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Journal of Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431851/stress-induced-trna-cleavage-and-tirna-generation-in-rat-neuronal-pc12-cells
#1
Elkordy Alaa, Eikan Mishima, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Yasutoshi Akiyama, Miki Fujimura, Teiji Tominaga, Takaaki Abe
Transfer RNA (tRNA) plays a role in stress response programs involved in various pathological conditions including neurological diseases. Under cell stress conditions, intracellular tRNA is cleaved by a specific ribonuclease, angiogenin, generating tRNA-derived fragments or tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA (tiRNA). Generated tiRNA contributes to the cell stress response and has potential cell protective effects. However, tiRNA generation under stress conditions in neuronal cells has not been fully elucidated...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430652/the-many-faces-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#2
Hélène Girouard, Lisa M Munter
This Preface introduces the articles of the special issue on "Vascular Dementia" in which several recognized experts provide an overview of this research field. The brain is a highly vascularized organ and consequently, vascular dysfunction and related pathways affect cognitive performance and memory. Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and both disorders often occur in parallel. With this special issue, we hope to provide insight and a stimulating discussion for the future development of this research field...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424033/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-biopsies-of-lipid-storage-disorder
#3
B Debashree, Manish Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad, Archana Natarajan, Rita Christopher, A Nalini, P S Bindu, N Gayathri, M M Srinivas Bharath
Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423951/early-calp2-expression-and-microglial-activation-are-potential-inducers-of-spinal-il-6-upregulation-and-bilateral-pain-following-motor-nerve-injury
#4
Shao-Xia Chen, Shao-Kun Wang, Pei-Wen Yao, Guang-Jie Liao, Xiao-Dong Na, Yong-Yong Li, Wei-An Zeng, Xian-Guo Liu, Ying Zang
Previous work from our laboratory showed that motor nerve injury by lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) led to interleukin-6 (IL-6) overexpression in bilateral spinal cord, and that intrathecal administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibody delayed the induction of mechanical allodynia in bilateral hind paws. However, early events and upstream mechanisms underlying spinal IL-6 expression following L5-VRT require elucidation. The model of L5-VRT was used to induce neuropathic pain, which was assessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423909/perinatal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-methyl-donor-supplementation-alter-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-brain
#5
S E McKee, S Zhang, L Chen, J D Rabinowitz, T M Reyes
One carbon metabolism is regulated by the availability of nutrients known as methyl donors, and disruption of this pathway can affect multiple physiological systems. DNA methylation, critical for the regulation of gene expression, is linked to one carbon metabolism, and can be altered by perinatal diet. In the current study, dams (n=12/group) were fed HF or standard control (SC) diet through pregnancy and lactation, and male and female offspring were then fed either SC or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDS) between 3 and 6 weeks of age (n=20-26/group)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388213/elemental-fingerprint-as-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Fabian Maass, Bernhard Michalke, Andreas Leha, Matthias Boerger, Inga Zerr, Jan-Christoph Koch, Lars Tönges, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) still lacks objective diagnostic markers independent of clinical criteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 36 PD and 42 age-matched control patients were subjected to inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry and a total of 28 different elements were quantified. Different machine learning algorithms were applied to the dataset to identify a discriminating set of elements yielding a novel biomarker signature. Using 19 stably-detected elements, the extreme gradient tree boosting model showed the best performance in the discrimination of PD and control patients with high specificity and sensitivity (78...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377124/purinergic-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-development-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Taylor G Welsh, Sarah Kucenas
Myelin, an insulating membrane that enables rapid action potential propagation, is an essential component of an efficient, functional vertebrate nervous system. Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glia of the central nervous system (CNS), produce myelin throughout the CNS, which requires continuous proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). Because myelination is essential for efficient neurotransmission, researchers hypothesize that neuronal signals may regulate the cascade of events necessary for this process...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377133/reviewer-selection-biases-editorial-decisions-on-manuscripts
#8
Laura Hausmann, Barbara Schweitzer, Frank A Middleton, Jörg B Schulz
