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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Yi-Chuan Chen, Terri L Lewis, David I Shore, Charles Spence, Daphne Maurer
A simultaneity judgment (SJ) task was used to measure the developmental trajectory of visuotactile simultaneity perception in children (aged 7, 9, 11, and 13 years) and adults. Participants were presented with a visual flash in the center of a computer monitor and a tap on their right index finger (located 20° below the flash) with 13 possible stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported whether the flash and tap were presented at the same time. Compared with the adult group, children aged 7 and 9 years made more simultaneous responses when the tap led by more than 300 ms and when the flash led by more than 200 ms, whereas they made fewer simultaneous responses at the 0 ms SOA...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Judith G Smetana, Courtney L Ball, Marc Jambon, Ha Na Yoo
The current study investigated associations between children's preferences and evaluations of moral and social-conventional transgressors in a novel puppet task and their links with explicit judgments in a standard interview. Children aged 2-3.25 years (M = 2.53 years, SD = 0.35) and 3.5-5 years (M = 4.38 years, SD = 0.52) watched two pairs of live puppet shows depicting actors committing a moral transgression and a conventional transgression and chose which transgressor they liked more, preferred more as a friend, thought was more wrong, and should get in more trouble; they also distributed resources to the transgressors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Amy Yamashiro, Athena Vouloumanos
Speech allows humans to communicate and to navigate the social world. By 12 months, infants recognize that speech elicits appropriate responses from others. However, it is unclear how infants process dynamic communicative scenes and how their processing abilities compare with those of adults. Do infants, like adults, process communicative events while the event is occurring or only after being presented with the outcome? We examined 12-month-olds' and adults' eye movements as they watched a Communicator grasp one (target) of two objects...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sarah Eilers, Simon P Tiffin-Richards, Sascha Schroeder
In two eye tracking experiments, we tested fourth graders' and adults' sensitivity to gender feature mismatches during reading of pronouns and their susceptibility to interference of feature-matching entities in the sentence. In Experiment 1, we showed children and adults two-phrase sentences such as "Leon{m}/Lisa{f} shooed away the sparrow{m}/the seagull{f} and then he{m} ate the tasty sandwich." Eye tracking measures showed no qualitative differences between children's and adults' processing of the pronouns...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Fen Tang, Haomin Zhou, Hao Zhang, Lei Zhu
Systematic evidence demonstrates that power is mentally represented as vertical space by adults. However, little is known about the developmental progress of such representation. Using the explicit power evaluation task, this study investigated the development of the spatial representation of power. Participants were Chinese children (5-7 years old) and adults. The results revealed that vertical motor responses interfered with responding for all age groups; that is, they responded to words representing powerless groups faster with the down cursor key than with the up cursor key (and vice versa for powerful groups)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gökhan Gönül, Ece Kamer Takmaz, Annette Hohenberger, Michael Corballis
During the last decade, the ontogeny of tool making has received growing attention in the literature on tool-related behaviors. However, the cognitive demands underlying tool making are still not clearly understood. In this cross-sectional study of 52 Turkish preschool children from 3 to 6 years of age, the roles of executive function (response inhibition), ability to form hierarchical representations (hierarchical structuring), and social learning were investigated with the hook task previously used with children and animals...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jason A French, David Menendez, Patricia A Herrmann, E Margaret Evans, Karl S Rosengren
We investigated children's (n = 120; 3- to 11-year-olds) and adults' (n = 18) reasoning about life-cycle changes in biological organisms by examining their endorsements of four different patterns of life-span changes. Participants were presented with two separate tasks: (a) judging possible adult versions of a juvenile animal and (b) judging possible juvenile versions of an adult animal. The stimuli enabled us to examine the endorsement of four different patterns of change: identical growth, natural growth, dramatic change, and speciation...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nele Lensing, Birgit Elsner
Although middle childhood is an important period for the development of hot and cool executive functions (EFs), longitudinal studies investigating trajectories of childhood EF development are still limited and little is known about predictors for individual developmental trajectories. The current study examined the development of two typical facets of cool and hot EFs over a 3-year period during middle childhood, comparing younger (6- and 7-year-olds at the first wave [T1]; n = 621) and older (8- and 9-year-olds at T1; n = 975) cohort of children...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Claire Goriot, Mirjam Broersma, James M McQueen, Sharon Unsworth, Roeland van Hout
This study investigated whether relative lexical proficiency in Dutch and English in child second language (L2) learners is related to executive functioning. Participants were Dutch primary school pupils of three different age groups (4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 years) who either were enrolled in an early-English schooling program or were age-matched controls not on that early-English program. Participants performed tasks that measured switching, inhibition, and working memory. Early-English program pupils had greater knowledge of English vocabulary and more balanced Dutch-English lexicons...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nicholas E Fears, Jeffrey J Lockman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Chris A Lawson
