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Journal of Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222226/arctic-ground-squirrel-hippocampus-tolerates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-independent-of-hibernation-season-even-when-not-hibernating-and-after-atp-depletion-acidosis-and-glutamate-efflux
#1
Saurav Bhowmick, Jeanette T Moore, Daniel L Kirschner, Kelly L Drew
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) triggers a cascade of uncontrolled cellular processes that perturb cell homeostasis. The arctic ground squirrel (AGS), a seasonal hibernator resists brain damage following cerebral I/R caused by cardiac arrest and resuscitation. However, it remains unclear if tolerance to I/R injury in AGS depends on the hibernation season. Moreover, it is also not clear if events such as depletion of ATP, acidosis and glutamate efflux that are associated with anoxic depolarization are attenuated in AGS...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222213/rab7a-regulates-tau-secretion
#2
Lilia Rodriguez, Nguyen-Vi Mohamed, Alexandre Desjardins, Roger Lippé, Edward Fon, Nicole Leclerc
The axonal microtubule-associated protein TAU, involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be found in the extracellular space where it could be taken up by neurons, an event that is believed to contribute to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain. Since the small GTPase Rab7A is involved in the trafficking of endosomes, autophagosomes and lysosomes, and RAB7A gene expression and protein levels are upregulated in AD patients, we tested the hypothesis that Rab7A was involved in Tau secretion. We previously reported that both primary cortical neurons and HeLa cells overexpressing human TAU can release Tau...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218971/growth-factors-and-hormones-pro-peptides-the-unexpected-adventures-of-the-bdnf-prodomain-pbdnf
#3
REVIEW
Juan Pablo Zanin, Nicolás Unsain, Agustin Anastasia
Most growth factors and hormones are synthesized as pre-pro-proteins which are processed to the biologically active mature protein. The pre- and prodomains are cleaved from the precursor protein in the secretory pathway or, in some cases, extracellularly. The canonical functions of these prodomains are to assist in folding and stabilization of the mature domain, to direct intra and extracellular localization, to facilitate storage, and to regulate bioavailability of their mature counterpart. Recently, exciting evidence has revealed that prodomains of certain growth factors, after cleaved from the precursor pro-protein, can act as independent active signaling molecules...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211945/ip3-receptor-mutations-and-brain-diseases-in-human-and-rodents
#4
REVIEW
Chihiro Hisatsune, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) is a huge Ca(2+) channel that is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The IP3 R releases Ca(2+) from the ER upon binding to IP3 , which is produced by various extracellular stimuli through phospholipase C activation. All vertebrate organisms have three subtypes of IP3 R genes, which have distinct properties of IP3 -binding and Ca(2+) sensitivity, and are differently regulated by phosphorylation and by their associated proteins. Each cell type expresses the three subtypes of IP3 R in a distinct proportion, which is important for creating and maintaining spatially and temporally appropriate intracellular Ca(2+) level patterns for the regulation of specific physiological phenomena...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199020/gemfibrozil-food-and-drug-administration-approved-lipid-lowering-drug-increases-longevity-in-mouse-model-of-late-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#5
Arunava Ghosh, Suresh Babu Rangasamy, Khushbu K Modi, Kalipada Pahan
Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the Cln2 gene that leads to deficiency or loss of function of the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) enzyme. TPP1 deficiency is known to cause the accumulation of autofluoroscent lipid-protein pigments in brain. Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, LINCL is also associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. Despite investigations, no effective therapy is currently available for LINCL...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199019/the-role-of-drebrin-in-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Tomoaki Shirao, Kenji Hanamura, Noriko Koganezawa, Yuta Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin is an actin-binding protein that changes the helical pitch of actin filaments (F-actin), and drebrin-decorated F-actin shows slow treadmilling and decreased rate of depolymerization. Moreover, the characteristic morphology of drebrin-decorated F-actin enables it to respond differently to the same signals from other actin cytoskeletons. Drebrin consists of two major isoforms, drebrin E and drebrin A. In the developing brain, drebrin E appears in migrating neurons and accumulates in the growth cones of axons and dendrites...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199018/preface-60th-anniversary-of-the-japanese-society-for-neurochemistry
#7
REVIEW
Kazunori Imaizumi
To welcome the 60th anniversary of the Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, in this issue, we publish five Review articles from the society's leading groups in the Journal of Neurochemistry, and introduce what we have achieved in the neurochemical fields of research, including Ca2+ neurobiology, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuroregeneration. With the achievements in the past decades in mind, we will continue to contribute to the development of neurochemistry from now on too. This article is protected by copyright...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194778/blood-brain-barrier-models-derived-from-individual-patients-a-new-frontier-an-editorial-highlight-on-an-isogenic-blood-brain-barrier-model-comprising-brain-endothelial-cells-astrocytes-and-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
EDITORIAL
Jianming Xiang, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Michael M Wang, Richard F Keep
Read the highlighted article 'An isogenic blood-brain barrier model comprising brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13923.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192611/deficiency-of-trek-1-potassium-channel-exacerbates-secondary-injury-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#10
Yongkang Fang, Xiaojiang Huang, Yue Wan, Hao Tian, Yeye Tian, Wei Wang, Suiqiang Zhu, Minjie Xie
Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves complex pathological process which can be complicated by secondary injury. TREK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, which can be modulated by a number of physiological and pathological stimuli. Recent studies suggest that TREK-1 plays an active role in depression, pain and neuroprotection. However, its role in the pathological process after SCI remains unclear. In this study, we tested the expression and function of TREK-1 in spinal cord of mice after traumatic SCI...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178754/neuroprotective-effect-of-nebivolol-against-cisplatin-associated-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#11
