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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716295/how-preschoolers-react-to-norm-violations-is-associated-with-culture
#1
Anja Gampe, Moritz M Daum
Children from the age of 3years understand social norms as such and enforce these norms in interactions with others. Differences in parental and institutional education across cultures make it likely that children receive divergent information about how to act in cases of norm violations. In the current study, we investigated whether cultural values are associated with the ways in which children react to norm violations. We tested 80 bicultural 3-year-olds with a norm enforcement paradigm and analyzed their reactions to norm violations...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712468/the-impact-of-counter-perceptual-testimony-on-children-s-categorization-after-a-delay
#2
Samuel Ronfard, Jonathan D Lane, Muanjing Wang, Paul L Harris
When preschoolers are presented with a label for an entity that conflicts with its appearance, they sometimes rely on the new label rather than on the entity's appearance to categorize the entity and to infer its properties. We examined whether children's learning from such claims is short-lived or long-lasting and whether the persistence of their learning depends on the degree of fit between those claims and the available perceptual evidence. Children aged 3-5years (N=71) were asked to categorize hybrids. These hybrids combined 75% of the features from one animal or object with 25% of the features from a different animal or object...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712467/children-disassociate-from-antisocial-in-group-members
#3
Matti Wilks, Mark Nielsen
Extensive research has demonstrated that children show a robust in-group bias and, concurrently, are highly attuned to the prosocial and antisocial behavior of others. The limited research investigating the capacity for antisocial behavior to attenuate children's in-group bias has, however, returned mixed findings. Moreover, no research has examined how this might interact with perceived group permeability. Thus, the current study aimed to provide a more complete understanding of the relationship between in-group bias and antisocial behavior, how this interacts with perceptions of out-group behavior, and how group context (permeability) influences these responses...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705552/an-integrative-data-analysis-of-gender-differences-in-children-s-understanding-of-mathematical-equivalence
#4
Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Marisa L Rieber, Nicole M McNeil
This study examined gender as a potential source of variation in children's formal understanding of mathematical equivalence. The hypothesis was that girls would perform more poorly than boys. An integrative data analysis was conducted with 960 second and third graders across 14 previously conducted studies of children's understanding of mathematical equivalence. Measures included problem solving, problem encoding, and equal sign definition. Overall, children performed poorly on all measures. As predicted, girls were less likely than boys to solve mathematical equivalence problems correctly, even though there were no gender differences in calculation accuracy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692861/getting-to-the-elephants-gesture-and-preschoolers-comprehension-of-route-direction-information
#5
Elizabeth E Austin, Naomi Sweller
During early childhood, children find spatial tasks such as following novel route directions challenging. Spatial tasks place demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory, at a time in development when resources are limited. As such, gestures accompanying route directions may aid comprehension and facilitate task performance by scaffolding cognitive processes, including language and memory processing. This study examined the effect of presenting gesture during encoding on spatial task performance during early childhood...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687119/statistical-learning-of-speech-sounds-is-most-robust-during-the-period-of-perceptual-attunement
#6
Liquan Liu, René Kager
Although statistical learning has been shown to be a domain-general mechanism, its constraints, such as its interactions with perceptual development, are less well understood and discussed. This study is among the first to investigate the distributional learning of lexical pitch in non-tone-language-learning infants, exploring its interaction with language-specific perceptual attunement during the first 2years after birth. A total of 88 normally developing Dutch infants of 5, 11, and 14months were tested via a distributional learning paradigm and were familiarized on a unimodal or bimodal distribution of high-level versus high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648467/differentiating-could-from-should-developmental-changes-in-modal-cognition
#7
Andrew Shtulman, Jonathan Phillips
Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as "impossible." Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as "wrong." In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in modal cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647570/young-children-s-attributions-of-causal-power-to-novel-invisible-entities
#8
Jonathan D Lane, Patrick Shafto
In two studies, we investigated the development of children's reasoning about potent invisible entities. In Study 1, children aged 2.2-5.5years (N=48) were briefly told about a novel invisible substance that could produce a novel outcome-make a novel box turn green. During this introduction, children watched as one container was inverted over a box and the box lit up green, and then another identical container was inverted over the box and the box did not light up. On test trials, the experimenter inserted a spoon in novel (actually empty) containers and inverted the spoon over the box, which turned green in one trial and did not light up in the other trial...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645542/young-children-s-inclusion-decisions-in-moral-and-social-conventional-group-norm-contexts
#9
Michael T Rizzo, Shelby Cooley, Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641121/is-inhibitory-control-involved-in-discriminating-pseudowords-that-contain-the-reversible-letters-b-and-d
#10
Lorie-Marlène Brault Foisy, Emmanuel Ahr, Steve Masson, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
