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Chemical Reviews

Soji Shimizu
Subporphyrinato boron (subporphyrin) was elusive until the syntheses of tribenzosubporphine in 2006 and meso-aryl-substituted subporphyrin in 2007. These novel contracted analogues possess a 14π-electron conjugated system embedded in a bowl-shaped structure. They exhibit absorption and fluorescence in the UV/vis region and nonlinear optical properties due to their octupolar structures. The unique coordination geometry around the central boron atom in the structure of subporphyrin enabled investigation of rare boron species, such as borenium cations, boron hydrides, and boron peroxides...
October 25, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Maura Marinozzi, Fabrizio Pertusati, Michaela Serpi
The compounds characterized by the presence of a λ(5)-phosphorus functionality at the α-position with respect to the diazo moiety, here referred to as λ(5)-phosphorus-containing α-diazo compounds (PCDCs), represent a vast class of extremely versatile reagents in organic chemistry and are particularly useful in the preparation of phosphonate- and phosphinoxide-functionalized molecules. Indeed, thanks to the high reactivity of the diazo moiety, PCDCs can be induced to undergo a wide variety of chemical transformations...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jay A Labinger
Recent developments in C-H bond activation and functionalization by Pt complexes are surveyed. Topics include the following: fundamental mechanistic investigations of C-H activation; stoichiometric intra- and intermolecular C-H activation; reactions of dioxygen with Pt(II) complexes that may be relevant to substrate oxygenation; and both stoichiometric and catalytic formation of C-O, C-C, and C-B bonds via C-H activation. Current interests and trends are discussed, both in the context of historical work and to forecast future directions and opportunities for the field...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Tim Stauch, Andreas Dreuw
In quantum mechanochemistry, quantum chemical methods are used to describe molecules under the influence of an external force. The calculation of geometries, energies, transition states, reaction rates, and spectroscopic properties of molecules on the force-modified potential energy surfaces is the key to gain an in-depth understanding of mechanochemical processes at the molecular level. In this review, we present recent advances in the field of quantum mechanochemistry and introduce the quantum chemical methods used to calculate the properties of molecules under an external force...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Ruijie D Teo, Jae Youn Hwang, John Termini, Zeev Gross, Harry B Gray
Corroles are exceptionally promising platforms for the development of agents for simultaneous cancer-targeting imaging and therapy. Depending on the element chelated by the corrole, these theranostic agents may be tuned primarily for diagnostic or therapeutic function. Versatile synthetic methodologies allow for the preparation of amphipolar derivatives, which form stable noncovalent conjugates with targeting biomolecules. These conjugates can be engineered for imaging and targeting as well as therapeutic function within one theranostic assembly...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Atanu Acharya, Alexey M Bogdanov, Bella L Grigorenko, Ksenia B Bravaya, Alexander V Nemukhin, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Anna I Krylov
Photoinduced reactions play an important role in the photocycle of fluorescent proteins from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family. Among such processes are photoisomerization, photooxidation/photoreduction, breaking and making of covalent bonds, and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT). Many of these transformations are initiated by electron transfer (ET). The quantum yields of these processes vary significantly, from nearly 1 for ESPT to 10(-4)-10(-6) for ET. Importantly, even when quantum yields are relatively small, at the conditions of repeated illumination the overall effect is significant...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Eiji Yashima, Naoki Ousaka, Daisuke Taura, Kouhei Shimomura, Tomoyuki Ikai, Katsuhiro Maeda
In this review, we describe the recent advances in supramolecular helical assemblies formed from chiral and achiral small molecules, oligomers (foldamers), and helical and nonhelical polymers from the viewpoints of their formations with unique chiral phenomena, such as amplification of chirality during the dynamic helically assembled processes, properties, and specific functionalities, some of which have not been observed in or achieved by biological systems. In addition, a brief historical overview of the helical assemblies of small molecules and remarkable progress in the synthesis of single-stranded and multistranded helical foldamers and polymers, their properties, structures, and functions, mainly since 2009, will also be described...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Javier Miró, Carlos Del Pozo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Atanu Jana, Masatoshi Ishida, Jung Su Park, Steffen Bähring, Jan O Jeppesen, Jonathan L Sessler
After the epochal discovery of the "organic metal", namely, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) dyad in 1973, scientists have made efforts to derivatize TTF for constructing various supramolecular architectures to control the charge-transfer processes by adjusting the donor-acceptor strength of the dyads for numerous applications. The interesting inherent electronic donor properties of TTFs control the overall electrochemical properties of the supramolecular structures, leading to the construction of highly efficient optoelectronic materials, photovoltaic solar cells, organic field-effect transistors, and optical sensors...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Ivano Alessandri, John R Lombardi
Dielectrics represent a new frontier for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. They can serve as either a complement or an alternative to conventional, metal-based SERS, offering key advantages in terms of low invasiveness, reproducibility, versatility, and recyclability. In comparison to metals, dielectric systems and, in particular, semiconductors are characterized by a much greater variety of parameters and properties that can be tailored to achieve enhanced Raman scattering or related effects. Light-trapping and subwavelength-focusing capabilities, morphology-dependent resonances, control of band gap and stoichiometry, size-dependent plasmons and excitons, and charge transfer from semiconductors to molecules and vice versa are a few examples of the manifold opportunities associated with the use of semiconductors as SERS-active materials...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Ewa D Raczyńska, Jean-François Gal, Pierre-Charles Maria
Nitrogen bases containing one or more pushing amino-group(s) directly linked to a pulling cyano, imino, or phosphoimino group, as well as those in which the pushing and pulling moieties are separated by a conjugated spacer (C═X)n, where X is CH or N, display an exceptionally strong basicity. The n-π conjugation between the pushing and pulling groups in such systems lowers the basicity of the pushing amino-group(s) and increases the basicity of the pulling cyano, imino, or phosphoimino group. In the gas phase, most of the so-called push-pull nitrogen bases exhibit a very high basicity...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
David Polcari, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme, Janine Mauzeroll
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is an electroanalytical scanning probe technique capable of imaging substrate topography and local reactivity with high resolution. Since its inception in 1989, it has expanded into a wide variety of research areas including biology, corrosion, energy, kinetics, instrumental development, and surface modification. In the past 25 years, over 1800 peer-reviewed publications have focused on SECM, including several topical reviews. However, these reviews often omit key details, forcing readers to search the literature...
