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Journal of Dairy Science

M Berg, J Plöntzke, S Leonhard-Marek, K E Müller, S Röblitz
High-performing dairy cows require a particular composition of nutritional ingredients, adapted to their individual requirements and depending on their production status. The optimal dimensioning of minerals in the diet, one being potassium, is indispensable for the prevention of imbalances. Potassium balance in cows is the result of potassium intake, distribution in the organism, and excretion, and it is closely related to glucose and electrolyte metabolism. In this paper, we present a dynamical model for potassium balance in lactating and nonlactating dairy cows based on ordinary differential equations...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Irene R Grant, Antonio C G Foddai, James C Tarrant, Brenna Kunkel, Faye A Hartmann, Sheila McGuirk, Chungyi Hansen, Adel M Talaat, Michael T Collins
When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
P Sun, J Wang, W Liu, D P Bu, S J Liu, K Z Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroxy-selenomethionine (HMSeBA), a novel organic selenium (Se) source, on milk performance, antioxidative status, and Se concentrations in the milk and plasma of mid-lactation dairy cows compared with that of sodium selenite (SS). Fifty mid-lactation dairy cows with similar days in milk, milk yield, and parity received the same basal diet containing 0.06 mg of Se/kg of DM. They were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments according to a randomized complete block design: negative control (without Se supplementation), SS supplementation (0...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
A Ricci, P D Carvalho, M C Amundson, P M Fricke
Approximately 20 to 30% of cows diagnosed not pregnant 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI) lack a corpus luteum (CL), and cows submitted to a resynchronization protocol in the absence of a CL have about 10% fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) than cows with a CL. An understanding of luteal dynamics after synchronization of ovulation and TAI may help refine strategies for reinseminating cows failing to conceive. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 141) were synchronized for first TAI using a Double-Ovsynch protocol...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
G E Shook, R L Bamber Kirk, F L Welcome, Y H Schukken, P L Ruegg
We examined consistency of the relationship between intramammary infection (IMI) and somatic cell score (SCS) across several classes of cow, herd, and sampling time variables. Microbial cultures of composite milk samples were performed by New York Quality Milk Production Services from 1992 to 2004. SCS was from the most recent Dairy Herd Improvement test before IMI sampling. Records were analyzed from 79,308 cows in 1,124 commercial dairy herds representing a broad range of production systems. Three binary dependent variables were presence or absence of contagious IMI, environmental IMI, and all IMI...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Diego B Nobrega, Jeroen De Buck, S Ali Naqvi, Gang Liu, Sohail Naushad, Vineet Saini, Herman W Barkema
Assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) is vital for interpreting the origin of changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of the present study were to estimate the association between AMU determined using on-farm treatment records (TR) and inventory of empty drug containers (INV). Herds were selected to represent Canadian dairy farms. Producers were asked to record animal health events and treatments on a standard General Health Event form. For inventory data, 40-L receptacles were placed at various locations considered convenient to deposit all empty drug containers...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J H Higginson Cutler, J Rushen, A M de Passillé, J Gibbons, K Orsel, E Pajor, H W Barkema, L Solano, D Pellerin, D Haley, E Vasseur
Lameness is one of the most important welfare and productivity concerns in the dairy industry. Our objectives were to obtain producers' estimates of its prevalence and their perceptions of lameness, and to investigate how producers monitor lameness in tiestall (TS), freestall with milking parlor (FS), and automated milking system (AMS) herds. Forty focal cows per farm in 237 Canadian dairy herds were scored for lameness by trained researchers. On the same day, the producers completed a questionnaire. Mean herd-level prevalence of lameness estimated by producers was 9...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Binbin Wang, Huawei Zhang, Dongmei Liang, Panlong Hao, Yanni Li, Jianjun Qiao
Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
The objective of this work was to leverage equations derived in a meta-analysis into an ensemble modeling system for estimating dietary physical and chemical characteristics required to maintain desired rumen conditions in lactating dairy cattle. Given the availability of data, responsiveness of ruminal pH to animal behaviors, and the chemical composition and physical form of the diet, mean ruminal pH was chosen as the primary rumen environment indicator. Physically effective fiber (peNDF) is defined as the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicoletta A Miele, Erliza K Cabisidan, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Serena Leone, Paolo Masi, Rossella Di Monaco, Silvana Cavella
Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
C Collazos, C Lopera, J E P Santos, J Laporta
