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Journal of Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523793/an-exercise-path-to-preventing-alzheimer-s-disease-an-editorial-highlight-on-exercise-and-bdnf-reduce-ab-production-by-enhancing-%C3%AE-secretase-processing-of-app
#1
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth J Coulson, Perry F Bartlett
Read the highlighted article 'Exercise and BDNF reduce Aβ production by enhancing α-secretase processing of APP' on page doi: 10.1111/jnc.14034.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#2
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#3
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503857/recent-developments-in-structural-studies-on-acetylcholinesterase
#4
REVIEW
Israel Silman, Joel L Sussman
This review focuses on several recent developments concerning structure-function relationships in vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. These include studies on high-resolution structures of human acetylcholinesterase and its complexes; the first crystal structure of a snake venom acetylcholinesterase, in which open and closed states of the 'back door' are visualized; a powerful algorithm for redesigning proteins for enhanced expression in prokaryotic systems, as applied to human acetylcholinesterase, which has hitherto been an intractable target; in situ implementation of 'click chemistry' in crystalline acetylcholinesterase, which yields novel insights into the steric and dynamic changes involved in the reaction within the active-site gorge; and a study that demonstrates the effect of crystallization conditions on ligand alignment within a protein complex, in this case the methylene blue-Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase complex, which highlights the relevance of the precipitant employed to structure-based drug design...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500787/corticosterone-primes-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-gulf-war-illness-relevant-organophosphates-independently-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition
#5
Alicia R Locker, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Among the symptoms of GWI are those associated with sickness behavior, observations suggestive of underlying neuroinflammation. We have shown that exposure of mice to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), and to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), as a nerve agent mimic, results in marked neuroinflammation, findings consistent with a stress/neuroimmune basis of GWI. Here, we examined the contribution of irreversible and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to neuroinflammation in our mouse model of GWI...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498499/heterogeneous-extracellular-dopamine-regulation-in-the-subregions-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#6
Jinwoo Park, Ken T Wakabayashi, Caitlin Szalkowski, Rohan V Bhimani
Recent studies show that dense dopamine (DA) innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the olfactory tubercle (OT) may play an important role in processing multisensory information pertaining to arousal and reward, yet little is known about DA regulation in the OT. This is mainly due to the anatomical limitations of conventional methods of determining DA dynamics in small heterogeneous OT subregions located in the ventral most part of the brain. Additionally, there is increasing awareness that anteromedial and anterolateral subregions of the OT have distinct functional roles in natural and psychostimulant drug reinforcement as well as in regulating other types of behavioral responses, such as aversion...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498493/involvement-of-microglia-in-early-axoglial-alterations-of-the-optic-nerve-induced-by-experimental-glaucoma
#7
Melina P Bordone, María F González Fleitas, Laura A Pasquini, Alejandra Bosco, Pablo H Sande, Ruth E Rosenstein, Damián Dorfman
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve (ON) damage. Cumulative evidence suggests glial cell involvement in the degeneration of the ON and RGCs. We analyzed the contribution of microglial reactivity to early axoglial alterations of the ON in an induced model of ocular hypertension. For this purpose, vehicle or chondroitin sulfate (CS) were weekly injected into the eye anterior chamber from Wistar rats for different intervals. The amount of Brn3a(+) RGC significantly decreased in CS-injected eyes for 10 and 15 (but not 6) weeks...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488766/brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-regulates-striatal-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-and-ameliorates-motor-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Juuso V Leikas, Samuel Kohtala, Wiebke Theilmann, Aaro J Jalkanen, Markus M Forsberg, Tomi Rantamäki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and neurodegenerative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease modifying effects of novel GSK3β inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3β within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3β signaling in naïve rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488764/astrocytes-contribute-to-a%C3%AE-induced-blood-brain-barrier-damage-through-activation-of-endothelial-mmp9
#9
Simona Federica Spampinato, Sara Merlo, Yasuteru Sano, Takashi Kanda, Maria Angela Sortino
The blood brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the maintenance of the brain homeostasis, and its proper functions are warranted by the interplay between different cellular components (endothelial cells, astrocytes and pericytes). BBB dysfunctions in pathological conditions, and in particular in Alzheimer's disease, have been documented. Here, using an in vitro BBB model, the interaction between endothelial cells and astrocytes exposed to Aβ1-42 was investigated. Human endothelial cells, cultured in monolayer or co-cultured with astrocytes, were exposed to Aβ1-42 (2 μM for 18 hours)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488728/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-regulates-hypercapnia-ischemia-induced-increases-in-n-acylethanolamines-in-mouse-brain
#10
Lin Lin, Adam H Metherel, Peter J Jones, Richard P Bazinet
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid ligands for several receptors including cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which regulate numerous physiological functions. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is, largely, responsible for the degradation of NAEs. However, at high concentrations of ethanolamines and unesterified fatty acids, FAAH can also catalyze the reverse reaction, producing NAEs. Several brain insults such as ischemia and hypoxia increase brain unesterified fatty acids...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485896/shh-signalling-mediates-astrocyte-crosstalk-with-neurons-to-confer-neuroprotection
#11
Christopher I Ugbode, Imogen Smith, Benjamin J Whalley, Warren D Hirst, Marcus Rattray
Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a glycoprotein associated with development that is also expressed in the adult CNS and released after brain injury. Since the SHH receptors PTCH1 (patched homolog-1) and SMO (Smoothened) are highly expressed on astrocytes, we hypothesised that SHH regulates astrocyte function. Primary mouse cortical astrocytes derived from embryonic (E15) Swiss mouse cortices, were treated with two chemically distinct agonists of the SHH pathway, which caused astrocytes to elongate and proliferate. These changes are accompanied by decreases in the major astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1 and the astrocyte intermediate filament protein GFAP...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467654/sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-knockout-mice-show-altered-neuroactive-steroid-levels-in-sciatic-nerve
