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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Jessica Bregant, Isabel Wellbery, Alex Shaw
Even early in development, children understand how rules work, and they harshly evaluate rule violators. Furthermore, we know that adults make nuanced evaluations about rule violations; in many situations, they believe that it can be acceptable to violate the technical language of a rule (the "letter of a rule") if doing so does not violate the reason why the rule was created (the "spirit of the rule"). Distinguishing between the letter and spirit of a rule is critical for a developed normative understanding...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Filip Smolík, Veronika Bláhová
Children acquiring Dutch, French, and Spanish can use gender of articles to facilitate the processing of upcoming nouns. The current study examined whether a similar effect can be found for bound gender-marking agreement morphemes in Czech, a language without obligatory articles. The experiment was designed so that the anticipatory effects of gender-marking morphemes before the head noun onset could be observed. In a preferential looking experiment, 33 children (aged 21-24 months) were shown picture pairs that could be labeled with masculine and feminine nouns...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Laura M Steacy, Donald L Compton
This study explored word reading accuracy and word learning efficiency in first- and second-grade students (N = 125). In two experiments, students participated in a short training exposing them to words that varied on orthographic regularity and imageability. In Experiment 1 the form of word feedback was manipulated (phonemic vs. whole word), whereas in Experiment 2 pretraining exposure was manipulated (training on meaning vs. imageability). Crossed random effects models were used to explore child- and item-level predictors related to number of exposures to mastery, posttest word reading performance, and maintenance performance after 1 week...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Katharina Lambert, Korbinian Moeller
Recent research has provided initial evidence that children with math difficulties (MD) experience problems in processing place-value information in basic numerical tasks. However, it remains unclear whether these problems generalize to basic arithmetic operations. For instance, multi-digit addition problems with carryover specifically require the computation of place-value information. Yet little is known about the carry effect in children with MD. Therefore, the current study investigated whether problems in processing place-value information among third-grade children with MD (n = 29 9-year-olds) compared with an age-matched control group (n = 50) generalize to two-digit addition...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gill Terrett, Katherine Horner, Roxanne White, Julie D Henry, Matthias Kliegel, Izelle Labuschagne, Peter G Rendell
Episodic future thinking (EFT), the ability to imagine experiencing a future event, and prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember and carry out a planned action, are core aspects of future-oriented cognition that have individually been the focus of research attention in the developmental literature. However, the relationship between EFT and PM, including the extent to which it varies with PM task type, remains poorly delineated, particularly in middle childhood. The current study tested this relationship in 62 typically developing children aged 8-12 years...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jan Lonnemann, Christian Müller, Gerhard Büttner, Marcus Hasselhorn
Nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are assumed to be fundamental to mathematical learning. Recent findings suggest that visual-spatial skills account for associations between children's performance in visually presented nonsymbolic numerical magnitude comparison tasks and their performance in visually presented arithmetic tasks. The aim of the current study was to examine whether associations between children's performance in visually presented tasks assessing nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing skills and their performance in tasks assessing early mathematical skills, which do not involve visual stimulation, may also be mediated by visual-spatial skills...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Christopher W Robinson, Vladimir M Sloutsky
There are occasions when infants and children have difficulty in processing arbitrary auditory-visual pairings, with auditory input sometimes attenuating visual processing (i.e., auditory dominance). The current research examined possible mechanisms underlying these auditory dominance effects in infants and 4-year-olds. Do auditory dominance effects stem from auditory input attenuating encoding of visual input, from the difficulty of inhibiting auditory-based responses, or from a combination of these factors? In five reported experiments, 4-year-olds (Experiments 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B) and 14- and 22-month-olds (Experiment 3) were presented with a variety of tasks that required simultaneous processing of auditory and visual input, and then we assessed memory for the visual items at test...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Markus Paulus, Monika Wörle
The current study examined whether young children conceive of language use as a normative practice. To this end, 3- and 5-year-old children learned how others used a novel word in either a direct-instruction or an overhearing context. Thereafter, they were presented with a protagonist who used the novel word to refer to either the same or another object. Children of both age groups selectively protested when the protagonist used the word to refer to another object, and older children selectively affirmed when the protagonist used the word to refer to the same object...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez, Silvana Schmandt, Judit Fazekas, Thierry Nazzi, Judit Gervain
Vowel harmony is a linguistic phenomenon whereby vowels within a word share one or several of their phonological features, constituting a nonadjacent, and thus challenging, dependency to learn. It can be found in a large number of agglutinating languages, such as Hungarian and Turkish, and it may apply both at the lexical level (i.e., within word stems) and at the morphological level (i.e., between stems and their affixes). Thus, it might affect both lexical and morphological development in infants whose native language has vowel harmony...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jacqueline S Leventon, Natalie A Merrill, Patricia J Bauer
Emotion is processed on multiple dimensions, both internal and external, and these dimensions interact over time and development. Socialization of emotion via parent-child conversations is well known to shape emotion processes, with greater parental elaboration supporting children's emotion knowledge, understanding, and regulation. However, it is unclear how the effects of socialization may extend to neural processing of emotion, which in turn relates to emotion behaviors. In this research, 28 school-age girls and their parents discussed recent emotional experiences (positive and negative), and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as the children viewed emotionally evocative picture stimuli...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Karina Hamamouche, Sara Cordes
