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Chemical Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819965/enzymes-involved-in-ampylation-and-deampylation
#1
Amanda K Casey, Kim Orth
Posttranslational modifications are covalent changes made to proteins that typically alter the function or location of the protein. AMPylation is an emerging posttranslational modification that involves the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to a protein. Like other, more well-studied posttranslational modifications, AMPylation is predicted to regulate the activity of the modified target proteins. However, the scope of this modification both in bacteria and in eukaryotes remains to be fully determined...
August 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816043/electronic-muscles-and-skins-a-review-of-soft-sensors-and-actuators
#2
Dustin Chen, Qibing Pei
This article reviews several classes of compliant materials that can be utilized to fabricate electronic muscles and skins. Different classes of materials range from compliant conductors, semiconductors, to dielectrics, all of which play a vital and cohesive role in the development of next generation electronics. This paper covers recent advances in the development of new materials, as well as the engineering of well-characterized materials for the repurposing in applications of flexible and stretchable electronics...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816037/catalytic-asymmetric-oxygenations-with-the-environmentally-benign-oxidants-h2o2-and-o2
#3
Konstantin P Bryliakov
The discovery of simple and efficient catalyst systems for the asymmetric oxofunctionalization of hydrocarbons is a challenging task of catalytic chemistry. In this paper, we give an overview of catalyst systems capable of conducting asymmetric oxygenative transformations of organic molecules and, in line with the major trend to sustainability, relying on green oxidants H2O2 and O2 as the ultimate oxygen source. The full historical period of asymmetric oxidation catalysis (1970 to the present day) is covered; both transition-metal-based and organocatalytic systems are considered...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805062/ultrafast-electron-dynamics-in-solar-energy-conversion
#4
Carlito S Ponseca, Pavel Chábera, Jens Uhlig, Petter Persson, Villy Sundström
Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted...
August 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792736/chemical-synthesis-of-oligosaccharides-related-to-the-cell-walls-of-plants-and-algae
#5
Christine Kinnaert, Mathilde Daugaard, Faranak Nami, Mads H Clausen
Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the glycans, to study processes such as cell wall biosynthesis, polysaccharide deposition, protein-carbohydrate interactions, and cell-cell adhesion. Synthetic chemists have focused on preparing such model compounds, as they can be produced in good quantities and with high purity...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777566/small-molecule-modulation-of-protein-homeostasis
#6
George M Burslem, Craig M Crews
Control of protein levels by nucleic-acid-based technologies has proven to be a useful research tool but lacks the advantages of small molecules with respect to cell permeability, temporal control, and the potential generation of therapeutics. In this Review, we discuss the technologies available for the control of intracellular protein levels with small molecules and compare the various systems available.
August 4, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777548/generation-and-detection-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-photocatalysis
#7
Yoshio Nosaka, Atsuko Y Nosaka
The detection methods and generation mechanisms of the intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., superoxide anion radical ((•)O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in photocatalysis, were surveyed comprehensively. Consequently, the major photocatalyst used in heterogeneous photocatalytic systems was found to be TiO2. However, besides TiO2 some representative photocatalysts were also involved in the discussion. Among the various issues we focused on the detection methods and generation reactions of ROS in the aqueous suspensions of photocatalysts...
August 4, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771328/directing-stem-cell-fate-the-synthetic-natural-product-connection
#8
Trevor C Johnson, Dionicio Siegel
Stem cells possess remarkable potential for the treatment of a broad array of diseases including many that lack therapeutic options. However, the use of cell-based products derived from stem cells as therapeutics has limitations including rejection, sufficient availability, and lack of appropriate engraftment. Chemical control of stem cells provides potential solutions for overcoming many of the current limitations in cell-based therapeutics. The development of exogenous molecules to control stem cell self-renewal or differentiation has arrived at natural product-based agents as an important class of modulators...
August 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771006/continuous-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-inorganic-nanoparticles-applications-and-future-directions
#9
Jawwad A Darr, Jingyi Zhang, Neel M Makwana, Xiaole Weng
Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Their unique and tunable size-dependent properties (in the range 1-100 nm) make these materials indispensable in many modern technological applications. In this Review, we summarize the state-of-art in the manufacture and applications of inorganic nanoparticles made using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) processes. First, we introduce ideal requirements of any flow process for nanoceramics production, outline different approaches to CHFS, and introduce the pertinent properties of supercritical water and issues around mixing in flow, to generate nanoparticles...
August 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752995/bioinspired-polymer-systems-with-stimuli-responsive-mechanical-properties
#10
Lucas Montero de Espinosa, Worarin Meesorn, Dafni Moatsou, Christoph Weder
Materials with switchable mechanical properties are widespread in living organisms and endow many species with traits that are essential for their survival. Many of the mechanically morphing materials systems found in nature are based on hierarchical structures, which are the basis for mechanical robustness and often also the key to responsive behavior. Many "operating principles" involve cascades of events that translate cues from the environment into changes of the overall structure and/or the connectivity of the constituting building blocks at various levels...