Two experiments examined the extent to which category status influences children's attention to the composition of evidence samples provided by different informants. Children were told about two informants, each of whom presented different samples of evidence, and then were asked to judge which informant they would trust to help them learn something new. The composition of evidence samples was manipulated such that one sample included either a large number (n = 5) or a diverse range of exemplars relative to the other sample, which included either a small number (n = 2) or a homogeneous range of exemplars...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Claire-Sara Krakowski, Grégoire Borst, Julie Vidal, Olivier Houdé, Nicolas Poirel
Visual environments are composed of global shapes and local details that compete for attentional resources. In adults, the global level is processed more rapidly than the local level, and global information must be inhibited in order to process local information when the local information and global information are in conflict. Compared with adults, children present less of a bias toward global visual information and appear to be more sensitive to the density of local elements that constitute the global level...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Michael J Sulik, Jelena Obradović
We developed a novel, vignette-based ranking procedure to simultaneously collect teacher-reported executive function (EF) data for all students in a classroom. This ranking measure is an improvement over existing Likert-type rating scales because it can be completed more quickly and with comparatively little effort by teachers. Data for this validation study were drawn from a large, school-based study of third, fourth, and fifth graders (N = 813 from 33 classrooms in eight schools) in which ranking data and direct assessments of EF were collected...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Elizabeth A Gunderson, M Brent Donnellan, Richard W Robins, Kali H Trzesniewski
Individuals who believe that intelligence can be improved with effort (an incremental theory of intelligence) and who approach challenges with the goal of improving their understanding (a learning goal) tend to have higher academic achievement. Furthermore, parent praise is associated with children's incremental theories and learning goals. However, the influences of parental criticism, as well as different forms of praise and criticism (e.g., process vs. person), have received less attention. We examine these associations by analyzing two existing datasets (Study 1: N = 317 first to eighth graders; Study 2: N = 282 fifth and eighth graders)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kathryn J O'Toole, Kathleen N Kannass
Young children learn from traditional print books, but there has been no direct comparison of their learning from print books and tablet e-books while controlling for narration source. The current project used a between-subjects design and examined how 4-year-olds (N = 100) learned words and story content from a print book read aloud by a live adult, a print book narrated by an audio device, an e-book read aloud by a live adult, and an e-book narrated by an audio device. Attention to the book and prior experience with tablet e-books were also measured and included in analyses...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jellie Sierksma
Studies show that children are often inclined to help less when the costs of helping increase. However, these studies do not take into account who children are helping. Yet, developmental intergroup research has shown that the intergroup context influences children's reasoning about helping behavior. Two experimental vignette studies are presented that examined the influence of the costs of helping on children's (8-13 years) intention to help in an ethnic intergroup context. Study 1 (N = 320) showed that the costs of helping reduce children's willingness to help ethnic out-group peers but do not influence children's intention to help ethnic in-group peers...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Eva Commissaire, Anne-Sophie Besse, Elisabeth Demont, Séverine Casalis
This study aimed to investigate grapheme coding during silent word reading in French developing readers from Grades 3 and 5. Children performed a letter detection task in which three conditions were used; the letter to detect was (a) presented as a single-letter grapheme (simple condition; A in phare), (b) embedded within a multi-letter grapheme that is considered as a unit or not depending on context (weakly cohesive complex condition; A in chant where "an" is a unit but not in other words such as cane), or (c) embedded within a multi-letter grapheme that is systematically considered as a unit (highly cohesive complex condition; A in chaud)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Leher Singh, Charlene S L Fu, Xian Hui Seet, Ashley P Y Tong, Joelle L Wang, Catherine T Best
Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Candace L Rhoads, Patricia H Miller, Gina O Jaeger
This study addressed the causal direction of a previously reported relation between preschoolers' gesturing and their executive functioning on the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) sorting-switch task. Gesturing the relevant dimension for sorting was induced in a Gesture group through instructions, imitation, and prompts. In contrast, the Control group was instructed to "think hard" when sorting. Preschoolers (N = 50) performed two DCCS tasks: (a) sort by size and then spatial orientation of two objects and (b) sort by shape and then proximity of the two objects...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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