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Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340120/location-location-location-appraising-the-pleiotropic-function-of-hmgb1-in-fetal-brain
#1
Martin G Frasch, Karen L Nygard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#2
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340105/morin-stain-detects-aluminum-containing-macrophages-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-and-vaccination-granuloma-with-high-sensitivity-and-specificity
#3
Rati Chkheidze, Dennis K Burns, Charles L White, Diana Castro, Julie Fuller, Chunyu Cai
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that percolate through the peri- and endomysium without eliciting substantial myofiber damage. The definitive diagnosis of MMF requires demonstration of aluminum within these macrophages...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#4
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340171/immunohistochemical-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-meningiomas-and-their-mimics
#5
Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Clémence Fleury, Caroline Fichel, Sophie Lefour, Aude Marchal Bressenot, Guillaume Gauchotte
The differential diagnosis between meningioma and others tumors can be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate different immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis between meningioma and their morphological mimics. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray with antiepithelial membrane antigen (EMA), progesterone receptor, somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A), CD34, STAT6, S100, SOX10, HMB45, MelanA, GFAP, inhibin, and BCL2 antibodies. One hundred and twenty-seven meningiomas, 26 solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/HPC), 39 schwannomas, 17 hemangioblastomas, 21 melanomas, 9 gliosarcomas, 5 neurofibromas, 9 peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 7 synovial sarcomas, and 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were included in the microarray...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340115/cellular-senescence-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-irradiation-and-the-role-of-p53-and-p21
#6
Zoey Cheng, Yan Zhen Zheng, Yu-Qing Li, C Shun Wong
Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse hippocampus at 9 weeks. Upregulation of p21 and p19ARF was confirmed using real-time PCR, which also demonstrated increased CDKN2A/p16INKa expression after irradiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340093/the-molecular-and-morphologic-structures-that-make-saltatory-conduction-possible-in-peripheral-nerve
#7
Steven L Carroll
Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#9
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177496/synaptophysin-is-a-reliable-marker-for-axonal-damage
#10
Viktoria Gudi, Lijie Gai, Vanessa Herder, Laura Salinas Tejedor, Markus Kipp, Sandra Amor, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Florian Hansmann, Andreas Beineke, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Martin Stangel, Thomas Skripuletz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158844/association-of-neuropathological-markers-in-the-parietal-cortex-with-antemortem-cognitive-function-in-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#11
Cyntia Tremblay, Arnaud François, Charlotte Delay, Laure Freland, Milène Vandal, David A Bennett, Frédéric Calon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158670/regional-gene-expression-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-responses-does-not-predict-neurodegeneration-in-aging
#12
Irene López-González, Cristian Tebé Cordomí, Isidro Ferrer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110298/idh1-mutation-in-diffuse-gliomas-in-persons-age-55-years-and-over
#13
Chase Robinson, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
Diffuse astrocytoma (DA), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and glioblastoma (GBM) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) based on IDH-mutational status. The vast majority of IDH-mutated gliomas (90% of which involve a mutation in IDH1 R132H, which can be assessed by IDH1 immunohistochemistry [IHC]) occur in persons younger than 55 years of age. This raises the question as to the prevalence of IDH-mutant tumors in older persons and whether the gliomas in older patients should be routinely tested. Since January 1, 2014, we have employed a standard screening panel for all gliomas regardless of patient age...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082327/a-functional-and-neuropathological-testing-paradigm-reveals-new-disability-based-parameters-and-histological-features-for-p0180-190-induced-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#14
David G Gonsalvez, Mithraka De Silva, Rhiannon J Wood, Lauren Giuffrida, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
We assessed novel disability-based parameters and neuropathological features of the P0180-190 peptide-induced model of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in C57BL/6 mice. We show that functional assessments such as running capacity provide a more sensitive method for detecting alterations in disease severity than a classical clinical scoring paradigm. We performed detailed ultrastructural analysis and show for the first time that tomaculous neuropathy is a neuropathological feature of this disease model...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082326/friedreich-ataxia-hypoplasia-of-spinal-cord-and-dorsal-root-ganglia