Noha F Abdelkader, Muhammed A Saad, Rania M Abdelsalam
One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178750/prolonged-maternal-separation-attenuates-bdnf-erk-signaling-correlated-with-spine-formation-in-the-hippocampus-during-early-brain-development
#12
Ken-Ichi Ohta, Shingo Suzuki, Katsuhiko Warita, Tomohiro Kaji, Takashi Kusaka, Takanori Miki
Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176341/dr-eugene-roberts
#13
Paul M Salvaterra, Jang-Yen Wu
This is an obituary for Eugene Roberts (1920-2016), an outstanding neurobiochemist who was the first to report on the discovery of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, and whose research focused on the important role of GABA in human health and disease.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171706/subregional-brain-distribution-of-simple-and-complex-glycosphingolipids-in-the-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-hurler-syndrome-mouse-impact-of-diet
#14
Jennifer T Saville, Hong Ngoc Thai, Rebecca J Lehmann, Ainslie L K Derrick-Roberts, Maria Fuller
Gangliosides are the most complex oligosaccharide-containing glycosphingolipids defined by the presence of sialic acid and although present in all tissues, predominate in the brain. Considering their importance in neural development, it is unsurprising that ganglioside metabolism is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. The severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Hurler syndrome (HS), is characterised by progressive loss of neuronal function through largely undefined mechanisms. Here we sought to interrogate brain gangliosides in a murine model of HS and further, assessed whether dietary modulation of lipid metabolism effected correction of the metabolic abnormalities...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171705/endothelin-converting-enzymes-degrade-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-are-reduced-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
J Scott Miners, Seth Love
We have examined the roles of the endothelin-converting enzyme-1 and -2 (ECE-1 and ECE-2) in the homeostasis of α-synuclein (α-syn) and pathogenesis of Lewy body disease. The ECEs are named for their ability to convert inactive big endothelin to the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (EDN1). We have found that ECE-1 and ECE-2 cleave and degrade α-syn in vitro and siRNA-mediated knockdown of ECE-1 and ECE-2 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly increased α-syn both intracellularly (within the cell lysate) (P < 0...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171699/c-reactive-protein-in-the-detection-of-post-stroke-infections-systematic-review-and-individual-participant-data-analysis
#16
Alejandro Bustamante, Andrea Vilar-Bergua, Sophie Guettier, Josep Sánchez-Poblet, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Dolors Giralt, Felix Fluri, Raffi Topakian, Hans Worthmann, Andreas Hug, Tihamer Molnar, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Mira Katan, Craig J Smith, Joan Montaner
We conducted a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis to explore the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in early detection or prediction of post-stroke infections. CRP, an acute-phase reactant binds to the phosphocholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells and some bacteria, thereby activating complement and promoting phagocytosis by macrophages. We searched PubMed up to May-2015 for studies measuring CRP in stroke and evaluating post-stroke infections. Individual participants' data were merged into a single database...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164283/monocytes-microglia-and-cd200-cd200r1-signaling-are-essential-in-the-transmission-of-inflammation-from-the-periphery-to-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Xin Xie, Xiaoguang Luo, Na Liu, Xiaohong Li, Fan Lou, Yumin Zheng, Yan Ren
Peripheral inflammation is known to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease. However, the key components during the propagation of inflammation from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) remain unclear. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to induce peripheral inflammation. An intravenous injection and an intranigral injection of clodronate liposomes (CL) were given to deplete monocytes and microglia, respectively. Recombinant CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc) or an anti-CD200R1 antibody was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) to manipulate the involvement of CD200 and CD200R1...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164279/calcipotriol-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-by-a-calbindin-d28k-dependent-mechanism
#18
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160291/tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-n-methyl-d-aspartate-induced-excitotoxicity
#19
Xiaopeng Luo, Yankun Yu, Zongqin Xiang, Huisu Wu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Yuqiang Wang, Kwok-Fai So, Zaijun Zhang, Ying Xu
Adding a free radical-scavenging nitrone moiety on tetramethylpyrazine, we have previously synthesized a chemical named 2-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]-methyl]-3,5,6- trimethylpyrazine (tetramethylpyrazine nitrone, or TBN) and proved its neuro-protective effect but with limited understanding of its mechanism. Here we ask if TBN protects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against excitotoxicity induced by NMDA and explore the underlying mechanism. NMDA was intravitreally injected to induce RGC injury in rats, followed by daily intraperitoneal administrations of TBN...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144998/p2y12-receptors-in-primary-microglia-activate-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cell-signaling-to-induce-c-c-chemokine-3-expression
#20
Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Hiroyuki Miyata, Tomohiro Yamashita, Katsuyuki Matsushita, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue
Microglia are widely accepted as surveillants in the central nervous system that are continually searching the local environment for signs of injury. Following an inflammatory situation, microglia alter their morphology, extend ramified processes, and undergo cell body hypertrophy. Extracellular nucleotides are recognized as a danger signal by microglia. ADP acting on P2Y12 receptors induce process extension of microglia thereby attracting microglia to the site of adenosine tri-phosphate/ADP leaking or release...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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