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Annual Review of Medicine

Lisa Hui, Diana W Bianchi
Noninvasive prenatal DNA testing is the vanguard of genomic medicine. In only four years, this screening test has revolutionized prenatal care globally and opened up new prospects for personalized medicine for the fetus. There are widespread implications for increasing the scope of human genetic variation that can be detected before birth, and for discovering more about materno-fetal and placental biology. These include an urgent need to develop pretest education for all pregnant women and consistent posttest management recommendations for those with discordant test results...
October 10, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Diane C Lim, Allan I Pack
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a worldwide disease whose prevalence is increasing as obesity rates increase. The link between obesity and OSA is likely to be the deposition of fat in the tongue, compromising upper airway size. The role of obesity varies in different ethnic groups, with Chinese being particularly sensitive to increases in weight. OSA lends itself to a personalized approach to diagnosis and therapy. For example, different clinical OSA subtypes likely benefit from therapy in different ways. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a useful second-line therapy in patients who cannot tolerate continous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines or intraoral devices...
October 5, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Ayako Suzuki, Anna Mae Diehl
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a major cause of cirrhosis and liver-related deaths worldwide. NASH is strongly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, conditions that cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (hepatic steatosis). It is not well understood why some, but not other, individuals with hepatic steatosis develop NASH. The factors that determine whether or not NASH progresses to cirrhosis are also unclear. This review summarizes key components of NASH pathogenesis and discusses how inherent and acquired variations in regulation of these processes impact the risk for NASH and NASH cirrhosis...
October 5, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Ashkan Shafiee, Anthony Atala
The goal of tissue engineering is to mitigate the critical shortage of donor organs via in vitro fabrication of functional biological structures. Tissue engineering is one of the most prominent examples of interdisciplinary fields, where scientists with different backgrounds work together to boost the quality of life by addressing critical health issues. Many different fields, such as developmental and molecular biology, as well as technologies, such as micro- and nanotechnologies and additive manufacturing, have been integral for advancing the field of tissue engineering...
September 30, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Robert P Jones, Graeme J Poston
About 25% of patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases after resection of the primary tumor, and surgical resection of the metastases offers the only opportunity for long-term survival. However, only 20% of patients present with resectable disease. Deciding which patients should be offered surgery, and which should receive additional treatment in the form of perioperative chemotherapy, is complex. For the majority of patients who present with technically irresectable liver-limited disease, systemic downsizing chemotherapy offers the only opportunity to reach surgery and potential cure...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Rohan Keshwara, Reed F Johnson, Matthias J Schnell
Long-term control of viral outbreaks requires the use of vaccines to impart acquired resistance and ensuing protection. In the wake of an epidemic, established immunity against a particular disease can limit spread and significantly decrease mortality. Creation of a safe and efficacious vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) has proven elusive so far, but various inventive strategies are now being employed to counteract the threat of outbreaks caused by EBOV and related filoviruses. Here, we present a current overview of progress in the field of Ebola virus vaccine development...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Jaehwan Kim, James G Krueger
Psoriasis vulgaris, affecting the skin, is one of the most common organspecific autoimmune diseases in humans. Until recently, psoriasis was treated by agents or approaches discovered largely through serendipity. Many of the available drugs were inherently quite toxic when used as continuous treatment for many years in this chronic disease. However, an increasing understanding of disease-specific immune pathways has spurred development of pathway-targeted therapeutics during the past decade. Psoriasis is now the most effectively treated human autoimmune disease, with high-level clinical improvements possible in ∼90% of patients using a new generation of drugs that selectively target the IL-23/Type 17 T cell axis...
September 23, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Susanna Naggie, Andrew J Muir
The current standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) consists of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, including combinations of DAAs and fixed-dose combination pills. DAAs for HCV are likely to be heralded as one of medicine's greatest advancements. Viral eradication rates are pushing 100% for many HCV-infected populations, including patients with HIV/HCV coinfection, decompensated cirrhosis, liver and kidney transplants, and end-stage liver disease. We highlight the greatest successes of combination DAA therapies, discuss the ongoing challenges, and identify the remaining patient subgroups with unmet medical needs...
