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Journal of Personality

William L Dunlop, Grace E Hanley
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychologists have begun to consider the predictive ability of comparable personality characteristics at the levels of traits, goals, and narrative identity. Here, we build upon and extend this work by adopting a contextualized personality approach. Doing so entailed exploring the implications of personality characteristics within three social roles and at each level of personality in relation to role-specific and generalized measures of psychological adjustment...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Personality
Richard M Ryan, Bart Soenens, Maarten Vansteenkiste
This special issue brings together seven contributions which, in spite of the diversity of the topics and theories being covered, all make use of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as their guiding, complementary, or contrasting framework. In this commentary we first reflect on how SDT has developed organically and conservatively from "within," based on emerging patterns of evidence, as well through ongoing challenges from other models and frameworks. We then discuss each of the various contributions to this special issue, addressing themes that include SDT's breadth of methods, and its relevance to topics such as narcissism, wisdom, individual differences, big-five traits, and the neuropsychology of motivation, among others...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
Christopher J Hopwood, Evan W Good
OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal dysfunction is an important marker of individual differences in personality and well-being. Existing research on interpersonal dysfunction focuses primarily on the problematic behaviors of individuals without considering how sensitivity to others' behavior impacts functioning. In this study, we test the structure and correlates of a model of relationship dysfunction that integrates the problems individuals bring to relationships with their sensitivities to others' behavior...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Miranda Giacomin, Christian H Jordan
OBJECTIVE: We examine why people form positive first impressions of grandiose narcissists, even though they can identify others' narcissism. We test whether this occurs because narcissists are perceived to have especially high self-esteem, which is socially valued. METHOD: Across four studies, undergraduate perceivers viewed photographs of targets (for whom narcissism and self-esteem were known) and rated perceptions of their narcissism, self-esteem, and how much they liked them...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Alex J Benson, Jessica Jeschke, Christian Jordan, Mark Bruner, Steven Arnocky
OBJECTIVE: Using the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept as a guiding framework, the current research examines how ingroup affiliation and devaluation are connected to the self-enhancing and self-threatening properties of ingroups for narcissists. METHOD: Participants (N = 374) completed a group decision-making task and received feedback that factorially manipulated both individual and group performance. Across the four combinations of performance feedback, we examined the conditional effects of narcissistic admiration and rivalry on social identity, perceptions of group member ability, desire to abandon the group, and desire to expel group members...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Marie Forgeard, Kathrin Herzhoff, Eranda Jayawickreme, Eli Tsukayama, Courtney Beard, Thröstur Björgvinsson
OBJECTIVE: Research examining relationships between trait Openness to Experience, psychopathology, and well-being has produced contradictory findings. Examining temporary manifestations of Openness may provide further insight into the interplay between Openness and symptoms in clinical populations. METHOD: The present study validated a brief new measure to assess daily Openness in 271 adults (Mage = 34 years, 52% women, 83% White) taking part in 7 days of intensive treatment for acute psychopathology...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nicola Toschi, Luca Passamonti
OBJECTIVE: Differences in myelination across the cortical mantle are important neurobiological mediators of variability in cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning. Past studies have found that personality traits reflecting such variability are linked to neuroanatomical and functional changes in prefrontal and temporo-parietal cortices. Whether these effects are partially mediated by differences in intra-cortical myelin remains to be established. METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we employed vertex-wise intra-cortical myelin maps in n=1,003 people from the Human Connectome Project...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
Stevan E Hobfoll, Allison E Gaffey, Linzy M Wagner
The principal accepted models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on both memory processing and biological/brain changes occurring when one's life or well-being is threatened. It is our thesis that these models would be greatly informed by community studies indicating that PTSD is predicted to a greater extent by earlier life experience and experiences that occur distant from the threatening event. These findings suggest posttraumatic responding is best conceptualized through the lens of the self-in-context, as opposed to imprinting that results from a given event at a given time...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Personality
Julia Schüler, Nicola Baumann, Athanasios Chasiotis, Michael Bender, Ingrid Baum
The present article starts with discussing similarities and differences between conceptualizations of human needs in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan [1985], Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior; Deci & Ryan [2000], Nebraska symposium on motivation: Perspectives on motivation) and motive disposition theory (MDT; McClelland, Human motivation, 1985). The second section focuses on the two-process model of psychological needs (Sheldon [2011], Psychological Review, 118: 552), which aims to integrate the two approaches, whereas the third section highlights some aspects of both theories that are still decoupled or even contradictory, but nevertheless still have a high potential to be linked...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nicolas Sommet, Andrew J Elliot, Jeremy P Jamieson, Fabrizio Butera
OBJECTIVE: Scholars disagree on whether income inequality has incentive or disincentive effects. In the present research, we move beyond such debate and focus on the motivational processes that income inequality predicts. First, income inequality makes economic stratification salient; therefore, it should promote perceived competitiveness. Second, competitiveness can be appraised as both a challenge and a threat; therefore, it should promote both approach and avoidance motivation. METHOD: In three studies (N = 2,543), U...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Personality
