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Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419288/editor-s-note-transitions-at-the-jnen
#1
Raymond A Sobel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419269/dual-genotype-diffuse-low-grade-glioma-is-it-really-time-to-abandon-oligoastrocytoma-as-a-distinct-entity
#2
Valeria Barresi, Simona Lionti, Laura Valori, Giovanna Gallina, Maria Caffo, Sabrina Rossi
We report a unique case of dual-genotype oligoastrocytoma characterized by IDH2 gene mutation. The tumor was resected from the temporal lobe of a 25-year-old man. At histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin stain, it showed distinct oligodendroglial and astrocytic areas. The former retained alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) immuno-expression and had absent staining for p53, while the latter had ATRX loss and p53 over-expression. Molecular analyses were separately assessed in the 2 tumor components...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402459/spine-topographical-distribution-of-skin-%C3%AE-synuclein-deposits-in-idiopathic-parkinson-disease
#3
Vincenzo Donadio, Alex Incensi, Giovanni Rizzo, Cesa Scaglione, Sabina Capellari, Enrico Fileccia, Patrizia Avoni, Rocco Liguori
Phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) in skin nerves mainly in the proximal sites is a promising neurodegenerative biomarker for idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). However, the p-syn spine distribution particularly in patients with unilateral motor dysfunctions remains undefined. This study aimed to investigate in IPD p-syn differences between left and right cervical spine sites in patients with prevalent unilateral motor symptoms, and cervical and thoracic spine sites in patients with bilateral motor symptoms...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398505/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379416/absence-of-alzheimer-disease-neuropathologic-changes-in-eyes-of-subjects-with-alzheimer-disease
#5
Erik A Williams, Declan McGuone, Matthew P Frosch, Bradley T Hyman, Nora Laver, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and is characterized by extracellular deposition of β-amyloid and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the brain. These pathologic findings are identified postmortem. Various visual deficits in AD have been reported and there have been conflicting reports, through imaging and pathology studies, regarding the presence of changes in the globe that mirror Alzheimer changes in the brain. Moreover, both macular degeneration and glaucoma have been variously characterized as having AD-related features...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371804/muscle-pathology-as-a-diagnostic-clue-to-allgrove-syndrome
#6
Jens Reimann, Nicolai Kohlschmidt, Karen Tolksdorf, Joachim Weis, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Andreas Roos
Allgrove or triple A syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that can present with a variable range of multi-system manifestations, including optic atrophy, cerebellar ataxia, upper and lower motoneuron signs and various neuropathic abnormalities. These cases are a diagnostic challenge, particularly when the eponymous combination of achalasia, Addisonianism and alacrima is incomplete. Therefore, it is in the differential diagnosis for multisystem conditions and should be known to pathologists who diagnose disorders of skeletal muscle...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#7
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177496/synaptophysin-is-a-reliable-marker-for-axonal-damage
#8
Viktoria Gudi, Lijie Gai, Vanessa Herder, Laura Salinas Tejedor, Markus Kipp, Sandra Amor, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Florian Hansmann, Andreas Beineke, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Martin Stangel, Thomas Skripuletz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158844/association-of-neuropathological-markers-in-the-parietal-cortex-with-antemortem-cognitive-function-in-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#9
Cyntia Tremblay, Arnaud François, Charlotte Delay, Laure Freland, Milène Vandal, David A Bennett, Frédéric Calon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431180/collagenosis-of-the-deep-medullary-veins-an-underrecognized-pathologic-correlate-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-periventricular-infarction
#10
Julia Keith, Fu-Qiang Gao, Raza Noor, Alex Kiss, Gayathiri Balasubramaniam, Kelvin Au, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent. Although arteriolar disease has been implicated in their pathogenesis, venous pathology warrants consideration. We investigated relationships of WMH with histologic venous, arteriolar and white matter abnormalities and correlated findings with premortem neuroimaging. Three regions of periventricular white matter were sampled from archived autopsy brains of 24 pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and 18 age-matched nonAD patients. Using trichrome staining, venous collagenosis (VC) of periventricular veins (<150 µm in diameter) was scored for severity of wall thickening and occlusion; percent stenosis by collagenosis of large caliber (>200 µm) veins (laVS) was measured...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431179/mirna-regulation-in-gliomas-usual-suspects-in-glial-tumorigenesis-and-evolving-clinical-applications
#11
Heather Ames, Marc K Halushka, Fausto J Rodriguez
In recent years, an increasing role for noncoding small RNAs (miRNA) has been uncovered in carcinogenesis. These oligonucleotides can promote degradation and/or inhibit translation of key mRNAs. Recent studies have also highlighted a possible role for miRNAs in adult and pediatric brain tumors, including high- and low-grade gliomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and neoplasms associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Gliomas represent the most common category of primary intraparenchymal brain tumors, and, for example, manipulation of signaling pathways, through inhibition of PTEN transcription appears to be an important function of miRNA dysregulation through miR-21, miR-106b, and miR-26a...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#12
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340171/immunohistochemical-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-meningiomas-and-their-mimics
#13
Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Clémence Fleury, Caroline Fichel, Sophie Lefour, Aude Marchal Bressenot, Guillaume Gauchotte
The differential diagnosis between meningioma and others tumors can be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate different immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis between meningioma and their morphological mimics. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray with antiepithelial membrane antigen (EMA), progesterone receptor, somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A), CD34, STAT6, S100, SOX10, HMB45, MelanA, GFAP, inhibin, and BCL2 antibodies. One hundred and twenty-seven meningiomas, 26 solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/HPC), 39 schwannomas, 17 hemangioblastomas, 21 melanomas, 9 gliosarcomas, 5 neurofibromas, 9 peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 7 synovial sarcomas, and 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were included in the microarray...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340120/location-location-location-appraising-the-pleiotropic-function-of-hmgb1-in-fetal-brain
#14
Martin G Frasch, Karen L Nygard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340115/cellular-senescence-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-irradiation-and-the-role-of-p53-and-p21
#15
Zoey Cheng, Yan Zhen Zheng, Yu-Qing Li, C Shun Wong
Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse hippocampus at 9 weeks. Upregulation of p21 and p19ARF was confirmed using real-time PCR, which also demonstrated increased CDKN2A/p16INKa expression after irradiation...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340105/morin-stain-detects-aluminum-containing-macrophages-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-and-vaccination-granuloma-with-high-sensitivity-and-specificity
#16
Rati Chkheidze, Dennis K Burns, Charles L White, Diana Castro, Julie Fuller, Chunyu Cai
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that percolate through the peri- and endomysium without eliciting substantial myofiber damage. The definitive diagnosis of MMF requires demonstration of aluminum within these macrophages...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340093/the-molecular-and-morphologic-structures-that-make-saltatory-conduction-possible-in-peripheral-nerve
#17
Steven L Carroll
Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#19
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395090/immune-cell-infiltrates-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-correlation-with-neuronal-loss
#20
Jian-Qiang Lu, Trevor A Steve, Matt Wheatley, Donald W Gross
Immune mechanisms have been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), but infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells and its pathological significance in patients with HS has not been explored. We examined 30 cases of surgically resected hippocampi, including 16 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1, 9 ILAE type 2, 1 ILAE type 3 HS, and 4 ILAE No-HS, as well as 6 autopsy No-HS hippocampi. The HS hippocampi showed sparse to scattered CD8-positive T-cells, rare CD4-positive T-cells, and a modest increase in CD68-positive microglia/macrophages, which were significantly more numerous than those in the No-HS controls...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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