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Journal of Personality

Feng Kong, Qiaolin He, Xiqin Liu, Xiayu Chen, Xu Wang, Jingjing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Pride is an important self-conscious emotion and comprised of two distinct conceptual facets: arrogant, egotistic "hubristic pride", and pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride". However, little is known about the neural basis of two facets of pride. Here we investigated the association between spontaneous brain activity and these two facets of pride in resting state. METHOD: We measured 276 participants on authentic and hubristic pride. The fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was used to identify pride-related regions...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Adi Perry-Paldi, Jenna Merrin, Yaniv Efrati, Gilad Hirschberger
OBJECTIVE: People believe that they can respond effectively to threats, but actually experience difficulties in disengaging from ongoing tasks and shifting their attention to life-threatening events. We contend that this tendency is especially true for secure people with respect to their worldview and perception of others and not to insecure individuals. METHOD: In Study 1 (N=290), we examined individuals' reactions to various threat scenarios. In Study 2 (N=65), we examined these reactions using a behavioral design high in ecological validity...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
Judith A Hall, Mitja D Back, Steffen Nestler, Denise Frauendorfer, Marianne Schmid Mast, Mollie A Ruben
OBJECTIVE: To compare two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
Timo Gnambs, Markus Appel
OBJECTIVE: The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. METHOD: We present a three-level, random-effects meta-analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam, Colin Vize, Michael Crowe, Chelsea Sleep, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Lauren R Few, W Keith Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Increasing attention has been paid to the distinction between the dimensions of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability. We examine the degree to which basic traits underlie vulnerable narcissism with a particular emphasis on the importance of neuroticism and agreeableness. METHODS: Across four samples (undergraduate, online community, clinical-community), we conduct dominance analyses to partition the variance predicted in vulnerable narcissism by the five-factor model personality domains...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sarah E Hampson, Grant W Edmonds
OBJECTIVE: We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a lifespan perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others. METHOD: The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self-report outcomes in their 40's, 50's and 60's, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to investigate whether having higher scores on maladaptive personality traits was related to rating these traits as more likable. METHOD: Two studies were conducted, one with personality disorder traits (N = 219; Mean age = 19.4; 63.8% female; 76.6% Caucasian) and one with general personality traits (N = 198; Mean age = 19.5; 69.7% female; 77.3% Caucasian). In each study, participants self-rated their own personality and separately provided ratings of how "likable" they considered those personality traits...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
Evelien Snippe, Bertus F Jeronimus, Marije Aan Het Rot, Elisabeth H Bos, Peter de Jonge, Marieke Wichers
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion moderate these associations. METHODS: The study included a community sample (N = 553). Participants completed an electronic diary assessing prosocial behavior and PA three times a day over 30 days...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Personality
Jessie Sun, Scott Barry Kaufman, Luke D Smillie
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are associated with well-being, but the precise correlates vary across well-being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well-being dimensions. METHOD: Two samples of U.S. participants (Total N = 706, Mage = 36.17, 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well-being...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Personality
Lily Assaad, Edward P Lemay
OBJECTIVE: Social anhedonia is a deficiency in the capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions. This study examined the implications of social anhedonia for romantic relationship functioning, including the association of social anhedonia with sentiments towards romantic partners that are central to relationship functioning (satisfaction, commitment, regard for the partner, and care for the partner's welfare) and analogous perceptions of the partner's sentiments. METHODS: Data were collected from 281 participants who were involved in romantic relationships...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Personality
Anu Realo, Peter J van der Most, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko, Bertus F Jeronimus, Liisi Kööts-Ausmees, René Mõttus, Felix C Tropf, Harold Snieder, Johan Ormel
OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to estimate the proportion of the phenotypic variance of Neuroticism and its facet scales that can be attributed to common SNPs in two adult populations from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 3,292) and the Netherlands (Lifelines; N = 13,383). METHOD: Genomic-Relatedness-Matrix Restricted Maximum Likelihood (GREML) using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software was employed. To build upon previous research, we used self- and informant-reports of the 30-facet NEO personality inventories and analyzed both the usual sum scores and the residual facet scores of Neuroticism...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
