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Journal of Neurochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676481/high-mobility-group-box-1-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutic-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with largely unknown pathogenesis and inefficient therapeutic management. Accumulating data indicate that neuroinflammation, autophagy impairment, α-synuclein aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to PD onset; however the molecular mechanisms underlying these pathophysiological processes are still under elucidation. Interestingly, recent evidence has indicated that High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA-binding protein that can be actively secreted by inflammatory cells and passively released by necrotic cells may play a key role in PD pathogenesis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676479/sulfatide-isoform-pattern-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-discriminates-progressive-ms-from-relapsing-remitting-ms
#2
Lenka Novakova, Avadhesh Kumar Singh, Clas Malmeström, Henrik Zetterberg, Marcus Ståhlman, Markus Axelsson, Martin Adiels, Jan Borén, Jan Lycke, Susanna L Cardell, Maria Blomqvist
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Several biomarkers including proteins and lipids have been reported in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), reflecting different aspects of the pathophysiology particularly of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Sulfatide, abundant in the myelin sheath and a proposed target for autoimmune attack in MS, has been reported altered in MS CSF. Here, we investigated the potential of CSF sulfatide and its isoforms as biomarkers in MS...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675997/hearing-vulnerability-after-noise-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-reactive-oxygen-species-overproduction
#3
Shigefumi Morioka, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Taro Yamaguchi, Yuzuru Ninoyu, Hiroaki Mohri, Takashi Nakamura, Yasuo Hisa, Kiyokazu Ogita, Naoaki Saito, Takehiko Ueyama
Previous studies have convincingly argued that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of several major types of sensorineural hearing loss, such as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), drug-induced hearing loss, and age-related hearing loss. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms induced by ROS in these pathologies remain unclear. To resolve this issue, we established an in vivo model of ROS overproduction by generating a transgenic (TG) mouse line expressing the human NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, NOX4-TG mice), which is a constitutively active ROS-producing enzyme that does not require stimulation or an activator...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675956/clonidine-modulates-the-activity-of-the-subthalamic-supplementary-motor-loop-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-study-combining-dbs-and-eeg-recordings-in-parkinsonian-patients
#4
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675901/erythropoietin-regulates-the-expression-of-dimeric-form-of-acetylcholinesterase-during-differentiation-of-erythroblast
#5
Miranda L Xu, Wilson K W Luk, Cathy W C Bi, Etta Y L Liu, Kevin Q Y Wu, Ping Yao, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is known to hydrolyze acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. In mammalian erythrocyte, AChE exists as a dimer (G2 ) and is proposed to play role in erythropoiesis. To reveal the regulation of AChE during differentiation of erythroblast, erythroblast-like cells (TF-1) were induced to differentiate by application of erythropoietin (EPO). The expression of AChE was increased in parallel to the stages of differentiation. Application of EPO in cultured TF-1 cells induced transcriptional activity of ACHE gene, as well as its protein product...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675872/identification-and-quantification-of-blood-brain-barrier-transporters-in-isolated-rat-brain-microvessels
#6
Hajar Al Feteisi, Zubida M Al-Majdoub, Brahim Achour, Narciso Couto, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Jill Barber
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis by tightly regulating the exchange of molecules with systemic circulation. It consists primarily of microvascular endothelial cells surrounded by astrocytic endfeet, pericytes, and microglia. Understanding the make-up of transporters in rat BBB is essential to the translation of pharmacological and toxicological observations into humans. In this study, experimental workflows are presented in which the optimization of (a) isolation of rat brain microvessels, (b) enrichment of endothelial cells, and (c) extraction and digestion of proteins were evaluated, followed by identification and quantification of BBB proteins...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675826/camkii%C3%AE-is-localized-in-dendritic-spines-as-both-drebrin-dependent-and-drebrin-independent-pools
#7