Children tend to confuse reversible letters such as b and d when they start learning to read. According to some authors, mirror errors are a consequence of the mirror generalization (MG) process that allows one to recognize objects independently of their left-right orientation. Although MG is advantageous for the visual recognition of objects, it is detrimental for the visual recognition of reversible letters. Previous studies comparing novice and expert readers demonstrated that MG must be inhibited to discriminate reversible single letters...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#11
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623779/the-honest-truth-about-deception-demographic-cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-child-repeated-deceptive-behavior
#12
Sandra Thijssen, Andrea Wildeboer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Ryan L Muetzel, Sandra J E Langeslag, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Tonya White
This study examined situational, psychological, and neurobiological factors associated with deceptive behavior in 8-year-old children. By assessing deception in low- and high-risk conditions, we differentiated between children displaying some dishonesty and children who deceived repeatedly, and we assessed the correlates of deception in 163 children. A large majority of the children were deceptive in the low-risk condition (n=121, 74.2%), but most children refrained from deception when at risk for getting caught (69 of 121)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623778/are-there-signature-limits-in-early-theory-of-mind
#13
Ella Fizke, Stephen Butterfill, Lea van de Loo, Eva Reindl, Hannes Rakoczy
Current theory-of-mind research faces the challenge of reconciling two sets of seemingly incompatible findings: Whereas children come to solve explicit verbal false belief (FB) tasks from around 4years of age, recent studies with various less explicit measures such as looking time, anticipatory looking, and spontaneous behavior suggest that even infants can succeed on some FB tasks. In response to this tension, two-systems theories propose to distinguish between an early-developing system, tracking simple forms of mental states, and a later-developing system, based on fully developed concepts of belief and other propositional attitudes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619523/affective-associations-with-negativity-why-popular-peers-attract-youths-visual-attention
#14
Tessa A M Lansu, Wendy Troop-Gordon
Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; Mage=11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618393/young-infants-visual-fixation-patterns-in-addition-and-subtraction-tasks-support-an-object-tracking-account
#15
J Gavin Bremner, Alan M Slater, Rachel A Hayes, Uschi C Mason, Caroline Murphy, Jo Spring, Lucinda Draper, David Gaskell, Scott P Johnson
Investigating infants' numerical ability is crucial to identifying the developmental origins of numeracy. Wynn (1992) claimed that 5-month-old infants understand addition and subtraction as indicated by longer looking at outcomes that violate numerical operations (i.e., 1+1=1 and 2-1=2). However, Wynn's claim was contentious, with others suggesting that her results might reflect a familiarity preference for the initial array or that they could be explained in terms of object tracking. To cast light on this controversy, Wynn's conditions were replicated with conventional looking time supplemented with eye-tracker data...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605698/intuitive-proportion-judgment-in-number-line-estimation-converging-evidence-from-multiple-tasks
#16
Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth
How children's understanding of numerical magnitudes changes over the course of development remains a key question in the study of numerical cognition. In an ongoing debate about the source of developmental change, some argue that children maintain and access different mental representations of number, with evidence coming largely from common number-line estimation tasks. In contrast, others argue that a theoretical framework based on psychophysical models of proportion estimation accounts for typical performance on these tasks...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605697/development-of-children-s-identity-and-position-processing-for-letter-digit-and-symbol-strings-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-primary-school-years
#17
Teresa Schubert, Nicholas Badcock, Saskia Kohnen
Letter recognition and digit recognition are critical skills for literate adults, yet few studies have considered the development of these skills in children. We conducted a nine-alternative forced-choice (9AFC) partial report task with strings of letters and digits, with typographical symbols (e.g., $, @) as a control, to investigate the development of identity and position processing in children. This task allows for the delineation of identity processing (as overall accuracy) and position coding (as the proportion of position errors)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605696/you-changed-your-mind-infants-interpret-a-change-in-word-as-signaling-a-change-in-an-agent-s-goals
#18
Kyong-Sun Jin, Hyun-Joo Song
Language provides information about our psychological states. For instance, adults can use language to convey information about their goals or preferences. The current research examined whether 14- and 12-month-old infants could interpret a change in an agent's word as signaling a change in her goals. In two experiments, 14-month-olds (Experiment 1) and 12-month-olds (Experiment 2) were first familiarized to an event in which an agent uttered a novel word and then reached for one of two novel objects. During the test trials, the agent uttered a different novel word (different-word condition) or the same word (same-word condition) and then reached for the same object or the other object...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600925/parental-mind-mindedness-but-not-false-belief-understanding-predicts-hong-kong-children-s-lie-telling-behavior-in-a-temptation-resistance-task
#19
Lamei Wang, Liqi Zhu, Zhenlin Wang
Children can tell lies before they understand the concept of false belief. This study investigated the relationship between parental mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity of parents to view their children as mental agents with independent thoughts and feelings, and the lie-telling behavior of Hong Kong children aged 3-6years. The results confirmed earlier findings indicating that Hong Kong children's understanding of false belief is delayed; nevertheless, the participants appeared to lie just as well as children from other cultures...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600924/-only-you-can-play-with-me-children-s-inclusive-decision-making-reasoning-and-emotions-based-on-peers-gender-and-behavior-problems
#20
Joanna Peplak, Ju-Hyun Song, Tyler Colasante, Tina Malti
This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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