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Journal of Personality

Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher J Hopwood, Richard E Lucas
Theory and research have emphasized the impact of life events on personality trait change. In this article, we review prospective research on personality trait change in response to 9 major life events in the broader domains of love and work. We expected to find that life events lead to personality trait change to the extent that they have a lasting influence on individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Moreover, we predicted that love-related life events such as marriage or parenthood would be more strongly related to changes in traits that emphasize affective content whereas work-related life events would be more likely to lead to change in traits that reflect behavioral or cognitive content...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Maika Rawolle, Oliver C Schultheiss, Alexandra Strasser, Hugo M Kehr
OBJECTIVE: Visionary images are identity-relevant, picture-like mental representations of a desirable and attainable future appearing regularly in a person's stream of thought. Prior research indicates that both mental and real images provide access to implicit motives. We therefore proposed that visionary images motivate people by arousing their implicit motives and tested this hypothesis in two experimental studies. METHOD: We used guided visualizations to administer motive-domain-specific visionary images (Study 1: achievement and neutral, age: M = 24...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality
Erika N Carlson, Aidan G C Wright, Hira Imam
OBJECTIVE: Problematic interpersonal behavior might stem from and be maintained by the beliefs people have about how others see them (i.e., metaperceptions). The current study tested whether people with interpersonal problems formed more or less accurate metaperceptions about their personality (meta-accuracy), if they thought others saw them in more or less positive ways (positivity), and if they underestimated or overestimated how much others saw them as they saw themselves (transparency)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
Emilie Auger, Danielle Menzies-Toman, John E Lydon
OBJECTIVE: Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. METHOD: Sixty-three couples participated in a 2-week event-contingent diary study. RESULTS: On a daily basis, experiencing more partner transgressions than usual predicted decreases in relationship well-being and increases in negative affect...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Personality
Yael Sela, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Bernhard Fink
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. METHOD: In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2)...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Personality
James N Donald, Paul W B Atkins, Philip D Parker, Alison Christie, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioural effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This paper is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. METHOD: Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201 and Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress-related thoughts, measured using the individual-difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behaviour, controlling for stress-related appraisals...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
Christin M Ogle, Ilene C Siegler, Jean C Beckham, David C Rubin
OBJECTIVE: Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the cognitive-affective processes through which neuroticism leads to greater PTSD symptom severity. METHOD: Community-dwelling adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to DSM-IV-TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Personality
Lisa Legault, Netta Weinstein, Jahlil Mitchell, Michael Inzlicht, Kristen Pyke, Afzal Upal
: Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences - particularly negative aspects - is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. OBJECTIVE: We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Personality
Denise Janicki Deverts, Sheldon Cohen, William J Doyle
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. METHOD: Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (mean age = 31.0±10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Personality
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October 2016: Journal of Personality
Darren C Neufeld, Edward A Johnson
Research on narcissism and envy suggests a variable relationship that may reflect differences between how vulnerable and grandiose narcissism relate to precursors of envy. Accordingly, we proposed a model in which dispositional envy and relative deprivation differentially mediate envy's association with narcissistic vulnerability, grandiosity, and entitlement. To test the model, 330 young adults completed dispositional measures of narcissism, entitlement, and envy; one week later, participants reported on deprivation and envy feelings toward a peer who outperformed others on an intelligence test for a cash prize (Study 1) or earned higher monetary payouts in a betting game (Study 2)...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Brian Lakey, Randy J Vander Molen, Elizabeth Fles, Justin Andrews
Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Kathrin Schaffhuser, Mathias Allemand, Christina S Werner, Mike Martin
The current study investigated discrepancies in self-, partner-, and meta-perceptions of the Big Five traits and their associations with relationship satisfaction in intimate couples. The study was based on a subsample of the Swiss study "Co-Development in Personality: Longitudinal Approaches to Personality Development in Dyads Across the Life Span" (CoDiP) including cross-sectional data of 216 heterosexual couples. We adapted the Latent Congruence Model (LCM) for the study of discrepancies in personality perceptions in dyads...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Marcus Mund, Franz J Neyer
Prior research demonstrated influences of personality traits and their development on later status of subjective health and loneliness. In the present study, we intended to extend these findings by examining mutual influences between health-related characteristics and personality traits and their development over time. German adults were assessed at two time points across 15 years (NT1  = 654, NT2  = 271; Mage at Time 1 = 24.39, SD = 3.69). Data were analyzed with multivariate structural equation models and a multivariate latent change model...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Sander Thomaes, Constantine Sedikides
The purpose of this research is to test how adolescent girls' narcissistic traits-characterized by a need to impress others and avoid ego-threat-influence acute adverse effects of thin-ideal exposure. Participants (11-15 years; total N = 366; all female) reported their narcissistic traits. Next, in two experiments, they viewed images of either very thin or average-sized models, reported their wishful identification with the models (Experiment 2), and tasted high-calorie foods in an alleged taste test (both experiments)...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Yinan Wang, Feng Kong, Lijie Huang, Jia Liu
Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Aaron C Weidman, Jessica L Tracy, Andrew J Elliot
Although the emotion authentic pride has been posited to promote achievement, it remains unclear precisely how this works. Here, we tested whether authentic pride promotes adaptive downstream achievement outcomes by motivating individuals to engage in appropriate behavioral responses to success and failure. In two longitudinal studies (N = 1,132), we measured pride emotional responses to a prior performance and subsequent changes in achievement-oriented behavior and performance outcomes among (a) adults training for long-distance running races and (b) undergraduates completing class exams...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Sara J Weston, Keith S Cox, David M Condon, Joshua J Jackson
The majority of life narrative research is performed using trained human coders. In contrast, automated linguistic analysis is oft employed in the study of verbal behaviors. These two methodological approaches are directly compared to determine the utility of automated linguistic analysis for the study of life narratives. In a study of in-person interviews (N = 158) and a second study of life stories collected online (N = 242), redemption scores are compared to the output of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker, Francis & Booth, 2001)...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Yu Liu, Stephen G West
Daily diaries and other everyday experience methods are increasingly used to study relationships between two time-varying variables X and Y. Although daily data potentially often have weekly cyclical patterns (e.g., stress may be higher on weekdays and lower on weekends), the majority of daily diary studies have ignored this possibility. In this study, we investigated the effect of ignoring existing weekly cycles. We reanalyzed an empirical dataset (stress and alcohol consumption) and performed Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the impact of omitting weekly cycles...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Elisabetta Crocetti, Monica Rubini, Susan Branje, Hans M Koot, Wim Meeus
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to disentangle patterns of change and stability in self-concept clarity (SCC) in adolescents and in their parents and (b) to examine processes of intergenerational transmission of SCC in families with adolescents. Participants were 497 Dutch families including the father (baseline Mage  = 46.74), the mother (baseline Mage  = 44.41), and their adolescent child (56.9% males; baseline Mage  = 13.03). Each family member completed the SCC scale for six waves, with a one-year interval between each wave...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
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