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Advances in Clinical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212716/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212715/novel-biomarkers-of-heart-failure
#2
A Savic-Radojevic, M Pljesa-Ercegovac, M Matic, D Simic, S Radovanovic, T Simic
Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212714/droplet-based-digital-pcr-application-in-cancer-research
#3
G Perkins, H Lu, F Garlan, V Taly
The efficient characterization of genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncology, virology, or prenatal diagnostics requires highly sensitive and specific high-throughput approaches. Nevertheless, with the use of conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity were largely limited. By partitioning individual target molecules within distinct compartments, digital PCR (dPCR) could overcome these limitations and detect very rare sequences with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. In dPCR, the sample is diluted such that each individual partition will contain no more than one target sequence...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212713/rationally-designed-peptide-probes-for-extracellular-vesicles
#4
R Tamura, H Yin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicroscopic lipid vesicles secreted from cells and play significant roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting varieties of cell signaling molecules like proteins, DNA, mRNA, and microRNA. Recent studies showed that EVs are highly correlated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, there are some difficulties in probing each vesicle using popular analytical methods because of their small sizes and heterogeneous origins. These obstacles may be overcome by using a novel approach that senses highly curved membrane and negatively charged membrane lipids...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212712/testing-for-chronic-diarrhea
#5
M Raman
Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212711/advances-in-clinical-mass-spectrometry
#6
D French
Although mass spectrometry has been used clinically for decades, the advent of immunoassay technology moved the clinical laboratory to more labor saving automated platforms requiring little if any sample preparation. It became clear, however, that immunoassays lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity necessary for measurement of certain analytes or for measurement of analytes in specific patient populations. This limitation prompted clinical laboratories to revisit mass spectrometry which could additionally be used to develop assays for which there was no commercial source...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212710/ctrp1-in-liver-disease
#7
P Shabani, S Emamgholipour, M Doosti
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease occurs in significant percentage of general population. NAFLD is closely associated with entire spectrum of metabolic-related disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering several similar pathways underpinning metabolic disorders, presence of common molecular mediators contributing to pathomechanism of these disorders is expected. Mounting evidence has demonstrated important role of adipokines in the context of NAFLD...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057190/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057189/vitamin-d-testing-where-are-we-and-what-is-on-the-horizon
#9
N Heureux
Vitamin D testing is part of laboratory practice since more than 30 years but has become a routine parameter only recently, due to a highly increasing amount of research in the field resulting in new clinical applications. Vitamin D actually represents a family of molecules of which 25OH Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, under their D3 and D2 forms, are the most important to date. Physical detection methods and immunoassays exist for both molecules and are being reviewed and discussed. New developments in the measurement of C3-epi-25OH Vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, and free/bioavailable 25OH Vitamin D are also presented...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057188/hydrogen-sulfide-as-a-double-faced-compound-one-with-pro-and-antioxidant-effect
#10
B Olas
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), like other gasotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO(•)) and carbon monoxide (CO), acts as a signaling molecule in various biological systems. It may also regulate the oxidative stress observed in several diseases sometimes associated with changes of H2S concentration. This chapter describes the "double face" of hydrogen sulfide as both an antioxidant and a prooxidant in biological systems. One proposed mechanism by which H2S exerts its antioxidative effects is its ability to modulate the concentration of glutathione, which is a very important physiological antioxidant...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#11
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057186/identification-of-genomic-somatic-variants-in-cancer-from-discovery-to-actionability
#12
G L Fawcett, A Karina Eterovic
The perfect method to discover and validate actionable somatic variants in cancer has not yet been developed, yet significant progress has been made toward this goal. There have been huge increases in the throughput and cost of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing technologies that have led to the burgeoning possibility of using sequencing data in clinical settings. Discovery of somatic mutations is relatively simple and has been improved recently due to laboratory methods optimization, bioinformatics algorithms development, and the expansion of various databases of population genomic information...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057185/urine-exosomes-an-emerging-trove-of-biomarkers
#13
J M Street, E H Koritzinsky, D M Glispie, R A Star, P S T Yuen
Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057184/advances-in-cardiac-biomarkers-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
A K Saenger, N Korpi-Steiner
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a pathophysiological spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, all of which have significant morbidity and mortality. ACS was once considered an acute condition; however, new treatment strategies and improvements in biomarker assays have led to ACS being an acute and chronic disease. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and there is considerable interest and efforts toward development and implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays worldwide...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717419/autoimmunity-in-crohn-s-disease-a-putative-stratification-factor-of-the-clinical-phenotype
#15
REVIEW
D Roggenbuck, D Reinhold, D C Baumgart, P Schierack, K Conrad, M W Laass
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been linked to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens suggesting the existence of autoantibodies in specific disease phenotypes. However, the lack of clearly defined autoantigenic targets has slowed down research. Genome-wide association studies have identified an impressive number of immune-related susceptibility loci for IBD with no clearly discernible pattern among them. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune responses to a low-diversity and impaired gut microbiota may be of key importance in initiating and perpetuating chronic inflammation in IBD...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717418/advances-in-blood-typing
#16
REVIEW
N Quraishy, S Sapatnekar
The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717417/tandem-mass-spectrometry-of-sphingolipids-applications-for-diagnosis-of-sphingolipidoses
#17
REVIEW
L Kuchař, B Asfaw, J Rybová, J Ledvinová
In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become the dominant technology in lipidomic analysis. It is widely used in diagnosis and research of lipid metabolism disorders including those characterized by impairment of lysosomal functions and storage of nondegraded-degraded substrates. These rare diseases, which include sphingolipidoses, have severe and often fatal clinical consequences. Modern MS methods have contributed significantly to achieve a definitive diagnosis, which is essential in clinical practice to begin properly targeted patient care...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717416/microvesicles-in-autoimmune-diseases
#18
REVIEW
M-L Liu, K J Williams, V P Werth
During apoptosis or activation, cells can release a subcellular structure, called a membrane microvesicle (also known as microparticle) into the extracellular environment. Microvesicles bud-off as a portion of cell membrane with its associated proteins and lipids surrounding a cytosolic core that contains intracellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA, microRNA, lncRNA). Biologically active molecules on the microvesicle surface and encapsulated within can act on recipient cells as a novel mode of intercellular communication...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717415/monitoring-oxygen-status
#19
REVIEW
J G Toffaletti, C R Rackley
Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717414/overview-of-laboratory-testing-and-clinical-presentations-of-complement-deficiencies-and-dysregulation
#20
REVIEW
A Frazer-Abel, L Sepiashvili, M M Mbughuni, M A V Willrich
Historically, complement disorders have been attributed to immunodeficiency associated with severe or frequent infection. More recently, however, complement has been recognized for its role in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and vision loss. This paradigm shift requires a fundamental change in how complement testing is performed and interpreted. Here, we provide an overview of the complement pathways and summarize recent literature related to hereditary and acquired angioedema, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and age-related macular degeneration...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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