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Journal of Personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423186/the-dynamics-of-searching-for-meaning-and-presence-of-meaning-in-daily-life
#1
David B Newman, John B Nezlek, Todd M Thrash
OBJECTIVE: Research on searching for meaning in life has focused on trait level relationships rather than within-person relationships. Our goal was to examine within-person relationships between daily states of searching for meaning in life, daily states of presence of meaning in life, and daily states of well-being. METHOD: To advance our understanding of searching for meaning in life, we conducted a daily diary study with two samples in which 254 undergraduate students (Mage = 18...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390137/trait-and-perceived-environmental-competitiveness-in-achievement-situations
#2
Andrew J Elliot, Mickael Jury, Kou Murayama
OBJECTIVE: Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance-based goals and performance attainment. METHODS: In Studies 1a (n=387) and 1b (n=322), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388840/the-benefit-of-punishment-sensitivity-on-motor-performance-under-pressure
#3
Harry Manley, Stuart Beattie, Ross Roberts, Gavin P Lawrence, Lew Hardy
OBJECTIVE: Humans are often required to perform demanding cognitive and motor tasks under pressure. However, in such environments there is considerable inter-individual variability in the ability to successfully execute actions. Here, we consider how individual differences in self-reported sensitivity to punishment influence skilled motor performance under pressure and whether this relationship is moderated by the temporal detection of threat. METHOD: Across two studies, one hundred and sixty UK participants (Study 1, n = 80, MAge = 21...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388833/cognitive-adaptive-trait-theory-a-shift-in-perspective-on-personality
#4
Gerald Matthews
Traditional, biologically based trait theories have deservedly gained broad acceptances, but some longstanding core issues of personality research remain unresolved. Recent research questions whether (1) there can be a single universal structural model of personality superfactors, (2) current theory adequately specifies the processes that mediate behavioral and emotional expressions of traits, and (3) brain-based accounts of traits adequately explain their role in real-world functioning and adaptation. This article reviews the perspective on these issues provided by cognitive-adaptive trait theory...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380675/social-comparison-in-coping-with-occupational-uncertainty-self-improvement-self-enhancement-and-the-regional-context
#5
Maria K Pavlova, Clemens M Lechner, Rainer K Silbereisen
OBJECTIVE: Taking into account the regional context, we investigated whether social comparison in coping with occupational uncertainty served self-improvement (i.e., adaptive coping) or self-enhancement (i.e., subjective well-being). METHOD: Respondents were 620 German adults aged 16 to 43, 59% female, who participated in three yearly follow-ups of a larger survey. The number of observations was 1,309 for contemporaneous and 1,079 for longitudinal analyses. Participants reported on perceived occupational uncertainty (e...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317118/accuracy-of-self-esteem-judgments-at-zero-acquaintance
#6
Sarah Hirschmüller, Stefan C Schmukle, Sascha Krause, Mitja D Back, Boris Egloff
OBJECTIVE: Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. METHOD: Ninety-nine participants were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317114/personality-traits-as-patterns-of-meaning-assignment-tendencies
#7
Shulamith Kreitler
OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to present a new conception about the nature of personality traits based on the Kreitler Meaning System. The major constructs of the meaning system are referent, meaning value, meaning unit, and meaning variables characterizing the meaning unit. The individual's meaning profile is the set of meaning variables the individual uses as assessed by the Test of Meanings. Personality traits are defined as patterns of meaning assignment tendencies. METHOD: After introducing the meaning system the paper describes the new conception of personality traits, and presents the example of extroversion...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295309/personality-traits-hierarchically-organized-systems
#8
Małgorzata Fajkowska
Personality science has always been and is still ready for new theorizing on traits. Accordingly, this paper presents the recently proposed Traits as Hierarchical Systems (THS) model, where personality traits are not only the emergent properties of the three-level hierarchy of the personality system, but are also hierarchical per se. As hierarchical systems, they are organized into three levels: mechanisms and processes, structures, and behavioral markers. In this approach trait denotes the underlying, recurrent mechanisms that pattern its structure and account for the stability/variability of individual characteristics...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258647/think-positive-examining-the-impact-of-optimism-on-academic-achievement-in-early-adolescents
#9
Julia Tetzner, Michael Becker
OBJECTIVE: Although optimism's beneficial role for various life areas is well documented, previous findings regarding its significance for students' achievement at school are inconclusive. This study examined the relation between optimism and academic achievement in early adolescents. It investigated the functional form of this relation, addressed whether the initial achievement level moderates this association, and compared this with effects on self-esteem. METHOD: We used a large German sample (N = 6010; 53...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258610/codevelopment-between-key-personality-traits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-from-adolescence-through-young-adulthood
#10
Diana R Samek, Brian M Hicks, Emily Durbin, J Benjamin Hinnant, William G Iacono, Matthew McGue
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits related to negative emotionality and low constraint are strong correlates of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but few studies have evaluated the prospective interplay between these traits and AUD symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. METHOD: The Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2,769) was used to examine the developmental interplay between AUD symptoms and three personality measures of constraint, negative emotionality, and aggressive undercontrol from ages 17 to 29...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258585/self-other-agreement-and-metaperception-accuracy-across-the-big-five-examining-the-roles-of-depression-and-self-esteem
