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Advances in Clinical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717420/preface
#1
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717419/autoimmunity-in-crohn-s-disease-a-putative-stratification-factor-of-the-clinical-phenotype
#2
D Roggenbuck, D Reinhold, D C Baumgart, P Schierack, K Conrad, M W Laass
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been linked to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens suggesting the existence of autoantibodies in specific disease phenotypes. However, the lack of clearly defined autoantigenic targets has slowed down research. Genome-wide association studies have identified an impressive number of immune-related susceptibility loci for IBD with no clearly discernible pattern among them. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune responses to a low-diversity and impaired gut microbiota may be of key importance in initiating and perpetuating chronic inflammation in IBD...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717418/advances-in-blood-typing
#3
N Quraishy, S Sapatnekar
The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717417/tandem-mass-spectrometry-of-sphingolipids-applications-for-diagnosis-of-sphingolipidoses
#4
L Kuchař, B Asfaw, J Rybová, J Ledvinová
In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become the dominant technology in lipidomic analysis. It is widely used in diagnosis and research of lipid metabolism disorders including those characterized by impairment of lysosomal functions and storage of nondegraded-degraded substrates. These rare diseases, which include sphingolipidoses, have severe and often fatal clinical consequences. Modern MS methods have contributed significantly to achieve a definitive diagnosis, which is essential in clinical practice to begin properly targeted patient care...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717416/microvesicles-in-autoimmune-diseases
#5
M-L Liu, K J Williams, V P Werth
During apoptosis or activation, cells can release a subcellular structure, called a membrane microvesicle (also known as microparticle) into the extracellular environment. Microvesicles bud-off as a portion of cell membrane with its associated proteins and lipids surrounding a cytosolic core that contains intracellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA, microRNA, lncRNA). Biologically active molecules on the microvesicle surface and encapsulated within can act on recipient cells as a novel mode of intercellular communication...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717415/monitoring-oxygen-status
#6
J G Toffaletti, C R Rackley
Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717414/overview-of-laboratory-testing-and-clinical-presentations-of-complement-deficiencies-and-dysregulation
#7
A Frazer-Abel, L Sepiashvili, M M Mbughuni, M A V Willrich
Historically, complement disorders have been attributed to immunodeficiency associated with severe or frequent infection. More recently, however, complement has been recognized for its role in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and vision loss. This paradigm shift requires a fundamental change in how complement testing is performed and interpreted. Here, we provide an overview of the complement pathways and summarize recent literature related to hereditary and acquired angioedema, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and age-related macular degeneration...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645820/preface
#8
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645819/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-mycophenolic-acid
#9
A Dasgupta
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant requiring therapeutic drug monitoring. Although immunoassays are commercially available, there is significant positive bias using this approach when compared to high-performance liquid chromatography or LC combined with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Positive bias is due to variable cross-reactivity of MPA acyl glucuronide with antibodies traditionally used in immunoassay formats. As can be expected, the magnitude of bias varies considerably...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645818/adulterants-in-urine-drug-testing
#10
S Fu
Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645817/critical-care-glucose-point-of-care-testing
#11
S N Narla, M Jones, K L Hermayer, Y Zhu
Maintaining blood glucose concentration within an acceptable range is a goal for patients with diabetes mellitus. Point-of-care glucose meters initially designed for home self-monitoring in patients with diabetes have been widely used in the hospital settings because of ease of use and quick reporting of blood glucose information. They are not only utilized for the general inpatient population but also for critically ill patients. Many factors affect the accuracy of point-of-care glucose testing, particularly in critical care settings...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645816/omics-in-reproductive-medicine-application-of-novel-technologies-to-improve-the-ivf-success-rate
#12
R D Nerenz
Treatment for many infertile couples often consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF) but an estimated 70% of IVF cycles fail to produce a live birth. In an attempt to improve the live birth rate, the vast majority of IVF cycles performed in the United States involve the transfer of multiple embryos, a practice that increases the risk of multiple gestation pregnancy. This is a concern because multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased incidence of maternal and fetal complications and significant cost associated with the care of preterm infants...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645815/extracellular-vesicles-in-molecular-diagnostics-an-overview-with-a-focus-on-cns-diseases
