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Chemical Reviews

I W Hamley
This review is aimed to provide a concise yet extensive survey of key short bioactive peptide sequences for a range of applications ranging from biomaterials development to peptides with therapeutic uses. The following are considered: cell adhesion motifs, structural peptides, cell-penetrating and tumor-homing peptides, antimicrobial peptides, peptide hormones, growth factors and matrix metalloprotease substrates, neuropeptides, amyloid peptides, antioxidant peptides, peptide affinity tags, anticancer peptides, and others...
December 11, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Jens Artz, Thomas E Müller, Katharina Thenert, Johanna Kleinekorte, Raoul Meys, André Sternberg, André Bardow, Walter Leitner
CO2 conversion covers a wide range of possible application areas from fuels to bulk and commodity chemicals and even to specialty products with biological activity such as pharmaceuticals. In the present review, we discuss selected examples in these areas in a combined analysis of the state-of-the-art of synthetic methodologies and processes with their life cycle assessment. Thereby, we attempted to assess the potential to reduce the environmental footprint in these application fields relative to the current petrochemical value chain...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yohei Okada, Kazuhiro Chiba
Explosive growth in the use of open shell reactivity, including neutral radicals and radical ions, in the field of synthetic organic chemistry has been observed in the past decade, particularly since the advent of ruthenium complexes in 2008. These complexes generally induce single-electron transfer (SET) processes via visible-light absorption. Additionally, recent significant advancements in organic electrochemistry involving SET processes to provide open shell reactivity offer a complementary method to traditional polarity-driven reactions described by two-electron transfer processes...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Taku Kitanosono, Koichiro Masuda, Pengyu Xu, Shu Kobayashi
Traditional organic synthesis relies heavily on organic solvents for a multitude of tasks, including dissolving the components and facilitating chemical reactions, because many reagents and reactive species are incompatible or immiscible with water. Given that they are used in vast quantities as compared to reactants, solvents have been the focus of environmental concerns. Along with reducing the environmental impact of organic synthesis, the use of water as a reaction medium also benefits chemical processes by simplifying operations, allowing mild reaction conditions, and sometimes delivering unforeseen reactivities and selectivities...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yueying Wu, Guoliang Li, Jon P Camden
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has demonstrated unprecedented power in the characterization of surface plasmons. The subangstrom spatial resolution achieved in EELS and its capability of exciting the full set of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes supported by a metallic nanostructure makes STEM/EELS an ideal tool in the study of LSPRs. The plasmonic properties characterized using EELS can be associated with geometric or structural features collected simultaneously in a STEM to achieve a deeper understanding of the plasmonic response...
December 7, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Damián Alvarez-Paggi, Luciana Hannibal, María A Castro, Santiago Oviedo-Rouco, Veronica Demicheli, Veronica Tórtora, Florencia Tomasina, Rafael Radi, Daniel H Murgida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Ira A Weinstock, Roy E Schreiber, Ronny Neumann
In this review article, we consider the use of molecular oxygen in reactions mediated by polyoxometalates. Polyoxometalates are anionic metal oxide clusters of a variety of structures that are soluble in liquid phases and therefore amenable to homogeneous catalytic transformations. Often, they are active for electron transfer oxidations of a myriad of substrates and upon reduction can be reoxidized by molecular oxygen. For example, the phosphovanadomolybdate, H5PV2Mo10O40, can oxidize Pd(0) thereby enabling aerobic reactions catalyzed by Pd and H5PV2Mo10O40...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yuchao Zhang, Shuai He, Wenxiao Guo, Yue Hu, Jiawei Huang, Justin R Mulcahy, Wei David Wei
Visible-light-driven photochemistry has continued to attract heightened interest due to its capacity to efficiently harvest solar energy and its potential to solve the global energy crisis. Plasmonic nanostructures boast broadly tunable optical properties coupled with catalytically active surfaces that offer a unique opportunity for solar photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface plasmons produces energetic hot electrons that can be collected to facilitate chemical reactions. This review sums up recent theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the underlying photophysical processes in hot electron generation and discusses various electron-transfer models on both plasmonic metal nanostructures and plasmonic metal/semiconductor heterostructures...
November 30, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Ignacio Colomer, Marina Velado, Roberto Fernández de la Pradilla, Alma Viso
The [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allylic sulfoxides to allylic sulfenates is a reversible process, generally shifted toward the sulfoxide. In the presence of thiophiles, the sulfenate is trapped, and allylic alcohols are obtained under mild conditions. In most cases, a good transfer of stereochemical information through an ordered transition state is obtained. Furthermore, the ease of coupling this process with other versatile, stereocontrolled reactions has enhanced the usefulness of this protocol. This review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of this rearrangement and its application in the synthesis of natural and bioactive products...
November 29, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Bernhard Lüscher, Mareike Bütepage, Laura Eckei, Sarah Krieg, Patricia Verheugd, Brian H Shilton
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein functions and interactions. ADP-ribosylation is a PTM, in which ADP-ribosyltransferases use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to modify target proteins with ADP-ribose. This modification can occur as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation. The latter involves the synthesis of long ADP-ribose chains that have specific properties due to the nature of the polymer. ADP-Ribosylation is reversed by hydrolases that cleave the glycosidic bonds either between ADP-ribose units or between the protein proximal ADP-ribose and a given amino acid side chain...
