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Advances in Clinical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144843/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144842/new-biomarkers-to-evaluate-hyperandrogenemic-women-and-hypogonadal-men
#2
Sidika E Karakas, Prasanth Surampudi
Androgens can have variable effects on men and women. Women may be evaluated for androgen excess for several reasons. Typically, young premenopausal women present with clinical symptoms of hirsutism, alopecia, irregular menses, and/or infertility. The most common cause of these symptoms is polycystic ovary syndrome. After menopause, even though ovaries stop producing estrogen, they continue to produce androgen, and women can have new onset of hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory evaluation involves measurement of the major ovarian and adrenal androgens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144841/role-of-salivary-biomarkers-in-oral-cancer-detection
#3
Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad S Zafar, Rabia S Khan, Shariq Najeeb, Paul D Slowey, Ihtesham U Rehman
Oral cancers are the sixth most frequent cancer with a high mortality rate. Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90% of all oral cancers. Standard methods used to detect oral cancers remain comprehensive clinical examination, expensive biochemical investigations, and invasive biopsy. The identification of biomarkers from biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva) has the potential of early diagnosis. The use of saliva for early cancer detection in the search for new clinical markers is a promising approach because of its noninvasive sampling and easy collection methods...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144840/the-proteome-of-cataract-markers-focus-on-crystallins
#4
Keke Zhang, Xiangjia Zhu, Yi Lu
Cataract is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by lens opacification and is accompanied by extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in various proteins. PTMs play an essential role in lens opacification. Several PTMs have been described in proteins isolated from relatively old human lenses, including phosphorylation, deamidation, racemization, truncation, acetylation, and methylation. An overwhelming majority of previous cataract proteomic studies have exclusively focused on crystallin proteins, which are the most abundant proteome components of the lens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144839/selenium-in-complicated-pregnancy-a-review
#5
Bronislaw A Zachara
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of significant importance in human health. Diet is the major source of Se, and intake of this element depends on its concentration in food sources as well as the amount of those sources consumed. Unfortunately, daily dietary intake of Se in most European countries is generally low, ∼30-40μg/day, compared with the recommended dietary allowance, ∼55 and 70μg/day for adult females and males, respectively. The importance of Se as an essential trace element is linked to its role as selenocysteine in a number of selenoproteins including antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), and selenoprotein P (SePP)...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144838/advances-in-pcos-pathogenesis-and-progression-mitochondrial-mutations-and-dysfunction
#6
Ioana R Ilie
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder, which still remains largely unsolved in terms of etiology and pathogenesis despite important advances in our understanding of its genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factor implications. It is a heterogeneous disease, frequently associated with insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress and probably accompanied with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some malignant lesions as well, such as endometrial cancer...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144837/tissue-and-blood-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-a-review
#7
Michael J Duffy, Ken O'Byrne
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, worldwide. Historically, lung cancer has been divided into two main histological types: small cell and nonsmall cell (NSC) type with the latter being subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell type, and large cell type. The treatment of the NSC lung cancer (NSCLC), especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, has been transformed in the last decade by the availability of predictive biomarkers for molecularly targeted therapies. Currently, for patients with advanced adenocarcinomas, testing for sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is mandatory prior to the administration of anti-EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, or osimertinib...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655464/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655463/proteomics-for-biomarker-identification-and-clinical-application-in-kidney-disease
#9
Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#10
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655461/metabolomics-and-lipidomics-of-ischemic-stroke
#11
Anthony Au
Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655460/uncertainty-in-measurement-procedures-for-determining-uncertainty-with-application-to-clinical-laboratory-calculations
#12
Robert B Frenkel, Ian Farrance
In Part II of this review we consider the very common case of multiple inputs to a measurement process. We derive, using only elementary steps and the basic mathematics covered in Part I, the formula for the propagation of uncertainties from the inputs to the output. The Gaussian density distribution is briefly explained, since an understanding of this distribution is needed for the determination of so-called expanded uncertainties at the end of a measurement process. The propagation formula in general involves correlations among the inputs, although in many cases these correlations can be considered negligible...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655459/adiponectin-and-its-isoforms-in-pathophysiology
#13
Merel van Andel, Annemieke C Heijboer, Madeleine L Drent
Adiponectin circulates in blood in multiple isoforms. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be most biologically active and promotes glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation. In obesity, adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted, leading to an inverse association between metabolic disease and HMW and total adiponectin. Adiponectin isoforms also function as acute-phase reactants influencing inflammation in acute and chronic disease. Interestingly, adiponectin and mortality have a U-shaped association...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655458/standardization-of-bnp-and-nt-probnp-immunoassays-in-light-of-the-diverse-and-complex-nature-of-circulating-bnp-related-peptides
#14
Alexander G Semenov, Evgeniya E Feygina
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of the BNP precursor (NT-proBNP) are widely used as heart failure (HF) biomarkers. Since the discovery of BNP in 1988, much effort has been allocated to the precise detection of BNP and NT-proBNP levels for reliable HF diagnostics. As a result, measurements of these biomarkers are globally accepted and used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of acute and chronic HF, risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. Several immunoassays specific for BNP and NT-proBNP are currently commercially available...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478518/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478517/metabolomics-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-overview-and-future-perspective
#16
Kenji Hashimoto
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are the most common mood disorders. They are etiologically related, but clinically distinct psychiatric illnesses. Their shared clinical features result in high rates of misdiagnosis due to a lack of biomarkers that allow their differentiation. BD is more frequently misdiagnosed as MDD because of overlapping symptomology, often later onset of mania, and frequent occurrence of depressive episodes in patients with BD. Misdiagnosis is also increased when patients with BD present symptoms indicative of a clinically significant depressive episode, but are premorbid for manic symptoms, or previous manic states not recognized...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478516/inflammatory-response-during-myocardial-infarction
#17
Joaquim B Oliveira, Alexandre A S M Soares, Andrei C Sposito
The occlusion of a coronary artery by a thrombus generated on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque has been pursued in the last decades as a determining event for the clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, MI causes a cell death wave front, which triggers an inflammatory response to clear cellular debris, and which in excess can double the myocardial lesion and influence the clinical prognosis in the short and long term. Accordingly, proper, timely regulated inflammatory response has now been considered a second pivotal player in cardiac recovery after MI justifying the search for pharmacological strategies to modulate inflammatory effectors...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478515/distribution-of-fatty-acids-and-lipids-during-pregnancy
#18
Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Alka Rani, Dilys J Freeman
Maternal fatty acid and lipid metabolism undergoes changes during pregnancy to facilitate fetal growth and development. Different types of fatty acids have different roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy and they are incorporated into different forms of lipids for the purpose of storage and transport. This chapter aims to provide an understanding of the distribution and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids in the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments. We further describe how this distribution is altered in maternal obesity, preterm birth, and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478514/uncertainty-in-measurement-procedures-for-determining-uncertainty-with-application-to-clinical-laboratory-calculations
#19
Robert B Frenkel, Ian Farrance
The "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) is the foundational document of metrology. Its recommendations apply to all areas of metrology including metrology associated with the biomedical sciences. When the output of a measurement process depends on the measurement of several inputs through a measurement equation or functional relationship, the propagation of uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output demands a level of understanding of the differential calculus...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478513/blood-glucose-determination-effect-of-tube-additives
#20
Giuseppe Lippi, Mads Nybo, Janne Cadamuro, Joao T Guimaraes, Edmée van Dongen-Lases, Ana-Maria Simundic
The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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