Xiang Ling Ong, Ryan Y Hong, Fen-Fang Tsai, Seok Hui Tan
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the developmental change in self-control and its association with daily stressful events during middle childhood, as well as the factors that contribute to individual differences in the trajectory of self-control. METHOD: A community sample of 302 Singaporean children (42% female, 69% Chinese) and their parents were recruited when the children were age 7. Follow-up assessments were made when the children were ages 8, 9, and 11. Developmental changes were examined using latent growth and autoregressive cross-lagged models...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Personality
Yossi Michaeli, Maor Kalfon Hakhmigari, Daniel J Dickson, Miri Scharf, Shmuel Shulman
OBJECTIVE: Past research has confirmed the role of self-criticism in numerous forms of psychopathology and negative interpersonal outcomes. However, the majority of these studies were cross-sectional and have not addressed the role of possible changes in self-criticism across time for future outcomes. The current study investigated the degree to which changes in self-criticism during young adulthood precede better psychological outcomes beyond the contribution of their baseline levels...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Lameese Eldesouky, Tammy English
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how the Big Five traits predict individual differences in five theoretically important emotion regulation goals that are commonly pursued-pro-hedonic, contra-hedonic, performance, pro-social, and impression management. METHOD: We conducted two studies: (a) a large survey study consisting of undergraduates (N = 394; 18-25 years; 69% female; 56% European American) and community adults (N = 302; 19-74 years; 50% female; 75% European American) who completed a newly developed global measure of individual differences in emotion regulation goals and (b) a 9-day daily diary study with community adults (N = 272; 23-85 years; 50% female; 84% European American) who completed daily reports of emotion regulation goals...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Personality
Robert R McCrae, René Mõttus, Martina Hřebíčková, Anu Realo, Jüri Allik
OBJECTIVE: We tested predictions about the structure and magnitude of method biases in single-source personality trait assessments. We expected a large number of distinct biases that would parallel the observed structure of traits, at both facet and item levels. METHOD: We analyzed multimethod ratings on the Estonian NEO Personality Inventory-3 in a sample of 3,214 adults. By subtracting informant ratings from self-reports, we eliminated true score variance and analyzed the size and structure of the residual method biases...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Personality
Emily J Hangen, Andrew J Elliot, Jeremy P Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: Performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals are conceptually distinct, but they are often moderately or even highly positively correlated. The present research examines lay conceptions of approach and avoidance motivation as a moderator of this intergoal relation. METHOD: Study 1 (N = 281) assessed whether participants considered norm-based approach motivation as being the same or different from norm-based avoidance motivation and tested these conceptions as a moderator of the performance goal correlation...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Personality
Isabel Thielmann, Benjamin E Hilbig
OBJECTIVE: Across all subfields of psychology, it is common practice to use different indicators of allegedly the same personality constructs, resting upon the (often implicit) assumption that the indicators measure equivalent constructs. However, there is a lack of approaches allowing for a strict and comprehensive test of the equivalence assumption. We propose investigating nomological consistency to test the equivalence assumption across inventories allegedly measuring the same set of constructs...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Personality
Sven Rieger, Richard Göllner, Marion Spengler, Ulrich Trautwein, Benjamin Nagengast, Jeffrey R Harring, Brent W Roberts
OBJECTIVE: In the present research, we examined the effect of getting a new teacher on consistency in students' personality measures, including trait and social cognitive constructs. METHOD: To test the effect of this kind of situational transition, we analyzed two large longitudinal samples (N = 5,628; N = 2,458) with quasi-experimental study designs. We used two consistency measures (i.e., rank-order clations and changes in variance over time) to compare students who got a new teacher with students who kept the same teacher...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Personality
Ziyan Luan, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Roos Hutteman, Jaap J A Denissen, Jens B Asendorpf, Marcel A G van Aken
OBJECTIVE: What is gained by having others report on one's personality? Research on adult samples has suggested that informant reports are especially informative regarding traits that are highly visible and evaluative (i.e., socially desirable/undesirable instead of neutral), such as Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. This 18-year longitudinal study aims to demonstrate the unique predictive power of other-rated personality in adolescence, using life outcomes and personality in adulthood as trait criteria...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
Martina Luchetti, Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin
OBJECTIVE: Personality is known to predict alcohol consumption, but how alcohol use is related to personality change is less clear, especially at older ages. The present study examined the effects of level of alcohol consumption and history of dependence on change in the Five-Factor Model personality traits in a national cohort of Americans aged over 50. METHOD: Over 10,000 adults who participated in 2006-2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study reported on personality and alcohol use and were followed over 4 years...
December 2018: Journal of Personality
Jonathan M Adler
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychology has largely ignored the experiences of people with disabilities. This article strives to bring the thriving, interdisciplinary field of disability studies to personality psychology via a case study of Samantha (N = 1). Samantha feels that she grew up as a hearing person who could not hear and is now a deaf person who can hear. METHOD: Narrative identity provides the theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for the rich, qualitative examination of Samantha's life story, interwoven with approaches from disability studies and intersectionality theory...
October 2018: Journal of Personality
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