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Journal of Personality

Kennon M Sheldon, Mike Prentice
In this introductory article we first describe the impetus for this special issue. What made us think that Self-Determination Theory (SDT) might provide a sort of foundation for the rest of personality psychology? For readers unfamiliar with SDT, we then provide a historical overview which covers the evolution of the six "mini-theories" that currently comprise SDT: cognitive evaluation theory, causality orientations theory, organismic integration theory, basic psychological needs theory, goal contents theory, and relational motivation theory...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sarah H Sperry, Donald P Lynam, Thomas R Kwapil
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity appears to be best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. For example, the UPPS-P model posits that there are five underlying facets of impulsivity. The present study examined the expression of the UPPS-P facets in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM). A specific goal of the study was to examine positive urgency, a facet added to the original UPPS model, and its convergence and divergence from the negative urgency facet. METHODS: A large non-clinical sample of young adults (n=294) completed the UPPS-P scale and were signaled to complete questionnaires assessing daily affect, cognitions, sense of self, and impulsive behaviors eight times a day for seven days in their daily life...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Michael L Crowe, University Of Georgia, Donald R Lynam, Purdue University, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: Although there are several models of the lower-order structure of Agreeableness, empirically derived descriptions of this domain are largely non-existent. We examined the factor structure of Agreeableness items from multiple scales in order to empirically determine the facet-level structure of the domain. METHOD: Participants (N = 1205; 73% female; 84% White; M age = 35.5, SD = 17.26) completed 131 items from 22 scales measuring Agreeableness. RESULTS: A series of factor analyses were conducted on 104 items to identify factor emergence of the domain, from a single factor to increasingly more specific factors...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality
Caroline Schlinkert, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVES: People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. METHODS: Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; Mage = 21...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Personality
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Elyse N Mowle, Karolina Sörman
OBJECTIVE: The validity of self-report psychopathy measures may be undermined by characteristics thought to be defining features of the construct, including poor self-awareness, pathological lying, and impression management. The current study examined agreement between self- and informant perceptions of psychopathic traits captured by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowler, & Krueger, 2009) and the extent to which psychopathic traits are associated with socially desirable responding. METHOD: Participants were undergraduate roommate dyads (N = 174; Mage  = 18...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Florian Müller, Klaus Rothermund
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the fit between individuals' motives and goal properties predicts efficiency of implicit self-regulation. METHOD: Participants' (German university students; Mage  = 22; 64% female) implicit motives measurement (Multi-Motive Grid) was followed by assessment of implicit self-regulation in differently framed tasks. In Study 1 (N = 45), positive implicit evaluations of stimuli relating to an achievement goal (studying) were used as an indicator of implicit self-regulation...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Sonia Sengsavang, Michael W Pratt, Susan Alisat, Pamela Sadler
OBJECTIVE: In this longitudinal, mixed-methods project, the primary focus was to examine the rank-order stability and mean-level change in the life story during the period of emerging to young adulthood, while also investigating how the transition to parenthood may impact the life story. METHOD: Seventy-two participants described three key life story scenes at age 26 and again at 32 (28% attrition from age 26 to 32). The narratives were coded for a range of features, including motivational themes (agency, communion), affective themes (emotional tone), an integrative meaning theme (coherent positive resolution), and a structural property (narrative complexity)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
Heather L Lawford, Anna-Beth Doyle, Dorothy Markiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have begun to find evidence that generativity, defined as concern for future generations as a legacy of the self, has relevance prior to midlife. Examination of predictors of generativity in adolescence contributes to an overall model of positive development in youth. Bowlby's theory of attachment, a well-established framework for understanding close relationships, was applied in this study of how adolescents' approach to close relationships predicts early generativity...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Personality
Timothy A Allen, Bridget E Carey, Carolina McBride, R Michael Bagby, Colin G DeYoung, Lena C Quilty
OBJECTIVE: Research has shown that three personality traits-Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness-moderate one another in a three-way interaction that predicts depressive symptoms in healthy populations. We test the hypothesis that this effect is driven by three lower-order traits: withdrawal, industriousness, and enthusiasm. We then replicate this interaction within a clinical population for the first time. METHOD: Sample 1 included 376 healthy adults...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
Andreas B Neubauer, Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess whether people differ in the degree to which their well-being is affected by fulfillment of the need for competence. Specifically, we want to examine (a) whether interindividual differences in the within-person coupling of competence satisfaction and well-being (competence satisfaction effect) and of competence dissatisfaction and well-being (competence dissatisfaction effect) exist, and (b) whether these differences moderate the effects of an experimentally induced frustration of the need for competence...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Leonard J Simms
OBJECTIVE: Although Conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We aim to clarify facet-level associations and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of Conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via Neuroticism) accounts for their associations. METHOD: A total of 450 participants (Mage  = 42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain- and facet-level traits (i...
December 2017: Journal of Personality
Emilie Auger, Danielle Menzies-Toman, John E Lydon
OBJECTIVE: Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. METHOD: Sixty-three couples participated in a 2-week event-contingent diary study. RESULTS: On a daily basis, experiencing more partner transgressions than usual predicted decreases in relationship well-being and increases in negative affect...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Yael Sela, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Bernhard Fink
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. METHOD: In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2)...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
James N Donald, Paul W B Atkins, Philip D Parker, Alison M Christie, Jiesi Guo
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioral effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This article is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. METHOD: Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201; Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress-related thoughts, measured using the individual-difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behavior, controlling for stress-related appraisals...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Christin M Ogle, Ilene C Siegler, Jean C Beckham, David C Rubin
OBJECTIVE: Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the cognitive-affective processes through which neuroticism leads to greater PTSD symptom severity. METHOD: Community-dwelling adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to DSM-IV-TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Lisa Legault, Netta Weinstein, Jahlil Mitchell, Michael Inzlicht, Kristen Pyke, Afzal Upal
OBJECTIVE: Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences-particularly negative aspects-is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. OBJECTIVE: We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Denise Janicki Deverts, Sheldon Cohen, William J Doyle
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. METHOD: Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (Mage  = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R Maio, Paul H P Hanel, Brigitte Bardin
OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHOD: Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Anna J Finley, Adrienne L Crowell, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Brandon J Schmeichel
OBJECTIVE: Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. METHOD: Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
Caitlin M Porter, Scott E Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Rachel M Saef, Louis Tay
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. METHOD: Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence...
October 2017: Journal of Personality
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