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Chemical Reviews

Hong Wei, Deng Pan, Shunping Zhang, Zhipeng Li, Qiang Li, Ning Liu, Wenhui Wang, Hongxing Xu
Nanowires supporting propagating surface plasmons can function as nanowaveguides to realize the light guiding with field confinement beyond the diffraction limit, providing fundamental building blocks for nanophotonic integrated circuits. This review covers the recent developments of plasmon waveguiding in nanowires, mainly including plasmon waveguiding in metal nanowires, coupling of nanowire plasmons and emitters, hybrid nanowire waveguides and plasmonic gain, and nanowire photonic devices. We first introduce the main techniques for fabricating metal nanowires, the plasmon modes in metal nanowires and the excitation/detection methods...
February 15, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Giovanni Desimoni, Giuseppe Faita, Paolo Quadrelli
This review is focused on the enantioselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyran derivatives, whose importance as chiral building blocks in the synthesis of bioactive molecules and natural products is well established. The review analyzes the different synthetic strategies by grouping them as a function of the atom numbers of the reagents involved. Starting from the classical [4 + 2] and [2 + 4] approaches, the [3 + 3], [5 + 1], and [6] strategies have been sequentially analyzed, and for each of them, the asymmetry induced by both chiral metal complexes and different kinds of organocatalysts has been examined...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Deborah Huber, Ali Oskooei, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas, Andrew deMello, Govind V Kaigala
Hydrodynamic phenomena are ubiquitous in living organisms and can be used to manipulate cells or emulate physiological microenvironments experienced in vivo. Hydrodynamic effects influence multiple cellular properties and processes, including cell morphology, intracellular processes, cell-cell signaling cascades and reaction kinetics, and play an important role at the single-cell, multicellular, and organ level. Selected hydrodynamic effects can also be leveraged to control mechanical stresses, analyte transport, as well as local temperature within cellular microenvironments...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Rolf Gleiter, Gebhard Haberhauer, Daniel B Werz, Frank Rominger, Christian Bleiholder
This review considers noncovalent bonds between divalent chalcogen centers. In the first part we present X-ray data taken from the solid state structures of dimethyl- and diphenyl-dichalcogenides as well as oligoalkynes kept by alkyl-sulfur, -selenium, and -tellurium groups. Furthermore, we analyzed the solid state structures of medium sized (12-24 ring size) selenium coronands and medium to large rings with alkyne and alkene units between two chalcogen centers. The crystal structures of the cyclic structures revealed columnar stacks with close contacts between neighboring rings via noncovalent interactions between the chalcogen centers...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Su-Wen Hsu, Andrea L Rodarte, Madhura Som, Gaurav Arya, Andrea R Tao
Plasmonic nanostructures are extensively used building blocks for engineering optical materials and device architectures. Plasmonic nanocomposites (pNCs) are an emerging class of materials that integrate these nanostructures into hierarchical and often multifunctional systems. These pNCs can be highly customizable by modifying both the plasmonic and matrix components, as well as by controlling the nano- to macroscale morphology of the composite as a whole. Assembly at the nanoscale plays a particularly important role in the design of pNCs that exhibit complex or responsive optical function...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Michael L Pegis, Catherine F Wise, Daniel J Martin, James M Mayer
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a key component of biological processes and energy technologies. This Review provides a comprehensive report of soluble molecular catalysts and electrocatalysts for the ORR. The precise synthetic control and relative ease of mechanistic study for homogeneous molecular catalysts, as compared to heterogeneous materials or surface-adsorbed species, enables a detailed understanding of the individual steps of ORR catalysis. Thus, the Review places particular emphasis on ORR mechanism and thermodynamics...
