journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Chromosoma

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705818/what-is-behind-centromere-repositioning
#1
REVIEW
Ingo Schubert
An increasing number of observations suggest an evolutionary switch of centromere position on monocentric eukaryotic chromosomes which otherwise display a conserved sequence of genes and markers. Such observations are particularly frequent for primates and equidae (for review see Heredity 108:59-67, 2012) but occur also in marsupials (J Hered 96:217-224, 2005) and in plants (Chromosome Res 25:299-311, 2017 and references therein). The actual mechanism(s) behind remained unclear in many cases (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:6542-6547, 2004; Trends Genet 30:66-74, 2014)...
April 28, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666907/three-dimensional-analysis-of-nuclear-heterochromatin-distribution-during-early-development-in-the-rabbit
#2
Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Kiên Kiêu, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Krisztina Tar, Pierre Flores, Zichuan Liu, Nathalie Peynot, Martine Chebrout, András Dinnyés, Véronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean
Changes to the spatial organization of specific chromatin domains such as constitutive heterochromatin have been studied extensively in somatic cells. During early embryonic development, drastic epigenetic reprogramming of both the maternal and paternal genomes, followed by chromatin remodeling at the time of embryonic genome activation (EGA), have been observed in the mouse. Very few studies have been performed in other mammalian species (human, bovine, or rabbit) and the data are far from complete. During this work, we studied the three-dimensional organization of pericentromeric regions during the preimplantation period in the rabbit using specific techniques (3D-FISH) and tools (semi-automated image analysis)...
April 18, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656322/p190rhogap-prevents-mitotic-spindle-fragmentation-and-is-required-to-activate-aurora-a-kinase-at-acentriolar-poles
#3
Arkadi Manukyan, Lilit Sargsyan, Sarah J Parsons, P Todd Stukenberg
Assembly of the mitotic spindle is essential for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Maintenance of spindle poles requires precise regulation of kinesin- and dynein-generated forces, and improper regulation of these forces disrupts pole integrity leading to pole fragmentation. The formation and function of the mitotic spindle are regulated by many proteins, including Aurora A kinase and the motor proteins Kif2a and Eg5. Here, we characterize a surprising role for the RhoA GTPase-activating protein, p190RhoGAP, in regulating the mitotic spindle...
April 14, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610944/imaging-the-dynamics-of-transcription-loops-in-living-chromosomes
#4
Garry T Morgan
When in the lampbrush configuration, chromosomes display thousands of visible DNA loops that are transcribed at exceptionally high rates by RNA polymerase II (pol II). These transcription loops provide unique opportunities to investigate not only the detailed architecture of pol II transcription sites but also the structural dynamics of chromosome looping, which is receiving fresh attention as the organizational principle underpinning the higher-order structure of all chromosome states. The approach described here allows for extended imaging of individual transcription loops and transcription units under conditions in which loop RNA synthesis continues...
April 3, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594515/the-response-to-dna-damage-in-heterochromatin-domains
#5
REVIEW
Anna Fortuny, Sophie E Polo
Eukaryotic genomes are organized into chromatin, divided into structurally and functionally distinct euchromatin and heterochromatin compartments. The high level of compaction and the abundance of repeated sequences in heterochromatin pose multiple challenges for the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have evolved sophisticated and highly controlled mechanisms to overcome these constraints. Here, we summarize recent findings on how the heterochromatic state influences DNA damage formation, signaling, and repair...
March 29, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582139/live-cell-analyses-of-synaptonemal-complex-dynamics-and-chromosome-movements-in-cultured-mouse-testis-tubules-and-embryonic-ovaries
#6
Andrea Enguita-Marruedo, Wiggert A Van Cappellen, Jos W Hoogerbrugge, Fabrizia Carofiglio, Evelyne Wassenaar, Johan A Slotman, Adriaan Houtsmuller, Willy M Baarends
During mammalian meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes connect through the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC). SYCP3 is a component of the lateral elements of the SC. We have generated transgenic mice expressing N- or C-terminal fluorescent-tagged SYCP3 (mCherry-SYCP3 (CSYCP) and SYCP3-mCherry (SYCPC)) to study SC dynamics and chromosome movements in vivo. Neither transgene rescued meiotic aberrations in Sycp3 knockouts, but CSYCP could form short axial element-like structures in the absence of endogenous SYCP3...
