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Chemical Reviews

Vinayak Agarwal, Zachary D Miles, Jaclyn M Winter, Alessandra S Eustáquio, Abrahim A El Gamal, Bradley S Moore
Naturally produced halogenated compounds are ubiquitous across all domains of life where they perform a multitude of biological functions and adopt a diversity of chemical structures. Accordingly, a diverse collection of enzyme catalysts to install and remove halogens from organic scaffolds has evolved in nature. Accounting for the different chemical properties of the four halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) and the diversity and chemical reactivity of their organic substrates, enzymes performing biosynthetic and degradative halogenation chemistry utilize numerous mechanistic strategies involving oxidation, reduction, and substitution...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Ramkrishna Adhikary, Jörg Zimmermann, Floyd E Romesberg
Vibrational spectroscopy provides a direct route to the physicochemical characterization of molecules. While both IR and Raman spectroscopy have been used for decades to provide detailed characterizations of small molecules, similar studies with proteins are largely precluded due to spectral congestion. However, the vibrational spectra of proteins do include a "transparent window", between ∼1800 and ∼2500 cm(-1), and progress is now being made to develop site-specifically incorporated carbon-deuterium (C-D), cyano (CN), thiocyanate (SCN), and azide (N3) "transparent window vibrational probes" that absorb within this window and report on their environment to facilitate the characterization of proteins with small molecule-like detail...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Misal Giuseppe Memeo, Paolo Quadrelli
The nitrosocarbonyls (R-CONO) are highly reactive species and remarkable intermediates toward different synthetic targets. This review will cover a research area whose impact in current organic synthesis is constantly increasing in the chemical community. This review represents the first and comprehensive picture on the generation and trapping of nitrosocarbonyls and is solidly built on more than 380 papers. Six different classes of key starting materials such as hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy carbamates, N-hydroxyureas, nitrile oxides, and 1,2,4-oxadiazole-4-oxides were highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Courtney E Elwell, Nicole L Gagnon, Benjamin D Neisen, Debanjan Dhar, Andrew D Spaeth, Gereon M Yee, William B Tolman
A longstanding research goal has been to understand the nature and role of copper-oxygen intermediates within copper-containing enzymes and abiological catalysts. Synthetic chemistry has played a pivotal role in highlighting the viability of proposed intermediates and expanding the library of known copper-oxygen cores. In addition to the number of new complexes that have been synthesized since the previous reviews on this topic in this journal (Mirica, L. M.; Ottenwaelder, X.; Stack, T. D. P. Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 1013-1046 and Lewis, E...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Xavier Bouju, Cristina Mattioli, Grégory Franc, Adeline Pujol, André Gourdon
This review aims at giving the readers the basic concepts needed to understand two-dimensional bimolecular organizations at the vacuum-solid interface. The first part describes and analyzes molecules-molecules and molecules-substrates interactions. The current limitations and needs in the understanding of these forces are also detailed. Then, a critical analysis of the past and recent advances in the field is presented by discussing most of the key papers describing bicomponents self-assembly on solid surface in an ultrahigh vacuum environment...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
K Vasanth Kumar, Kathrin Preuss, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso
Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Jiahui Kou, Chunhua Lu, Jian Wang, Yukai Chen, Zhongzi Xu, Rajender S Varma
Photocatalysis has been invariably considered as an unselective process (especially in water) for a fairly long period of time, and the investigation on selective photocatalysis has been largely neglected. In recent years, the field of selective photocatalysis is developing rapidly and now extended to several newer applications. This review focuses on the overall strategies which can improve the selectivity of photocatalysis encompassing a wide variety of photocatalysts, and modifications thereof, as well as the related vital processes of industrial significance such as reduction and oxidation of organics, inorganics, and CO2 transformation...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yudong Yang, Jingbo Lan, Jingsong You
Transition metal-mediated C-H bond activation and functionalization represent one of the most straightforward and powerful tools in modern organic synthetic chemistry. Bi(hetero)aryls are privileged π-conjugated structural cores in biologically active molecules, organic functional materials, ligands, and organic synthetic intermediates. The oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions between two (hetero)arenes through 2-fold C-H activation offer a valuable opportunity for rapid assembly of diverse bi(hetero)aryls and further exploitation of their applications in pharmaceutical and material sciences...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Rui Zhong, Anja C Lindhorst, Florian J Groche, Fritz E Kühn
Over the course of the past 15 years the success story of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds in organic, inorganic, and organometallic chemistry has been extended to another dimension. The immobilization of NHC compounds, undergoing continuous diversification, broadens their range of applications and leads to new solutions for challenges in catalytic and synthetic chemistry. This review intends to present a synthetic toolkit for the immobilization of NHC compounds, giving the reader an overview on synthetic techniques and strategies available in the literature...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Antoine Tardy, Julien Nicolas, Didier Gigmes, Catherine Lefay, Yohann Guillaneuf
Cyclic monomers bearing either vinyl or exomethylene groups have the ability to be polymerized through a radical pathway via a ring-opening mechanism (addition-fragmentation process), leading to the introduction of functionalities in the polymer backbone. Radical ring-opening polymerization (rROP) combines the advantages of both ring-opening polymerization and radical polymerization, that is the preparation of polymers bearing heteroatoms in the backbone but with the ease and robustness of a radical process...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Masayoshi Watanabe, Morgan L Thomas, Shiguo Zhang, Kazuhide Ueno, Tomohiro Yasuda, Kaoru Dokko
Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions and can be further defined as molten salts having melting points lower than 100 °C. One of the most important research areas for IL utilization is undoubtedly their energy application, especially for energy storage and conversion materials and devices, because there is a continuously increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. In this article, various application of ILs are reviewed by focusing on their use as electrolyte materials for Li/Na ion batteries, Li-sulfur batteries, Li-oxygen batteries, and nonhumidified fuel cells and as carbon precursors for electrode catalysts of fuel cells and electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Katherine A Willets, Andrew J Wilson, Vignesh Sundaresan, Padmanabh B Joshi
This review describes the growing partnership between super-resolution imaging and plasmonics, by describing the various ways in which the two topics mutually benefit one another to enhance our understanding of the nanoscale world. First, localization-based super-resolution imaging strategies, where molecules are modulated between emissive and nonemissive states and their emission localized, are applied to plasmonic nanoparticle substrates, revealing the hidden shape of the nanoparticles while also mapping local electromagnetic field enhancements and reactivity patterns on their surface...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Chong Cheng, Shuang Li, Arne Thomas, Nicholas A Kotov, Rainer Haag
Functional graphene nanomaterials (FGNs) are fast emerging materials with extremely unique physical and chemical properties and physiological ability to interfere and/or interact with bioorganisms; as a result, FGNs present manifold possibilities for diverse biological applications. Beyond their use in drug/gene delivery, phototherapy, and bioimaging, recent studies have revealed that FGNs can significantly promote interfacial biointeractions, in particular, with proteins, mammalian cells/stem cells, and microbials...
January 11, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Gabriele Fumagalli, Steven Stanton, John F Bower
In this review, synthetic and mechanistic aspects of key methodologies that exploit C-C single-bond cleavage of strained ring systems are highlighted. The focus is on transition-metal-catalyzed processes that are triggered by C-C bond activation and β-carbon elimination, with the review concentrating on developments from mid-2009 to mid-2016.
January 11, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Toru Kondo, Wei Jia Chen, Gabriela S Schlau-Cohen
Photosynthesis begins when a network of pigment-protein complexes captures solar energy and transports it to the reaction center, where charge separation occurs. When necessary (under low light conditions), photosynthetic organisms perform this energy transport and charge separation with near unity quantum efficiency. Remarkably, this high efficiency is maintained under physiological conditions, which include thermal fluctuations of the pigment-protein complexes and changing local environments. These conditions introduce multiple types of heterogeneity in the pigment-protein complexes, including structural heterogeneity, energetic heterogeneity, and functional heterogeneity...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Dong-Su Kim, Woo-Jin Park, Chul-Ho Jun
Transition-metal-catalyzed activation of C-H and C-C bonds is a challenging area in synthetic organic chemistry. Among various methods to accomplish these processes, the approach using metal-organic cooperative catalytic systems is one of the most promising. In this protocol, organic molecules as well as transition metals act as catalysts to bring about reactions, which proceed with high efficiencies and selectivities. Various metal-organic cooperative catalytic systems developed for C-H and C-C bond activation reactions are discussed in this review...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Ayanjeet Ghosh, Joshua S Ostrander, Martin T Zanni
Proteins exhibit structural fluctuations over decades of time scales. From the picosecond side chain motions to aggregates that form over the course of minutes, characterizing protein structure over these vast lengths of time is important to understanding their function. In the past 15 years, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) has been established as a versatile tool that can uniquely probe proteins structures on many time scales. In this review, we present some of the basic principles behind 2D IR and show how they have, and can, impact the field of protein biophysics...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Mireille Moutiez, Pascal Belin, Muriel Gondry
Aminoacyl-tRNAs were long thought to be involved solely in ribosome-dependent protein synthesis and essential primary metabolism processes, such as targeted protein degradation and peptidoglycan synthesis. About 10 years ago, an aminoacyl-tRNA-dependent enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic valanimycin was discovered in a Streptomyces strain. Far from being an isolated case, this discovery has been followed by the description of an increasing number of aminoacyl-tRNA-dependent enzymes involved in secondary metabolism...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yoonsu Park, Youyoung Kim, Sukbok Chang
Catalytic transformation of ubiquitous C-H bonds into valuable C-N bonds offers an efficient synthetic approach to construct N-functionalized molecules. Over the last few decades, transition metal catalysis has been repeatedly proven to be a powerful tool for the direct conversion of cheap hydrocarbons to synthetically versatile amino-containing compounds. This Review comprehensively highlights recent advances in intra- and intermolecular C-H amination reactions utilizing late transition metal-based catalysts...
January 4, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Robert H Crabtree
The different types of acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation (AAD) reactions are discussed, followed by the catalysts and mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is put on the common appearance in AAD of pincer ligands, of noninnocent ligands, and of outer sphere mechanisms. Early work emphasized precious metals, mainly Ru and Ir, but interest in nonprecious metal AAD catalysis is growing. Alcohol-amine combinations are discussed to the extent that net oxidation occurs by loss of H2. These reactions are of potential synthetic interest because they can lead to N heterocycles such as pyrroles and pyridines...
January 4, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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