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Journal of Dairy Science

Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small chemokine which belongs to the CC-type chemokine family, and has chemoattractant activity for recruitment of monocytes to sites of inflammation. Overexpressed CCL2 binding to its receptor C-C chemokine receptor 2 increases the risk of breast cancer in humans, but its effects on proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells is not known. Maintaining a high level of proliferative activity in bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation is important for improving milk yield and can benefit the dairy industry economically...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
H B Shi, Y Du, C H Zhang, C Sun, Y L He, Y H Wu, J X Liu, J Luo, J J Loor
Increased production of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (LCUFA) can have a positive effect on the nutritional value of ruminant milk for human consumption. In nonruminant species, fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) is a key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. However, whether ELOVL5 protein plays a role (if any) in ruminant mammary tissue remains unclear. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA abundance of ELOVL5 at 3 stages of lactation in goat mammary tissue. Results revealed that ELOVL5 had the lowest expression at peak lactation compared with the nonlactating and late-lactating periods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Baldin, D E Rico, M H Green, K J Harvatine
Rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) has been extensively studied in vitro; however, in vitro BH pathways, rates, and extents may not parallel those in vivo. The objective was to develop an assay to assess in vivo rates, pathways, and extent of BH of oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Each UFA was characterized in a separate experiment, each using 4 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. A single bolus consisting of 200 g of a UFA-oil [experiment 1 (EXP1): 87% OA sunflower, experiment 2 (EXP2): 70% LA safflower, and experiment 3 (EXP3): 54% ALA flaxseed] and 12 g of heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) was mixed into the rumen through the fistula...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Schären, J Frahm, S Kersten, U Meyer, J Hummel, G Breves, S Dänicke
Different studies have shown a strong correlation between the rumen microbiome and a range of production traits (e.g., feed efficiency, milk yield and components) in dairy cows. Underlying dynamics concerning cause and effect are, however, still widely unknown and warrant further investigation. The aim of the current study was to describe possible functional interrelations and pathways using a large set of variables describing the production, the metabolic and immunological state, as well as the rumen microbiome and fermentation characteristics of dairy cows in early lactation (n = 36, 56 ± 3 d in milk)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R J van Hoeij, T J G M Lam, R M Bruckmaier, J Dijkstra, G J Remmelink, B Kemp, A T M van Knegsel
Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to compare effects of a 0-d or 30-d DP without use of dry cow antibiotics on udder health across the DP and subsequent lactation in dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels and (2) to evaluate associations between udder health and metabolic status of dairy cows...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J E Pryce, T T T Nguyen, M Axford, G Nieuwhof, M Shaffer
Genomic selection has led to opportunities for developing new breeding values that rely on phenotypes in dedicated reference populations of genotyped cows. In Australia, it has been applied to 2 novel traits: feed efficiency, which was released in 2015 as feed saved breeding values, and heat tolerance genomic breeding values, released for the first time in 2017. Feed saved is already included in the national breeding objective, which is focused on profitability and designed to be in line with farmer preferences...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Desjardins-Morrissette, J K van Niekerk, D Haines, T Sugino, M Oba, M A Steele
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding colostrum to newborn calves through an esophageal tube, compared with a nipple bottle, would delay abomasal emptying, which would in turn decrease passive transfer of IgG and plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and GLP-2 concentrations. Twenty newborn Holstein bull calves were fed 3 L of colostrum replacer (200 g of IgG) through either an esophageal tube or nipple bottle at 2 h after birth followed by feeding pooled whole milk every 12 h after birth...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D Cais-Sokolińska, M Rudzińska
The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the content of cholesterol oxidation products in traditional buttermilk after butter production. Cholesterol oxidation products (COP) exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activity, including cytotoxic, carcinogenic, and pro-oxidative properties. Buttermilk has about 2 mg of COP/kg of fat, including 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol. Buttermilk immediately after production had a relatively high level of 7β-hydroxycholesterol (1...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Juliano L Gonçalves, Roger I Cue, Bruno G Botaro, José A Horst, Altair A Valloto, Marcos V Santos
The reduction of milk production caused by subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was evaluated through the regression of test-day milk yield on log-transformed somatic cell counts (LnSCC). Official test-day records (n = 1,688,054) of Holstein cows (n = 87,695) were obtained from 719 herds from January 2010 to December 2015. Editing was performed to ensure both reliability and consistency for the statistical analysis, and the final data set comprised 232,937 test-day records from 31,692 Holstein cows in 243 herds...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
T Johnson, K Eketone, L McNaughton, K Tiplady, J Voogt, R Sherlock, G Anderson, M Keehan, S R Davis, R J Spelman, D Chin, C Couldrey
The genetic merit of a herd is a key determinant in productivity for dairy farmers. However, making breeding decisions to maximize the rate of genetic gain can be complex because there is no certainty about which cows will become pregnant with a heifer calf. In this study, breeding worth (BrW) was used as a measure of genetic merit, and several mating strategies were evaluated. These strategies included randomly mating whole herds to the entire bull team, excluding low-ranked cows from producing replacement heifers, and nominating high-ranked cows to the most highly ranked bulls...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Bergamaschi, G Bittante