March 26, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569072/posttranslational-modifications-of-cenp-a-marks-of-distinction
#7
REVIEW
Shashank Srivastava, Daniel R Foltz
Centromeres are specialized chromosome domain that serve as the site for kinetochore assembly and microtubule attachment during cell division, to ensure proper segregation of chromosomes. In higher eukaryotes, the identity of active centromeres is marked by the presence of CENP-A (centromeric protein-A), a histone H3 variant. CENP-A forms a centromere-specific nucleosome that acts as a foundation for centromere assembly and function. The posttranslational modification (PTM) of histone proteins is a major mechanism regulating the function of chromatin...
March 22, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549528/high-throughput-analysis-of-satellite-dna-in-the-grasshopper-pyrgomorpha-conica-reveals-abundance-of-homologous-and-heterologous-higher-order-repeats
#8
Francisco J Ruiz-Ruano, Jesús Castillo-Martínez, Josefa Cabrero, Ricardo Gómez, Juan Pedro M Camacho, María Dolores López-León
Satellite DNA (satDNA) constitutes an important fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes, but it is barely known in most species. The high-throughput analysis of satDNA in the grasshopper Pyrgomorpha conica revealed 87 satDNA variants grouped into 76 different families, representing 9.4% of the genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the 38 most abundant satDNA families revealed four different patterns of chromosome distribution. Homology search between the 76 satDNA families showed the existence of 15 superfamilies, each including two or more families, with the most abundant superfamily representing more than 80% of all satDNA found in this species...
March 16, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520650/chromosome-painting-and-comparative-physical-mapping-of-the-sex-chromosomes-in-populus-tomentosa-and-populus-deltoides
#9
Haoyang Xin, Tao Zhang, Yonghua Han, Yufeng Wu, Jisen Shi, Mengli Xi, Jiming Jiang
Dioecious species accounted for 6% of all plant species, including a number of crops and economically important species, such as poplar. However, sex determination and sex chromosome evolution have been studied only in few dioecious species. In poplar, the sex-determining locus was mapped to chromosome 19. Interestingly, this locus was mapped to either a peritelomeric or a centromeric region among different poplar species. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting probe based on the sequence of chromosome 19 from Populus trichocarpa...
March 8, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376191/new-editor-in-chief-welcome-to-simon-boulton
#10
EDITORIAL
Erich A Nigg, Simon J Boulton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250704/telomere-chromatin-establishment-and-its-maintenance-during-mammalian-development
#11
REVIEW
Mathieu Tardat, Jérôme Déjardin
Telomeres are specialized structures that evolved to protect the end of linear chromosomes from the action of the cell DNA damage machinery. They are composed of tandem arrays of repeated DNA sequences with a specific heterochromatic organization. The length of telomeric repeats is dynamically regulated and can be affected by changes in the telomere chromatin structure. When telomeres are not properly controlled, the resulting chromosomal alterations can induce genomic instability and ultimately the development of human diseases, such as cancer...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230532/rna-mediated-transgenerational-inheritance-in-ciliates-and-plants
#12
REVIEW
Zachary T Neeb, Mariusz Nowacki
In the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and with the availability of whole sequenced genomes and epigenomes, some attention has shifted from purely sequence-based studies to those of heritable epigenetic modifications. Transgenerational inheritance can be defined as heritable changes to the state of DNA that may be passed on to subsequent generations without alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in many systems, studies of transgenerational inheritance in mammals and other higher-level eukaryotes may be complicated by the fact that many epigenetic marks are reprogrammed during sexual reproduction...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192338/evolutionary-trends-in-animal-ribosomal-dna-loci-introduction-to-a-new-online-database
#13
Jana Sochorová, Sònia Garcia, Francisco Gálvez, Radka Symonová, Aleš Kovařík
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci encoding 5S and 45S (18S-5.8S-28S) rRNAs are important components of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we set up the animal rDNA database containing cytogenetic information about these loci in 1343 animal species (264 families) collected from 542 publications. The data are based on in situ hybridisation studies (both radioactive and fluorescent) carried out in major groups of vertebrates (fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals) and invertebrates (mostly insects and mollusks). The database is accessible online at www...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151149/impact-of-xist-rna-on-chromatin-modifications-and-transcriptional-silencing-maintenance-at-different-stages-of-imprinted-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-vole-microtus-levis
