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Annual Review of Medicine

Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infections afflicting humans yet remains the number one infectious disease killer worldwide. Despite decades of experience treating this disease, TB regimens require months of multidrug therapy, even for latent infections. There have been important recent advances in treatment options across the spectrum of TB, from latent infection to extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB disease. In addition, new, potent drugs are emerging out of the development pipeline and are being tested in novel regimens in multiple currently enrolling trials...
November 7, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
R E Ooijevaar, E M Terveer, H W Verspaget, E J Kuijper, J J Keller
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a well-established treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. FMT has become a more readily available and useful new treatment option as a result of stool banks. The current state of knowledge indicates that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is implicated in several disorders in addition to C. difficile. Randomized controlled studies have shown FMT to be somewhat effective in treating ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy...
November 7, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Michael S Diamond, Julie E Ledgerwood, Theodore C Pierson
Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged at a global level when it spread to the Americas and began causing congenital malformations and microcephaly in 2015. A rapid response by academia, government, public health infrastructure, and industry has enabled the expedited development and testing of a suite of vaccine platforms aiming to control and eliminate ZIKV-induced disease. Analysis of key immunization and pathogenesis studies in multiple animal models, including during pregnancy, has begun to define immune correlates of protection...
November 2, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Raphael A Clynes, John R Desjarlais
Bispecific antibodies that recruit and redirect T cells to attack tumor cells have tremendous potential for the treatment of various malignancies. In general, this class of therapeutics, known as CD3 bispecifics, promotes tumor cell killing by cross-linking a CD3 component of the Tcell receptor complex with a tumor-associated antigen on the surface of the target cell. Importantly, this mechanism does not rely on a cognate interaction between the T cell receptor and a peptide: HLA complex, thereby circumventing HLA (human leukocyte antigen) restriction...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Yi-Li Min, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
The ability to efficiently modify the genome using CRISPR technology has rapidly revolutionized biology and genetics and will soon transform medicine. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) represents one of the first monogenic disorders that has been investigated with respect to CRISPR-mediated correction of causal genetic mutations. DMD results from mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a scaffolding protein that maintains the integrity of striated muscles. Thousands of different dystrophin mutations have been identified in DMD patients, who suffer from a loss of ambulation followed by respiratory insufficiency, heart failure, and death by the third decade of life...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Michael A Curran, Bonnie S Glisson
The driver and passenger mutations accumulated in the process of malignant transformation offer an adequate spectrum of immune visible alterations to the cellular proteome and resulting peptidome to render these cancers targetable-and, in theory, rejectable-by the host T cell immune response. In addition, cancers often overexpress tissue-specific and developmental antigens to which immune tolerance is incomplete. Sometimes, virally transferred oncogenes drive malignant transformation and remain expressed throughout the cancer...
October 31, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Ilse Gantois, Jelena Popic, Arkady Khoutorsky, Nahum Sonenberg
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent inherited form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, engenders molecular, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in FXS patients. Experiments using different animal models advanced our knowledge of the pathophysiology of FXS and led to the discovery of many targets for drug treatments. In this review, we discuss the potential of metformin, an antidiabetic drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, to correct core symptoms of FXS and other neurological disorders in humans...
October 26, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Christina Cho, Miguel-Angel Perales
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is a fundamental part of the treatment of hematologic malignancies and marrow failure syndromes, but complications including graft-versus-host disease, prolonged immune deficiency and infection, and organ toxicities, as well as relapse, remain obstacles to improved overall survival. As the cellular characteristics of the allograft can exert significant impact on outcomes, the development of more strategically designed grafts represents a rich area for therapeutic intervention...