Wolfgang Tschacher, Fabian Ramseyer, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The social present is a novel descriptor of dyadic nowness and social sharing, extending research on individual nowness (James' specious present) to the interpersonal and intersubjective domain. We wished to connect this descriptor to personality attributes. METHOD: We define the social present by the duration of significant nonverbal synchrony, based on the phenomenon of movement synchrony that generally emerges in social interactions. It is thus an implicit and objective measure that can be implemented by automated video analyses...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
Anne C Holding, Nora H Hope, Brenda Harvey, Ariane S Marion Jetten, Richard Koestner
OBJECTIVE: Action crises describe the intrapsychic conflicts individuals experience when they feel torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. The present investigation introduces autonomous and controlled motivation as independent predictors of action crisis severity, beyond known personality level predictors (action orientation), and novel personality level predictors (neuroticism and conscientiousness). METHOD: Using a multi-wave prospective longitudinal design and multilevel modeling (MLM) we followed students pursuing 3 personal goals across an academic semester (N = 425 undergraduates, 76% female, 57% Caucasian, Mage = 20...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality
D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin, M Brent Donnellan, Tricia K Neppl
OBJECTIVE: Depressed parents have negatively distorted views of the personalities and behaviors of their children. Our goal was to evaluate how other internalizing symptoms and personality traits relate to perceptions of child temperament using data from mothers and fathers as well as novel statistical method for modeling multi-informant data. METHOD: We applied the trifactor model (Bauer et al., 2013) to data collected from the parents of 273 children (ages 3-5 years)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Personality
Susan C South, Nayla R Hamdi, Robert F Krueger
For more than a decade, biometric moderation models have been used to examine whether genetic and environmental influences on individual differences might vary within the population. These quantitative Gene × Environment interaction models have the potential to elucidate not only when genetic and environmental influences on a phenotype might differ, but also why, as they provide an empirical test of several theoretical paradigms that serve as useful heuristics to explain etiology-diathesis-stress, bioecological, differential susceptibility, and social control...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Matt McGue, Aldo Rustichini, William G Iacono
There is considerable evidence that college attainment is associated with family background and cognitive and noncognitive skills. Behavioral genetic methods are used to determine whether the family background effect is mediated through cognitive and noncognitive skill development. We analyze data from two longitudinal behavioral genetic studies: the Minnesota Twin Family Study, consisting of 1,382 pairs of like-sex twins and their parents, and the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, consisting of 409 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families with two offspring and their rearing parents...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Lauren Schmitz, Dalton Conley
This overview develops new empirical models that can effectively document Gene × Environment (G×E) interactions in observational data. Current G×E studies are often unable to support causal inference because they use endogenous measures of the environment or fail to adequately address the nonrandom distribution of genes across environments, confounding estimates. Comprehensive measures of genetic variation are incorporated into quasi-natural experimental designs to exploit exogenous environmental shocks or isolate variation in environmental exposure to avoid potential confounders...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Jeremy Freese, Yu-Han Jao
Classical behavioral genetics models for twin and other family designs decompose traits into heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment components. Estimates of heritability of adult traits are pervasively observed to be far higher than those of shared environment, which has been used to make broad claims about the impotence of upbringing. However, the most commonly studied nondemographic variable in many areas of social science, educational attainment, exhibits robustly high estimates both for heritability and for shared environment...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
René Mõttus, Riccardo Marioni, Ian J Deary
Associations between markers of ostensible psychological characteristics and social and health inequalities are pervasive but difficult to explain. In some cases, there may be causal influence flowing from social and health inequalities to psychological differences, whereas sometimes it may be the other way around. Here, we focus on the possibility that some markers that we often consider as indexing different domains of individual differences may in fact reflect at least partially overlapping genetic and/or phenotypic bases...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
Rebecca Waller, Daniel S Shaw, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Jody M Ganiban, Misaki N Natsuaki, David Reiss, Christopher J Trentacosta, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predicts severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective...
February 2017: Journal of Personality
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