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Journal of Personality

Isabel Thielmann, Benjamin E Hilbig
OBJECTIVE: Across all subfields of psychology, it is common practice to use different indicators of allegedly the same personality constructs, resting upon the (often implicit) assumption that the indicators measure equivalent constructs. However, there is a lack of approaches allowing for a strict and comprehensive test of the equivalence assumption. We propose investigating nomological consistency to test the equivalence assumption across inventories allegedly measuring the same set of constructs...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Sven Rieger, Richard Göllner, Marion Spengler, Ulrich Trautwein, Benjamin Nagengast, Jeffrey R Harring, Brent W Roberts
OBJECTIVE: In the present research, we examined the effect of getting a new teacher on consistency in students' personality measures, including trait and social cognitive constructs. METHOD: To test the effect of this kind of situational transition, we analyzed two large longitudinal samples (N = 5,628; N = 2,458) with quasi-experimental study designs. We used two consistency measures (i.e., rank-order clations and changes in variance over time) to compare students who got a new teacher with students who kept the same teacher...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Personality
Ziyan Luan, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Roos Hutteman, Jaap J A Denissen, Jens B Asendorpf, Marcel A G van Aken
OBJECTIVE: What is gained by having others report on one's personality? Research on adult samples has suggested that informant reports are especially informative regarding traits that are highly visible and evaluative (i.e., socially desirable/undesirable instead of neutral), such as Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. This 18-year longitudinal study aims to demonstrate the unique predictive power of other-rated personality in adolescence, using life outcomes and personality in adulthood as trait criteria...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
Fred Hintz, Christian Geiser, Saul Shiffman
OBJECTIVE: Studies on situation and Person × Situation interaction effects often use only one method of measurement, so that the extent to which the effects may be method-specific cannot be determined. We introduce a new multimethod latent state-trait model for random and fixed situations (MM-LST-RF), which allows examining person, situation, and Person × Situation interaction effects in the context of multimethod measurement designs (e.g., studies with multiple reporters), and discuss potential areas of application for the new model in personality research...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Todd Chan, Nicholas M Michalak, Oscar Ybarra
OBJECTIVE: Social relationships supply purpose to life. How can socially disconnected people, who show lower levels of purpose, compensate for purpose in life? We propose that religious beliefs can compensate for the purpose in life that social relationships would otherwise provide, through providing (a) greater purpose to turn to and (b) divine figures that can substitute for social relationships. METHOD: In three studies, we analyze three nationally representative and longitudinal data sets (N = 19,775) using moderated regression and cross-lagged panel analyses...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Personality
Roy B L Sijbom, Jonas W B Lang, Frederik Anseel
OBJECTIVE: Burnout has primarily been examined from an individual's perspective without taking the broader environmental context into account. The authors applied an integrative, multilevel perspective and investigated the influence of leaders' motivational strivings on employee burnout. In two multisource studies, we investigated relationships between leaders' achievement goals and employee burnout while controlling for employees' own achievement goals. METHOD: Study 1 consisted of 362 members and 72 leaders of the corresponding working groups...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Personality
Benjamin J I Schellenberg, Daniel S Bailis
OBJECTIVE: When facing setbacks and obstacles, the dualistic model of passion outlines that obsessive passion, and not harmonious passion, will predict greater levels of defensiveness. Our aim was to determine whether these passion dimensions predicted defensiveness in the same way when confronted with threatening messages targeting the decision to pursue a passion. METHOD: Across four studies with passionate Facebook users, hockey fans, and runners (total N = 763), participants viewed messages giving reasons why their favorite activity should not be pursued...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Personality
William Hart, Gregory K Tortoriello, Kyle Richardson, Christopher J Breeden
OBJECTIVE: The present research profiled antisocial personality constructs in relation to tactical self-presentation behaviors and various beliefs associated with such tactical behavior. METHOD: An MTurk sample (N = 524; Mage  = 37.89; 61% female) completed indices of the Dark Triad (DT; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and self-reported their use of various self-presentation tactics, their beliefs about the subjective logic for executing the tactics (which encompassed ratings of the tactics' utility, ease of execution, and normativity), and the potential for each tactic to arouse self-recrimination...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
Damaris Aschwanden, Martina Luchetti, Mathias Allemand
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown a positive relationship between Openness and cognitive engagement as well as Neuroticism and cognitive complaints at the between-person level. However, less is known about these associations at the within-person level in daily life. Using daily assessments, the present study examined these associations both at the between-person and within-person level. Knowing the within-person associations is important to provide valuable information for simple preventive and interceptive intervention strategies...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Personality
Julia Tetzner, Michael Becker
OBJECTIVE: Although a growing body of research has confirmed the manifold advantages of being an optimist, only a limited body of previous research has addressed the antecedents of optimism in real-life situations. This study examined whether parental socioeconomic status (SES), age-salient experiences (i.e., doing well in school and perceiving acceptance from peers), and aspects of the student composition at school contribute to changes in the optimism of early adolescents. METHOD: We followed a large sample of German seventh graders (N = 7,272; 52...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jonathan E Ramsay, Eddie M W Tong, Avijit Chowdhury, Moon-Ho R Ho