October 25, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Roy M Gulick, Charles Flexner
Antiretroviral drugs have revolutionized the treatment and prevention of HIV infection; however, adherence is critical for sustained efficacy. Current HIV treatment consists of three-drug regimens, and current HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) consists of a two-drug regimen; both generally require adherence to once-daily dosing. Long-acting formulations are useful in the treatment and prevention of other conditions (e.g., contraceptives, antipsychotics) and help promote adherence. Newer long-acting formulations of approved and investigational antiretroviral drugs in existing and newer mechanistic classes are under study for HIV treatment and prevention, including some phase III trials...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Ashley E Russo, Vivian E Strong
Regional variation in treatment paradigms for gastric adenocarcinoma has attracted a great deal of interest. Between Asia and the West, major differences have been identified in tumor biology, implementation of screening programs, extent of surgical lymphadenectomy, and routine use of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant treatment strategies. Minimally invasive techniques, including both laparoscopic and robotic platforms, have been studied in both regions, with attention to safety, feasibility, and long-term oncologic outcomes...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Samuel Rosner, Joshua E Reuss, Patrick M Forde
Early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is a potentially curable disease, but with relapse rates exceeding 50% with standard treatments, this is a patient population in critical need of therapy innovation. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized the treatment strategy for advanced lung cancer. However, the role of this therapy in earlier-stage disease is largely unknown. The study of immunotherapy in earlier-stage disease has many advantages, including assessment of pathologic response and incorporation of translational scientific analyses to evaluate antitumor immune responses...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Stuart H Orkin, Daniel E Bauer
The genetic basis of sickle cell disease (SCD) was elucidated >60 years ago, yet current therapy does not rely on this knowledge. Recent advances raise prospects for improved, and perhaps curative, treatment. First, transcription factors, BCL11A and LRF/ZBTB7A, that mediate silencing of the β-like fetal (γ-) globin gene after birth have been identified and demonstrated to act at the γ-globin promoters, precisely at recognition sequences disrupted in rare individuals with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Erica P Young, Nathan O Stitziel
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite decades of research focused on disease pathogenesis, we still lack a sufficient pharmacopeia for preventing CAD. The failure of many novel cardiovascular drugs to improve clinical outcomes reflects the major substantial challenge of drug development: identifying causal mechanisms that can be therapeutically manipulated to lower disease risk. Identifying genetic variants that are associated with risk of CAD has emerged as a clear path toward improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that lead to disease and to the development of new therapies...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Samir Abu-Gazala, Kim M Olthoff
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was introduced in response to the shortage of deceased donor liver grafts. The number of adult living donor transplants is increasing due to improved outcomes and increasing need. Advantages of LDLT include optimization of the timing of transplant, better organ quality, and lower rates of recipient mortality compared to staying on the wait list for deceased donor liver transplant. Donor safety remains the major focus when considering LDLT. Recent advancements have supported the increased use of LDLT to help decrease wait list death and improve long-term survival of transplant recipients...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Cynthia A James, Hugh Calkins
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart disease characterized by fibrofatty replacement of the ventricular myocardium, a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias, and progressive ventricular dysfunction. The clinical course is highly variable, and optimal approaches to management remain undefined. ARVC is associated with pathogenic variants in genes encoding the cardiac desmosome. Genetic testing facilitates identification of at-risk family members, but penetrance of ARVC in pathogenic variant carriers is difficult to predict...
October 24, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Michael M Rey, Michael P Bonk, Denis Hadjiliadis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetic disease in Caucasian patients. Continued advances have led to improved survival, and adults with CF now outnumber children. As our understanding of the disease improves, new therapies have emerged that improve the basic defect, enabling patient-specific treatment and improved outcomes. However, recurrent exacerbations continue to lead to morbidity and mortality, and new pathogens have been identified that may lead to worse outcomes. In addition, new complications, such as CF-related diabetes and increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers, are creating new challenges in management...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Robert J H Miller, Jeffrey J Teuteberg, Sharon A Hunt
The number of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) continues to increase over time, but there has been little change in the availability of organs for cardiac transplantation, intensifying the demand for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a bridge to transplantation. There is also a growing number of patients with end-stage HF who are not transplant candidates but may be eligible for long-term support with an LVAD, known as destination therapy. Due to this increasing demand, LVAD technology has evolved, resulting in transformative improvements in outcomes...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Caroline K Kramer, Bernard Zinman
Clinical studies evaluating the cardiovascular safety/impact of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors demonstrated a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events driven primarily by a reduced cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes and previous cardiovascular disease. These somewhat unexpected results are coupled with SGLT-2 inhibitors' known acute effect of improvement in glycemia, reduction in blood pressure, and weight loss. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of action of SGLT-2 inhibitors, the metabolic effects of this class of medication, and the remarkable results of cardiovascular safety trials...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PMC) is defined as papillary thyroid carcinoma ≤10 mm. Active surveillance of PMC without high-risk features, such as clinical node metastasis, distant metastasis, and clinical evidence of significant extrathyroid extension, was initiated in two Japanese hospitals in the mid-1990s. This strategy was incorporated into guidelines in Japan in 2010 and in the United States in 2015. In studies conducted by the two hospitals, most PMCs grew very slowly or did not grow, and none of the patients during active surveillance showed distant metastasis or died of thyroid carcinoma...
September 19, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Edda Spiekerkoetter, Steven M Kawut, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vasculopathy that causes right ventricular dysfunction and exercise limitation and progresses to death. New findings from translational studies have suggested alternative pathways for treatment. These avenues include sex hormones, genetic abnormalities and DNA damage, elastase inhibition, metabolic dysfunction, cellular therapies, and anti-inflammatory approaches. Both novel and repurposed compounds with rationale from preclinical experimental models and human cells are now in clinical trials in patients with PAH...
September 14, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
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