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Yutaka Yamamoto, Susan A Gerbi
Targeted insertion of large pieces of DNA is an important goal of genetic engineering. However, this goal has been elusive since classical methods for homology-directed repair are inefficient and often not feasible in many systems. Recent advances are described here that enable site-specific genomic insertion of relatively large DNA with much improved efficiency. Using the preferred repair pathway in the cell of nonhomologous end-joining, DNA of up to several kb could be introduced with remarkably good precision by the methods of HITI and ObLiGaRe with an efficiency up to 30-40%...
July 12, 2018: Chromosoma
Eleni Petsalaki, Maria Dandoulaki, George Zachos
Formation of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments is essential for accurate chromosome segregation in human cells and depends on the NDC80 complex. We recently showed that Chmp4c, an endosomal sorting complex required for transport protein involved in membrane remodelling, localises to prometaphase kinetochores and promotes cold-stable kinetochore microtubules, faithful chromosome alignment and segregation. In the present study, we show that Chmp4c associates with the NDC80 components Hec1 and Nuf2 and is required for optimal NDC80 stability and Hec1-Nuf2 localisation to kinetochores in prometaphase...
July 2, 2018: Chromosoma
James H Crichton, David Read, Ian R Adams
Recombination, synapsis, chromosome segregation and gene expression are co-ordinately regulated during meiosis to ensure successful execution of this specialised cell division. Studies with multiple mutant mouse lines have shown that mouse spermatocytes possess quality control checkpoints that eliminate cells with persistent defects in chromosome synapsis. In addition, studies on Trip13 mod/mod mice suggest that pachytene spermatocytes that successfully complete chromosome synapsis can undergo meiotic arrest in response to defects in recombination...
June 16, 2018: Chromosoma
Emine I Ali, Josef Loidl, Rachel A Howard-Till
In order to understand its diverse functions, we have studied cohesin in the evolutionarily distant ciliate model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. In this binucleate cell, the heritable germline genome is maintained separately from the transcriptionally active somatic genome. In a previous study, we showed that a minimal cohesin complex in Tetrahymena consisted of homologs of Smc1, Smc3, and Rec8, which are present only in the germline nucleus, where they are needed for normal chromosome segregation as well as meiotic DNA repair...
June 12, 2018: Chromosoma
Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Kiên Kiêu, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Krisztina Tar, Pierre Flores, Zichuan Liu, Nathalie Peynot, Martine Chebrout, András Dinnyés, Véronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean
Changes to the spatial organization of specific chromatin domains such as constitutive heterochromatin have been studied extensively in somatic cells. During early embryonic development, drastic epigenetic reprogramming of both the maternal and paternal genomes, followed by chromatin remodeling at the time of embryonic genome activation (EGA), have been observed in the mouse. Very few studies have been performed in other mammalian species (human, bovine, or rabbit) and the data are far from complete. During this work, we studied the three-dimensional organization of pericentromeric regions during the preimplantation period in the rabbit using specific techniques (3D-FISH) and tools (semi-automated image analysis)...
April 18, 2018: Chromosoma
Ingo Schubert
An increasing number of observations suggest an evolutionary switch of centromere position on monocentric eukaryotic chromosomes which otherwise display a conserved sequence of genes and markers. Such observations are particularly frequent for primates and equidae (for review see Heredity 108:59-67, 2012) but occur also in marsupials (J Hered 96:217-224, 2005) and in plants (Chromosome Res 25:299-311, 2017 and references therein). The actual mechanism(s) behind remained unclear in many cases (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:6542-6547, 2004; Trends Genet 30:66-74, 2014)...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Nicolaas C Baudoin, Daniela Cimini
Cell division is fundamental to life and its perturbation can disrupt organismal development, alter tissue homeostasis, and cause disease. Analysis of mitotic abnormalities provides insight into how certain perturbations affect the fidelity of cell division and how specific cellular structures, molecules, and enzymatic activities contribute to the accuracy of this process. However, accurate classification of mitotic defects is instrumental for correct interpretation of data and formulation of new hypotheses...
