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Journal of Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030969/adropin-preserves-the-blood-brain-barrier-through-a-notch1-hes1-pathway-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#1
Lingyan Yu, Zhengyang Lu, Sherrefa Burchell, Derek Nowrangi, Anatol Manaenko, Xue Li, Yang Xu, Ningbo Xu, Jiping Tang, Haibin Dai, John H Zhang
Adropin is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a crucial role in the development of stroke. However, little is currently known about the effects of adropin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, the role of adropin in collagenase-induced ICH was investigated in mice. At 1-h post ICH, mice were administered with recombinant human adropin by intranasal. Brain water content, BBB permeability, and neurological function were measured at different time intervals...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027666/alexander-george-karczmar-1917-2017
#2
Hermona Soreq, Israel Silman
The neurochemistry community at large and the Advisory Board of The International Symposia on Cholinergic Mechanisms mourn the loss of Alexander George Karczmar, the elected Honorary President of these international symposia, who passed away peacefully in his Chicago home at the age of 100 on August 17, 2017. For many of us Alex was the essence of cholinergic signaling, and personified its versatile power to send messages between the brain and the peripheral tissues and organs, and to connect between body and soul...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023711/alteration-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-as-a-putative-mechanism-underlying-lps-induced-bbb-disruption
#3
Rajkumar Vutukuri, Robert Brunkhorst, Roxane-Isabelle Kestner, Lena Hansen, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Josef Pfeilschifter, Kavi Devraj, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Septic encephalopathy with confusion and agitation occurs early during sepsis and contributes to the severity of the disease. A decrease of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) blood levels has been shown in patients and in animal models of sepsis. The lipid mediator S1P is known to be involved in endothelial barrier function in a context-dependent manner. We utilized LPS injected mice as a model for septic encephalopathy and first performed tracer permeability assays to assess the BBB breakdown in vivo. At time points corresponding to the BBB breakdown post LPS injection, we aimed to characterize the regulation of the sphingolipid signaling pathway at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during sepsis...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023772/negative-modulation-of-the-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptor-function-by-l-cysteine
#4
Andrea N Beltrán González, Florencia Vicentini, Daniel J Calvo
L-Cysteine is an endogenous Sulphur containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. However, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. L-Cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic NMDA receptors, whereas its effects on GABAergic neurotransmission had not been studied before...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991365/arterial%C3%A2-stiffness-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-real-risk-or-confounding-factor
#5
REVIEW
M Florencia Iulita, Adrián Noriega de la Colina, Hélène Girouard
Large artery stiffness is a frequent condition that arises with aging, and is accelerated by the presence of co-morbidities like hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Although epidemiological studies have indicated an association between arterial stiffness, cognitive impairment and dementia, the precise effects of stiff arteries on the brain remains obscure. This is because, in humans, arterial stiffness is often accompanied by other factors such as age, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and inflammation, which could themselves damage the brain independently of stiffness...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986925/cerebral-blood-flow-in-normal-aging-adults-cardiovascular-determinants-clinical-implications-and-aerobic-fitness
#6
REVIEW
Takashi Tarumi, Rong Zhang
Senescence is a leading cause of mortality, disability, and non-communicable chronic diseases in older adults. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors elevates the incidence of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related declines in cardiovascular function may impair cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, leading to the disruption of neuronal micro-environmental homeostasis. The brain is the most metabolically active organ with limited intracellular energy storage and critically depends on CBF to sustain neuronal metabolism...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984906/lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-a-ergic-projections-to-the-arcuate-nucleus-modulate-gastric-function-in-vivo
#7
Xiao Luan, Xiangrong Sun, Feifei Guo, Di Zhang, Cheng Wang, Li Ma, Luo Xu
