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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Sonja J Ebel, Daniel Hanus, Josep Call
Low innovation rates have been found with children until 6-8 years of age in tasks that required them to make a tool. Little is known about how prior experience and task presentation influence innovation rates. In the current study, we investigated these aspects in the floating peanut task (FPT), which required children to pour water into a vertical tube to retrieve a peanut. In three experiments, we varied the amount of plants that 6-year-olds (N = 256) watered prior to the task (zero, one, or five plants), who watered the plants (child or experimenter), and the distance and salience of the water source...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ikumi Futamura, Yoshihiro Shima
We examined age-related differences in evaluating reciprocal prosocial behavior (e.g., helping someone who has helped you) and unilateral prosocial behavior (e.g., helping someone who has previously refused your request for help). Participants were kindergarteners, second and fifth graders, and undergraduate students (N = 110). We examined the trait evaluations of reciprocal and unilateral prosocial protagonists, behavior predictions of the participants in reciprocal and unilateral situations, and behavior predictions of others (including reciprocal and unilateral protagonists and others known to the participants) in reciprocal and unilateral prosocial situations...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sara A Schmitt, David J Purpura, James G Elicker
The primary aim of the current study was to identify the predictive relations of both vocabulary and mathematical language to executive functioning (EF) development using a sample of 558 preschool children (Mage  = 57.75 months, SD = 3.71). Monthly family income ranged from $0 to $5539 (M = $1508.18, SD = $892.92). Among the sample, 44% of the children were African American, 32% were Caucasian, 12% were Hispanic, 11% were multiracial, and 1% were Asian. Although the primary study goal was to examine the extent to which language predicted EF development, a secondary aim was to explore whether EF also predicted vocabulary and mathematical language development...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Julia M Rodriguez Buritica, Hauke R Heekeren, Wouter van den Bos
Advice taking helps one to quickly acquire knowledge and make decisions. This age-comparative study (in children [8- to 10-year-olds], adolescents [13- to 15-year-olds], and adults [18- to 22-year-olds]) investigated developmental differences in how advice, experience, and exploration influence learning. The results showed that adolescents were initially easily swayed to follow peer advice but also switched more rapidly to exploring alternatives like children. Whereas adults stayed with the advice over the task, adolescents put more weight on their own experience compared with adults...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Catherine J Mondloch, Ashley Gerada, Valentina Proietti, Nicole L Nelson
Adults' first impressions of others are influenced by subtle facial expressions; happy faces are perceived as high in trustworthiness, whereas angry faces are rated as low in trustworthiness and high in threat and dominance. Little is known about the influence of emotional expressions on children's first impressions. Here we examined the influence of subtle expressions of happiness, anger, and fear on children's implicit judgments of trustworthiness and dominance with the aim of providing novel insights about both the development of first impressions and whether children are able to utilize emotional expressions when making implicit, rather than explicit, judgments of traits...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Eva Commissaire, Lynne G Duncan, Séverine Casalis
This study aimed to investigate phonological activation during silent word reading in French adolescents learning English as a second language (L2) at secondary school. Grade 6 and Grade 8 adolescents performed lexical decision tasks in English, where we compared processing of nonwords that were homophonic to real L2 words (i.e., pseudohomophones [PsHs]; e.g., grean) with that of orthographic control pseudowords (OCs; e.g., greun). In Experiment 1, PsHs were constructed so that they sounded like L2 words when using cross-language (L1) grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) only (e...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sebastian Grueneisen, Michael Tomasello
Humans are frequently required to coordinate their actions in social dilemmas (e.g. when one of two drivers has to yield for the other at an intersection). This is commonly achieved by individuals following communally known rules that prescribe how people should behave. From relatively early in development, children swiftly pick up the rules of their culture and even start creating game rules among peers. Thus far, however, little is known about children's abilities create rules to regulate their own interactions in social dilemma situations in which individuals' interests are partially in conflict...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sanne B Geeraerts, Roy S Hessels, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Jorg Huijding, Joyce J Endendijk, Carlijn Van den Boomen, Chantal Kemner, Maja Deković
Given the importance of self-regulation for a broad range of developmental outcomes, identifying reliable precursors of self-regulation early in development is important for early prevention of developmental problems. The aim of this study was to examine whether three visual attention measures (fixation duration, variation in fixation duration, and disengagement) in infancy (9.10-11.43 months of age) predicted effortful control and compliance in toddlerhood (26.71-31.80 months). The sample consisted of 74 children (50% boys)...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ilse C van Wijk, Renske Huffmeijer, Jizzo R Bosdriesz, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Laura Kolijn, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Claudia I Vrijhof, Bianca G van den Bulk
Temperament has been suggested to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The current study examined genetic shared environmental and unique environmental factors accounting for variation in Fear, Effortful Control (EC), and Frontal Asymmetry (FA) in 4- to 6-year-old children using bivariate behavioral genetic modeling. We included a total of 214 same-sex twin pairs: 127 monozygotic (MZ) and 87 dizygotic (DZ) pairs. FA was measured during a rest electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, and Fear and EC were measured using parent report...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
The current study investigated the relation between children's (3- to 8-year-olds) cheating behaviors and their sociocognitive development, including theory-of-mind (ToM) understanding and social skills. A total of 295 children completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenter's absence (measure of cheating). Children completed first- and second-order ToM measures, and parents completed the Social Skills Improvement System (SSiS) Rating Scales questionnaire as an assessment of their children's social skills...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sydney P Rowles, Candice M Mills
