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Chemical Reviews

Harald Oberhofer, Karsten Reuter, Jochen Blumberger
The booming field of molecular electronics has fostered a surge of computational research on electronic properties of organic molecular solids. In particular, with respect to a microscopic understanding of transport and loss mechanisms, theoretical studies assume an ever-increasing role. Owing to the tremendous diversity of organic molecular materials, a great number of computational methods have been put forward to suit every possible charge transport regime, material, and need for accuracy. With this review article we aim at providing a compendium of the available methods, their theoretical foundations, and their ranges of validity...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Laure Konnert, Evelina Colacino
The review highlights the hydantoin syntheses presented from the point of view of the preparation methods. Novel synthetic routes to various hydantoin structures, the advances brought to the classical methods in the aim of producing more sustainable and environmentally friendly procedures for the preparation of these biomolecules, and a critical comparison of the different synthetic approaches developed in the last twelve years are also described. The review is composed of 95 schemes, 8 figures and 528 references for the last 12 years and includes the description of the hydantoin-based marketed drugs and clinical candidates...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Dominik K Kölmel, Eric T Kool
The formation of oximes and hydrazones is employed in numerous scientific fields as a simple and versatile conjugation strategy. This imine-forming reaction is applied in fields as diverse as polymer chemistry, biomaterials and hydrogels, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, organic synthesis, and chemical biology. Here we outline chemical developments in this field, with special focus on the past ∼10 years of developments. Recent strategies for installing reactive carbonyl groups and α-nucleophiles into biomolecules are described...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Bin Mao, Martín Fañanás-Mastral, Ben L Feringa
γ-Butenolides, γ-butyrolactones, and derivatives, especially in enantiomerically pure form, constitute the structural core of numerous natural products which display an impressive range of biological activities which are important for the development of novel physiological and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, optically active γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones serve also as a prominent class of chiral building blocks for the synthesis of diverse biological active compounds and complex molecules. Taking into account the varying biological activity profiles and wide-ranging structural diversity of the optically active γ-butenolide or γ-butyrolactone structure, the development of asymmetric synthetic strategies for assembling such challenging scaffolds has attracted major attention from synthetic chemists in the past decade...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Hong-Xia Wang, Mingqiang Li, Ciaran M Lee, Syandan Chakraborty, Hae-Won Kim, Gang Bao, Kam W Leong
Genome editing offers promising solutions to genetic disorders by editing DNA sequences or modulating gene expression. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology can be used to edit single or multiple genes in a wide variety of cell types and organisms in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we review the rapidly developing CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for disease modeling and gene correction and recent progress toward Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) delivery based on viral and nonviral vectors...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Hong Yi, Guoting Zhang, Huamin Wang, Zhiyuan Huang, Jue Wang, Atul K Singh, Aiwen Lei
Research and industrial interest in radical C-H activation/radical cross-coupling chemistry has continuously grown over the past few decades. These reactions offer fascinating and unconventional approaches toward connecting molecular fragments with high atom- and step-economy that are often complementary to traditional methods. Success in this area of research was made possible through the development of photocatalysis and first-row transition metal catalysis along with the use of peroxides as radical initiators...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
David J Heldebrant, Phillip K Koech, Vassiliki-Alexandra Glezakou, Roger Rousseau, Deepika Malhotra, David C Cantu
This review is designed to foster the discussion regarding the viability of postcombustion CO2 capture by water-lean solvents, by separating fact from fiction for both skeptics and advocates. We highlight the unique physical and thermodynamic properties of notable water-lean solvents, with a discussion of how such properties could translate to efficiency gains compared to aqueous amines. The scope of this review ranges from the purely fundamental molecular-level processes that govern solvent behavior to bench-scale testing, through process engineering and projections of process performance and cost...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Max M Gong, David Sinton
Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Erika M Milczek
The field of protein conjugation most commonly refers to the chemical, enzymatic, or chemoenzymatic formation of new covalent bonds between two polypeptides, or between a single polypeptide and a new molecule (polymer, small molecule, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, etc.). Due to the modest selectivity of chemical methods for protein conjugation, there are increased efforts to develop biocatalysts that confer regioselectivity for site-specific modification, thereby complementing the existing toolbox of chemical conjugation strategies...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Alejandro Gil, Fernando Albericio, Mercedes Álvarez
The Nozaki-Hiyama-Takai-Kishi (NHTK) reaction was discovered in the late 1970s and, since then, its main application has been its use in total synthesis. In this comprehensive review, the efficiency of the NHKT reaction in the synthesis of a great number of different scaffolds present in complex natural products is analyzed. The preparation of enol and allylic and propargylic alcohol motifs is discussed, highlighting factors such as yield, chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, or the importance of protecting groups...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Fan Hong, Fei Zhang, Yan Liu, Hao Yan
