgments require further elucidation. Here, we investigated which facial features underlie perceptions of grandiose narcissism and how they convey that information...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nils Myszkowski, Martin Storme, Jean-Louis Tavani
OBJECTIVE: Because of their length and objective of broad content coverage, very short scales can show limited internal consistency and structural validity. We argue that it is because their objectives may be better aligned with formative investigations than with reflective measurement methods that capitalize on content overlap. As proofs of concept of formative investigations of short scales, we investigate the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). METHOD: In Study 1, we administered the TIPI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to 938 adults, and fitted a formative Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model, which consisted of the TIPI items forming 5 latent variables, which in turn predicted the 5 BFI scores...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Ashley L Watts, Jessica C Rohr, Katherine L McCauley, Sarah Francis Smith, Kristin Landfield Howe, Scott O Lilienfeld
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present studies was to investigate whether people are especially attracted to psychopathic traits, and whether there are individual differences characteristics in such attraction. METHOD: Female undergraduates (N = 270; Mage = 19; 57% White, 20% Asian, 8% Black) and female and male community members (N = 426, Mage = 37; 56% female; 81% Caucasian, 10% African American, 4% Asian) reported on their own personality and constructed their ideal mate for a dating, short-term, and long-term relationship from a list of 70 characteristics drawn from well-validated criteria for psychopathic personality and diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 personality disorders (PDs)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
Erin E Buckels, Paul D Trapnell, Tamara Andjelovic, Delroy L Paulhus
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the association between online trolling and sadistic personality; and provide evidence that the reward and rationalization processes at work in sadism are likewise manifest in online trolling. METHOD: Online respondents (total N = 1,715) completed self-report measures of personality and trolling behavior. They subsequently engaged in one of two judgment tasks. In Study 1, respondents viewed stimuli depicting scenes of emotional/physical suffering, and provided ratings of (a) perceived pain intensity and (b) pleasure experienced while viewing the photos...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Jennifer K Vrabel, Gillian A McCabe, Cheryl A Cosby, Caitlin K Traeder, Kelsey A Hobbs, Ashton C Southard
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present studies was to examine the connections that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had with various aspects of status. METHOD: Study 1 examined the associations that narcissism had with the motivation to seek status in a sample of 1,219 community members. Study 2 examined whether narcissism interacted with the status seeking motive to predict how individuals pursued status in a sample of 760 community members and college students...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard, Robert Klemmensen
OBJECTIVE: To study personality traits of Danish parliamentarians (MPs) and examine elite-voter congruence and elite differentiation. Whereas previous political elite studies have focused only on the Big Five level we include aspect-level differences. METHOD: In a highly representative survey of Danish MPs (N=81, response rate= 46.3 pct.) and a representative study of Danish voters (N=3,612) we used the 60-item NEO-PI-R short version to examine personality differences on the Big Five level and, based on the NEO-BFAS, the aspect level...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Doron Todder, Leah Shelef, Inbal Deutsch, Shirley Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Dissociation refers to a disintegration between psychological elements; common manifestations are embodied in "absorption and imaginative involvement", a propensity for being immersed in a stimulus while oblivious to the environment, and acting without awareness. Trait dissociation was hypothesized to relate to lower EEG signal connectivity, but studies on healthy populations are scarce. The present study set out to examine whether dissociative absorption in a non-clinical sample will be associated with decreased intra-hemispheric coherence...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Johnmarshall Reeve, Woogul Lee
OBJECTIVE: Self-determination theory's (SDT) most basic propositions are, first, that all people possess an inherent set of psychological needs and, second, that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the three critical psychological satisfactions needed to maintain and promote personal growth and well-being. In this paper, we identify the neural basis of the psychological needs and, in doing so, seek to advance the integration of SDT and neuroscience. METHOD: We examine the neural underpinnings of SDT-based motivational states and traits for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Carly Magee, Jeremy C Biesanz
INTRODUCTION: Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well-being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short-term experiences of well-being within individuals. OBJECTIVES: To address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well-being states: First, to what extent do personality and well-being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well-being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within-person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well-being? METHODS: Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over two weeks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, Jared R Ruchensky, Brittany N Penson
