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Journal of Personality

Sander L Koole, Caroline Schlinkert, Tobias Maldei, Nicola Baumann
One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves towards growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, William S Ryan, Laura Hemmy
OBJECTIVE: Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. METHOD: Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Benjamin J I Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Patrick Gaudreau, Daniel S Bailis, Marc-André K Lafrenière, Robert J Vallerand
OBJECTIVE: Passion research has focused extensively on the unique effects of both harmonious passion and obsessive passion (Vallerand, 2015). We adopted a quadripartite approach (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) to test whether physical and psychological well-being are distinctly related to subtypes of passion with varying within-person passion combinations: pure harmonious passion, pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. METHOD: In four studies (total N = 3122), we tested if passion subtypes were differentially associated with self-reported general health (Study 1), health symptoms in video gamers (Study 2), global psychological well-being (Study 3), and academic burnout (Study 4) using latent moderated structural equation modeling...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jack J Bauer, Laura A King, Michael F Steger
Self-determination theory (SDT) has advanced the most comprehensive model of motives for human flourishing in the field of personality psychology and beyond. In this article, we evaluate SDT relative to the process of meaning-making, particularly from a narrative perspective, showing what SDT can and cannot explain about the construction of self-identity and its relation to human flourishing. On the one hand, SDT explains how subjective assessments of need fulfillment drive the process of self-determined living...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Aleksandra Kaurin, Kyle Sauerberger, David C Funder
BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers - either clinicians or acquaintances - because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different, three-person laboratory interactions (i...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Personality
Theodore E A Waters, Christin Köber, K Lee Raby, Tilmann Habermas, Robyn Fivush
OBJECTIVE: Narrative theories of personality assume that individual differences in coherence reflect consistent and stable differences in narrative style rather than situational and event specific differences (e.g., McAdams & McLean, 2013). However, this assumption has received only modest empirical attention. Therefore, we present two studies testing the theoretical assumption of a consistent and stable coherent narrative style. METHOD: Study 1 focused on the two most traumatic and most positive life events of 224 undergraduates...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Personality
Lauren J Human, Wendy Berry Mendes
OBJECTIVE: Research has long sought to identify which individuals are best at accurately perceiving others' personalities or are good judges, yet consistent predictors of this ability have been difficult to find. In the current studies, we revisit this question by examining a novel physiological correlate of social sensitivity, cardiac vagal flexibility, which reflects dynamic modulation of cardiac vagal control. METHOD: We examined whether greater cardiac vagal flexibility was associated with forming more accurate personality impressions, defined as viewing targets more in line with their distinctive self-reported profile of traits, in two studies, including a thin-slice video perceptions study (N = 109) and a dyadic interaction study (N = 175)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Personality
Katherine H Rogers, Marina T Le, Erin E Buckels, Mikayla Kim, Jeremy C Biesanz
INTRODUCTION: The Dark Tetrad traits (subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and everyday sadism) have interpersonal consequences. At present, however, how these traits are associated with the accuracy and positivity of first impressions is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The present manuscript addresses three primary questions. First, to what extent are perceiver levels of Dark Tetrad traits associated with differing levels of perceptive accuracy? Second, to what extent are target levels of Dark Tetrad traits associated with differing levels of expressive accuracy? Finally, to what extent can Dark Tetrad traits be differentiated when examining perceptions of and by others? METHODS: In a round-robin design, participants (N = 412) in small groups engaged in brief, naturalistic, unstructured dyadic interactions before providing impressions of their partner...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Personality
Gabriel Olaru, Ulrich Schroeders, Oliver Wilhelm, Fritz Ostendorf
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine age-associated personality differences using a measurement-invariant representation of the higher-order structure of the Five Factor Model. METHOD: We reanalyzed the German NEO-PI-R norm sample (N = 11,724) and applied Ant Colony Optimization in a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis setting in order to select three items per first-order factor that would optimize model fit and measurement invariance across 18 age groups ranging from 16 to 65 years of age...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Personality