Gathering good-quality information is important for effective learning, but children may often need to expend time or energy (i.e., costs) in order to do so. In this study, we examined how 4- and 5-year-olds (N = 91) gather information from others when one source of information comes at a cost. Children were given three types of question cards (doctor-related, mechanic-related, and neutral questions) and could assign each question to either a doctor or car mechanic puppet. One puppet (either the doctor or the car mechanic, counterbalanced) could be accessed immediately, but the other puppet required either waiting 30 s or completing a tedious sorting task first...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Pınar Aldan, Gaye Soley
A great body of evidence suggests that children are remarkably selective in accepting information from different sources. Yet, very few studies have focused on children's learning about the attributes of others. In three experiments, we examined how 6- and 7-year-olds' ingroup and outgroup biases about novel target individuals and their biases to follow ingroup informants interact in social learning contexts. Overall, children exhibited a positivity bias, accepting positive testimony about ingroup and outgroup targets, but this bias was significantly higher for ingroup targets...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Esther H H Keulers, Lisa M Jonkman
Mind wandering is associated with worse performance on cognitively demanding tasks, but this concept is largely unexplored in typically developing children and little is known about the relation between mind wandering and specific executive functions (EFs). This study aimed, first, to measure and compare children's mind wandering in controlled computerized tasks as well as in an educational setting and, second, to examine the association between mind wandering and the three core EFs, namely inhibition, working memory, and set shifting/switching...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Hannah Dunn, Nicky Bernstein, Maria Dolores de Hevia, Viola Macchi Cassia, Hermann Bulf, Koleen McCrink
When adding or subtracting quantities, adults tend to overestimate addition outcomes and underestimate subtraction outcomes. They also shift visuospatial attention to the right when adding and to the left when subtracting. These operational momentum phenomena are thought to reflect an underlying representation in which small magnitudes are associated with the left side of space and large magnitudes with the right side of space. Currently, there is limited research on operational momentum in early childhood or for operations other than addition and subtraction...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nicholas Tippenhauer, Megan M Saylor
The current study investigated the effects of context variability on 2.5-year-olds' (N = 48) fact and word learning. Children were taught labels or facts for novel objects that were presented on variable or consistent background contexts during training. At test, children were asked to select target items in a context that either matched training contexts or was entirely new. Children learned words at above-chance levels regardless of context variability, and there was no significant difference in learning between children in variable and consistent training conditions...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Xin Zhao, Junjun Fu, Joseph H R Maes
Prospective memory (PM) plays a crucial role in children's academic achievement and interpersonal relationships. However, there is a lack of studies exploring training and transfer effects of process-based PM training in healthy young adolescents. In the current study, 13- to 15-year-old children participated in an 8-day PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Transfer of training benefits was measured using other PM tasks (near transfer) and tasks measuring various aspects of executive function (EF) and general intelligence (far transfer)...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Burcu Sarı, Handan Asûde Başal, Zsofia K Takacs, Adriana G Bus
Experiments with film-like story presentations have been found to be beneficial in supporting children's story comprehension and word learning. The main goal of the current study was to disentangle the effects of visual and auditory enhancements in digital books. Participants were 99 typically developing children (41 boys and 58 girls) aged 4-6 years from two public kindergartens in Bursa, Turkey. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a control group and four experimental conditions that included all possible combinations: static illustrations with and without music/sounds and animated illustrations with and without music/sounds...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Eleonora Zuliani, Marcella Caputi, Simona Scaini, Claudio de'Sperati
Previous research has documented systematic biases when adult observers judge the original speed of real-life video clips. What does the unfolding of events in videos-an increasingly pervasive "substitute reality"-look like as children grow up? The current study investigated the sense of speed during childhood and the relation with a number of performance and personality indexes. A group of 142 children aged 6-10 years adjusted the speed of video clips representing various scenes until reaching the apparent right speed...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Esther Herrmann, Jan M Engelmann, Michael Tomasello
Humans cultivate their reputations as good cooperators, sometimes even competing with group mates, to appear most cooperative to individuals during the process of selecting partners. To investigate the ontogenetic origins of such "competitive altruism," we presented 5- and 8-year-old children with a dyadic sharing game in which both children simultaneously decided how many rewards to share with each other. The children were either observed by a third-person peer or not. In addition, the children either knew that one of them would be picked for a subsequent collaborative game or had no such knowledge...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Teresa McCormack, Eimear O'Connor, Jessica Cherry, Sarah R Beck, Aidan Feeney
Children (6- and 7-year-olds) decided whether to wait for a short delay to win a prize or for a longer period to win a different prize. Those who chose to take their prize after a short delay won two candies but were shown that they would have won four candies if they had waited longer. We measured whether children regretted their choice not to wait. The next day, children were faced with the same choice again. Children who regretted choosing the short delay on Day 1 were more likely to delay gratification on Day 2 than children who had not regretted their previous choice...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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