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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Paula Carneiro, Ana Lapa, Bridgid Finn
It is well known that successful retrieval enhances subsequent adults' learning by promoting long-term retention. Recent research has also found benefits from unsuccessful retrieval, but the evidence is not as clear-cut when the participants are children. In this study, we employed a methodology based on guessing-the weak associate paradigm-to test whether children can learn from generated errors or whether errors are harmful for learning. We tested second- and third-grade children in Experiment 1 and tested preschool and kindergarten children in Experiment 2...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nathalie Goubet, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Daniel D McCall
We investigated the occurrence and underlying processes of odor-color associations in French and American 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 386) and adults (n = 137). Nine odorants were chosen according to their familiarity to either cultural group. Participants matched each odor with a color, gave hedonic and familiarity judgments, and identified each odor. By 6 years of age, children displayed culture-specific odor-color associations, but age differences were noted in the type of associations. Children and adults in both cultural groups shared common associations and formed associations that were unique to their environment, underscoring the importance of exposure learning in odor-color associations...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Yoojin Chae, Miranda Goodman, Gail S Goodman, Natalie Troxel, Kelly McWilliams, Ross A Thompson, Phillip R Shaver, Keith F Widaman
This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interviewed about what occurred during the event. Children's age and attachment security scores positively predicted correct information in free recall and accuracy in answering specific questions...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Andrea M Spruijt, Marielle C Dekker, Tim B Ziermans, Hanna Swaab
Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Leslie E Hodges, Şeyda Özçalışkan, Rebecca Williamson
Children produce iconic gestures conveying action information earlier than the ones conveying attribute information (Özçalışkan, Gentner, & Goldin-Meadow, 2014). In this study, we ask whether children's comprehension of iconic gestures follows a similar pattern, also with earlier comprehension of iconic gestures conveying action. Children, ages 2-4years, were presented with 12 minimally-informative speech+iconic gesture combinations, conveying either an action (e.g., open palm flapping as if bird flying) or an attribute (e...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gabrielle A Strouse, Georgene L Troseth, Katherine D O'Doherty, Megan M Saylor
Social cues are one way young children determine that a situation is pedagogical in nature-containing information to be learned and generalized. However, some social cues (e.g., contingent gaze and responsiveness) are missing from prerecorded video, a potential reason why toddlers' language learning from video can be inefficient compared with their learning directly from a person. This study explored two methods for supporting children's word learning from video by adding social-communicative cues. A sample of 88 30-month-olds began their participation with a video training phase...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Andrew T Rider, Antoine Coutrot, Elizabeth Pellicano, Steven C Dakin, Isabelle Mareschal
To make sense of the visual world, we need to move our eyes to focus regions of interest on the high-resolution fovea. Eye movements, therefore, give us a way to infer mechanisms of visual processing and attention allocation. Here, we examined age-related differences in visual processing by recording eye movements from 37 children (aged 6-14years) and 10 adults while viewing three 5-min dynamic video clips taken from child-friendly movies. The data were analyzed in two complementary ways: (a) gaze based and (b) content based...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Zhen Wu, Xiaohe Gao
Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jodi A Quas, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the utility of two interview instructions designed to overcome children's reluctance to disclose transgressions: eliciting a promise from children to tell the truth and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect "told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth"). The key questions were whether the instructions increased disclosure in response to recall questions and in response to recognition questions that were less or more explicit about transgressions and whether instructions were differentially effective with age...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Amy L Paine, Holly Pearce, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Leo M J de Sonneville, Dale F Hay
This study examined the influence of younger siblings on children's understanding of second-order false belief. In a representative community sample of firstborn children (N=229) with a mean age of 7years (SD=4.58), false belief was assessed during a home visit using an adaptation of a well-established second-order false belief narrative enacted with Playmobil figures. Children's responses were coded to establish performance on second-order false belief questions. When controlling for verbal IQ and age, the existence of a younger sibling predicted a twofold advantage in children's second-order false belief performance, yet this was the case only for firstborns who experienced the arrival of a sibling after their second birthday...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kiran Vanbinst, Eva Ceulemans, Lien Peters, Pol Ghesquière, Bert De Smedt
Although symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are key for learning arithmetic, their developmental trajectories remain unknown. Therefore, we delineated during the first 3years of primary education (5-8years of age) groups with distinguishable developmental trajectories of symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills using a model-based clustering approach. Three clusters were identified and were labeled as inaccurate, accurate but slow, and accurate and fast. The clusters did not differ in age, sex, socioeconomic status, or IQ...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Carina Giesen, Francesca Weissmann, Klaus Rothermund