September 23, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Lisa R Sammaritano
Reproductive issues including contraception, fertility, and pregnancy are important components of the comprehensive care of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE pregnancies are complicated due to risk for maternal disease exacerbation and potential for fetal and neonatal complications. Pre-pregnancy assessment is important to identify patients with severe disease-related damage who should avoid pregnancy, counsel patients to conceive when disease has been stable and inactive on appropriate medications, and assess relevant risk factors including renal disease, antiphospholipid antibody, and anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Peter W Groeneveld, Sanjay Dixit
Implantable cardiac pacing and defibrillation devices are effective and commonly used therapies for patients with cardiac rhythm disorders. Because device implantation is not easily reversible, as well as the high healthcare costs inherent in device use, a clear understanding of the clinical benefits relative to costs is essential for both appropriate clinical use and rational policy making. Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have been among the best-investigated therapies in medicine; these devices have been the topic of numerous clinical and economic evaluations during the past 30 years...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Anjali Tiku Owens, Susan Brozena, Mariell Jessup
Biologically active natriuretic peptides (NPs) are an integral part of cardiac homeostasis as they help to maintain sodium and fluid balance. When homeostasis is perturbed by neurohormonal activation in heart failure, levels of NPs rise in response. Neprilysin (NEP) is a naturally occuring enzyme that breaks down NPs. Scientists have recently discovered a novel pharmacologic agent that combines a NEP inhibitor and an angiotensin receptor blocker. In a large clinical trial, this new drug was found to reduce hospitalization and mortality in systolic heart failure...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Geerard L Beets, Nuno F Figueiredo, Regina G H Beets-Tan
The basis of the current treatment of rectal cancer is a radical total mesorectal excision of the rectum, and although this provides excellent oncological control, it is associated with morbidity and functional problems in cancer survivors. Organ-preservation alternatives are local excision alone for very early tumors, chemoradiation followed by either local excision of a small tumor remnant or, when there is a complete clinical response, a nonoperative watch-and-wait approach. The functional advantage of these alternatives is clear, but there is some concern about the oncological risk...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Aziz Nazha, Mikkael A Sekeres
Precision medicine can be simply defined as the identification of personalized treatment that matches patient-specific clinical and genomic characteristics. Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic makeup of diseases, especially cancers. The identification of somatic mutations that can drive cancer has led to the development of therapies that specifically target the abnormal proteins derived from these mutations. This has led to a paradigm shift in our treatment methodology...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Vinicius Ernani, Conor E Steuer, Mohammad Jahanzeb
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and many other parts of the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises 85-90% of lung cancers. Historically, the expected survival of patients with advanced disease has been estimated in months. In recent years, however, lung cancer has come to be seen as a treatable disease with multiple therapeutic options. Enormous advances in the understanding of its pathways and mechanisms have enabled personalized therapy in NSCLC. The evolving approach to therapy focuses on genomic profiling of the tumors to find molecular targets and develop specific agents for individualized therapy...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Nabil M Mansour, Shawn S Groth, Sharmila Anandasabapathy
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a growing problem with a rapidly rising incidence. Risk factors include gastroesophageal reflux disease, central obesity, and smoking. The prognosis of EAC remains poor because it is usually diagnosed late, and many efforts have been made to improve prevention, early detection, and treatment. Acid suppression, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and statins may play a role in chemoprevention. Screening for Barrett's esophagus (BE), the only known precursor lesion of EAC, is indicated for individuals with increased risk...
August 31, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Anita Mamtani, Monica Morrow
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and mastectomy result in equivalent longterm survival. Locoregional recurrence rates after BCT have decreased over time and are now similar to those after mastectomy. Contralateral breast cancer rates are declining as well owing to the widespread use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Despite these improved outcomes, increasing rates of bilateral mastectomy for unilateral cancer have been observed in the United States. Medical indications for mastectomy are well defined and present in a minority of patients, and women at increased risk for contralateral cancer are a small proportion of the breast cancer population...
August 26, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Anthony R Fehr, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman
In 2012, a zoonotic coronavirus was identified as the causative agent of Middle East respiratory syndrome and was named MERS coronavirus (MERSCoV). As of June 27, 2016, the virus has infected 1,768 patients, with a mortality rate of 35.6%. Although MERS-CoV generally causes subclinical or mild disease, infection can result in serious outcomes, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure in patients with comorbidities. The virus is endemic in camels in the Arabian Peninsula and Africa and thus poses a consistent threat of frequent reintroduction into human populations...
August 26, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Edward M Kennedy, Bryan R Cullen
The emergence of the CRISPR/Cas system of antiviral adaptive immunity in bacteria as a facile system for gene editing in mammalian cells may well lead to gene editing becoming a novel treatment for a range of human diseases, especially those caused by deleterious germline mutations. Another potential target for gene editing are DNA viruses that cause chronic pathogenic diseases that cannot be cured by using currently available drugs. We review the current state of this field and discuss the potential advantages and problems with using a gene editing approach as a treatment for diseases caused by DNA viruses...
August 26, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Timothy D Girard, Robert S Dittus, E Wesley Ely
A growing body of literature has shown that survivors of critical illness often struggle with cognitive impairment that persists months to years after hospital discharge. We describe the epidemiology of this form of cognitive impairment-which we refer to as critical illness brain injury-and review the history and maturation of the investigation of this previously unrecognized, yet common problem. We then review the characteristics of critical illness brain injury, which can vary in severity and typically affects multiple domains of cognition...
2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Alessandra B Pernis, Edd Ricker, Chien-Huan Weng, Cristina Rozo, Woelsung Yi
The Rho kinases, or ROCKs, are a family of serine-threonine kinases that serve as key downstream effectors for Rho GTPases. The ROCKs are increasingly recognized as critical coordinators of a tissue response to injury due to their ability to modulate a wide range of biological processes. Dysregulated ROCK activity has been implicated in several human pathophysiological conditions ranging from cardiovascular and renal disorders to fibrotic diseases. In recent years, an important role for the ROCKs in the regulation of immune responses is also being uncovered...
2016: Annual Review of Medicine
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