OBJECTIVE: Impaired socialization due to amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a factor underlying psychopathy. Supporting this hypothesis, some research indicates that psychopathy is associated with deficits in facial affect recognition, but other studies have failed to find such a relationship. This study investigated whether healthy young adults elevated in psychopathic traits displayed deficits in identifying facial affective displays overall as well as deficits specific to fear recognition...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Simone M Ritter, Andrew J Elliot, Matthijs Baas
OBJECTIVE: Novelty seeking (the tendency to explore things novel and unfamiliar) has been extensively researched in the clinical and health domains, but its effects on creative performance are largely unknown. We examined whether creativity-related personality traits (openness to experience and extraversion) associate with novelty seeking, and whether novelty seeking is linked to, and facilitates, creativity. METHOD: In Study 1a (N = 230, Mage = 20, 64% females) and Study 1b (N = 421, Mage = 19, 65% females) we measured extraversion, openness to experience, novelty seeking, and divergent thinking...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
Richard Xu, Kristie L Poole, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Saroj Saigal, Louis A Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: To examine shyness, sociability, and conflicted shyness (i.e., the interaction of shyness and sociability) in extremely low birth weight survivors (ELBW; < 1000 grams) from their 20s to 30s compared to normal birth weight control participants (NBW; > 2500 grams). METHOD: We examined differences between the oldest known prospectively and longitudinally followed ELBW cohort and NBW control participants in adulthood on self-reported measures of shyness and sociability, as well as a composite score reflecting conflicted shyness...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
Andreas D Nehrlich, Jochen E Gebauer, Constantine Sedikides, Andrea E Abele
OBJECTIVE: The self has three parts: individual, relational, collective. Typically, people personally value their individual self most, their relational self less, and their collective self least. This self-hierarchy is consequential, but underlying processes have remained unknown. Here, we propose two process-accounts. The content account draws upon selves' agentic-communal content, explaining why the individual self is preferred most. The teleology account draws upon selves' instrumentality for becoming one's personal ideal, explaining why the collective self is preferred least...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Personality
Douglas B Samuel, Louis Tay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2018: Journal of Personality
David J Disabato, Fallon R Goodman, Todd B Kashdan
OBJECTIVE: Researchers conceptualize grit as the combination of two facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests toward long-term goals. We tested the reliability of grit facet scores across the globe and examined how differently each grit facet related to well-being and personality strengths. METHOD: An international sample of 7,617 participants from 6 of the 7 continents (excluding Antarctica) completed an online survey. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses and omega reliability coefficients indicated that the 12 items from the original Grit Scale were multidimensional and reliably measured perseverance of effort and consistency of interests...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Personality
Sander L Koole, Caroline Schlinkert, Tobias Maldei, Nicola Baumann
One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT (a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; (b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; (c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves toward growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, William S Ryan, Laura Hemmy
OBJECTIVE: Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive, and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and it is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. METHOD: Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Benjamin J I Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Patrick Gaudreau, Daniel S Bailis, Marc-André K Lafrenière, Robert J Vallerand
OBJECTIVE: Passion research has focused extensively on the unique effects of both harmonious passion and obsessive passion (Vallerand, 2015). We adopted a quadripartite approach (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) to test whether physical and psychological well-being are distinctly related to subtypes of passion with varying within-person passion combinations: pure harmonious passion, pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. METHOD: In four studies (total N = 3,122), we tested whether passion subtypes were differentially associated with self-reported general health (Study 1; N = 1,218 undergraduates), health symptoms in video gamers (Study 2; N = 269 video game players), global psychological well-being (Study 3; N = 1,192 undergraduates), and academic burnout (Study 4; N = 443 undergraduates) using latent moderated structural equation modeling...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jack J Bauer, Laura A King, Michael F Steger
Self-determination theory (SDT) has advanced the most comprehensive model of motives for human flourishing in the field of personality psychology and beyond. In this article, we evaluate SDT relative to the process of meaning making, particularly from a narrative perspective, showing what SDT can and cannot explain about the construction of self-identity and its relation to human flourishing. On the one hand, SDT explains how subjective assessments of need fulfillment drive the process of self-determined living...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
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