July 28, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737901/addition-and-correction-to-complete-field-guide-to-asymmetric-binol-phosphate-derived-br%C3%A3-nsted-acid-and-metal-catalysis-history-and-classification-by-mode-of-activation-br%C3%A3-nsted-acidity-hydrogen-bonding-ion-pairing-and-metal-phosphates
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737382/solid-state-plasmonic-solar-cells
#12
Kosei Ueno, Tomoya Oshikiri, Quan Sun, Xu Shi, Hiroaki Misawa
Metallic nanoparticles such as silver and gold show localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), which are associated with near-field enhancement effects in the vicinity of nanoparticles. Therefore, strong light-matter interaction is induced by the near-field enhancement effects of LSPRs. Because the resonant wavelength of LSPRs can be easily controlled by the size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range, LSPRs have received considerable attention as optical antennae for light energy conversion systems such as solar cells...
July 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714313/artificial-metalloenzymes-reaction-scope-and-optimization-strategies
#13
Fabian Schwizer, Yasunori Okamoto, Tillmann Heinisch, Yifan Gu, Michela M Pellizzoni, Vincent Lebrun, Raphael Reuter, Valentin Köhler, Jared C Lewis, Thomas R Ward
The incorporation of a synthetic, catalytically competent metallocofactor into a protein scaffold to generate an artificial metalloenzyme (ArM) has been explored since the late 1970's. Progress in the ensuing years was limited by the tools available for both organometallic synthesis and protein engineering. Advances in both of these areas, combined with increased appreciation of the potential benefits of combining attractive features of both homogeneous catalysis and enzymatic catalysis, led to a resurgence of interest in ArMs starting in the early 2000's...
July 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699750/chemistry-and-enzymology-of-disulfide-cross-linking-in-proteins
#14
Deborah Fass, Colin Thorpe
Cysteine thiols are among the most reactive functional groups in proteins, and their pairing in disulfide linkages is a common post-translational modification in proteins entering the secretory pathway. This modest amino acid alteration, the mere removal of a pair of hydrogen atoms from juxtaposed cysteine residues, contrasts with the substantial changes that characterize most other post-translational reactions. However, the wide variety of proteins that contain disulfides, the profound impact of cross-linking on the behavior of the protein polymer, the numerous and diverse players in intracellular pathways for disulfide formation, and the distinct biological settings in which disulfide bond formation can take place belie the simplicity of the process...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692268/photoinduced-structural-dynamics-of-molecular-systems-mapped-by-time-resolved-x-ray-methods
#15
Majed Chergui, Eric Collet
We review the tremendous advances in ultrafast X-ray science, over the past 15 years, making the best use of new ultrashort X-ray sources including table-top or large-scale facilities. Different complementary X-ray-based techniques, including spectroscopy, scattering, and diffraction, are presented. The broad and expanding spectrum of these techniques in the ultrafast time domain is delivering new insight into the dynamics of molecular systems, of solutions, of solids, and of biosystems. Probing the time evolution of the electronic and structural degrees of freedom of these systems on the time scales of femtosecond to picoseconds delivers new insight into our understanding of dynamical matter...
July 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682055/epitaxial-growth-of-two-dimensional-layered-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-growth-mechanism-controllability-and-scalability
#16
Henan Li, Ying Li, Areej Aljarb, Yumeng Shi, Lain-Jong Li
Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644621/recent-advances-in-the-synthesis-of-hydantoins-the-state-of-the-art-of-a-valuable-scaffold
#17
Laure Konnert, Evelina Colacino
The review highlights the hydantoin syntheses presented from the point of view of the preparation methods. Novel synthetic routes to various hydantoin structures, the advances brought to the classical methods in the aim of producing more sustainable and environmentally friendly procedures for the preparation of these biomolecules, and a critical comparison of the different synthetic approaches developed in the last twelve years are also described. The review is composed of 95 schemes, 8 figures and 528 references for the last 12 years and includes the description of the hydantoin-based marketed drugs and clinical candidates...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627171/commercial-applications-for-enzyme-mediated-protein-conjugation-new-developments-in-enzymatic-processes-to-deliver-functionalized-proteins-on-the-commercial-scale
#18
Erika M Milczek
The field of protein conjugation most commonly refers to the chemical, enzymatic, or chemoenzymatic formation of new covalent bonds between two polypeptides, or between a single polypeptide and a new molecule (polymer, small molecule, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, etc.). Due to the modest selectivity of chemical methods for protein conjugation, there are increased efforts to develop biocatalysts that confer regioselectivity for site-specific modification, thereby complementing the existing toolbox of chemical conjugation strategies...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605177/dna-origami-scaffolds-for-creating-higher-order-structures
#19
Fan Hong, Fei Zhang, Yan Liu, Hao Yan
DNA has become one of the most extensively used molecular building blocks for engineering self-assembling materials. DNA origami is a technique that uses hundreds of short DNA oligonucleotides, called staple strands, to fold a long single-stranded DNA, which is called a scaffold strand, into various designer nanoscale architectures. DNA origami has dramatically improved the complexity and scalability of DNA nanostructures. Due to its high degree of customization and spatial addressability, DNA origami provides a versatile platform with which to engineer nanoscale structures and devices that can sense, compute, and actuate...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603978/exploring-the-boundaries-of-practical-de-novo-syntheses-of-complex-natural-product-based-drug-candidates
#20
Tyler K Allred, Francesco Manoni, Patrick G Harran
This review examines the state of the art in synthesis as it relates to the building of complex architectures on scales sufficient to drive human drug trials. We focus on the relatively few instances in which a natural-product-based development candidate has been manufactured de novo, rather than semisynthetically. This summary provides a view of the strengths and weaknesses of current technologies, provides perspective on what one might consider a practical contribution, and hints at directions the field might take in the future...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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