Jasper Van Assche, Jolene van der Kaap-Deeder, Elien Audenaert, Maarten De Schryver, Maarten Vansteenkiste
OBJECTIVE: From a Self-Determination Theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. METHOD: In two studies among 224 South African adults (Mage = 24.13; SDage = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (Mage = 38...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality
Martina Luchetti, Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin
OBJECTIVE: Personality is known to predict alcohol consumption but how alcohol use is related to personality change is less clear, especially at older ages. The present study examined the effects of level of alcohol consumption and history of dependence on change in the five-factor model personality traits in a national cohort of Americans aged over 50. METHOD: Over 10,000 adults who participated in 2006-08 waves of the Health and Retirement Study reported on personality and alcohol use and were followed over 4 years...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Personality
Kassandra Cortes, Joanne V Wood
OBJECTIVE: Having a responsive partner is important for the well-being of relationships. Unfortunately, people with low self-esteem (LSEs) perceive their partners to be less responsive than do people with high self-esteem (HSEs). Although the common assumption has been that LSEs' negative partner perceptions are "all in their heads"-a reflection of their negative self-projection-we argue that LSEs' views of lower partner responsiveness are, in fact, warranted. METHOD: Across two studies (NStudy1  = 122 couples, Mage  = 22...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Personality
Karl-Andrew Woltin, Anat Bardi
OBJECTIVE: Values are often phrased as ideals that people seek to approach, but they can also be conceptualized as counter-ideals that people seek to avoid. We aimed to test whether individuals endorse more strongly values that are framed in line with their predominant self-regulatory motivation, using individual difference scales in promotion/prevention (Higgins, 1997) and in behavioral approach/inhibition (Carver & White, 1994). To address this systematically, we developed approach- and avoidance-framed versions of the Portrait Value Questionnaire-RR (PVQ-RR; Schwartz et al...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Personality
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Shulamith Kreitler
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered...
February 2018: Journal of Personality
Anissa Mike, Hannah King, Thomas F Oltmanns, Joshua J Jackson
OBJECTIVE: OCPD is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet-level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined. METHOD: The study relied on a sample of 1630 adults who completed self-reports of personality and OCPD...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Personality
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Deon Meiring, Fons J R van de Vijver, J Alewyn Nel, François De Kock
OBJECTIVE: Despite the importance of self-other agreement for the validity of trait models, few studies have assessed cultural differences systematically. We examined self-other agreement in traits and profiles in the more collectivistic Black group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa. METHOD: Participants were 172 Black and 198 White students, and one relative and one friend of each student. Participants completed a behavior-based and a trait-adjective-based inventory...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Personality
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shahar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (N = 90) IER and ED and also included a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Golan Shahar, Sheera F Lerman, Maayan Topaz, Silviu Brill, Hadar Shalev, Zvia Rudich
OBJECTIVE: Chronic physical pain is one of modern medicine's principal challenges. Recently, there has been a keen research interest in the role of depressive personality vulnerability (DPV) in the course of chronic pain. This is the first attempt to examine the role of three leading DPV dimensions-sociotropy, autonomy, and self-criticism-in chronic pain. METHOD: Chronic pain patients (N = 428) were assessed four times as to their pain, disability, anxious depression, and pain-based catastrophizing...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Jonathan M Adler
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychology has largely ignored the experiences of people with disabilities. This article strives to bring the thriving, interdisciplinary field of disability studies to personality psychology via a case study of Samantha (N = 1). Samantha feels that she grew up as a hearing person who could not hear and is now a deaf person who can hear. METHOD: Narrative identity provides the theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for the rich, qualitative examination of Samantha's life story, interwoven with approaches from disability studies and intersectionality theory...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
OBJECTIVE: Although Conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We aim to clarify facet-level associations and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of Conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via Neuroticism) accounts for their associations. METHOD: A total of 450 participants (Mage  = 42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain- and facet-level traits (i...
December 2017: Journal of Personality
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