#14
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124392/tracking-the-evolutionary-pathway-of-sex-chromosomes-among-fishes-characterizing-the-unique-xx-xy-1-y-2-system-in-hoplias-malabaricus-teleostei-characiformes
#15
Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Alexandr Sember, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Tariq Ezaz, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Terumi Hatanaka, Vladimir Trifonov, Thomas Liehr, Ahmed Basheer Hamid Al-Rikabi, Petr Ráb, Hugmar Pains, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
The Neotropical fish, Hoplias malabaricus, is one of the most cytogenetically studied fish taxon with seven distinct karyomorphs (A-G) comprising varying degrees of sex chromosome differentiation, ranging from homomorphic to highly differentiated simple and multiple sex chromosomes. Therefore, this fish offers a unique opportunity to track evolutionary mechanisms standing behind the sex chromosome evolution and differentiation. Here, we focused on a high-resolution cytogenetic characterization of the unique XX/XY1 Y2 multiple sex chromosome system found in one of its karyomorphs (G)...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079971/characterization-of-the-lamin-analogue-nmcp2-in-the-monocot-allium-cepa
#16
Malgorzata Ciska, Kiyoshi Masuda, Susana Moreno Díaz de la Espina
Nuclear lamina organization is similar in metazoan and plants though the latter lack orthologs of lamins, the main components of the metazoan lamina. Current evidence suggests that Nuclear Matrix Constituent Proteins (NMCPs) are the lamin analogues in plants as these proteins share several key features: higher-order secondary structure and domain layout, subnuclear distribution, and involvement in the regulation of nuclear shape and size, as well as in higher-order chromatin organization. Previously, we studied the NMCP family in flowering plants (angiosperms), in which it comprises two phylogenetic groups: NMCP1 and NMCP2...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975408/genome-wide-analysis-of-su-var-3-9-distribution-in-chromosomes-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Daniil A Maksimov, Petr P Laktionov, Olga V Posukh, Stepan N Belyakin, Dmitry E Koryakov
Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951974/new-high-copy-tandem-repeat-in-the-content-of-the-chicken-w-chromosome
#18
Aleksey S Komissarov, Svetlana A Galkina, Elena I Koshel, Maria M Kulak, Aleksander G Dyomin, Stephen J O'Brien, Elena R Gaginskaya, Alsu F Saifitdinova
The content of repetitive DNA in avian genomes is considerably less than in other investigated vertebrates. The first descriptions of tandem repeats were based on the results of routine biochemical and molecular biological experiments. Both satellite DNA and interspersed repetitive elements were annotated using library-based approach and de novo repeat identification in assembled genome. The development of deep-sequencing methods provides datasets of high quality without preassembly allowing one to annotate repetitive elements from unassembled part of genomes...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939920/interactions-between-btb-domain-of-cp190-and-two-adjacent-regions-in-su-hw-are-required-for-the-insulator-complex-formation
#19
Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Varvara Molodina, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
The best-studied Drosophila insulator complex consists of two BTB-containing proteins, the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 isoform and CP190, which are recruited cooperatively to chromatin through interactions with the DNA-binding architectural protein Su(Hw). While Mod(mdg4)-67.2 interacts only with Su(Hw), CP190 interacts with many other architectural proteins. In spite of the fact that CP190 is critical for the activity of Su(Hw) insulators, interaction between these proteins has not been studied yet. Therefore, we have performed a detailed analysis of domains involved in the interaction between the Su(Hw) and CP190...
March 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868580/quantitative-sequence-characterization-for-repetitive-dna-content-in-the-supernumerary-chromosome-of-the-migratory-locust
#20
Francisco J Ruiz-Ruano, Josefa Cabrero, María Dolores López-León, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Pedro M Camacho
Repetitive DNA is a major component in most eukaryotic genomes but is ignored in most genome sequencing projects. Here, we report the quantitative composition in repetitive DNA for a supernumerary (B) chromosome, in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), by Illumina sequencing of genomic DNA from B-carrying and B-lacking individuals and DNA obtained from a microdissected B chromosome, as well as the physical mapping of some elements. B chromosome DNA of 94.9% was repetitive, in high contrast with the 64...
March 2018: Chromosoma
journal
journal
25551
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"