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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822296/developmental-changes-in-the-mental-transformation-of-spatial-arrays
#1
Christos S Michaelides, Marios N Avraamides
An experiment was conducted to investigate the spatial memory and transformation of spatial relations in a sample of 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds and to compare their performance with that of adults. Four pictures of animals were presented at different locations on the outline of a circle. Participants were instructed to memorize the array of locations and then, in a direct retrieval task, to reconstruct it from memory on a piece of paper that included only the circle outline. Then, in the transformation task, participants were asked to randomly place one of the animals at a new position around the circle and then to place the remaining three animals so that object-to-object locations were preserved...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822295/preschoolers-social-and-moral-judgments-of-third-party-helpers-and-hinderers-align-with-infants-social-evaluations
#2
Julia W Van de Vondervoort, J Kiley Hamlin
Two experiments explored preschoolers' social preferences and moral judgments of prosocial and antisocial others. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds (N=74) observed helping and hindering scenarios previously used to explore sociomoral evaluation in preverbal infants. Whereas 3-year-olds in Experiment 1 did not reliably distinguish between the helper and hinderer when reporting social preferences or moral judgments, both 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the helper, judged the helper to be "nicer" than the hinderer, selectively allocated punishment to the hinderer, and were able to justify their punishment allocations...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818286/adding-sound-to-theory-of-mind-comparing-children-s-development-of-mental-state-understanding-in-the-auditory-and-visual-realms
#3
Anita A Hasni, Lauren B Adamson, Rebecca A Williamson, Diana L Robins
Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810135/is-processing-of-symbols-and-words-influenced-by-writing-system-evidence-from-chinese-korean-english-and-greek
#4
Angeliki Altani, George K Georgiou, Ciping Deng, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Katerina Katopodi, Wei Wei, Athanassios Protopapas
We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810134/improvements-in-reading-accuracy-as-a-result-of-increased-interletter-spacing-are-not-specific-to-children-with-dyslexia
#5
Britt Hakvoort, Madelon van den Boer, Tineke Leenaars, Petra Bos, Jurgen Tijms
Recently, increased interletter spacing (LS) has been studied as a way to enhance reading fluency. It is suggested that increased LS improves reading performance, especially in poor readers. Theoretically, these findings are well substantiated as a result of diminished crowding effects. Empirically, however, findings on LS are inconclusive. In two experiments, we examined whether effects of increased LS are specific to children with dyslexia and whether increased LS affects word or sentence processing. In the first experiment, 30 children with dyslexia and 30 controls (mean age=9years 11months) read sentences in standard and increased LS conditions...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789771/developmental-changes-in-maternal-education-and-minimal-exposure-effects-on-vocabulary-in-english-and-spanish-learning-toddlers
#6
Margaret Friend, Stephanie DeAnda, Natalia Arias-Trejo, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783524/input-matters-speed-of-word-recognition-in-2-year-olds-exposed-to-multiple-accents
#7
Helen Buckler, Sara Oczak-Arsic, Nazia Siddiqui, Elizabeth K Johnson
Although studies investigating language abilities in young children exposed to more than one language have become common, there is still surprisingly little research examining language development in children exposed to more than one accent. Here, we report two looking-while-listening experiments examining the impact of routine home exposure to multiple accents on 2-year-olds' word recognition abilities. In Experiment 1, we found that monolingual English-learning 24-month-olds who routinely receive exposure to both Canadian English and a non-native variant of English are less efficient in their recognition of familiar words spoken in Canadian English than monolingual English-learning 24-month-olds who hear only Canadian English at home...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780490/the-unique-and-shared-contributions-of-arithmetic-operation-understanding-and-numerical-magnitude-representation-to-children-s-mathematics-achievement
#8
Terry Tin-Yau Wong
The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779700/children-s-agenda-based-regulation-the-effects-of-prior-performance-and-reward-on-elementary-school-children-s-study-choices
#9
Stacy Lipowski, Robert Ariel, Sarah K Tauber, John Dunlosky
The main goal of the current experiments was to examine the influence of monitoring and reward on elementary school children's study decisions. First and third graders studied names for 10 animals (e.g., "The elephant's name is Suzy") and then were given a cued recall test on which they were shown the animal and needed to recall the name. Next, they were given an opportunity to restudy the animal-name pairs, and some of these pairs were slated to earn a reward (a sticker) if correctly recalled. In Experiment 1, both groups of children were (a) more likely to restudy previously unrecalled pairs than previously recalled pairs and (b) more likely to restudy pairs that were slated to receive a reward...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779699/-i-know-something-you-don-t-know-discourse-and-social-context-effects-on-the-n400-in-adolescents
#10
Alexandra Westley, Zdenko KohĂșt, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer
Adolescence is a time of great cognitive and social development. Despite this, relatively few studies to date have investigated how perspective taking affects on-line language comprehension in adolescents. In the current study, we addressed this gap in the literature, making use of a Joint Comprehension Task in which two individuals with differing background knowledge jointly attend to linguistic stimuli. Using event-related potentials, we investigated adolescents' electrophysiological responses to (a) semantically anomalous sentence stimuli in discourse context and (b) semantically plausible sentence stimuli that the participants believe another individual finds semantically implausible...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779698/developmental-changes-in-feature-detection-across-time-evidence-from-the-attentional-blink