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yoshio Sasagawa, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Haruhiko Bito, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin binding protein in dendritic spines that is critically involved in the regulation of dendritic-spine morphogenesis, pathology, and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drebrin-binding protein involved in spine morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We confirmed the beta subunit of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIβ) as a drebrin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system, and investigated the drebrin-CaMKIIβ relationship in dendritic spines using rat hippocampal neurons...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663393/maternal-obesity-reprograms-offspring-s-executive-brain-centers-in-a-sex-specific-manner-an-editorial-for-perinatal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-methyl-donor-supplementation-alter-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14319
#8
EDITORIAL
Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645219/the-gabaergic-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
B Calvo-Flores Guzmán, C Vinnakota, K Govindpani, H Waldvogel, R L Faull, A Kwakowsky
Glutamatergic and cholinergic dysfunction are well-attested features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressing with other pathological indices of the disorder and exacerbating neuronal and network dysfunction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the inhibitory component of the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) network, particularly dysfunction in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system. There is growing evidence in support of GABAergic remodeling in the AD brain, potentially beginning in early stages of disease pathogenesis, and this could thus be a valid molecular target for drug development and pharmacological therapies...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582413/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-enhances-expression-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-5-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-levels
#10
Yijun Pan, Elonie R Morris, Martin J Scanlon, Philip J Marriott, Christopher Jh Porter, Joseph A Nicolazzo
The cytoplasmic trafficking of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a cognitively-beneficial fatty acid, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is governed by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). Lower levels of brain DHA have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is associated with diminished BBB expression of FABP5. Therefore, upregulating FABP5 expression at the BBB may be a novel approach for enhancing BBB transport of DHA in AD. DHA supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in various mouse models of AD, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether DHA has the potential to upregulate the BBB expression of FABP5, thereby enhancing its own uptake into the brain...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574981/phosphatidylcholine-36-1-concentration-decreases-along-with-demyelination-in-the-cuprizone-animal-model-and-post-mortem-of-multiple-sclerosis-brain-tissue
#11
Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Kayla D Hildebrand, Stella D Nyamoya, Sandra Amor, Richard P Bazinet, Markus Kipp
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease. Myelin is enriched in lipids, and more specifically, oleic acid. The goal of this study was to evaluate the concentration of oleic acid following demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model, test if these changes occurred in specific lipid species, and whether differences in the cuprizone model correlate with changes observed in post-mortem human brains. Eight-week-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet for 5 weeks and some animals allowed to recover for 11 days...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574788/mechanisms-underlying-lesion-development-and-lesion-distribution-in-cns-autoimmunity
#12
REVIEW
Maren Lindner, Luisa Klotz, Heinz Wiendl
It is widely accepted that development of autoimmunity in the central nervous system (CNS) is triggered by autoreactive T cells, that are activated in the periphery and gain the capacity to migrate through endothelial cells at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into the CNS. Upon local reactivation, an inflammatory cascade is initiated, that subsequently leads to a recruitment of additional immune cells ultimately causing demyelination and axonal damage. Even though the interaction of immune cells with the BBB has been in the focus of research for many years, the exact mechanisms of how immune cells enter and exit the CNS remains poorly understood...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572844/liraglutide-ameliorated-peripheral-neuropathy-in-diabetic-rats-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-remodeling
#13
Passant E Moustafa, Noha F Abdelkader, Sally A El Awdan, Osama A El-Shabrawy, Hala F Zaki
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications that occurs with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life; as it starts with loss of limbs' sensation and may lead to lower limb amputation. This study aimed at investigating the effect of liraglutide on peripheral neuropathy in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injections of nicotinamide (50 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (52...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570795/cortical-progenitor-biology-key-features-mediating-proliferation-versus-differentiation
#14
REVIEW
Ana Uzquiano, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Laurent Nguyen, Orly Reiner, Magdalena Götz, Fumio Matsuzaki, Fiona Francis
