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Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Erin Sparks, Meghan G Schinkel, Chris Moore
Young children's willingness to share with others is selective, and is affected by their level of affiliation with the recipients of their generosity. We explored affiliation's impact on sharing behavior with two experiments comparing the effects of two distinct affiliative cues-minimal group membership and shared interests. Children (4- to 6-year-olds) completed a resource allocation task, making forced-choice decisions as to how to distribute stickers between themselves and others. In Experiment 1, the sharing partners were minimal in- and out-group members; in Experiment 2, they differed in their opinion of the participants' interests...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
J Loes Pouwels, Tessa A M Lansu, Antonius H N Cillessen
This study examined how adolescents evaluate bullying at three levels of specificity: (a) the general concept of bullying, (b) hypothetical peers in different bullying participant roles, and (c) actual peers in different bullying participant roles. Participants were 163 predominantly ethnic majority adolescents in The Netherlands (58% girls; Mage=16.34years, SD=0.79). For the hypothetical peers, we examined adolescents' explicit evaluations as well as their implicit evaluations. Adolescents evaluated the general concept of bullying negatively...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Gal Podjarny, Deepthi Kamawar, Katherine Andrews
Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Victoria Talwar, Jennifer Lavoie, Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Angela M Crossman
Lie-telling may be part of a normative developmental process for children. However, little is known about the complex interaction of social and cognitive factors related to this developmental behavior. The current study examined parenting style, maternal exposure to stressors, and children's cognitive abilities in relation to children's antisocial lie-telling behavior in an experimental setting. Children (3-6years, N=157) participated in a modified temptation resistance paradigm to elicit spontaneous lies. Results indicate that high authoritative parenting and high inhibitory control interact to predict a lower propensity to lie, but those who did lie had better semantic leakage control...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nikolaus Steinbeis, Harriet Over
Young children endorse norms of fairness but rarely act on them. We investigated whether a failure of behavioral control can partially explain why children do not share more generously than they do. We experimentally manipulated behavioral control and observed its effects on sharing in 120 children aged 6-9years of age. Using a between-participants design, we presented children with stories in which a protagonist either exerted behavioral control in an unrelated context or not. Following this, children engaged in a sharing task...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Shalini Gautam, Adam Bulley, William von Hippel, Thomas Suddendorf
Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Erin E Hannon, Adena Schachner, Jessica E Nave-Blodgett
Movement to music is a universal human behavior, yet little is known about how observers perceive audiovisual synchrony in complex musical displays such as a person dancing to music, particularly during infancy and childhood. In the current study, we investigated how perception of musical audiovisual synchrony develops over the first year of life. We habituated infants to a video of a person dancing to music and subsequently presented videos in which the visual track was matched (synchronous) or mismatched (asynchronous) with the audio track...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Zoe Liberman, Alex Shaw
Resource sharing is an important aspect of human society, and how resources are distributed can provide people with crucial information about social structure. Indeed, a recent partiality account of resource distribution suggested that people may use unequal partial resource distributions to make inferences about a distributor's social affiliations. To empirically test this suggestion derived from the theoretical argument of the partiality account, we presented 4- to 9-year-old children with distributors who gave out resources unequally using either a partial procedure (intentionally choosing which recipient would get more) or an impartial procedure (rolling a die to determine which recipient would get more) and asked children to make judgments about whom the distributor was better friends with...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Yuuki Taniguchi, Wakako Sanefuji
Overimitation is defined as the imitation of a series of actions, including causally irrelevant ones. Although previous studies have indicated that children's overimitation tends to be flexible, there is no research directly comparing overimitation occurrences due to types of irrelevant actions such as the target of irrelevant action or tool use. To identify the boundary of overimitation-that is, the point at which it occurs or not-Study 1 focused on the target of causally irrelevant tool-using actions. Specifically, the study examined the demonstration of irrelevant actions toward a main apparatus, a disconnected apparatus, or an actor's own body, followed by the demonstration of causally relevant actions, to 2-, 3-, and 5-year-old children (N=59)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Tânia Fernandes, Isabel Leite
The relation between reversal errors (e.g., d for b, Я for R) and developmental dyslexia has been elusive. In this study, we investigated the roles of reading level, visual category, and orientation processing in this relation. Children with developmental dyslexia, chronological-age-matched controls, and reading-level-matched controls performed two "same-different" matching tasks on reversible (e.g., b) and nonreversible (e.g., e) letters and on geometric shapes (e.g., ). In the orientation-based task, orientation processing was explicitly required; in the shape-based task, orientation processing would be automatic inasmuch as it was task irrelevant and would hinder successful performance...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Patricia Kanngiesser, Bahar Köymen, Michael Tomasello
