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Journal of Dairy Science

J Ruoff, S Borchardt, W Heuwieser
The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
S Salin, A Vanhatalo, K Elo, J Taponen, R C Boston, T Kokkonen
We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
E Ghasemi, M Azad-Shahraki, M Khorvash
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starter supplementation with fat sources differing in their fatty acid (FA) profile on performance of dairy calves during cold season. Sixty Holstein calves (3 d of age; 39.7 ± 3.8 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 starter diets supplemented with (1) no fat or oil source (control), (2) 3% palm fat (PLF), (3) 3% soybean oil (SBO), (4) 3% tallow (TAL), and (5) a 3.2% mixture (MIX) of PLF, SBO, and fish oil. The fat supplements were substituted for corn in the basal starter diet...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nilusha Malmuthuge, Le Luo Guan
Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M Sok, D R Ouellet, J L Firkins, D Pellerin, H Lapierre
Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N Vanacker, S Ollier, F Beaudoin, R Blouin, P Lacasse
During the periparturient period, the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production often induces metabolic and immunological disturbances in dairy cows. Our previous work has shown that reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation reduces these disturbances. The aim of this study was to reduce metabolic and immunological disturbances by limiting milk production during the first week of lactation by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Xuepeng Lv, Gefei Liu, Xiaomei Sun, Hongyu Chen, Jiahui Sun, Zhen Feng
This work focused on elucidating the nutrient consumption patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus to guide the design of media for high-cell-density culture. We investigated the nutrient consumption patterns of L. acidophilus KLDS 1.0738 in chemically defined media in controlled pH batch fermentations. The most abundantly consumed amino acids, vitamins, ions, and purines and pyrimidines were Glu and Gly, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, K(+) and PO4(3-), and guanine and uracil, respectively. The highest consumption rates for amino acids, vitamins, ions, and purines and pyrimidines were Asp and Arg, folic acid and pyridoxine, Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), and uracil and thymine, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
T Barros, M A Quaassdorff, M A Aguerre, J J Olmos Colmenero, S J Bertics, P M Crump, M A Wattiaux
The objectives of this study were to measure performance responses and to evaluate indictors of N utilization in late-lactation cows fed diets with incremental reductions in crude protein (CP) concentration. Holstein cows (n = 128; 224 ± 54 d in milk) were stratified by parity and days pregnant (86 ± 25 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 16 pens in a randomized complete block design. For 3 wk, all cows received a covariate diet containing 16.9% CP [dry matter (DM) basis]. For the subsequent 12 wk, pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments that contained 16...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
A Vieira-Neto, I R P Lima, F Lopes, C Lopera, R Zimpel, L D P Sinedino, K C Jeong, K Galvão, W W Thatcher, C D Nelson, J E P Santos
Our objectives were to determine the effects of an injectable formulation of calcitriol on mineral metabolism and immune function in postpartum Holstein cows that received an acidogenic diet prepartum to minimize hypocalcemia. In experiment 1, cows within 6 h of calving received calcitriol (0, 200, or 300 μg) to determine the dose needed to increase plasma concentrations of Ca; 300 μg was sufficient to sustain Ca for at least 3 d. In experiment 2, multiparous cows were assigned randomly to receive only vehicle (control, n = 25) or 300 μg of calcitriol (n = 25) subcutaneously within the first 6 h after calving...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
X H Pan, L Yang, Y Beckers, F G Xue, Z W Tang, L S Jiang, B H Xiong
An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
R E Vibart, M Tavendale, D Otter, B H Schwendel, K Lowe, P Gregorini, D Pacheco
Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
T Pritchard, R Mrode, M Coffey, K Bond, E Wall
Genetic parameters were estimated for antibody response to paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis) using milk ELISA test results, collected and analyzed by National Milk Records, from Holstein Friesian cows on UK dairy farms in their first 3 lactations. Milk ELISA test results were obtained from 2007 to 2012 and combined with milk recording data and pedigree information. The reduced data set edited for the purposes of genetic parameter estimation consisted of 148,054 milk ELISA records from 64,645 lactations in 40,142 cows of 908 sires, recorded in 641 herds...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
D Liang, F Sun, M A Wattiaux, V E Cabrera, J L Hedtcke, E M Silva
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M R Borchers, Y M Chang, K L Proudfoot, B A Wadsworth, A E Stone, J M Bewley
The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N Urrutia, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M Mielczarek, M Frąszczak, R Giannico, G Minozzi, John L Williams, K Wojdak-Maksymiec, J Szyda
Thirty-two whole genome DNA sequences of cows were analyzed to evaluate inter-individual variability in the distribution and length of copy number variations (CNV) and to functionally annotate CNV breakpoints. The total number of deletions per individual varied between 9,731 and 15,051, whereas the number of duplications was between 1,694 and 5,187. Most of the deletions (81%) and duplications (86%) were unique to a single cow. No relation between the pattern of variant sharing and a family relationship or disease status was found...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
K Nichols, J Doelman, J J M Kim, M Carson, J A Metcalf, J P Cant
The phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) components and integrated stress response networks in the mammary glands of lactating cows have not accounted for the stimulation of milk protein yield by chronic supplementation with AA or glucose. Faster milk protein synthesis could be a consequence of increased milk protein mRNA per cell, the number of ribosomes per cell, the secretory capacity of cells, or the mammary cell number. To investigate these 4 possibilities using a translational and transcriptional approach, we performed protein and gene expression analyses of mammary and longissimus dorsi tissue collected from lactating dairy cows after 5 d of abomasal infusion with saline or 844 or 1,126 g/d of an essential AA (EAA) mixture, with and without 1,000 g/d glucose...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N Silva-Del-Río, D Rolle, A García-Muñoz, S Rodríguez-Jiménez, A Valldecabres, A Lago, P Pandey
The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
R Mandel, C J Nicol, H R Whay, E Klement
Metritis, a prevalent disease on dairy farms, is negatively associated with reproduction, milk production, and the welfare of cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of monitoring low-resilience activities (i.e., behaviors that typically decrease when energy resources are limited or when the cost involved in the activity increases; e.g., brush usage) in the early detection of metritis. Data on daily brush usage (i.e., proportion of cows using the brush and the duration of usage) were collected from 28 metritic and 60 control cows 28 d postpartum using an automated monitoring system developed for the purpose of this study...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M Iwersen, A Thiel, D Süss, D Klein-Jöbstl, K Wagener, M Drillich
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of measurements of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in capillary blood obtained from minimal-invasive puncturing of different sites at the external vulva skin of dairy cows. A total of 240 multiparous cows sampled once within 21 d in milk were enrolled in the study. Capillary blood samples were obtained from the right and left labium of the external vulva skin and additionally from a site close to the first puncture. Samples were analyzed by using an electronic hand-held device [FreeStyle Precison Neo (FSP-Neo), Abbott GmbH & Co...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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