#11
Daniel Moritz, John E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The ability to judge other people's personality characteristics and to know how we are viewed by others are important aspects of social cognition. The present study tested the impact of depressive symptoms and low self-esteem on self-other agreement and the accuracy of metaperception (i.e., how we believe others view us) across the Big Five dimensions of personality. METHOD: Participants who varied in depressive symptoms engaged in a 10-minute "getting to know you" interaction in dyads...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236301/a-view-from-the-animal-kingdom
#12
Alexander Weiss
Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236293/adolescents-prosocial-behavior-predicts-good-grades-beyond-intelligence-and-personality-traits
#13
Maria Gerbino, Antonio Zuffianò, Nancy Eisenberg, Valeria Castellani, Bernadette Paula Luengo Kanacri, Concetta Pastorelli, Gian Vittorio Caprara
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have demonstrated the prediction of academic functioning by children's prosocial behavior (PB). The goal of our study was to examine the contribution of adolescents' PB for middle and senior high school grades after controlling for stability of achievement and for intelligence, Big Five traits, and socio-demographic variables (i.e., sex and SES). METHOD: Study 1 examined on 165 adolescents (48.5% boys) the prediction by peer-reported PB in 7th grade of academic achievement at the end of junior high school, after controlling for the above variables...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192860/amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-during-resting-state-differentially-predicts-authentic-and-hubristic-pride
#14
Feng Kong, Qiaolin He, Xiqin Liu, Xiayu Chen, Xu Wang, Jingjing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Pride is an important, self-conscious emotion composed of two distinct conceptual facets: arrogant, egotistic "hubristic pride," and pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride." However, little is known about the neural basis of the two facets of pride. Here, we investigated the association between spontaneous brain activity and these two facets of pride in resting state. METHOD: We measured 276 participants on authentic and hubristic pride. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was used to identify pride-related regions...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192852/effective-disengagement-insecure-people-are-more-likely-to-disengage-from-an-ongoing-task-and-take-effective-action-when-facing-danger
#15
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Adi Perry-Paldi, Jenna Merrin, Yaniv Efrati, Gilad Hirschberger
OBJECTIVE: People believe that they can respond effectively to threats, but actually they experience difficulties in disengaging from ongoing tasks and shifting their attention to life-threatening events. We contend that this tendency is especially true for secure people with respect to their worldview and perception of others and not for insecure individuals. METHOD: In Study 1 (N = 290), we examined individuals' reactions to various threat scenarios. In Study 2 (N = 65), we examined these reactions using a behavioral design high in ecological validity...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192851/how-do-different-ways-of-measuring-individual-differences-in-zero-acquaintance-personality-judgment-accuracy-correlate-with-each-other
#16
Judith A Hall, Mitja D Back, Steffen Nestler, Denise Frauendorfer, Marianne Schmid Mast, Mollie A Ruben
OBJECTIVE: This research compares two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170106/narcissism-and-social-networking-behavior-a-meta-analysis
#17
Timo Gnambs, Markus Appel
OBJECTIVE: The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. METHOD: We present a three-level, random-effects meta-analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170100/vulnerable-narcissism-is-mostly-a-disorder-of-neuroticism
#18
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam, Colin Vize, Michael Crowe, Chelsea Sleep, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Lauren R Few, W Keith Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Increasing attention has been paid to the distinction between the dimensions of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability. We examine the degree to which basic traits underlie vulnerable narcissism with a particular emphasis on the importance of neuroticism and agreeableness. METHODS: Across four samples (undergraduate, online community, clinical-community), we conduct dominance analyses to partition the variance predicted in vulnerable narcissism by the five-factor model personality domains...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170097/a-new-twist-on-old-questions-a-life-span-approach-to-the-trait-concept
#19
Sarah E Hampson, Grant W Edmonds
OBJECTIVE: We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a life span perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others. METHOD: The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self-report outcomes in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710321/living-in-the-past-present-and-future-measuring-temporal-orientation-with-language
#20
Gregory Park, H Andrew Schwartz, Maarten Sap, Margaret L Kern, Evan Weingarten, Johannes C Eichstaedt, Jonah Berger, David J Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, Lyle H Ungar, Martin E P Seligman
Temporal orientation refers to individual differences in the relative emphasis one places on the past, present, or future, and it is related to academic, financial, and health outcomes. We propose and evaluate a method for automatically measuring temporal orientation through language expressed on social media. Judges rated the temporal orientation of 4,302 social media messages. We trained a classifier based on these ratings, which could accurately predict the temporal orientation of new messages in a separate validation set (accuracy/mean sensitivity = ...
April 2017: Journal of Personality
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