Promises are speech acts that create an obligation to do the promised action. In three studies, we investigated whether 3- and 5-year-olds (N=278) understand the normative implications of promising in prosocial interactions. In Study 1, children helped a partner who promised to share stickers. When the partner failed to uphold the promise, 3- and 5-year-olds protested and referred to promise norms. In Study 2, when children in this same age range were asked to promise to continue a cleaning task-and they agreed-they persisted longer on the task and mentioned their obligation more frequently than without such a promise...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lia Papathomas, Deanna Kuhn
We examined apprenticeship, in the form of interaction with a more capable other, as a mechanism of development of higher-order reasoning skills, specifically argumentation. Over a 1-year period, middle school students engaged in twice-weekly electronic dialogs with a sequence of different peers on a series of social issues. In one group, unbeknownst to participants, a highly capable adult substituted for peers in half of their dialogs. Beginning immediately, increasing with time, and extending to peer-only dialogs on a new topic, the quality of argumentation shown by the experimental group exceeded that of a comparison peer-only group, highlighting the power of apprenticeship as a mechanism in the development of reasoning, a demonstration of both theoretical and applied significance...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Marianella Casasola, Jui Bhagwat, Stacey N Doan, Hailey Love
Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the containment and support spatial constructions infants spontaneously create and those they observe when playing with a nesting toy. Infants (N=76) of 8, 13, or 18months played alone for 2min and then played with a caregiver for another 2min. At 8months, infants created few relations; at 13months, they inserted objects, resulting in containment, and stacked objects, resulting in support; at 18months, they created more than three times more containment relations than support relations, a result replicated in a second study...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Susanne Brouwer, Simone Sprenger, Sharon Unsworth
Previous research has demonstrated that grammatical gender in Dutch is typically acquired late. Most of this work used production data only, and consequently children's knowledge of Dutch gender may have been underestimated. In this study, therefore, we examined whether 49 4- to 7-year-old Dutch-speaking children (and 19 adult controls) were able to use gender marking in the article preceding the object label during online sentence processing to (a) anticipate the upcoming object label or to (b) facilitate the processing of that label as it is presented...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Lauren K Slone, Catherine M Sandhofer
The spacing effect refers to increased retention following learning instances that are spaced out in time compared with massed together in time. By one account, the advantages of spaced learning should be independent of task particulars and previous learning experiences given that spacing effects have been demonstrated in a variety of tasks across the lifespan. However, by another account, spaced learning should be affected by previous learning because past learning affects the memory and attention processes that form the crux of the spacing effect...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Thilanga D Wewalaarachchi, Liang Hui Wong, Leher Singh
Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Leanne Elliott, Emily J Braham, Melissa E Libertus
Several studies suggest that parents' use of number words while talking with their children is positively related to children's understanding of certain mathematical concepts. In this study, we extended these findings and further examined several parent characteristics that could be related to individual differences in their number talk, including their subjective ratings of their math skills, preference for using math, beliefs about the importance of their children's math skills, and numerical approximation abilities, an early number skill present in children and adults...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Peng Peng, Xiujie Yang, Xiangzhi Meng
We investigated whether the approximate number system (ANS) was related to arithmetic among kindergartners and the mechanism underlying this possible relation. Specifically, we examined whether numerical knowledge mediated the possible relation between the ANS and arithmetic after controlling for potential confounding cognitive variables. Results showed that the ANS was moderately related with early arithmetic (r=.36-.37). After controlling for age, IQ, visual attention, working memory, visuospatial processing, and inhibition, numerical knowledge demonstrated a medium mediation effect (k(2)=...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jodie M Plumert, Lucas J Franzen, Megan M Mathews, Christina Violante
We conducted three experiments to examine how the degree of category relatedness among objects in a group affects the magnitude of spatial bias in memory for their locations. Four age groups-7-, 9-, and 11-year-old children and adults-learned the locations of 20 objects marked by dots on a touchscreen monitor. After learning the object locations, participants attempted to place the objects without the aid of the dots. We compared spatial bias at test (i.e., placing objects in the same quadrant closer together than they really were) when objects within the same quadrant were strongly related versus unrelated (Experiment 1) or weakly related versus unrelated (Experiment 2)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Xinyi Jin, Pengchao Li, Jie He, Mowei Shen
Three experiments examined whether cooperation or competition affects 4-year-old children's reasoning about other people's desires-which differed from their own-in a gift selection task. Experiment 1 (N=72) found that children's performance in selecting an adult-preferred gift for an adult experimenter was enhanced by a short period of preceding cooperative, but not competitive or individualistic, play with the experimenter. Experiment 2 (N=24) ruled out the alternative explanation that children resisted satisfying their opponent after competition...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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