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Journal of Dairy Science

A L Diehl, J K Bernard, S Tao, T N Smith, D J Kirk, D J McLean, J D Chapman
Eighty-two multiparous Holstein cows were enrolled 28 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of feeding a neutral or acidogenic diet varying in Ca concentration on prepartum and postpartum intake, blood mineral and metabolite concentrations, and postpartum milk production. Prepartum diets were formulated to provide a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of -21 (NEG) or -2 (NEU) mEq/100 g of dry matter (NEU) with either 1...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
H P Doekes, R F Veerkamp, P Bijma, S J Hiemstra, J Windig
National gene bank collections for Holstein Friesian (HF) dairy cattle were set up in the 1990s. In this study, we assessed the value of bulls from the Dutch HF germplasm collection, also known as cryobank bulls, to increase genetic variability and improve genetic merit in the current bull population (bulls born in 2010-2015). Genetic variability was defined as 1 minus the mean genomic similarity (SIMSNP ) or as 1 minus the mean pedigree-based kinship (fPED ). Genetic merit was defined as the mean estimated breeding value for the total merit index or for 1 of 3 subindices (yield, fertility, and udder health)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D M Donnelly, J R R Dórea, H Yang, D K Combs
This study compared dry matter (DM) predictions of 3 handheld near-infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) units (Moisture Tracker, Digi-Star Inc., Fort Atkinson, WI) to conventional oven drying at 60°C using 2 alfalfa and 2 corn silages. In addition, on-farm DM methods [microwave, Koster tester (Koster Moisture Tester Inc., Brunswick, OH), and food dehydrator methods] were also compared. Corn and alfalfa silages (1,600 g) obtained from the University of Wisconsin Dairy Cattle Center (DCC) and the Arlington Research Station (ARS) were analyzed for DM daily for 20 d...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D S Beggs, E C Jongman, P E Hemsworth, A D Fisher
In large Australian pasture-based dairy herds, it is common for the time taken to milk a herd of cows to be up to 4 h. Cows are collected from the paddock as a group, wait in turn in the dairy yard to be milked, and then return individually to the paddock or feed pad immediately after leaving the milking parlor. In such herds, we previously found a consistent milking order, resulting in some cows being regularly away from pasture for several hours per day more than others. Increased time away from pasture may affect the time budgets of cows because of decreased opportunity for grazing or lying down...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sebastián Umaña Sedó, Diana Rosa, Guillermo Mattioli, R Luzbel de la Sota, Mauricio J Giuliodori
The main objective was to assess the associations of subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH), diagnosed at parturition (SCH-0) and 7 d in milk (SCH-7), with fertility in a herd of grazing dairy cows. Additional objectives were to characterize Ca concentration on 0 and 7 d in milk (DIM), assessing the risk factors for SCH-0 and SCH-7 and also the relationship with health status (metritis, endometritis, subclinical ketosis, and culling). A prospective observational study was carried out in a dairy farm in Argentina. Holstein cows (n = 126) were body condition scored (BCS, 1-5) on -21 ± 3, 0, 7 ± 3, and 28 ± 7 DIM and blood was collected on 0 and 7 ± 3 DIM to determine Ca and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M P Sanchez, V Wolf, M El Jabri, E Beuvier, O Rolet-Répécaud, Y Gaüzère, S Minéry, M Brochard, A Michenet, S Taussat, A Barbat-Leterrier, A Delacroix-Buchet, C Laithier, S Fritz, D Boichard
In a previous study, we identified candidate causative variants located in 24 functional candidate genes for milk protein and fatty acid composition in Montbéliarde, Normande, and Holstein cows. We designed these variants on the custom part of the EuroG10K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), which is routinely used for genomic selection analyses in French dairy cattle. To validate the effects of these candidate variants on milk composition and to estimate their effects on cheesemaking properties, a genome-wide association study was performed on milk protein, fatty acid and mineral composition, as well as on 9 cheesemaking traits (3 laboratory cheese yields, 5 coagulation traits, and milk pH)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S B Menajovsky, C E Walpole, T J DeVries, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein, M E Walpole, G B Penner