The objectives were to investigate the effects that maternal diets containing negative dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD) fed in the last 42 d of gestation may have on the acid-base status, hematology, mineral and energy metabolism, growth, and health of calves. The experiment was a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of negative DCAD (-70 or -180 mEq/kg) and 2 feeding durations (the last 21 d prepartum and the last 42 d prepartum). Bulls and heifers (n = 60) born to these dams were weighted at birth and fed 3...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) is the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen. Multiplying dietary NDF by particle size has been used as an estimate of peNDF. In re-evaluating the concept of peNDF, we compared the use of peNDF as dietary NDF × particle size with the use of individual NDF and particle size descriptors (physically adjusted NDF; paNDF) when used with other physical and chemical diet descriptors to predict dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), rumination time, and ruminal pH in lactating dairy cows...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
L Herve, H Quesnel, V Lollivier, J Portanguen, R M Bruckmaier, M Boutinaud
The presence of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) in the milk of ruminants indicates that some MEC are shed from the mammary epithelium; however, the mechanisms that regulate the MEC exfoliation process are not known. Through the release of oxytocin, prolactin, and cortisol and through oxytocin-induced mechanical forces on the mammary epithelium, milking could participate in regulating the MEC exfoliation process. The aims of the present study were to determine the rate of MEC exfoliation throughout milking and to investigate its relationship to mammary epithelium integrity and milking-induced hormone release...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M W Jorgensen, K Janni, A Adams-Progar, H Chester-Jones, J A Salfer, M I Endres
Automated milk feeders are used by dairy producers to manage preweaned calves in group housing, but little is known about how these feeding systems are being used in the United States. To better understand how US dairy producers are operating these systems, this study investigated characteristics of barn design, environment, and management practices on 38 farms in the Upper Midwest United States via a questionnaire and on-farm measurements. Farms using automated feeders ranged in size from 7 to 300 calves on site...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Rostam Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Gota Morota, Francisco Peñagaricano
The genomic prediction of unobserved genetic values or future phenotypes for complex traits has revolutionized agriculture and human medicine. Fertility traits are undoubtedly complex traits of great economic importance to the dairy industry. Although genomic prediction for improved cow fertility has received much attention, bull fertility largely has been ignored. The first aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genomic prediction of sire conception rate (SCR) in US Holstein dairy cattle. Standard genomic prediction often ignores any available information about functional features of the genome, although it is believed that such information can yield more accurate and more persistent predictions...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M Abdelsayed, M Haile-Mariam, J E Pryce
As with many other countries, data availability has been a limitation in Australia for developing breeding values for health traits. A genomic information nucleus of approximately 100 herds across the country, selected on the basis of their record keeping, has recently been established in Australia and is known as Ginfo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing genomic breeding values for health traits using farmer-collected data from Ginfo herds. Having this genotyped population opens up opportunities to develop new genomic breeding values, such as dairy health traits...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
E M Wynands, S J LeBlanc, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and time from sample collection to analysis on test classification of a commercially available ELISA for diagnosis of pregnancy using the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) in milk samples from dairy cows. Few studies have evaluated the effects of sample handling on milk PAG results. Using a repeated-measures study design, we evaluated sample storage at 5 temperatures: 37°C, 22°C, 4°C, -20°C, or -80°C. Sample aliquots from 45 cows (20 with a pregnant test result, 10 open, and 15 recheck) were stored for 4, 7, 14, 28, 60, 90, or 365 d...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N P Martin, M P Russelle, J M Powell, C J Sniffen, S I Smith, J M Tricarico, R J Grant
A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Babafela B Awosile, Ben A Smith
Waste milk feeding is a common practice in dairy operations. Regardless of the benefits of this practice to the dairy farmers, concerns from the potential dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through the gut and subsequent shedding by calves into the environment are increasing. In this study, we employed Monte Carlo simulation to assess the risk of shedding extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESC-R E. coli) caused by waste milk feeding in pre-weaned calves using an exponential dose-response model fit to data for E...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Gerson A Oliveira Júnior, Tatiane C S Chud, Ricardo V Ventura, Dorian J Garrick, John B Cole, Danísio P Munari, José B S Ferraz, Erik Mullart, Sue DeNise, Shannon Smith, Marcos Vinícius G B da Silva
The objective of this study was to investigate different strategies for genotype imputation in a population of crossbred Girolando (Gyr × Holstein) dairy cattle. The data set consisted of 478 Girolando, 583 Gyr, and 1,198 Holstein sires genotyped at high density with the Illumina BovineHD (Illumina, San Diego, CA) panel, which includes ∼777K markers. The accuracy of imputation from low (20K) and medium densities (50K and 70K) to the HD panel density and from low to 50K density were investigated. Seven scenarios using different reference populations (RPop) considering Girolando, Gyr, and Holstein breeds separately or combinations of animals of these breeds were tested for imputing genotypes of 166 randomly chosen Girolando animals...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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