#12
Nico Mitro, Gaia Cermenati, Matteo Audano, Silvia Giatti, Marzia Pesaresi, Silvia Pedretti, Roberto Spezzano, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Neuroactive steroid levels are altered in several experimental models of peripheral neuropathy, and on this basis, they have been proposed as protective agents. For the first time, the levels of these molecules were here assessed in sterol regulatory-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) knock-out (KO) male mice (i.e., an experimental model of peripheral neuropathy) and compared with observations in wild type animals. The levels of neuroactive steroids have been evaluated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and sciatic nerve at two and ten months of age and these analyses were implemented analyzing the gene expression of crucial steroidogenic enzymes in sciatic nerve...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467602/cross-sectional-associations-of-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-with-erythrocyte-membrane-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#13
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Sophie Guyonnet, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Omega-3 (n-3) and 6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with reduced cognitive decline in observational studies. Hence, we examined the cross-sectional associations between cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) and erythrocyte membrane PUFAs in 61 non-demented elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) placebo arm. Cortical-to-cerebellar standard uptake value ratios were obtained using [(18) F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464229/functional-characterization-of-the-neuron-restrictive-silencer-element-in-the-human-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-expression
#14
Yukino Nawa, Hanae Kaneko, Masayuki Oda, Masaaki Tsubonoya, Tomoko Hiroi, Maria Teresa Gentile, Luca Colucci-D'Amato, Ryoya Takahashi, Hiroaki Matsui
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of neuronal serotonin. Although previous studies suggest that TPH2 NRSE (neuron-restrictive silencer element) functions as a negative regulator dependent on NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor) activity, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we show a detailed analysis of the NRSE-mediated repression of the human TPH2 (hTPH2) promoter activity in RN46A cells, a cell line derived from rat raphe neurons. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of serotonergic marker genes (Mash1, Nkx2...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452394/hierarchical-organisation-and-genetically-separable-subfamilies-of-psd95-postsynaptic-supercomplexes
#15
René A W Frank, Fei Zhu, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant
PSD95 is an abundant postsynaptic scaffold protein in glutamatergic synapses that assembles into supercomplexes composed of over 80 proteins including neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels and adhesion proteins. How these diverse constituents are organised into PSD95 supercomplexes in vivo is poorly understood. Here we dissected the supercomplexes in mice combining endogenous gene-tagging, targeted mutations and quantitative biochemical assays. Generating compound heterozygous mice from two different gene-tags, one on each Psd95 allele, showed that each ~1...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449366/moving-forward-with-the-neuromuscular-junction
#16
REVIEW
Claire Legay, Lin Mei
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is indispensable for survival. This synapse between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers allows posture, movement and respiration. Therefore, its dysfunction creates pathologies than can be lethal. The molecular mechanisms of NMJ development and maintenance are the subject of intensive studies. This mini-review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries. An unexpected role for a protein, rapsyn, which has been known for 40 years to aggregate acetylcholine receptors has emerged...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#17
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445587/cb1-receptors-downregulate-a-camp-epac2-plc-pathway-to-silence-the-nerve-terminals-of-cerebellar-granule-cells
#18
Beatris Alonso, David Bartolomé-Martín, José Javier Ferrero, Jorge Ramírez-Franco, Magdalena Torres, José Sánchez-Prieto
Cannabinoid receptors mediate short-term retrograde inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses. The responses of individual nerve terminals in VGLUT1-pHluorin transfected cerebellar granule cells to cannabinoids have shown that prolonged activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) silences a subpopulation of previously active synaptic boutons. Adopting a combined pharmacological and genetic approach to study the molecular mechanisms of CB1R-induced silencing, we found that adenylyl cyclase inhibition decreases cAMP levels while it increases the number of silent synaptic boutons and occludes the induction of further silencing by the cannabinoid agonist HU-210...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444769/lesions-of-the-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-sleepiness-and-adenosine-after-alcohol-consumption
#19
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Alcohol has a profound effect on sleep. However, neuronal substrates mediating sleep-promoting effects of alcohol are unknown. Since the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are implicated in the homeostatic regulation of sleep, we hypothesized that the BF cholinergic neurons may have an important role in sleepiness observed after alcohol consumption. 192-IgG-saporin (bilateral BF infusions) was used to selectively lesion BF cholinergic neurons in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Standard surgical procedures were used to implant sleep recording electrodes or microdialysis guide cannulas...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444767/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-dora-22-lowers-histamine-levels-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-prefrontal-cortex-without-lowering-hippocampal-acetylcholine
#20
Lihang Leon Yao, Andres Ramirez, Anthony J Roecker, Steven Fox, Jason Uslaner, Sean M Smith, Robert Hodgson, Paul J Coleman, John J Renger, Christopher J Winrow, Anthony L Gotter
Chronic insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty with sleep initiation maintenance or non-restorative sleep. The therapeutic standard of care for this condition is treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor modulators, which promote sleep but are associated with a panoply of side effects, including cognitive and memory impairment. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) have recently emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach that acts via a distinct and more selective wake-attenuating mechanism with the potential to be associated with milder side effects...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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