February 6, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Ibraheem Ali, Ryan J Conrad, Eric Verdin, Melanie Ott
Post-translational acetylation of lysine residues has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism in all eukaryotic organisms. Originally discovered in 1963 as a unique modification of histones, acetylation marks are now found on thousands of nonhistone proteins located in virtually every cellular compartment. Here we summarize key findings in the field of protein acetylation over the past 20 years with a focus on recent discoveries in nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial compartments. Collectively, these findings have elevated protein acetylation as a major post-translational modification, underscoring its physiological relevance in gene regulation, cell signaling, metabolism, and disease...
February 6, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Ambarish Kulkarni, Samira Siahrostami, Anjli Patel, Jens K Nørskov
Despite the dedicated search for novel catalysts for fuel cell applications, the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of materials has not improved significantly over the past decade. Here, we review the role of theory in understanding the ORR mechanism and highlight the descriptor-based approaches that have been used to identify catalysts with increased activity. Specifically, by showing that the performance of the commonly studied materials (e.g., metals, alloys, carbons, etc.) is limited by unfavorable scaling relationships (for binding energies of reaction intermediates), we present a number of alternative strategies that may lead to the design and discovery of more promising materials for ORR...
February 6, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Andrew J Jasniewski, Lawrence Que
A growing subset of metalloenzymes activates dioxygen with nonheme diiron active sites to effect substrate oxidations that range from the hydroxylation of methane and the desaturation of fatty acids to the deformylation of fatty aldehydes to produce alkanes and the six-electron oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes in the biosynthesis of antibiotics. A common feature of their reaction mechanisms is the formation of O2 adducts that evolve into more reactive derivatives such as diiron(II,III)-superoxo, diiron(III)-peroxo, diiron(III,IV)-oxo, and diiron(IV)-oxo species, which carry out particular substrate oxidation tasks...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Ankit Agrawal, Shin Hum Cho, Omid Zandi, Sandeep Ghosh, Robert W Johns, Delia J Milliron
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) that results in resonant absorption, scattering, and near field enhancement around the NC can be tuned across a wide optical spectral range from visible to far-infrared by synthetically varying doping level, and post synthetically via chemical oxidation and reduction, photochemical control, and electrochemical control. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental electromagnetic dynamics governing light matter interaction in plasmonic semiconductor NCs and the realization of various distinctive physical properties made possible by the advancement of colloidal synthesis routes to such NCs...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta, Nicolás Campolo, Madia Trujillo, Silvina Bartesaghi, Sebastián Carballal, Natalia Romero, Beatriz Alvarez, Rafael Radi
Peroxynitrite is a short-lived and reactive biological oxidant formed from the diffusion-controlled reaction of the free radicals superoxide (O2•-) and nitric oxide (•NO). In this review, we first analyze the biochemical evidence for the formation of peroxynitrite in vivo and the reactions that lead to it. Then, we describe the principal reactions that peroxynitrite undergoes with biological targets and provide kinetic and mechanistic details. In these reactions, peroxynitrite has roles as (1) peroxide, (2) Lewis base, and (3) free radical generator...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Kenneth Yin Zhang, Qi Yu, Huanjie Wei, Shujuan Liu, Qiang Zhao, Wei Huang
In this Review article, we systematically summarize the design and applications of various kinds of long-lived emissive probes for bioimaging and biosensing via time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. The probes reviewed, including lanthanides, transition-metal complexes, organic dyes, carbon and silicon nanoparticles, metal clusters, and persistent phosphores, exhibit longer luminescence lifetimes than that of autofluorescence from biological tissue and organs. When these probes are internalized into living cells or animals, time-gated photoluminescence imaging selectively collects long-lived signals for intensity analysis, while photoluminescence lifetime imaging reports the decay details of each pixel...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Le Wang, Rong-Jun Xie, Takayuki Suehiro, Takashi Takeda, Naoto Hirosaki