Many journals, including the Journal of Neurochemistry, enable authors to list peer reviewers as "preferred" or "opposed" suggestions to the editor. At the Journal of Neurochemistry, the handling editor (HE) may follow recommendations or select non-author-suggested reviewers (non-ASRs). We investigated whether selection of author-suggested reviewers (ASRs) influenced decisions on a paper, and whether differences might be related to a reviewers', editor's or manuscript's geographical location. In this retrospective analysis, we compared original research articles submitted to the Journal of Neurochemistry from 2013 through 2016, that were either reviewed exclusively by non-ASRs, by at least one ASR, by at least one reviewer marked by the author as "opposed", or none...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377126/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors-regulate-tlr4-induced-cxcl5-release-from-astrocytes-and-microglia
#9
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Catherine O'Sullivan, Luke M Healy, Kumlesh K Dev, Graham K Sheridan
Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PR) are G protein-coupled and compose a family with five subtypes, S1P1R - S1P5R. The drug Gilenya® (Fingolimod; FTY720) targets S1PRs and was the first oral therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The phosphorylated form of FTY720 (pFTY720) binds S1PRs causing initial agonism, then subsequent receptor internalisation and functional antagonism. Internalisation of S1P1R attenuates sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, limiting aberrant immune function in MS...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372570/wnt-is-here-could-wnt-signalling-be-promoted-to-protect-against-alzheimer-disease-an-editorial-for-wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-%C3%A2-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice-on-doi-10-1111
#10
EDITORIAL
Brett Garner, Lezanne Ooi
This Editorial highlights an article in the current issue by Tapia-Rojas and Inestrosa suggesting that attenuation of Wnt signalling may be a triggering factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in the J20 mouse model of AD. Their study utilises Wnt signalling inhibitors that operate at different points in the signalling pathway. The molecular changes of several key Wnt signaling components are examined, along with a thorough analysis of both the amyloid and tau based pathologies in the mouse brain...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364516/iron-promotes-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-and-transmission-by-inhibiting-tfeb-mediated-autophagosome-lysosome-fusion
#11
Yousheng Xiao, Xiang Chen, Shuxuan Huang, Guihua Li, Mingshu Mo, Li Zhang, Chaojun Chen, Wenyuan Guo, Miaomiao Zhou, Zhuohua Wu, Luan Cen, Simei Long, Shaomin Li, Xinling Yang, Shaogang Qu, Zhong Pei, Pingyi Xu
Recent studies have strongly shown that cell-to-cell transmission of neuropathogenic proteins is a common mechanism for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying cause is complex and little is known. Although distinct processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, they all share the common feature of iron accumulation, an attribute that is particularly prominent in synucleinopathies. However, whether iron is a cofactor in facilitating the spread of α-synuclein remains unclear...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364507/decreased-rates-of-cerebral-protein-synthesis-measured-in-vivo-in-a-mouse-model-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-unexpected-consequences-of-reduced-tuberin
#12
R Michelle Saré, Tianjian Huang, Tom Burlin, Inna Loutaev, Carolyn Beebe Smith
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurogenetic disorder affecting about 1 in 6,000 people and caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. This disorder is characterized by increased activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is involved in regulating ribosomal biogenesis and translation initiation. We measured the effects of Tsc2 haploinsufficiency (Tsc2+/- ) in three month old male mice on regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) by means of the in vivo L-[1-14 C]leucine method...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355955/complex-neuroprotective-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-histone-deacetylases
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Thomas, Santosh R D'Mello
By their ability to shatter quality of life for both patients and caregivers, neurodegenerative diseases are the most devastating of human disorders. Unfortunately, there are no effective or long-terms treatments capable of slowing down the relentless loss of neurons in any of these diseases. One impediment is the lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of neurodegeneration. While some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are mostly sporadic in nature, driven by both environment and genetic susceptibility, many others, including Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxias and Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, are genetically inherited disorders...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355947/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-is-upregulated-by-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-is-secreted-in-an-activity-dependent-manner-in-rat-cerebral-cortical-neurons