#11
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Brad Wyble
The ability to select targets from an ongoing stream of visual information is critical to the successful management of visual attention. The attentional blink (AB), a phenomenon elicited using rapid serial visual presentation, allows for the assessment of the limits of the temporal visual system, and is reflected in a decrease in accuracy in the detection of the second of two targets when it occurs within 200-500ms of a first target. Evidence regarding the development of the AB is mixed and appears to be dependent on the task demands...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772245/the-relationship-between-executive-functioning-and-language-examining-vocabulary-syntax-and-language-learning-in-preschoolers-attending-head-start
#12
Lisa J White, Alexandra Alexander, Daryl B Greenfield
Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759782/intergenerational-associations-in-executive-function-between-mothers-and-children-in-the-context-of-risk
#13
Matthew H Kim, Lisa Shimomaeda, Ryan J Giuliano, Elizabeth A Skowron
Executive functioning (EF) is critical for school readiness and other important life skills. Previous investigations have often neglected the important influence of parental EF skills in shaping their own children's EF. This study attempted to replicate recent empirical work that has shown that maternal EF is positively related to child EF. An ecological theoretical framework was used to examine the maternal EF-child EF link in family environments characterized by significant risk and socioeconomic adversity...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735681/young-children-will-lie-to-prevent-a-moral-transgression
#14
Teresa Harvey, Telli Davoodi, Peter R Blake
Children believe that it is wrong to tell lies, yet they are willing to lie prosocially to adhere to social norms and to protect a listener's feelings. However, it is not clear whether children will lie instrumentally to intervene on behalf of a third party when a moral transgression is likely to occur. In three studies (N=270), we investigated the conditions under which 5- to 8-year-olds would tell an "interventional lie" in order to misdirect one child who was seeking another child in a park. In Study 1, older children lied more when the seeker intended to steal a toy from another child than when the seeker intended to give cookies to the child...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716295/how-preschoolers-react-to-norm-violations-is-associated-with-culture
#15
Anja Gampe, Moritz M Daum
Children from the age of 3years understand social norms as such and enforce these norms in interactions with others. Differences in parental and institutional education across cultures make it likely that children receive divergent information about how to act in cases of norm violations. In the current study, we investigated whether cultural values are associated with the ways in which children react to norm violations. We tested 80 bicultural 3-year-olds with a norm enforcement paradigm and analyzed their reactions to norm violations...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712467/children-disassociate-from-antisocial-in-group-members
#16
Matti Wilks, Mark Nielsen
Extensive research has demonstrated that children show a robust in-group bias and, concurrently, are highly attuned to the prosocial and antisocial behavior of others. The limited research investigating the capacity for antisocial behavior to attenuate children's in-group bias has, however, returned mixed findings. Moreover, no research has examined how this might interact with perceived group permeability. Thus, the current study aimed to provide a more complete understanding of the relationship between in-group bias and antisocial behavior, how this interacts with perceptions of out-group behavior, and how group context (permeability) influences these responses...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687119/statistical-learning-of-speech-sounds-is-most-robust-during-the-period-of-perceptual-attunement
#17
Liquan Liu, René Kager
Although statistical learning has been shown to be a domain-general mechanism, its constraints, such as its interactions with perceptual development, are less well understood and discussed. This study is among the first to investigate the distributional learning of lexical pitch in non-tone-language-learning infants, exploring its interaction with language-specific perceptual attunement during the first 2years after birth. A total of 88 normally developing Dutch infants of 5, 11, and 14months were tested via a distributional learning paradigm and were familiarized on a unimodal or bimodal distribution of high-level versus high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648467/differentiating-could-from-should-developmental-changes-in-modal-cognition
#18
Andrew Shtulman, Jonathan Phillips
Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as "impossible." Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as "wrong." In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in modal cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647570/young-children-s-attributions-of-causal-power-to-novel-invisible-entities
#19
Jonathan D Lane, Patrick Shafto
In two studies, we investigated the development of children's reasoning about potent invisible entities. In Study 1, children aged 2.2-5.5years (N=48) were briefly told about a novel invisible substance that could produce a novel outcome-make a novel box turn green. During this introduction, children watched as one container was inverted over a box and the box lit up green, and then another identical container was inverted over the box and the box did not light up. On test trials, the experimenter inserted a spoon in novel (actually empty) containers and inverted the spoon over the box, which turned green in one trial and did not light up in the other trial...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645542/young-children-s-inclusion-decisions-in-moral-and-social-conventional-group-norm-contexts
#20
Michael T Rizzo, Shelby Cooley, Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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