It has been well-known that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin-A and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), play important roles in regulation of gastric function. However, what neural pathway mediated by the two neuropeptides affects the gastric function remains unknown. In this study, by way of nucleic stimulation and extracellular recording of single unit electrophysiological properties, we found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) or microinjection of orexin-A into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) excited most gastric distension-responsive neurons in the nuclei and enhanced the gastric function including motility, emptying and acid secretion of conscious rats...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975622/the-low-affinity-neurotensin-receptor-antagonist-levocabastine-impairs-brain-nitric-oxide-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-function-by-independent-mechanisms
#8
Silvia Lores-Arnaiz, Analía G Karadayian, Alicia Gutnisky, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz
Neurotensin is known to inhibit neuronal Na+, K+ -ATPase, an effect that is rescued by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition. However, whether the neurotensinergic and the nitrergic systems are independent pathways, or are mechanistically linked, is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue and found that the administration of NTS2 antagonist, levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) inhibited NO synthase (NOS) activity by 74 and 42% after 18 h in synaptosomal and mitochondrial fractions isolated from the Wistar rat cerebral cortex, respectively; these effects disappeared 36 h after levocabastine treatment...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975619/impaired-ampa-receptor-trafficking-by-a-double-knockout-of-zebrafish-olfactomedin1a-b
#9
Naoki Nakaya, Afia Sultana, Stanislav I Tomarev
The olfm1a and olfm1b genes in zebrafish encode conserved secreted glycoproteins. These genes are preferentially expressed in the brain and retina starting from 16 h post-fertilization until adulthood. Functions of the Olfm1 gene is still unclear. Here, we produced and analyzed a null zebrafish mutant of both olfm1a and olfm1b genes (olfm1 null). olfm1 null fish were born at a normal Mendelian ratio and showed normal body shape and fertility as well as no visible defects from larval stages to adult. Olfm1 proteins were preferentially localized in the synaptosomes of the adult brain...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960313/ethanol-stimulates-the-in-vivo-axonal-movement-of-neuropeptide-dense-core-vesicles-in-drosophila-motor-neurons
#10
Gary J Iacobucci, Shermali Gunawardena
Proper neuronal function requires essential biological cargoes to be packaged within membranous vesicles and transported, intracellularly, through the extensive outgrowth of axonal and dendritic fibers. The precise spatiotemporal movement of these cargoes is vital for neuronal survival and, thus, is highly regulated. In this study we test how the axonal movement of a neuropeptide containing dense core vesicle (DCV) responds to alcohol stressors. We found that ethanol induces a strong anterograde bias in vesicle movement...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960306/screening-the-expression-characteristics-of-several-mirnas-in-g93a-sod1-transgenic-mouse-altered-expression-of-mirna-124-is-associated-with-astrocyte-differentiation-by-targeting-sox2-and-sox9
#11
Fenghua Zhou, Caixia Zhang, Yingjun Guan, Yanchun Chen, Qiang Lu, Linlin Jie, Hailing Gao, Hongmei Du, Haoyun Zhang, Yongxin Liu, Xin Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suspected to be a contributing factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we assess the altered expression of miRNAs and the effects of miR-124 in astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells of ALS transgenic mice. Differentially expressed miRNA-positive cells (including miR-124, miR-181a, miR-22, miR-26b, miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-219, miR-21, miR-200a, and miR-320) were detected by ISH and qRT-PCR in the spinal cord and the brain stem. Studies demonstrated that miR-124 was downregulated in the spinal cord and brain stem...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950410/does-pathology-of-small-venules-contribute-to-cerebral-microinfarcts-and-dementia
#12
REVIEW
David A Hartmann, Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Francesca-Fang Liao, Andy Y Shih
Microinfarcts are small, but strikingly common, ischemic brain lesions in the aging human brain. The causes of microinfarcts are incompletely understood, but there is mounting evidence that microinfarcts contribute to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Understanding the vascular pathologies that cause microinfarcts may yield strategies to prevent their occurrence and reduce their deleterious effects on brain function. Current thinking suggests that cortical microinfarcts arise from the occlusion of penetrating arterioles, which are responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to restricted volumes of tissue...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948999/16p11-2-deletion-syndrome-mice-perseverate-with-active-coping-response-to-acute-stress-rescue-by-blocking-5-ht2a-receptors
#13
Chris M Panzini, Daniel G Ehlinger, Adele M Alchahin, Yueping Guo, Kathryn G Commons
In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). Since ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945929/fisetin-provides-antidepressant-effects-by-activating-the-trkb-signal-pathway-in-mice