June 2018: Chromosoma
T Gazoni, C F B Haddad, H Narimatsu, D C Cabral-de-Mello, M L Lyra, P P Parise-Maltempi
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are common in eukaryotes and largely ubiquitous in birds and mammals. The largest number of multiple sex chromosomes in vertebrates known today is found in the monotreme platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, 2n = 52) which exhibits precisely 10 sex chromosomes. Interestingly, fish, amphibians, and reptiles have sex determination mechanisms that do or do not involve morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Relatively few amphibian species carry heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and when present, they are frequently represented by only one pair, either XX:XY or ZZ:ZW types...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Lepakshi Ranjha, Sean M Howard, Petr Cejka
DNA double-strand breaks arise accidentally upon exposure of DNA to radiation and chemicals or result from faulty DNA metabolic processes. DNA breaks can also be introduced in a programmed manner, such as during the maturation of the immune system, meiosis, or cancer chemo- or radiotherapy. Cells have developed a variety of repair pathways, which are fine-tuned to the specific needs of a cell. Accordingly, vegetative cells employ mechanisms that restore the integrity of broken DNA with the highest efficiency at the lowest cost of mutagenesis...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Xiaoming Sun, Paul D Kaufman
Ki-67 protein has been widely used as a proliferation marker for human tumor cells for decades. In recent studies, multiple molecular functions of this large protein have become better understood. Ki-67 has roles in both interphase and mitotic cells, and its cellular distribution dramatically changes during cell cycle progression. These localizations correlate with distinct functions. For example, during interphase, Ki-67 is required for normal cellular distribution of heterochromatin antigens and for the nucleolar association of heterochromatin...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Frédéric Veyrunes, Julie Perez
X inactivation is a fundamental mechanism in eutherian mammals to restore a balance of X-linked gene products between XY males and XX females. However, it has never been extensively studied in a eutherian species with a sex determination system that deviates from the ubiquitous XX/XY. In this study, we explore the X inactivation process in the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, that harbours a polygenic sex determination with three sex chromosomes: Y, X, and a feminizing mutant X, named X*; females can thus be XX, XX*, or X*Y, and all males are XY...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Marina Arbi, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Stavros Taraviras, Zoi Lygerou
To ensure that the genetic material is accurately passed down to daughter cells during mitosis, dividing cells must duplicate their chromosomes and centrosomes once and only once per cell cycle. The same key steps-licensing, duplication, and segregation-control both the chromosome and the centrosome cycle, which must occur in concert to safeguard genome integrity. Aberrations in genome content or centrosome numbers lead to genomic instability and are linked to tumorigenesis. Such aberrations, however, can also be part of the normal life cycle of specific cell types...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Stephan Kemeny, Christophe Tatout, Gaelle Salaun, Céline Pebrel-Richard, Carole Goumy, Natasha Ollier, Eugenie Maurin, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Vago, Laetitia Gouas
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Travis J Karg, Kent G Golic
The fluorescent dye 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is frequently used in fluorescence microscopy as a chromosome and nuclear stain because of its high specificity for DNA. Normally, DAPI bound to DNA is maximally excited by ultraviolet (UV) light at 358 nm, and emits maximally in the blue range, at 461 nm. Hoechst dyes 33258 and 33342 have similar excitation and emission spectra and are also used to stain nuclei and chromosomes. It has been reported that exposure to UV can convert DAPI and Hoechst dyes to forms that are excited by blue light and emit green fluorescence, potentially confusing the interpretation of experiments that use more than one fluorochrome...
June 2018: Chromosoma
Arkadi Manukyan, Lilit Sargsyan, Sarah J Parsons, P Todd Stukenberg
Assembly of the mitotic spindle is essential for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Maintenance of spindle poles requires precise regulation of kinesin- and dynein-generated forces, and improper regulation of these forces disrupts pole integrity leading to pole fragmentation. The formation and function of the mitotic spindle are regulated by many proteins, including Aurora A kinase and the motor proteins Kif2a and Eg5. Here, we characterize a surprising role for the RhoA GTPase-activating protein, p190RhoGAP, in regulating the mitotic spindle...
April 14, 2018: Chromosoma
Garry T Morgan
When in the lampbrush configuration, chromosomes display thousands of visible DNA loops that are transcribed at exceptionally high rates by RNA polymerase II (pol II). These transcription loops provide unique opportunities to investigate not only the detailed architecture of pol II transcription sites but also the structural dynamics of chromosome looping, which is receiving fresh attention as the organizational principle underpinning the higher-order structure of all chromosome states. The approach described here allows for extended imaging of individual transcription loops and transcription units under conditions in which loop RNA synthesis continues...
April 3, 2018: Chromosoma
Anna Fortuny, Sophie E Polo
Eukaryotic genomes are organized into chromatin, divided into structurally and functionally distinct euchromatin and heterochromatin compartments. The high level of compaction and the abundance of repeated sequences in heterochromatin pose multiple challenges for the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have evolved sophisticated and highly controlled mechanisms to overcome these constraints. Here, we summarize recent findings on how the heterochromatic state influences DNA damage formation, signaling, and repair...
March 29, 2018: Chromosoma
Andrea Enguita-Marruedo, Wiggert A Van Cappellen, Jos W Hoogerbrugge, Fabrizia Carofiglio, Evelyne Wassenaar, Johan A Slotman, Adriaan Houtsmuller, Willy M Baarends
During mammalian meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes connect through the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC). SYCP3 is a component of the lateral elements of the SC. We have generated transgenic mice expressing N- or C-terminal fluorescent-tagged SYCP3 (mCherry-SYCP3 (CSYCP) and SYCP3-mCherry (SYCPC)) to study SC dynamics and chromosome movements in vivo. Neither transgene rescued meiotic aberrations in Sycp3 knockouts, but CSYCP could form short axial element-like structures in the absence of endogenous SYCP3...
March 26, 2018: Chromosoma
Shashank Srivastava, Daniel R Foltz
Centromeres are specialized chromosome domain that serve as the site for kinetochore assembly and microtubule attachment during cell division, to ensure proper segregation of chromosomes. In higher eukaryotes, the identity of active centromeres is marked by the presence of CENP-A (centromeric protein-A), a histone H3 variant. CENP-A forms a centromere-specific nucleosome that acts as a foundation for centromere assembly and function. The posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins is a major mechanism regulating the function of chromatin...
March 22, 2018: Chromosoma
Francisco J Ruiz-Ruano, Jesús Castillo-Martínez, Josefa Cabrero, Ricardo Gómez, Juan Pedro M Camacho, María Dolores López-León
Satellite DNA (satDNA) constitutes an important fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes, but it is barely known in most species. The high-throughput analysis of satDNA in the grasshopper Pyrgomorpha conica revealed 87 satDNA variants grouped into 76 different families, representing 9.4% of the genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the 38 most abundant satDNA families revealed four different patterns of chromosome distribution. Homology search between the 76 satDNA families showed the existence of 15 superfamilies, each including two or more families, with the most abundant superfamily representing more than 80% of all satDNA found in this species...
March 16, 2018: Chromosoma
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