November 27, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Kate Lauder, Anita Toscani, Nicolò Scalacci, Daniele Castagnolo
Propargylamines are a versatile class of compounds which find broad application in many fields of chemistry. This review aims to describe the different strategies developed so far for the synthesis of propargylamines and their derivatives as well as to highlight their reactivity and use as building blocks in the synthesis of chemically relevant organic compounds. In the first part of the review, the different synthetic approaches to synthesize propargylamines, such as A(3) couplings and C-H functionalization of alkynes, have been described and organized on the basis of the catalysts employed in the syntheses...
November 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Alexander G Shtukenberg, Michael D Ward, Bart Kahr
Interactions of macromolecules with growing crystalline surfaces play an important role in biomineralization, determine survival of some organisms at low temperatures, and offer a range of potential industrial applications. The current understanding of crystal growth processes in the presence of macromolecules, including peptides and proteins, is reviewed, with a focus on interactions between macromolecules and surfaces of crystalline materials, macromolecule adsorption on different types of crystal surfaces, crystallization kinetics in the presence of macromolecular additives, macromolecule incorporation, and defect generation...
November 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Carter W Abney, Richard T Mayes, Tomonori Saito, Sheng Dai
More than 1000× uranium exists in the oceans than exists in terrestrial ores. With nuclear power generation expected to increase over the coming decades, access to this unconventional reserve is a matter of energy security. With origins in the mid-1950s, materials have been developed for the selective recovery of seawater uranium for more than six decades, with a renewed interest in particular since 2010. This review comprehensively surveys materials developed from 2000-2016 for recovery of seawater uranium, in particular including recent developments in inorganic materials; polymer adsorbents and related research pertaining to amidoxime; and nanostructured materials such as metal-organic frameworks, porous-organic polymers, and mesoporous carbons...
November 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
László T Mika, Edit Cséfalvay, Áron Németh
The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs)...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Katlyn K Meier, Stephen M Jones, Thijs Kaper, Henrik Hansson, Martijn J Koetsier, Saeid Karkehabadi, Edward I Solomon, Mats Sandgren, Bradley Kelemen
Natural carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and chitin provide renewable alternatives to fossil fuels as a source for fuels and materials. As such, there is considerable interest in their conversion for industrial purposes, which is evidenced by the established and emerging markets for products derived from these natural polymers. In many cases, this is achieved via industrial processes that use enzymes to break down carbohydrates to monomer sugars. One of the major challenges facing large-scale industrial applications utilizing natural carbohydrate polymers is rooted in the fact that naturally occurring forms of starch, cellulose, and chitin can have tightly packed organizations of polymer chains with low hydration levels, giving rise to crystalline structures that are highly recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Rainer Heintzmann, Thomas Huser
Super-resolved structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) is among the most rapidly growing fluorescence microscopy techniques that can surpass the optical diffraction limit. The strength of SR-SIM is that it can be readily applied to samples prepared for conventional fluorescence microscopy, requiring no sophisticated sample preparation protocols. As an extension of wide-field fluorescence microscopy, it is inherently capable of multicolor imaging and optical sectioning and, with sufficiently fast implementations, permits live cell imaging...
November 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Jacob W Smith, Richard J Saykally
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an electronic absorption technique for which the initial state is a deeply buried core level. The photon energies corresponding to such transitions are governed primarily by the binding energies of the initial state. Because the binding energies of core electrons vary significantly among atomic species, this makes XAS an element-selective spectroscopy. Proper interpretation of XA spectra can provide detailed information on the local chemical and geometric environment of the target atom...
November 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Matthew M Montemore, Matthijs A van Spronsen, Robert J Madix, Cynthia M Friend
The activation of O2 on metal surfaces is a critical process for heterogeneous catalysis and materials oxidation. Fundamental studies of well-defined metal surfaces using a variety of techniques have given crucial insight into the mechanisms, energetics, and dynamics of O2 adsorption and dissociation. Here, trends in the activation of O2 on transition metal surfaces are discussed, and various O2 adsorption states are described in terms of both electronic structure and geometry. The mechanism and dynamics of O2 dissociation are also reviewed, including the importance of the spin transition...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Milos R Filipovic, Jasmina Zivanovic, Beatriz Alvarez, Ruma Banerjee
Signaling by H2S is proposed to occur via persulfidation, a posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (RSH) to persulfides (RSSH). Persulfidation provides a framework for understanding the physiological and pharmacological effects of H2S. Due to the inherent instability of persulfides, their chemistry is understudied. In this review, we discuss the biologically relevant chemistry of H2S and the enzymatic routes for its production and oxidation. We cover the chemical biology of persulfides and the chemical probes for detecting them...
November 7, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Joseph T Grant, Juan M Venegas, William P McDermott, Ive Hermans
Heterogeneous metal oxide catalysts are widely studied for the aerobic oxidations of C1-C4 alkanes to form olefins and oxygenates. In this review, we outline the properties of supported metal oxides, mixed-metal oxides, and zeolites and detail their most common applications as catalysts for partial oxidations of light alkanes. By doing this we establish similarities between different classes of metal oxides and identify common themes in reaction mechanisms and research strategies for catalyst improvement. For example, almost all partial alkane oxidations, regardless of the metal oxide, follow Mars-van Krevelen reaction kinetics, which utilize lattice oxygen atoms to reoxidize the reduced metal centers while the gaseous O2 reactant replenishes these lattice oxygen vacancies...
November 7, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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