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Advances in Clinical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342714/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342713/serum-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-and-urine-myo-inositol-as-cognitive-decline-markers
#2
Ryouta Maeba, Atsushi Araki, Yoshinori Fujiwara
Recent studies have suggested that metabolic disorders, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), were linked at the clinical and molecular levels. Brain insulin deficiency and resistance may be key events in AD pathology mechanistically linking AD to T2DM. Ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtns) are abundant in the brain and play essential roles in neuronal function and myelin formation. As such, PlsEtn deficiency may be pathologically relevant in some neurodegenerative disorders such as AD...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342712/protein-carbamylation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis
#3
Joshua Long, Xavier Vela Parada, Sahir Kalim
Protein carbamylation is a nonenzymatic posttranslational protein modification that can be driven, in part, by exposure to urea's dissociation product, cyanate. In humans, when kidney function is impaired and urea accumulates, systemic protein carbamylation levels increase. Additional mediators of protein carbamylation have been identified including inflammation, diet, smoking, circulating free amino acid levels, and environmental exposures. Carbamylation reactions on proteins are capable of irreversibly changing protein charge, structure, and function, resulting in pathologic molecular and cellular responses...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342711/fecal-calprotectin
#4
Ruth M Ayling, Klaartje Kok
Calprotectin is a 36kDa member of the S100 family of proteins. It is derived predominantly from neutrophils and has direct antimicrobial effects and a role within the innate immune response. Calprotectin is found in various body fluids in proportion to the degree of any existing inflammation and its concentration in feces is about six times that of plasma. Measurement of fecal calprotectin is a useful surrogate marker of gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a high negative predictive value in ruling out inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in undiagnosed, symptomatic patients and a high sensitivity for diagnosing the disease making it useful as a tool for prioritising endoscopy...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342710/glutathione-as-a-marker-for-human-disease
#5
Garrett Teskey, Rachel Abrahem, Ruoqiong Cao, Karo Gyurjian, Hicret Islamoglu, Mariana Lucero, Andrew Martinez, Erik Paredes, Oscar Salaiz, Brittanie Robinson, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Glutathione (GSH), often referred to as "the master antioxidant," participates not only in antioxidant defense systems, but many metabolic processes, and therefore its role cannot be overstated. GSH deficiency causes cellular risk for oxidative damage and thus as expected, GSH imbalance is observed in a wide range of pathological conditions including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, diabetes, cancer, and aging. Consequently, it is not surprising that GSH has attracted the attention of biological researchers and pharmacologists alike as a possible target for medical intervention...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342709/free-circulating-mirnas-measurement-in-clinical-settings-the-still-unsolved-issue-of-the-normalization
#6
Martina Faraldi, Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi
Circulating molecules that are released into the circulation in response to specific stimuli are considered potential biomarkers for physiological or pathological processes. Their effective usefulness as biomarkers resides in their stability and high availability in all the biological fluids, combined with the limited invasiveness of intervention. Among the circulating molecules, miRNAs represent a novel class of biomarkers as they possess all the required characteristics such as sensitivity, predictivity, specificity, robustness, translatability, and noninvasiveness...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342708/long-noncoding-rnas-advances-in-lipid-metabolism
#7
Yongzhi Zeng, Kun Ren, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Zheng, Guanghui Yi
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important group of pervasive noncoding RNAs (>200nt) proposed to be crucial regulators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Through interactions with RNA, chromatin, and protein, lncRNAs modulate mRNA stability, chromatin structure, and the function of proteins (including transcription factors). In addition, to their well-known roles in the modulation of cell growth, apoptosis, neurological disease progression and cancer metastasis, these large molecules have also been identified as likely mediators of lipid metabolism...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144843/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144842/new-biomarkers-to-evaluate-hyperandrogenemic-women-and-hypogonadal-men
#9
Sidika E Karakas, Prasanth Surampudi
Androgens can have variable effects on men and women. Women may be evaluated for androgen excess for several reasons. Typically, young premenopausal women present with clinical symptoms of hirsutism, alopecia, irregular menses, and/or infertility. The most common cause of these symptoms is polycystic ovary syndrome. After menopause, even though ovaries stop producing estrogen, they continue to produce androgen, and women can have new onset of hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory evaluation involves measurement of the major ovarian and adrenal androgens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144841/role-of-salivary-biomarkers-in-oral-cancer-detection