#14
Naoki Adachi, Shingo Suzuki, Hidetada Matsuoka, Satoko Fushimi, Junichiro Ono, Ken-Ichi Ohta, Yohei Hirai, Takanori Miki, Hisatsugu Koshimizu
A recent study revealed that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the cerebral cortex (CTX) plays a regulatory role in emotional behaviors in rodents. Given the functional interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the CRH-signaling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that BDNF may regulate gene expression of CRH and its related molecules in the CTX. Findings of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) indicated that stimulation of cultured rat cortical neurons with BDNF led to marked elevations in the mRNA levels of CRH and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341130/mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-integrating-proteotoxic-redox-and-metabolic-stress-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jianhua Zhang, M Lillian Culp, Jason G Craver, Victor Darley-Usmar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with widespread neurodegeneration in the brain. Significant oxidative, reductive, metabolic, and proteotoxic alterations have been observed in PD postmortem brains. The alterations of mitochondrial function resulting in decreased bioenergetic health is important and needs to be further examined to help develop biomarkers for PD severity and prognosis. It is now becoming clear that multiple hits on metabolic and signaling pathways are likely to exacerbate PD pathogenesis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337365/loss-of-sti1-mediated-neuronal-survival-and-differentiation-in-disease-associated-mutations-of-prion-protein
#16
M C Landemberger, G P Oliveira, C F Machado, K J Gollob, V R Martins
Cellular prion protein (PrPC ) is widely expressed and displays a variety of well-described functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Mutations of the PRNP gene are known to promote genetic human spongiform encephalopathies, but the components of gain- or loss-of-function mutations to PrPC remain a matter for debate. Among the proteins described to interact with PrPC is stress inducible protein 1 (STI1), a co-chaperonin that is secreted from astrocytes and triggers neuroprotection and neuritogenesis through its interaction with PrPC ...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337352/genetic-removal-of-eif2%C3%AE-kinase-perk-in-mice-enables-hippocampal-l-ltp-independent-of-mtorc1-activity
#17
Helena R Zimmermann, Wenzhong Yang, Brenna C Beckelman, Nicole P Kasica, Xueyan Zhou, Lucas Galli, Alexey G Ryazanov, Tao Ma
Characterization of the molecular signaling pathways underlying protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, such as late long-term potentiation (L-LTP), can provide insights not only into memory expression/maintenance under physiological conditions but also potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of memory disorders. Here, we report in mice that L-LTP failure induced by the mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin is reversed by brain-specific genetic deletion of PKR-like ER kinase, PERK (PERK KO), a kinase for eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337350/alterations-in-mglu5-receptor-expression-and-function-in-the-striatum-in-a-rat-depression-model
#18
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Major depressive disorder is a common form of mental illness. Many brain regions are implicated in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of depression. Among key brain areas is the striatum that controls reward and mood and is involved in the development of core depression-like behavior in animal models of depression. While molecular mechanisms in this region underlying depression-related behavior are poorly understood, the glutamatergic input to the striatum is believed to play a role. In this study, we investigated changes in metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor expression and signaling in the striatum of adult rats in response to prolonged (10-12 weeks) social isolation, a pre-validated animal paradigm modeling depression in adulthood...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337348/expression-of-the-purine-biosynthetic-enzyme-phosphoribosyl-formylglycinamidine-synthase-fgams-in-neurons
#19
Colleen A Mangold, Pamela J Yao, Mei Du, Willard M Freeman, Stephen J Benkovic, Moriah L Szpara
Purines are metabolic building blocks essential for all living organisms on earth. De novo purine biosynthesis occurs in the brain and appears to play important roles in neural development. Phosphoribosyl formylglycinamidine synthase (FGAMS, also known as PFAS or FGARAT), a core enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purines, may play alternative roles in viral pathogenesis. To date, no thorough investigation of the endogenous expression and localization of de novo purine biosynthetic enzymes has been conducted in human neurons or in virally infected cells...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315659/the-role-of-glutamate-signaling-in-incentive-salience-second-by-second-glutamate-recordings-in-awake-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Seth R Batten, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Joshua S Beckmann
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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