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Chemical Reviews

Eric C Greenwald, Sohum Mehta, Jin Zhang
Cellular signaling networks are the foundation which determines the fate and function of cells as they respond to various cues and stimuli. The discovery of fluorescent proteins over 25 years ago enabled the development of a diverse array of genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors that are capable of measuring the spatiotemporal dynamics of signal transduction pathways in live cells. In an effort to encapsulate the breadth over which fluorescent biosensors have expanded, we endeavored to assemble a comprehensive list of published engineered biosensors, and we discuss many of the molecular designs utilized in their development...
December 14, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Duo Wei, Christophe Darcel
The last two decades have seen an impressive improvement of the use of iron as a fascinating and valuable alternative transition metal in homogeneous catalysis in terms of sustainability and economy. It was efficiently used in catalytic organic synthetic transformations, which in particular include the reduction of unsaturated bonds. This review summarizes the fast development and the recent advances in selective reductions of olefins, alkynes, carbonyl and carboxylic derivatives, imines, and nitro compounds promoted by iron catalysts...
December 14, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Richard H Duncan Lyngdoh, Henry F Schaefer, R Bruce King
This survey of metal-metal (MM) bond distances in binuclear complexes of the first row 3d-block elements reviews experimental and computational research on a wide range of such systems. The metals surveyed are titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc, representing the only comprehensive presentation of such results to date. Factors impacting MM bond lengths that are discussed here include (a) the formal MM bond order, (b) size of the metal ion present in the bimetallic core (M2 ) n+ , (c) the metal oxidation state, (d) effects of ligand basicity, coordination mode and number, and (e) steric effects of bulky ligands...
December 13, 2018: Chemical Reviews
David W Christianson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Dario Formenti, Francesco Ferretti, Florian Korbinian Scharnagl, Matthias Beller
The reduction of nitro compounds to the corresponding amines is one of the most utilized catalytic processes in the fine and bulk chemical industry. The latest development of catalysts with cheap metals like Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu has led to their tremendous achievements over the last years prompting their greater application as "standard" catalysts. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts based on non-noble 3d-metals for the reduction of nitro compounds using various reductants...
December 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Christine F Markwalter, Andrew G Kantor, Carson P Moore, Kelly A Richardson, David W Wright
Infectious diseases claim millions of lives each year. Robust and accurate diagnostics are essential tools for identifying those who are at risk and in need of treatment in low-resource settings. Inorganic complexes and metal-based nanomaterials continue to drive the development of diagnostic platforms and strategies that enable infectious disease detection in low-resource settings. In this review, we highlight works from the past 20 years in which inorganic chemistry and nanotechnology were implemented in each of the core components that make up a diagnostic test...
December 4, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Teresa L Mako, Joan M Racicot, Mindy Levine
There is great need for stand-alone luminescence-based chemosensors that exemplify selectivity, sensitivity, and applicability and that overcome the challenges that arise from complex, real-world media. Discussed herein are recent developments toward these goals in the field of supramolecular luminescent chemosensors, including macrocycles, polymers, and nanomaterials. Specific focus is placed on the development of new macrocycle hosts since 2010, coupled with considerations of the underlying principles of supramolecular chemistry as well as analytes of interest and common luminophores...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Victoria Dimakos, Mark S Taylor
Methods for site-selective transformations of hydroxyl groups in carbohydrate derivatives are reviewed. The construction of oligosaccharides of defined connectivity hinges on such transformations, which are also needed for the preparation of modified or non-natural sugar derivatives, the installation of naturally occurring postglycosylation modifications, the selective labeling or conjugation of carbohydrate derivatives, and the preparation of therapeutic agents or research tools for glycobiology. The review begins with a discussion of intrinsic factors and processes that can influence selectivity in reactions of unprotected or partially protected carbohydrate derivatives, followed by a description of transformations that engage two OH groups in cyclic adducts (acetals, ketals, boronic esters, and related species)...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Yih Ching Ong, Saonli Roy, Philip C Andrews, Gilles Gasser
Many first-line treatments for neglected tropical diseases identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) are limited by one or more of the following: the development of drug resistance, toxicity, and side effects, lack of selectivity, narrow therapeutic indices, route of administration, and bioavailability. As such, there is an urgent need to develop viable alternatives to overcome these limitations. The following review provides an overview of all existing metal complexes studied and evaluates the status of these complexes on the respective disease of choice...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Shinji Yamada
The cation-π interaction is an attractive noncovalent interaction between a cation and a π system. Due to the stronger interaction energy than those of the other π interactions, such as π-π and CH-π interactions, the cation-π interaction has recently been recognized as a new tool for controlling the regio- and stereoselectivities in various types of organic reactions. This review attempts to cover a variety of organic reactions controlled by cation-π interactions, which includes not only recent examples but also those reported before the term "cation-π interaction" was defined in 1990...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Martin Winter, Brian Barnett, Kang Xu
This Review covers a sequence of key discoveries and technical achievements that eventually led to the birth of the lithium-ion battery. In doing so, it not only sheds light on the history with the advantage of contemporary hindsight but also provides insight and inspiration to aid in the ongoing quest for better batteries of the future. A detailed retrospective on ingenious designs, accidental discoveries, intentional breakthroughs, and deceiving misconceptions is given: from the discovery of the element lithium to its electrochemical synthesis; from intercalation host material development to the concept of dual-intercalation electrodes; and from the misunderstanding of intercalation behavior into graphite to the comprehension of interphases...