DNA has become one of the most extensively used molecular building blocks for engineering self-assembling materials. DNA origami is a technique that uses hundreds of short DNA oligonucleotides, called staple strands, to fold a long single-stranded DNA, which is called a scaffold strand, into various designer nanoscale architectures. DNA origami has dramatically improved the complexity and scalability of DNA nanostructures. Due to its high degree of customization and spatial addressability, DNA origami provides a versatile platform with which to engineer nanoscale structures and devices that can sense, compute, and actuate...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Tyler K Allred, Francesco Manoni, Patrick G Harran
This review examines the state of the art in synthesis as it relates to the building of complex architectures on scales sufficient to drive human drug trials. We focus on the relatively few instances in which a natural-product-based development candidate has been manufactured de novo, rather than semisynthetically. This summary provides a view of the strengths and weaknesses of current technologies, provides perspective on what one might consider a practical contribution, and hints at directions the field might take in the future...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Bagher Eftekhari-Sis, Maryam Zirak
α-Imino esters are useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of types of natural and unnatural α-amino acid derivatives, with a wide range of biological activities. Due to the adjacent ester group, α-imino esters are more reactive relative to other types of imines and undergo different kinds of reactions, including organometallics addition, metal catalyzed vinylation and alkynylation, aza-Henry, aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman, imino-ene, Mannich-type, and cycloaddition reactions, as well as hydrogenation and reduction...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Wenhu Zhou, Runjhun Saran, Juewen Liu
Metal ions are essential to many chemical, biological, and environmental processes. In the past two decades, many DNA-based metal sensors have emerged. While the main biological role of DNA is to store genetic information, its chemical structure is ideal for metal binding via both the phosphate backbone and nucleobases. DNA is highly stable, cost-effective, easy to modify, and amenable to combinatorial selection. Two main classes of functional DNA were developed for metal sensing: aptamers and DNAzymes. While a few metal binding aptamers are known, it is generally quite difficult to isolate such aptamers...
June 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Anatoly A Ischenko, Peter M Weber, R J Dwayne Miller
One of the grand challenges in chemistry has been to directly observe atomic motions during chemical processes. The depiction of the nuclear configurations in space-time to understand barrier crossing events has served as a unifying intellectual theme connecting the different disciplines of chemistry. This challenge has been cast as an imaging problem in which the technical issues reduce to achieving not only sufficient simultaneous space-time resolution but also brightness for sufficient image contrast to capture the atomic motions...
June 7, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Indranath Chakraborty, Thalappil Pradeep
Atomically precise pieces of matter of nanometer dimensions composed of noble metals are new categories of materials with many unusual properties. Over 100 molecules of this kind with formulas such as Au25(SR)18, Au38(SR)24, and Au102(SR)44 as well as Ag25(SR)18, Ag29(S2R)12, and Ag44(SR)30 (often with a few counterions to compensate charges) are known now. They can be made reproducibly with robust synthetic protocols, resulting in colored solutions, yielding powders or diffractable crystals. They are distinctly different from nanoparticles in their spectroscopic properties such as optical absorption and emission, showing well-defined features, just like molecules...
June 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Anas Ibn Yaich, Ulrica Edlund, Ann-Christine Albertsson
The family of hemicelluloses stands out as a very promising natural resource that can be utilized as a biobased materials feedstock. An in-depth understanding of the hemicellulose inherent structural and property features as well as the structure-property relationships induced by the specific supramolecular hierarchical organization of lignocellulosic biopolymers will be a key enabling technology in the emerging biorefinery sector. This Review aims to give a perspective on these issues and demonstrate how the transfer of molecular wood cell interactions into hemicellulose-based materials may offer new design principles for material formulations...
June 5, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Christopher R Shugrue, Scott J Miller
The application of small molecules as catalysts for the diversification of natural product scaffolds is reviewed. Specifically, principles that relate to the selectivity challenges intrinsic to complex molecular scaffolds are summarized. The synthesis of analogues of natural products by this approach is then described as a quintessential "late-stage functionalization" exercise wherein natural products serve as the lead scaffolds. Given the historical application of enzymatic catalysts to the site-selective alteration of complex molecules, the focus of this Review is on the recent studies of nonenzymatic catalysts...
June 5, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Matthew B Plutschack, Bartholomäus Pieber, Kerry Gilmore, Peter H Seeberger
Flow chemistry involves the use of channels or tubing to conduct a reaction in a continuous stream rather than in a flask. Flow equipment provides chemists with unique control over reaction parameters enhancing reactivity or in some cases enabling new reactions. This relatively young technology has received a remarkable amount of attention in the past decade with many reports on what can be done in flow. Until recently, however, the question, "Should we do this in flow?" has merely been an afterthought. This review introduces readers to the basic principles and fundamentals of flow chemistry and critically discusses recent flow chemistry accounts...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Steve P Meisburger, William C Thomas, Maxwell B Watkins, Nozomi Ando
X-ray scattering is uniquely suited to the study of disordered systems and thus has the potential to provide insight into dynamic processes where diffraction methods fail. In particular, while X-ray crystallography has been a staple of structural biology for more than half a century and will continue to remain so, a major limitation of this technique has been the lack of dynamic information. Solution X-ray scattering has become an invaluable tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biological macromolecules where large conformational changes are involved...
May 30, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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