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Francisco J Ruiz-Ruano, Jesús Castillo-Martínez, Josefa Cabrero, Ricardo Gómez, Juan Pedro M Camacho, María Dolores López-León
Satellite DNA (satDNA) constitutes an important fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes, but it is barely known in most species. The high-throughput analysis of satDNA in the grasshopper Pyrgomorpha conica revealed 87 satDNA variants grouped into 76 different families, representing 9.4% of the genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the 38 most abundant satDNA families revealed four different patterns of chromosome distribution. Homology search between the 76 satDNA families showed the existence of 15 superfamilies, each including two or more families, with the most abundant superfamily representing more than 80% of all satDNA found in this species...
March 16, 2018: Chromosoma
Haoyang Xin, Tao Zhang, Yonghua Han, Yufeng Wu, Jisen Shi, Mengli Xi, Jiming Jiang
Dioecious species accounted for 6% of all plant species, including a number of crops and economically important species, such as poplar. However, sex determination and sex chromosome evolution have been studied only in few dioecious species. In poplar, the sex-determining locus was mapped to chromosome 19. Interestingly, this locus was mapped to either a peritelomeric or a centromeric region among different poplar species. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting probe based on the sequence of chromosome 19 from Populus trichocarpa...
March 8, 2018: Chromosoma
Nicolaas C Baudoin, Daniela Cimini
Cell division is fundamental to life and its perturbation can disrupt organismal development, alter tissue homeostasis, and cause disease. Analysis of mitotic abnormalities provides insight into how certain perturbations affect the fidelity of cell division and how specific cellular structures, molecules, and enzymatic activities contribute to the accuracy of this process. However, accurate classification of mitotic defects is instrumental for correct interpretation of data and formulation of new hypotheses...
February 6, 2018: Chromosoma
Alexey I Makunin, Marija Rajičić, Tatyana V Karamysheva, Svetlana A Romanenko, Anna S Druzhkova, Jelena Blagojević, Mladen Vujošević, Nikolay B Rubtsov, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Vladimir A Trifonov
Supernumerary chromosomes sporadically arise in many eukaryotic species as a result of genomic rearrangements. If present in a substantial part of species population, those are called B chromosomes, or Bs. This is the case for 70 mammalian species, most of which are rodents. In humans, the most common types of extra chromosomes, sSMCs (small supernumerary marker chromosomes), are diagnosed in approximately 1 of 2000 postnatal cases. Due to low frequency in population, human sSMCs are not considered B chromosomes...
January 30, 2018: Chromosoma
Erich A Nigg, Simon J Boulton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Chromosoma
T Gazoni, C F B Haddad, H Narimatsu, D C Cabral-de-Mello, M L Lyra, P P Parise-Maltempi
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are common in eukaryotes and largely ubiquitous in birds and mammals. The largest number of multiple sex chromosomes in vertebrates known today is found in the monotreme platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, 2n = 52) which exhibits precisely 10 sex chromosomes. Interestingly, fish, amphibians, and reptiles have sex determination mechanisms that do or do not involve morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Relatively few amphibian species carry heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and when present, they are frequently represented by only one pair, either XX:XY or ZZ:ZW types...
January 26, 2018: Chromosoma
Lepakshi Ranjha, Sean M Howard, Petr Cejka
DNA double-strand breaks arise accidentally upon exposure of DNA to radiation and chemicals or result from faulty DNA metabolic processes. DNA breaks can also be introduced in a programmed manner, such as during the maturation of the immune system, meiosis, or cancer chemo- or radiotherapy. Cells have developed a variety of repair pathways, which are fine-tuned to the specific needs of a cell. Accordingly, vegetative cells employ mechanisms that restore the integrity of broken DNA with the highest efficiency at the lowest cost of mutagenesis...
January 11, 2018: Chromosoma
Xiaoming Sun, Paul D Kaufman
Ki-67 protein has been widely used as a proliferation marker for human tumor cells for decades. In recent studies, multiple molecular functions of this large protein have become better understood. Ki-67 has roles in both interphase and mitotic cells, and its cellular distribution dramatically changes during cell cycle progression. These localizations correlate with distinct functions. For example, during interphase, Ki-67 is required for normal cellular distribution of heterochromatin antigens and for the nucleolar association of heterochromatin...
January 10, 2018: Chromosoma
Zachary T Neeb, Mariusz Nowacki
In the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and with the availability of whole sequenced genomes and epigenomes, some attention has shifted from purely sequence-based studies to those of heritable epigenetic modifications. Transgenerational inheritance can be defined as heritable changes to the state of DNA that may be passed on to subsequent generations without alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in many systems, studies of transgenerational inheritance in mammals and other higher-level eukaryotes may be complicated by the fact that many epigenetic marks are reprogrammed during sexual reproduction...