#10
Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad S Zafar, Rabia S Khan, Shariq Najeeb, Paul D Slowey, Ihtesham U Rehman
Oral cancers are the sixth most frequent cancer with a high mortality rate. Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90% of all oral cancers. Standard methods used to detect oral cancers remain comprehensive clinical examination, expensive biochemical investigations, and invasive biopsy. The identification of biomarkers from biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva) has the potential of early diagnosis. The use of saliva for early cancer detection in the search for new clinical markers is a promising approach because of its noninvasive sampling and easy collection methods...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144840/the-proteome-of-cataract-markers-focus-on-crystallins
#11
Keke Zhang, Xiangjia Zhu, Yi Lu
Cataract is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by lens opacification and is accompanied by extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in various proteins. PTMs play an essential role in lens opacification. Several PTMs have been described in proteins isolated from relatively old human lenses, including phosphorylation, deamidation, racemization, truncation, acetylation, and methylation. An overwhelming majority of previous cataract proteomic studies have exclusively focused on crystallin proteins, which are the most abundant proteome components of the lens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144839/selenium-in-complicated-pregnancy-a-review
#12
Bronislaw A Zachara
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of significant importance in human health. Diet is the major source of Se, and intake of this element depends on its concentration in food sources as well as the amount of those sources consumed. Unfortunately, daily dietary intake of Se in most European countries is generally low, ∼30-40μg/day, compared with the recommended dietary allowance, ∼55 and 70μg/day for adult females and males, respectively. The importance of Se as an essential trace element is linked to its role as selenocysteine in a number of selenoproteins including antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), and selenoprotein P (SePP)...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144838/advances-in-pcos-pathogenesis-and-progression-mitochondrial-mutations-and-dysfunction
#13
Ioana R Ilie
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder, which still remains largely unsolved in terms of etiology and pathogenesis despite important advances in our understanding of its genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factor implications. It is a heterogeneous disease, frequently associated with insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress and probably accompanied with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some malignant lesions as well, such as endometrial cancer...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144837/tissue-and-blood-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-a-review
#14
Michael J Duffy, Ken O'Byrne
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, worldwide. Historically, lung cancer has been divided into two main histological types: small cell and nonsmall cell (NSC) type with the latter being subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell type, and large cell type. The treatment of the NSC lung cancer (NSCLC), especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, has been transformed in the last decade by the availability of predictive biomarkers for molecularly targeted therapies. Currently, for patients with advanced adenocarcinomas, testing for sensitizing mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is mandatory prior to the administration of anti-EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, or osimertinib...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655464/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655463/proteomics-for-biomarker-identification-and-clinical-application-in-kidney-disease
#16
Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#17
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655461/metabolomics-and-lipidomics-of-ischemic-stroke
#18
Anthony Au
Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655460/uncertainty-in-measurement-procedures-for-determining-uncertainty-with-application-to-clinical-laboratory-calculations
#19
Robert B Frenkel, Ian Farrance
In Part II of this review we consider the very common case of multiple inputs to a measurement process. We derive, using only elementary steps and the basic mathematics covered in Part I, the formula for the propagation of uncertainties from the inputs to the output. The Gaussian density distribution is briefly explained, since an understanding of this distribution is needed for the determination of so-called expanded uncertainties at the end of a measurement process. The propagation formula in general involves correlations among the inputs, although in many cases these correlations can be considered negligible...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655459/adiponectin-and-its-isoforms-in-pathophysiology
#20
Merel van Andel, Annemieke C Heijboer, Madeleine L Drent
Adiponectin circulates in blood in multiple isoforms. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be most biologically active and promotes glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation. In obesity, adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted, leading to an inverse association between metabolic disease and HMW and total adiponectin. Adiponectin isoforms also function as acute-phase reactants influencing inflammation in acute and chronic disease. Interestingly, adiponectin and mortality have a U-shaped association...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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