Advances in solid state white lighting technologies witness the explosive development of phosphor materials (down-conversion luminescent materials). A large amount of evidence has demonstrated the revolutionary role of the emerging nitride phosphors in producing superior white light-emitting diodes for lighting and display applications. The structural and compositional versatility together with the unique local coordination environments enable nitride materials to have compelling luminescent properties such as abundant emission colors, controllable photoluminescence spectra, high conversion efficiency, and small thermal quenching/degradation...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Huilin Shao, Hyungsoon Im, Cesar M Castro, Xandra Breakefield, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are diverse, nanoscale membrane vesicles actively released by cells. Similar-sized vesicles can be further classified (e.g., exosomes, microvesicles) based on their biogenesis, size, and biophysical properties. Although initially thought to be cellular debris, and thus under-appreciated, EVs are now increasingly recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and circulating biomarkers for disease diagnoses and prognosis. Despite their clinical potential, the lack of sensitive preparatory and analytical technologies for EVs poses a barrier to clinical translation...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Andrew A Gewirth, Jason A Varnell, Angela M DiAscro
A comprehensive review of recent advances in the field of oxygen reduction electrocatalysis utilizing nonprecious metal (NPM) catalysts is presented. Progress in the synthesis and characterization of pyrolyzed catalysts, based primarily on the transition metals Fe and Co with sources of N and C, is summarized. Several synthetic strategies to improve the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. Recent work to explain the active-site structures and the ORR mechanism on pyrolyzed NPM catalysts is discussed...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Zhengyang Cai, Bilu Liu, Xiaolong Zou, Hui-Ming Cheng
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing research interest because of the abundant choice of materials with diverse and tunable electronic, optical, and chemical properties. Moreover, 2D material based heterostructures combining several individual 2D materials provide unique platforms to create an almost infinite number of materials and show exotic physical phenomena as well as new properties and applications. To achieve these high expectations, methods for the scalable preparation of 2D materials and 2D heterostructures of high quality and low cost must be developed...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Na Liu, Tim Liedl
The interaction between light and matter can be controlled efficiently by structuring materials at a length scale shorter than the wavelength of interest. With the goal to build optical devices that operate at the nanoscale, plasmonics has established itself as a discipline, where near-field effects of electromagnetic waves created in the vicinity of metallic surfaces can give rise to a variety of novel phenomena and fascinating applications. As research on plasmonics has emerged from the optics and solid-state communities, most laboratories employ top-down lithography to implement their nanophotonic designs...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Tianao Yuan, Nicole S Sampson
Current tuberculosis (TB) drug development efforts are not sufficient to end the global TB epidemic. Recent efforts have focused on the development of whole-cell screening assays because biochemical, target-based inhibitor screens during the last two decades have not delivered new TB drugs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, encounters diverse microenvironments and can be found in a variety of metabolic states in the human host. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of Mtb infection, no single model can fully recapitulate the in vivo conditions in which Mtb is found in TB patients, and there is no single "standard" screening condition to generate hit compounds for TB drug development...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Micheál D Scanlon, Evgeny Smirnov, T Jane Stockmann, Pekka Peljo
The functionality of liquid-liquid interfaces formed between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) can be markedly enhanced by modification with supramolecular assemblies or solid nanomaterials. The focus of this Review is recent progress involving ITIES modified with floating assemblies of gold nanoparticles or "nanofilms". Experimental methods to controllably modify liquid-liquid interfaces with gold nanofilms are detailed. Also, we outline an array of techniques to characterize these gold nanofilms in terms of their physiochemical properties (such as reflectivity, conductivity, catalytic activity, or plasmonic properties) and physical interfacial properties (for example, interparticle spacing and immersion depth at the interface)...
January 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Mengqi Zeng, Yao Xiao, Jinxin Liu, Kena Yang, Lei Fu
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous research interest since the breakthrough of graphene. Their unique optical, electronic, and mechanical properties hold great potential for harnessing them as key components in novel applications for electronics and optoelectronics. Their atomic thickness and exposed huge surface even make them highly designable and manipulable, leading to the extensive application potentials. What's more, after acquiring the qualification for being the candidate for next-generation devices, the assembly of 2D materials monomers into mass or ordered structure is also of great importance, which will determine their ultimate industrialization...
January 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
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