October 13, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Oksana Ostroverkhova
Organic (opto)electronic materials have received considerable attention due to their applications in thin-film-transistors, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, sensors, photorefractive devices, and many others. The technological promises include low cost of these materials and the possibility of their room-temperature deposition from solution on large-area and/or flexible substrates. The article reviews the current understanding of the physical mechanisms that determine the (opto)electronic properties of high-performance organic materials...
October 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Samson Afewerki, Armando Córdova
The cooperation and interplay between organic and metal catalyst systems is of utmost importance in nature and chemical synthesis. Here innovative and selective cooperative catalyst systems can be designed by combining two catalysts that complement rather than inhibit one another. This refined strategy can permit chemical transformations unmanageable by either of the catalysts alone. This review summarizes innovations and developments in selective organic synthesis that have used cooperative dual catalysis by combining simple aminocatalysts with metal catalysts...
October 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Gonzalo Prieto, Harun Tüysüz, Nicolas Duyckaerts, Johannes Knossalla, Guang-Hui Wang, Ferdi Schüth
Catalysis is at the core of almost every established and emerging chemical process and also plays a central role in the quest for novel technologies for the sustainable production and conversion of energy. Particularly since the early 2000s, a great surge of interest exists in the design and application of micro- and nanometer-sized materials with hollow interiors as solid catalysts. This review provides an updated and critical survey of the ever-expanding material architectures and applications of hollow structures in all branches of catalysis, including bio-, electro-, and photocatalysis...
October 7, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Satoru Hiroto, Yoshihiro Miyake, Hiroshi Shinokubo
This review focuses on the postfunctionalization of porphyrins and related compounds through catalytic and stoichiometric organometallic methodologies. The employment of organometallic reactions has become common in porphyrin synthesis. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are now standard techniques for constructing carbon-carbon bonds in porphyrin synthesis. In addition, iridium- or palladium-catalyzed direct C-H functionalization of porphyrins is emerging as an efficient way to install various substituents onto porphyrins...
October 6, 2016: Chemical Reviews
LePing Yu, Cameron Shearer, Joseph Shapter
Transparent conducting films (TCFs) are a critical component in many personal electronic devices. Transparent and conductive doped metal oxides are widely used in industry due to their excellent optoelectronic properties as well as the mature understanding of their production and handling. However, they are not compatible with future flexible electronics developments where large-scale production will likely involve roll-to-roll manufacturing. Recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes provide unique chemical, physical, and optoelectronic properties, making them an important alternative to doped metal oxides...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Björn Lüssem, Chang-Min Keum, Daniel Kasemann, Ben Naab, Zhenan Bao, Karl Leo
Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors...
October 4, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Timothy D Lash
Following immediately after the serendipitous discovery of N-confused porphyrins, remarkably diverse carbaporphyrinoid systems have been synthesized and investigated. By replacing a pyrrolic unit within the porphyrin framework with cyclopentadiene, indene, azulene, cycloheptatriene, or benzene, new families of porphyrin-like macrocycles were produced. True carbaporphyrins are fully aromatic structures, while benziporphyrins are essentially devoid of macrocyclic aromatic character, and azuliporphyrins fall midway between the two extremes...
September 22, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Naomi R Latorraca, A J Venkatakrishnan, Ron O Dror
The function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-which represent the largest class of both human membrane proteins and drug targets-depends critically on their ability to change shape, transitioning among distinct conformations. Determining the structural dynamics of GPCRs is thus essential both for understanding the physiology of these receptors and for the rational design of GPCR-targeted drugs. Here we review what is currently known about the flexibility and dynamics of GPCRs, as determined through crystallography, spectroscopy, and computer simulations...
September 13, 2016: Chemical Reviews
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