#14
Yamin Wang, Bin Wang, Jiaqi Lu, Haixia Shi, Siyi Gong, Yufan Wang, Ronald C Hamdy, Balvin H L Chua, Lingli Yang, Xingshun Xu
Depression has been associated with a low-grade chronic inflammatory state, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for anti-inflammatory agents. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid in strawberries that has anti-inflammatory activities, but whether fisetin has antidepressant effects is unknown. In this study, we exposed mice to spatial restraint for 2 weeks with or without treatment with fisetin. Immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension test after this restraint increased in the untreated group, but this increase did not occur in the fisetin group...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944460/ether-lipids-and-their-elusive-function-in-the-nervous-system-a-role-for-plasmalogens-an-editorial-highlight-for-reduced-muscle-strength-in-ether-lipid-deficient-mice-is-accompanied-by-altered-development-and-function-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-on-doi-10
#15
EDITORIAL
Eric J Murphy
In this editorial, we highlight the recent work of Dorninger et al. that demonstrates a reduction in plasmalogens in the motor end plate is associated with a reduction in motor end plate function. This reduction in function is illuminated in reduced muscle function in these mice, corresponding with the reduction in acetylcholine release and in its receptor density observed in these mice.
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940479/activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-microglia-the-role-of-ceramide
#16
Hannah Scheiblich, Anna Schlütter, Douglas T Golenbock, Eicke Latz, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Michael T Heneka
Inflammation within the CNS is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. A characteristic feature is the generation of microglia-derived factors that play an essential role in the immune response. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by activated microglia, able to exacerbate injury at elevated levels. In the presence of caspase-1, pro-IL-1β is cleaved to the mature cytokine following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Growing evidence suggests that ceramide plays a critical role in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, however, the relationship between ceramide and inflammasome activation in microglia remains unknown...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940294/%C3%AE-secretase-in-microglia-implications-for-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#17
REVIEW
Jochen Walter, Nadja Kemmerling, Patrick Wunderlich, Konstantin Glebov
γ-Secretase is an intramembrane cleaving protease involved in the generation of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated amyloid β peptide (Aβ). γ-Secretase is ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and also in different cell types of the human brain. Besides the involvement in the proteolytic generation of Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein, γ-secretase cleaves many additional protein substrates, suggesting pleiotropic functions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Microglia exert important functions during brain development and homeostasis in adulthood, and accumulating evidence indicates that microglia and neuroinflammatory processes contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921596/single-cocaine-exposure-does-not-alter-striatal-presynaptic-dopamine-function-in-mice-an-18-f-fdopa-pet-study
#18
D R Bonsall, M Kokkinou, M Veronese, C Coello, L A Wells, O D Howes
Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), preventing reuptake of dopamine into presynaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on presynaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have revealed impaired presynaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#19
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921568/neuronal-activity-dependent-local-activation-of-dendritic-unfolded-protein-response-promotes-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-cell-soma
#20
Atsushi Saito, Longjie Cai, Koji Matsuhisa, Yosuke Ohtake, Masayuki Kaneko, Soshi Kanemoto, Rie Asada, Kazunori Imaizumi
Unfolded protein response (UPR) has roles not only in resolving the accumulation of unfolded proteins owing to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but also in regulation of cellular physiological functions. ER stress transducers providing the branches of UPR signaling are known to localize in distal dendritic ER of neurons. These reports suggest that local activation of UPR branches may produce integrated outputs for distant communication, and allow regulation of local events in highly polarized neurons. Here, we demonstrated that synaptic activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent local activation of UPR signaling could be associated with dendritic functions through retrograde signal propagation by using murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2A and primary cultured hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal day 0 litter C57BL/6 mice...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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