#13
B R Hirshman, R T Kras, J C Akers, B S Carter, C C Chen
All known cells continuously release nanoscale lipid membrane-enclosed packets. These packets, termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), bear the signature of their cells of origin. These vesicles can be detected in just about every type of biofluid tested, including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. The majority comes from normal cells, but disease cells also release them. There is a great interest in collecting and analyzing EVs in biofluids as diagnostics for a wide spectrum of central nervous system diseases...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645814/cell-free-fetal-dna-testing-for-prenatal-diagnosis
#14
S Drury, M Hill, L S Chitty
Prenatal diagnosis and screening have undergone rapid development in recent years, with advances in molecular technology driving the change. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome as a highly sensitive screening test is now available worldwide through the commercial sector with many countries moving toward implementation into their publically funded maternity systems. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed for definitive diagnosis of some recessive and X-linked conditions, rather than just paternally inherited dominant and de novo conditions...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346620/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Makowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346619/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-part-ii-urine-markers
#16
O C Ifegwu, C Anyakora
There has been increasing demand for simple, rapid, highly sensitive, inexpensive yet reliable method for detecting predisposition to cancer. Human biomonitoring of exposure to the largest class of chemical carcinogen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are rapidly transformed into detectable metabolites (eg, 1-hydroxypyrene), can serve as strong pointers to early detection of predisposition to cancer. Given that any exposure to PAH is assumed to pose a certain risk of cancer, several biomarkers have been employed in biomonitoring these ninth most threatening ranked compounds...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346618/cytokines-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis
#17
L A Berchtold, M Prause, J Størling, T Mandrup-Poulsen
The discovery 30 years ago that inflammatory cytokines cause a concentration, activity, and time-dependent bimodal response in pancreatic β-cell function and viability has been a game-changer in the fields of research directed at understanding inflammatory regulation of β-cell function and survival and the causes of β-cell failure and destruction in diabetes. Having until then been confined to the use of pathophysiologically irrelevant β-cell toxic chemicals as a model of β-cell death, researchers could now mimic endocrine and paracrine effects of the cytokine response in vitro by titrating concentrations in the low to the high picomolar-femtomolar range and vary exposure time for up to 14-16h to reproduce the acute regulatory effects of systemic inflammation on β-cell secretory responses, with a shift to inhibition at high picomolar concentrations or more than 16h of exposure to illustrate adverse effects of local, chronic islet inflammation...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346617/transferrin-saturation-a-body-iron-biomarker
#18
M E Elsayed, M U Sharif, A G Stack
Iron is an essential element for several metabolic pathways and physiological processes. The maintenance of iron homeostasis within the human body requires a dynamic and highly sophisticated interplay of several proteins, as states of iron deficiency or excess are both potentially deleterious to health. Among these is plasma transferrin, which is central to iron metabolism not only through iron transport between body tissues in a soluble nontoxic form but also through its protective scavenger role in sequestering free toxic iron...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346616/circadian-genes-in-breast-cancer
#19
E Reszka, M Przybek
Exploring the putative impact of circadian rhythms is a relatively novel approach to illuminating hormone-related female breast cancer etiology and prognosis. One of several proposed mechanisms underlying breast cancer risk among individuals exposed to light at night involves circadian gene alterations. Although in vitro and animal studies indicate a key role of circadian genes in breast tumor suppression, there is a paucity of data on the role of circadian genes in human breast cancer. This review summarizes recent findings of circadian gene expression and DNA methylation profile from human breast cancer studies in relation to hormonal status, clinicopathological features of tumors, and exposure to night shift work...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346615/context-and-applications-of-targeted-genetic-testing-with-emphasis-on-copy-number-variants
#20
J W Ahn, C Ogilvie
There has been a huge acceleration in our technical ability to detect variation in the human genome in recent years, and there has been a corresponding effort in clinical diagnostic laboratories to take advantage of this progress for the benefit of patients. There has, however, not been an equivalent increase in our understanding of human genetics and disease, not for lack of effort but due to the far greater complexity of understanding variation than the difficulties of detecting it. This chapter describes how software tools can be used to target clinical genetic diagnostic testing in order to exploit technical and scientific advances both efficiently and cost-effectively, while maximizing clinical utility...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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