It is often assumed that children show reduced or absent inhibition of distracting material due to pending cognitive maturation, although empirical findings do not provide strong support for the idea of an "inhibitory deficit" in children. Most of this evidence, however, is based on findings from the negative priming paradigm, which confounds distractor inhibition and episodic retrieval processes. To resolve this confound, we adopted a sequential distractor repetition paradigm of Giesen, Frings, and Rothermund (2012), which provides independent estimates of distractor inhibition and episodic retrieval processes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Thomas John, Alp Aslan
Providing a subset of previously studied items as a retrieval cue can both impair and improve recall of the remaining items. Here, we investigated the development of these two opposing effects of such part-list cuing in children. Using listwise directed forgetting to manipulate study context access, three child age groups (7-8, 9-11, and 13-14years) and young adults studied a list of items and, after study, were asked to either forget or continue remembering the list. After presentation of a second list, participants were tested on predefined target items from the original list in either the presence or absence of the list's remaining (nontarget) items serving as retrieval cues...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Holly Joseph, Kate Nation
From mid-childhood onward, children learn hundreds of new words every year incidentally through reading. Yet little is known about this process and the circumstances in which vocabulary acquisition is maximized. We examined whether encountering novel words in semantically diverse, rather than semantically uniform, contexts led to better learning. Children aged 10 and 11years read sentences containing novel words while their eye movements were monitored. Results showed a reduction in reading times over exposure for all children, but especially for those with good reading comprehension...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jamie Lingwood, Mark Blades, Emily K Farran, Yannick Courbois, Danielle Matthews
Wayfinding is the ability to learn and recall a route through an environment. Theories of wayfinding suggest that for children to learn a route successfully, they must have repeated experience of it, but in this experiment we investigated whether children could learn a route after only a single experience of the route. A total of 80 participants from the United Kingdom in four groups of 20 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were shown a route through a 12-turn maze in a virtual environment...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nina K Simms, Rebecca R Frausel, Lindsey E Richland
Analogical reasoning is the cognitive skill of drawing relationships between representations, often between prior knowledge and new representations, that allows for bootstrapping cognitive and language development. Analogical reasoning proficiency develops substantially during childhood, although the mechanisms underlying this development have been debated, with developing cognitive resources as one proposed mechanism. We explored the role of executive function (EF) in supporting children's analogical reasoning development, with the goal of determining whether predicted aspects of EF were related to analogical development at the level of individual differences...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sabine Doebel, John P Dickerson, Jerome D Hoover, Yuko Munakata
A key developmental transition is the ability to engage executive functions proactively in advance of needing them. We tested the potential role of linguistic processes in proactive control. Children completed a task in which they could proactively track a novel (target) shape on a screen as it moved unpredictably amid novel distractors and needed to identify where it disappeared. Children almost always remembered which shape to track, but those who learned familiar labels for the target shapes before the task had nearly twice the odds of tracking the target compared with those who received experience with the targets but no labels...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Georgia Panagiotaki, Michelle Hopkins, Gavin Nobes, Emma Ward, Debra Griffiths
This study explored the development of understanding of death in a sample of 4- to 11-year-old British children and adults (N=136). It also investigated four sets of possible influences on this development: parents' religion and spiritual beliefs, cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and experience of illness and death. Participants were interviewed using the "death concept" interview that explores understanding of the subcomponents of inevitability, universality, irreversibility, cessation, and causality of death...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Hannah White, Alyson Hock, Rachel Jubran, Alison Heck, Ramesh S Bhatt
This study addressed the development of attention to information that is socially relevant to adults by examining infants' (N=64) scanning patterns of male and female bodies. Infants exhibited systematic attention to regions associated with sex-related scanning by adults, with 3.5- and 6.5-month-olds looking longer at the torsos of females than of males and looking longer at the legs of males than of females. However, this pattern of looking was not found when infants were tested on headless bodies in Experiment 2, suggesting that infants' differential gaze pattern in Experiment 1 was not due to low-level stimulus features, such as clothing, and also indicating that facial/head information is necessary for infants to exhibit sex-specific scanning...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
James L Croft, Gert-Jan Pepping, Chris Button, Jia-Yi Chow
There are some concerns that children today may be less calibrated to their action capabilities because of the "risk-free" culture that has proliferated during recent decades. This study investigated the extent to which judgments of reaching affordances presented in different directions (i.e., overhead, diagonal, and horizontal) are related to children's climbing behavior on a climbing wall. A sample of 30 schoolchildren from 6 to 11years old (20 boys and 10 girls) estimated maximum reach and grasp distances and subsequently attempted to climb across an indoor climbing wall...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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