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has demonstrated a robust relationship between religion and well-being, and it has been proposed that positive emotions are important mediators of this effect. Yet the mechanism via which religion promotes positive emotions has not been widely studied. We sought to examine whether teleological explanations of daily events and resulting positive emotions serially mediated the effects of religion on well-being. METHOD: These hypotheses were tested over three studies involving full-time and part-time university students in Singapore...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jason D Runyan, Brian N Fry, Timothy A Steenbergh, Nathan L Arbuckle, Kristen Dunbar, Erin E Devers
OBJECTIVE: Compassion has been associated with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior, and has been regarded as a virtue, both historically and cross-culturally. However, the psychological study of compassion has been limited to laboratory settings and/or standard survey assessments. Here, we use an experience sampling method (ESM) to compare naturalistic assessments of compassion with standard assessments, and to examine compassion, its variability, and associations with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Personality
Constantine Sedikides, Nikos Ntoumanis, Kennon M Sheldon
OBJECTIVE: This theoretical article discusses the relevance of self-determination theory (SDT) for narcissism, a classic topic in self-theory. METHOD AND RESULTS: The trait of narcissism reflects a self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative interpersonal orientation that feeds on exaggerated perceptions of agency, but not communion. The article embeds narcissism in the five mini-theories of SDT (organismic integration, causality orientations, basic needs, cognitive evaluation, and goal contents) and considers research directions that can explore synergies between key constructs from SDT and narcissism...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
John B Nezlek, Emilia Mochort, Marzena Cypryańska
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the self-presentational motives underlying people's selection of their daily dress and relationships between these motives and public self-consciousness. METHOD: Participants in this study, 61 working adults, described their motives for choosing what they wore each day for 2 weeks. They also provided trait-level measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, and self-monitoring. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling analyses found positive relationships between public self-consciousness and the strength of various self-presentational motives for why people chose the clothes they wore each day...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jennifer C Lay, Theresa Pauly, Peter Graf, Jeremy C Biesanz, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Solitude is a ubiquitous experience, often confused with loneliness, yet sometimes sought out in daily life. This study aimed to identify distinct types of solitude experiences from everyday affect/thought patterns and to examine how and for whom solitude is experienced positively versus negatively. METHOD: 100 community-dwelling adults aged 50-85 years (64% female, 56% East Asian, 36% European, 8% Other/Mixed heritage) and 50 students aged 18-28 years (92% female, 42% East Asian, 22% European, 36% Other/Mixed) each completed approximately 30 daily life assessments over 10 days on their current and desired social situation, thoughts, and affect...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Ella Daniel, Maya Benish-Weisman
OBJECTIVE: Value change stability was examined in a longitudinal sample of Jewish and Arab Israeli adolescents. METHOD: Adolescents (N = 520; 55.4% girls; Mage  = 13.76, SD = 0.52, at initial assessment) reported value importance at four annual evaluations. RESULTS: Adolescents increased in values' internal coherence and rank-order stability. Their value hierarchy was consistent and differentiated from the hierarchy of adults. Latent growth curve analyses indicated a similar pattern of mean-level value change for both ethnic groups: an increase in power and a decrease in tradition values; an increase in self-direction values among Jewish adolescents but not among Arab participants...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miao Miao, Yiqun Gan
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effectiveness of a photographic intervention method on meaning in life (MIL) and further investigated the self-regulatory mechanism responsible for the effect of MIL in the promotion of proactive coping. METHOD: Participants were 145 Chinese adults (Mage  = 27.82; 71.3% female), who were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: An intervention (taking photos and writing expressively), a taking-photos-only control, or an assessment-only control...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Mike Prentice, Eranda Jayawickreme, William Fleeson
We explore and explicate some promising points of integration between self-determination theory (SDT) and whole trait theory (WTT). Integrating SDT and WTT can offer an example for navigating challenges that have long confronted integrating trait-descriptive and motivational-explanatory views of personality. We review SDT and WTT in turn. The review of SDT is organized around the emergence of its six mini-theories. The review of WTT will introduce the descriptive and explanatory elements as aspects of whole traits, and it will also provide a functional view of traits as tools for goal pursuit...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Tiffany Jenzer, Jennifer P Read, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Mark A Prince
OBJECTIVE: The study of coping has far-reaching implications for understanding psychopathology and resilience, as well as for the treatment of psychological disorders. Developmental work has examined how the ability to cope changes across time in children and adolescents; however, work in emerging adulthood is still lacking. Coping is thought to emerge from basic biological and psychological processes, such as temperament and gender, which may influence the trajectory of coping use over time...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
Julian M Etzel, Oliver Lüdtke, Jenny Wagner, Gabriel Nagy
OBJECTIVE: Our study addressed three questions concerning the similarity of vocational interests within families: (a) How similar are vocational interests of mothers and fathers? (b) How similar are vocational interests of parents and their children? (c) Is the inference about parent-child profile similarity affected by mother-father profile similarity? METHOD: Data from N=1,624 tenth graders and their parents were used to analyze interest profile similarity by means of a pseudo-coupling approach...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality
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