The cerebral cortex is a highly organized structure whose development depends on diverse progenitor cell types, namely apical radial glia, intermediate progenitors and basal radial glia cells, which are responsible for the production of the correct neuronal output. In recent years, these progenitor cell types have been deeply studied, particularly basal radial glial and their role in cortical expansion and gyrification. We review here a broad series of factors to regulate progenitor behavior and daughter cell fate...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570780/effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning-on-neuronal-vegf-regulation-and-microglial-polarization-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Elga Esposito, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Bum Ju Ahn, Su Jing Chan, Changhong Xing, Anna C Liang, Kyu-Won Kim, Ken Arai, Eng H Lo
Ischemic postconditioning is increasingly being investigated as a therapeutic approach for cerebral ischemia. However, the majority of studies are focused on the acute protection of neurons per se. Whether and how postconditioning affects multiple cells in the recovering neurovascular unit remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we asked whether postconditioning may modulate help-me signaling between injured neurons and reactive microglia. Rats were subjected to 100 min of focal cerebral ischemia, then randomized into a control versus postconditioning group...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527688/delivery-of-an-anti-ttr-nanobody-to-the-brain-through-intranasal-administration-reveals-ttr-expression-and-secretion-by-motor-neurons
#16
João R Gomes, Inês Cabrito, Hugo R Soares, Susete Costelha, Anabela Teixeira, Angela Wittelsberger, Catelijne Stortelers, Peter Vanlandschoot, Maria J Saraiva
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein of retinol and thyroxine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is mainly secreted in liver and choroid plexus, and in smaller amounts in other cells throughout the body. The exact role of TTR and its specific expression in Central Nervous System (CNS) remains understudied. We investigated TTR expression and metabolism in CNS, through the intranasal and intracerebroventricular delivery of a specific anti-TTR Nanobody to the brain, unveiling Nanobody pharmacokinetics to the CNS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524228/antibiotics-induced-modulation-of-large-intestinal-microbiota-altered-aromatic-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-neurotransmitters-in-the-hypothalamus-of-piglets
#17
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500821/hemopexin-increases-the-neurotoxicity-of-hemoglobin-when-haptoglobin-is-absent
#18
Jing Chen-Roetling, Sheng-Kai Ma, Yang Cao, Aishwarya Shah, Raymond F Regan
Hemopexin (Hpx) binds heme with extraordinary affinity, and after haptoglobin may provide a second line of defense against the toxicity of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb). In this series of experiments, the hypothesis that Hpx protects neurons from Hb neurotoxicity was evaluated in murine primary cultures containing neurons and glial cells. Contrary to hypothesis, Hpx increased neuronal loss due to micromolar concentrations of Hb by 4-12-fold, as measured by LDH release assay; conversely, the neurotoxicity of hemin was completely prevented...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500819/camp-producing-chemogenetic-activation-of-indirect-pathway-striatal-projection-neurons-and-the-downstream-effects-on-the-globus-pallidus-and-subthalamic-nucleus-in-freely-moving-mice
#19
Safa Bouabid, Fu-Ming Zhou
The indirect pathway striatal medium spiny projection neurons (iMSNs) are critical to motor and cognitive brain functions. These neurons express a high level of cAMP-increasing adenosine A2a receptors (A2aRs). However, the potential effects of cAMP production on iMSN spiking activity have not been established, and recording identified iMSNs in freely moving animals is challenging. Here we show that in the transgenic mice expressing cAMP-producing G protein Gs -coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (Gs-DREADD) in iMSNs, the baseline spike firing in MSNs is normal, indicating DREADD expression does not affect the normal physiology of these neurons...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500815/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-in-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-related-neurohistopathological-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#20
Masaaki Kawakami, Mizuki Hattori, Wakana Ohashi, Toshio Fujimori, Kohshi Hattori, Mariko Takebe, Kengo Tomita, Hiroki Yokoo, Naoyuki Matsuda, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yuichi Hattori
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), characterized as diffuse brain dysfunction and neurological manifestations secondary to sepsis, is a common complication in critically ill patients and can give rise to poor outcome, but understanding the molecular basis of this disorder remains a major challenge. Given the emerging role of G protein-coupled receptor 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulator, in the regulation of non-GPCR-related molecules contributing to diverse cellular functions and pathology, including inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be linked to the neuropathogenesis of SAE...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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