The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A L Thomson, D J Humphries, L A Crompton, C K Reynolds
The objectives of the study were (1) to test whether 6 h of feed deprivation followed by refeeding induces an acidosis challenge in dairy cattle and (2) to quantify the acidosis challenge mitigation potential of increased alfalfa silage concentration in the diet. Alfalfa silage constituted either 25 or 75% of forage dry matter (DM) replacing corn silage [low (LA) or high alfalfa (HA)] and was chopped to either 14 or 19 mm theoretical length [short (S) or long (L)]. Dietary treatments LAS, LAL, HAS, or HAL were offered to 4 rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cattle (161 d in milk; 5th or 6th parity) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study with 21-d periods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lan-Hsin Hung, Chi-Heng Wu, Bi-Fong Lin, Lucy Sun Hwang
Our aging population and the accompanying decline in immune function is a growing concern that may be addressed by finding natural methods to enhance the immunocompetence of our elderly. Bovine milk and colostrum from cows that have been immunized have been shown to provide additional immunoglobulins and other bioactive molecules that enhance immune function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to alleviate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in a murine model...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C G Davis, J G Cessna, D P Blayney
Dairy industries in Southeast Asia are small and produce less than the domestic market demands. As expenditure and population grow in Southeast Asia, it is expected that the expenditures on skim milk powder (SMP) will grow. In this study, we examined the competitiveness of US SMP in the Southeast Asian market with respect to other leading dairy exporters, including the European Union (EU-28), New Zealand, and Australia. Using monthly data from 2006 to 2015, Rotterdam models were used to estimate import demands for SMP in 4 Southeast Asian countries...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
N C da Silva, C F Nascimento, F A Nascimento, F D de Resende, J L P Daniel, G R Siqueira
We investigated the effects of different types and doses of inoculants for ensiling rehydrated corn grain. Shelled corn was finely ground and rehydrated to 35% moisture. Treatments were as follows: (1) control (no additives); (2) Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici (LPPA) at a theoretical application rate of 1 × 105 cfu/g; (3) LPPA at 5 × 105 cfu/g; (4) LPPA at 1 × 106 cfu/g; (5) Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) at 1 × 105 cfu/g; (6) LB at 5 × 105 cfu/g; and (7) LB at 1 × 106 cfu/g. We detected no effect of inoculant dose...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D J Cottle, M Wallace, P Lonergan, A G Fahey
A bioeconomic, stochastic spreadsheet model, that included calculation of the net present value of the additional value of all future descendants resulting from increased selection intensity, was developed to study the profitability of using sexed semen in a high input-high output dairy herd. Three management strategies were modeled: (1) only heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen and cows inseminated with unsorted semen; (2) both heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted semen; and (3) a reference scenario, in which all breeding females were inseminated with unsorted semen...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
B M Leno, R C Neves, I M Louge, M D Curler, M J Thomas, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our objectives were to determine (1) the effect of a single dose of an oral Ca bolus within 24 h after parturition on plasma Ca concentration, (2) the response of primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows to this supplementation strategy, and (3) differential responses based on plasma Ca at enrollment. For objective 1, cows from 1 commercial dairy in New York State were enrolled within 19 h after parturition (mean ± standard deviation = 8.3 ± 5.3 h) and randomized within parity group (first, second, and ≥third) to control [CON (n = 25); no placebo] or a single dose bolus treatment [BOL (n = 25); 3 oral Ca boluses supplying 54 to 64 g of Ca]...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Maofeng Zhang, Xiyan Zhang, Liaowang Tong, Yaping Wang, Dexin Ou, Jumei Zhang, Qingping Wu, Yingwang Ye
Cronobacter malonaticus is one of the opportunistic food-borne pathogens in powdered infant formula and has unusual abilities to survive under environmental stresses such as osmotic conditions. However, the genes involved in osmotic stress have received little attention in C. malonaticus. Here, genes involved in osmotic stress were determined in C. malonaticus using a transposon mutagenesis approach. According to the growth of mutants (n = 215) under 5.0% NaCl concentration, the survival of 5 mutants under osmotic stress was significantly decreased compared with that of the wild type strain...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M T M King, S J LeBlanc, E A Pajor, T C Wright, T J DeVries
Associations of electronically recorded data were examined before diagnosis of health disorders in early-lactation cows in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). Rumination time, activity, and milk yield data were collected for 8 mo for 605 early-lactation cows in 9 commercial AMS herds. Using multivariable generalized linear regression models controlling for parity and days in milk, data were examined relative to the day of diagnosis for health disorders occurring in absence of, or at least 14 d before, another disorder: mastitis (n = 13), new cases of lameness (n = 45), subclinical ketosis (SCK; n = 113), and purulent vaginal discharge (n = 49)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Beth M Lett, Brian W Kirkpatrick
Multiple births or twinning in cattle is a naturally occurring reproductive phenomenon. For dairy cattle, twinning is considered a detrimental trait as it can be harmful to cow and calf as well as costly to the producer. The objective of this study was to examine recent US calving records for the Holstein breed to determine a current estimate of heritability for twinning rate along with effects of season and parity. Two models were used in this study: a linear sire model and a binary threshold-logit sire model...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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