#15
Arnulf H Koeppen, Alyssa B Becker, Jiang Qian, Paul J Feustel
After Friedreich's description in 1877, depletion of myelinated fibers in the dorsal columns, dorsal spinocerebellar and lateral corticospinal tracts, and neuronal loss in the dorsal nuclei of Clarke columns were considered unique and essential neuropathological features of Friedreich ataxia (FA). Lack of large neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), thinning of dorsal roots (DR), and poor myelination in sensory nerves are now recognized as key components of FA. Here, we measured cross-sectional areas of the mid-thoracic spinal cord (SC) and neuronal sizes in lumbosacral DRG of 24 genetically confirmed FA cases...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069931/the-search-for-a-peripheral-biopsy-indicator-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-for-parkinson-disease
#16
REVIEW
John M Lee, Pascal Derkinderen, Jeffrey H Kordower, Roy Freeman, David G Munoz, Thomas Kremer, Wagner Zago, Samantha J Hutten, Charles H Adler, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas G Beach
The neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD) is abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn). Demonstrating pathological α-syn in live patients would be useful for identifying and monitoring PD patients. To date, however, imaging and biofluid approaches have not permitted premortem assessment of pathological α-syn. α-syn pathology in the peripheral nervous system of patients with PD has been demonstrated in studies dating back more than 40 years. More recent work suggests that colon, submandibular gland and skin biopsies could be useful as expedient biomarkers but histological differentiation of pathological and normal peripheral α-syn has been challenging and multiple research groups have reported variable results...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069930/a-quantitative-analysis-of-brain-soluble-tau-and-the-tau-secretion-factor
#17
Pengcheng Han, Geidy Serrano, Thomas G Beach, Richard J Caselli, Junxiang Yin, Ningning Zhuang, Jiong Shi
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent products of insoluble tau protein in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau level is a biomarker in AD diagnosis. The soluble portion of tau protein in brain parenchyma is presumably the source for CSF tau but this has not previously been quantified. We measured CSF tau and soluble brain tau at autopsy in temporal and frontal brain tissue samples from 7 cognitive normal, 12 mild cognitively impaired, and 19 AD subjects. Based on the measured brain soluble tau, we calculated the whole brain tau load and estimated tau secretion factor...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069929/genomic-alterations-of-adamantinomatous-and-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#18
Tobias Goschzik, Marco Gessi, Verena Dreschmann, Ursel Gebhardt, Linghua Wang, Shigeru Yamaguchi, David A Wheeler, Libero Lauriola, Ching C Lau, Hermann L Müller, Torsten Pietsch
Craniopharyngiomas are rare histologically benign but clinically challenging neoplasms. To obtain further information on the molecular genetics and biology of craniopharyngiomas, we analyzed a cohort of 121 adamantinomatous and 16 papillary craniopharyngiomas (ACP, PCP). We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and determined mutational status of CTNNB1, BRAF, and DDX3X by Sanger sequencing, next generation panel sequencing, and pyrosequencing. Sixteen craniopharyngiomas were further analyzed by molecular inversion profiling (MIP); 76...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062571/performance-of-a-condensed-protocol-that-reduces-effort-and-cost-of-nia-aa-guidelines-for-neuropathologic-assessment-of-alzheimer-disease
#19
Margaret E Flanagan, Desiree A Marshall, Jane B Shofer, Kathleen S Montine, Peter T Nelson, Thomas J Montine, C Dirk Keene
Concerns regarding resource expenditures have been expressed about the 2012 NIA-AA Sponsored Guidelines for neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer disease (AD) and related dementias. Here, we investigated a cost-reducing Condensed Protocol and its effectiveness in maintaining the diagnostic performance of Guidelines in assessing AD, Lewy body disease (LBD), microvascular brain injury, hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The Condensed Protocol consolidates the same 20 regions into 5 tissue cassettes at ∼75% lower cost...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053004/dna-methylation-profiles-of-selected-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-alzheimer-disease
#20
Vincenzina Nicolia, Rosaria A Cavallaro, Irene López-González, Mauro Maccarrone, Sigfrido Scarpa, Isidre Ferrer, Andrea Fuso
By means of functional genomics analysis, we recently described the mRNA expression profiles of various genes involved in the neuroinflammatory response in the brains of subjects with late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD). Some of these genes, namely interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, showed distinct expression profiles with peak expression during the first stages of the disease and control-like levels at later stages. IL-1β and IL-6 genes are modulated by DNA methylation in different chronic and degenerative diseases; it is also well known that LOAD may have an epigenetic basis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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