November 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Susana M M Lopes, Ana L Cardoso, Américo Lemos, Teresa M V D Pinho E Melo
This review aims to present the most recent contributions in the chemistry of nitrosoalkenes and azoalkenes, highlighting the chemical behavior that makes them important and versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. These are heterodienes used in the assembly of a variety of heterocyclic systems, spanning from five- to seven-membered heterocycles, as well as for the functionalization of heterocycles.
November 29, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Bernhard Englinger, Christine Pirker, Petra Heffeter, Alessio Terenzi, Christian R Kowol, Bernhard K Keppler, Walter Berger
The immune system deploys a multitude of innate and adaptive mechanisms not only to ward off pathogens but also to prevent malignant transformation ("immune surveillance"). Hence, a clinically apparent tumor already reflects selection for those malignant cell clones capable of evading immune recognition ("immune evasion"). Metal drugs, besides their well-investigated cytotoxic anticancer effects, massively interact with the cancer-immune interface and can reverse important aspects of immune evasion...
November 29, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Parthasarathy Gandeepan, Thomas Müller, Daniel Zell, Gianpiero Cera, Svenja Warratz, Lutz Ackermann
C-H activation has surfaced as an increasingly powerful tool for molecular sciences, with notable applications to material sciences, crop protection, drug discovery, and pharmaceutical industries, among others. Despite major advances, the vast majority of these C-H functionalizations required precious 4d or 5d transition metal catalysts. Given the cost-effective and sustainable nature of earth-abundant first row transition metals, the development of less toxic, inexpensive 3d metal catalysts for C-H activation has gained considerable recent momentum as a significantly more environmentally-benign and economically-attractive alternative...
November 27, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Alex Chao, Paul J Sieminski, Cedric P Owens, Celia W Goulding
The highly contagious disease tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which has been evolving drug resistance at an alarming rate. Like all human pathogens, Mtb requires iron for growth and virulence. Consequently, Mtb iron transport is an emerging drug target. However, the development of anti-TB drugs aimed at these metabolic pathways has been restricted by the dearth of information on Mtb iron acquisition. In this Review, we describe the multiple strategies utilized by Mtb to acquire ferric iron and heme iron...
November 26, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Torsten Irrgang, Rhett Kempe
The conservation of our element resources is a fundamental challenge of mankind. The development of alcohol refunctionalization reactions is a possible fossil carbon conservation strategy since alcohols can be obtained from indigestible and abundantly available biomass. The conservation of our rare noble metals, frequently used in key technologies such as catalysis, might be feasible by replacing them with highly abundant metals. The alkylation of amines by alcohols and related C-C coupling reactions are early examples of alcohol refunctionalization reactions...
November 20, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Caleb C Boyd, Rongrong Cheacharoen, Tomas Leijtens, Michael D McGehee
This review article examines the current state of understanding in how metal halide perovskite solar cells can degrade when exposed to moisture, oxygen, heat, light, mechanical stress, and reverse bias. It also highlights strategies for improving stability, such as tuning the composition of the perovskite, introducing hydrophobic coatings, replacing metal electrodes with carbon or transparent conducting oxides, and packaging. The article concludes with recommendations on how accelerated testing should be performed to rapidly develop solar cells that are both extraordinarily efficient and stable...
November 16, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Hui Li, Wei Shi, Jian Song, Hyun-June Jang, Jennifer Dailey, Junsheng Yu, Howard E Katz
The strong and controllable chemical sensitivity of organic semiconductors (OSCs) and the amplification capability of transistors in circuits make use of OSC-based field-effect transistors compelling for chemical sensors. Analytes detected and assayed range from few-atom gas-phase molecules that may have adverse health and security implications to biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) that may be markers for physiological processes and medical conditions. This review highlights recent progress in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) chemical sensors, emphasizing advances from the past 5 years and including aspects of OSC morphology and the role of adjacent dielectrics...
November 7, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Bejoy Thomas, Midhun C Raj, Athira K B, Rubiyah M H, Jithin Joy, Audrey Moores, Glenna L Drisko, Clément Sanchez
With increasing environmental and ecological concerns due to the use of petroleum-based chemicals and products, the synthesis of fine chemicals and functional materials from natural resources is of great public value. Nanocellulose may prove to be one of the most promising green materials of modern times due to its intrinsic properties, renewability, and abundance. In this review, we present nanocellulose-based materials from sourcing, synthesis, and surface modification of nanocellulose, to materials formation and applications...
November 7, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Yichao Huang, Mareike Margarete Wiedmann, Hiroaki Suga
The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of macrocycles, including macrocyclic peptides, as a promising yet underexploited class of de novo drug candidates. Both rational/computational design and in vitro display systems have contributed tremendously to the development of cyclic peptide binders of either traditional targets such as cell-surface receptors and enzymes or challenging targets such as protein-protein interaction surfaces. mRNA display, a key platform technology for the discovery of cyclic peptide ligands, has become one of the leading strategies that can generate natural-product-like macrocyclic peptide binders with antibody-like affinities...
November 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
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