March 2018: Chromosoma
Jana Sochorová, Sònia Garcia, Francisco Gálvez, Radka Symonová, Aleš Kovařík
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci encoding 5S and 45S (18S-5.8S-28S) rRNAs are important components of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we set up the animal rDNA database containing cytogenetic information about these loci in 1343 animal species (264 families) collected from 542 publications. The data are based on in situ hybridisation studies (both radioactive and fluorescent) carried out in major groups of vertebrates (fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals) and invertebrates (mostly insects and mollusks). The database is accessible online at www...
March 2018: Chromosoma
Frédéric Veyrunes, Julie Perez
X inactivation is a fundamental mechanism in eutherian mammals to restore a balance of X-linked gene products between XY males and XX females. However, it has never been extensively studied in a eutherian species with a sex determination system that deviates from the ubiquitous XX/XY. In this study, we explore the X inactivation process in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, that harbours a polygenic sex determination with three sex chromosomes: Y, X, and a feminizing mutant X, named X*; females can thus be XX, XX*, or X*Y, and all males are XY...
December 18, 2017: Chromosoma
Mathieu Tardat, Jérôme Déjardin
Telomeres are specialized structures that evolved to protect the end of linear chromosomes from the action of the cell DNA damage machinery. They are composed of tandem arrays of repeated DNA sequences with a specific heterochromatic organization. The length of telomeric repeats is dynamically regulated and can be affected by changes in the telomere chromatin structure. When telomeres are not properly controlled, the resulting chromosomal alterations can induce genomic instability and ultimately the development of human diseases, such as cancer...
December 18, 2017: Chromosoma
Marina Arbi, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Stavros Taraviras, Zoi Lygerou
To ensure that the genetic material is accurately passed down to daughter cells during mitosis, dividing cells must duplicate their chromosomes and centrosomes once and only once per cell cycle. The same key steps-licensing, duplication, and segregation-control both the chromosome and the centrosome cycle, which must occur in concert to safeguard genome integrity. Aberrations in genome content or centrosome numbers lead to genomic instability and are linked to tumorigenesis. Such aberrations, however, can also be part of the normal life cycle of specific cell types...
December 14, 2017: Chromosoma
Stephan Kemeny, Christophe Tatout, Gaelle Salaun, Céline Pebrel-Richard, Carole Goumy, Natasha Ollier, Eugenie Maurin, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Vago, Laetitia Gouas
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size...
December 14, 2017: Chromosoma
Travis J Karg, Kent G Golic
The fluorescent dye 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is frequently used in fluorescence microscopy as a chromosome and nuclear stain because of its high specificity for DNA. Normally, DAPI bound to DNA is maximally excited by ultraviolet (UV) light at 358 nm, and emits maximally in the blue range, at 461 nm. Hoechst dyes 33258 and 33342 have similar excitation and emission spectra and are also used to stain nuclei and chromosomes. It has been reported that exposure to UV can convert DAPI and Hoechst dyes to forms that are excited by blue light and emit green fluorescence, potentially confusing the interpretation of experiments that use more than one fluorochrome...
December 12, 2017: Chromosoma
Yue Li, Xueyuan A Jing, John C Aldrich, C Clifford, Jian Chen, Omar S Akbari, Patrick M Ferree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Chromosoma
Masashi Hada, Jihye Kim, Erina Inoue, Yuko Fukuda, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Yoshinori Watanabe, Yuki Okada
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis...
December 2017: Chromosoma
Yue Li, Xueyuan A Jing, John C Aldrich, C Clifford, Jian Chen, Omar S Akbari, Patrick M Ferree
B chromosomes are found in numerous plants and animals. These nonessential, supernumerary chromosomes are often composed primarily of noncoding DNA repeats similar to those found within transcriptionally "silenced" heterochromatin. In order to persist within their resident genomes, many B chromosomes exhibit exceptional cellular behaviors, including asymmetric segregation into gametes and induction of genome elimination during early development. An important goal in understanding these behaviors is to identify unique B chromosome sequences and characterize their transcriptional contributions...
December 2017: Chromosoma
Hideki Zushi, Chie Murata, Shusei Mizushima, Chizuko Nishida, Asato Kuroiwa
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential mechanism to compensate gene dosage in mammals. Here, we show that XCI has evolved differently in two species of the genus Tokudaia. The Amami spiny rat, Tokudaia osimensis, has a single X chromosome in males and females (XO/XO). By contrast, the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, has XX/XY sex chromosomes like most mammals, although the X chromosome has acquired a neo-X region by fusion with an autosome. BAC clones containing the XIST gene, which produces the long non-coding RNA XIST required for XCI, were obtained by screening of T...
December 2017: Chromosoma
Phuong T N Hoang, Ingo Schubert
The monophyletic duckweeds comprising five genera within the monocot order Alismatales are neotenic, free-floating, aquatic organisms with fast vegetative propagation. Some species are considered for efficient biomass production, for life stock feeding, and for (simultaneous) wastewater phytoremediation. The ancestral genus Spirodela consists of only two species, Spirodela polyrhiza and Spirodela intermedia, both with a similar small genome (~160 Mbp/1C). Reference genome drafts and a physical map of 96 BACs on the 20 chromosome pairs of S...
December 2017: Chromosoma
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