Work with adult humans and nonhuman animals provides evidence that the processing of sub-second (<1 s) and supra-second (>1 s) durations are modulated via distinct cognitive and neural systems; however, few studies have explored the development of these separate systems. Moreover, recent research has identified a link between basic timing abilities and academic achievement, yet it is unclear whether sub-second and supra-second temporal processing may play independent roles in this relation. In the current study, we assessed the development of sub- and supra-second timing across middle childhood and examined how each ability may relate to academic achievement...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Anaïs F Stenson, Jacqueline S Leventon, Patricia J Bauer
Emotion typically enhances memory. This "canonical" emotional memory enhancement (EME) effect has been extensively studied in adults, but its developmental trajectory is unclear. The handful of developmental studies that have manipulated emotion at encoding and then tested subsequent memory have yielded mixed results. To identify whether development change in EME occurs across middle childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, we examined EME in 206 8- to 30-year-olds, using the same stimuli, paradigm, and analyses for all participants...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Giovanni Anobile, Roberto Arrighi, David C Burr
Small quantities of visual objects can be rapidly estimated without error, a phenomenon known as subitizing. Larger quantities can also be rapidly estimated, but with error, and the error rate predicts math abilities. This study addressed two issues: (a) whether subitizing generalizes over modalities and stimulus formats and (b) whether subitizing correlates with math abilities. We measured subitizing limits in primary school children and adults for visual and auditory stimuli presented either sequentially (sequences of flashes or sounds) or simultaneously (visual presentations, dot arrays)...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Fanny Gimbert, Valérie Camos, Edouard Gentaz, Karine Mazens
Many changes occur in general and specific cognitive abilities in children between 5 and 7 years of age, the period coinciding with entrance into formal schooling. The current study focused on the relative contributions of approximate number system (ANS) acuity, mapping precision between numeral symbols and their corresponding magnitude (mapping precision) and working memory (WM) capacity to mathematics achievement in 5- and 7-year-olds. Children's performance was examined in different tasks: nonsymbolic number comparison, number line estimation, working memory, mathematics achievement, and vocabulary...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Wejdan S Felmban, Paul A Klaczynski
Developmental reversals are counterintuitive age trends wherein age is negatively related to optimal responding. We addressed the claims that reversals in judgments and decisions are unlikely between late childhood and adolescence. Children and adolescents indicated the extent to which they endorsed stereotypes salient to adolescents, responded to problems in which base rate evidence conflicted with evidence based on anecdotal evidence (i.e., anecdotal problems) or stereotype-relevant evidence (i.e., stereotypical problems), and indicated the basis for their responses...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Megan G Lorenz, Jodie M Plumert
This investigation examined how prototypicality affects mother-child communication about relative proximity. In the first two experiments, mothers of 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.5-year-old children verbally disambiguated a target hiding container from an identical non-target hiding container when the two containers were placed at a smaller (more prototypical) or larger (less prototypical) distance from a landmark. Children then searched for the hidden object. When the absolute distance was smaller, mothers used more consistent frames of reference in their directions and even 2...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nadine Maussner, Martin J Tomasik, Reinhard Schuster, Thomas Ostermann
We aimed at showing that children are able to identify and draw a line of best fit through a cloud of points according to the concept of linear regression. A sample of 72 children in third and fourth primary school grades were given two different tasks. In a first task, 10 different sheets with three illustrations of the same scatterplot with different lines of regression to choose from were presented. In a second task, scatterplots were given and children were asked to draw a line of best fit with pencil and ruler...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kelsey Lucca, Makeba Parramore Wilbourn
Infants' pointing gestures are clear and salient markers of their interest. As a result, they afford infants with a targeted and precise way of eliciting information from others. The current study investigated whether, similar to older children's question asking, infants' pointing gestures are produced to obtain information. Specifically, in a single experimental study, we examined whether 18-month-olds (N = 36) point to request specific types of information and how this translates into learning across domains...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Francesco Sella, Daniela Lucangeli, Marco Zorzi
Spatial representation of numbers has been repeatedly associated with the development of numerical and mathematical skills. However, few studies have explored the contribution of spatial mapping to exact number representation in young children. Here we designed a novel task that allows a detailed analysis of direction, ordinality, and accuracy of spatial mapping. Preschool children, who were classified as competent counters (cardinal principle knowers), placed triplets of sequentially presented digits on the visual line...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sanne W van der Kleij, Margriet A Groen, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We investigated whether children with dyslexia show enhanced semantic involvement as compensation for deficient phonological processing during reading. Phonological and semantic processing during reading and moderating effects of word frequency and word length in children with and without dyslexia were examined using a picture-word priming paradigm. Participants were 61 children with dyslexia and 50 typical readers in Grade 6 of primary school. Primes were either semantically or phonologically (shared onset and rime) related or unrelated to their target word...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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