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the quantity of concentrate offered in an automated milking system (AMS), in a feed-first guided-flow barn, on the behavior and performance of dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square balanced for carry-over effects. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial consisting of a PMR that contained (dry matter basis) either a low (54:46; L-FOR) or a high (64:36; H-FOR) forage-to-concentrate ratio and AMS concentrate provision to achieve low (2 kg/d; L-AMS) or high (6 kg/d; H-AMS) intake...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P Berzaghi, A Lotto, M Mancinelli, F Benozzo
A large portion of the cow's ration is composed of forages that can vary greatly in mineral concentrations, which may affect animal performance and health. Current methods for mineral analysis require sample destruction either through wet or dry ashing and complex analytical techniques for individual minerals. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a nondestructive, multi-mineral, spectroscopy technique, which makes mineral quantification simple, direct, and affordable. The study objective was to evaluate the prediction performance of EDXRF of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forages...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Luiz F Brito, S Mallikarjunappa, M Sargolzaei, A Koeck, J Chesnais, F S Schenkel, K G Meade, F Miglior, N A Karrow
Johne's disease (or paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, is a globally prevalent disease with severe economic and welfare implications. With no effective treatment available, understanding the role of genetics influencing host infection status is essential to develop selection strategies to breed for increased resistance to MAP infection. The main objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the MAP-specific antibody response using milk ELISA scores in Canadian Holstein cattle as an indicator of resistance to Johne's disease, and to unravel genomic regions and candidate genes significantly associated with MAP infection...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S C Ring, A J Twomey, N Byrne, M M Kelleher, T Pabiou, M L Doherty, D P Berry
Cattle breeding programs that strive to reduce the animal-level incidence of lameness are often hindered by the availability of informative phenotypes. As a result, indicator traits of lameness (i.e., hoof health and morphological conformation scores) can be used to improve the accuracy of selection and subsequent genetic gain. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the variance components for hoof health traits using various phenotypes collected from a representative sample of Irish dairy cows...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Huilin Zhang, Fengchun Huang, Gaozhe Cai, Yuntao Li, Jianhan Lin
In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using the coaxial channel-based DNA extraction and the microfluidic PCR was proposed and verified. The magnetic silica beads were first pumped into the coaxial channel, which was captured in the coaxial channel more uniformly by applying the multiring high-gradient magnetic field. After the E. coli O157:H7 cells were lysed with the lysis buffer to release the DNA, the improved coaxial channel was used to efficiently extract the DNA, followed by washing with ethanol to remove the residual proteins and eluting with a small volume of deionized water to obtain the purified and concentrated DNA...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
W T Dai, R R White, J X Liu, H Y Liu
Essential amino acids (EAA) play an important role in promoting milk protein synthesis in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the relationship between EAA and milk protein synthesis have not been fully explored. This study examined the effects of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) on EAA-stimulated β-casein synthesis, cell proliferation, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) system in BMEC. First, BMEC were cultured in medium either lacking all EAA (-EAA) or that included all EAA (+EAA) for 12 h...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
E Raffrenato, D A Ross, M E Van Amburgh
A portion of the forage cell wall, defined as neutral detergent fiber (NDF), is indigestible to anaerobic microbial digestion in ruminants. This fraction has been characterized by surface area relationships between acid detergent lignin, but recently, data have been published describing the dynamic nature of this relationship. In situ approaches have been described to estimate indigestible NDF, recovering the undigested NDF after long-term fermentations (uNDF). To be applicable to nutritionists and diet formulation, determining uNDF needs to be conducted in a commercial laboratory similar to other routine analyses of forage chemistry...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D J A Santos, J B Cole, D J Null, T M Byrem, L Ma
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the trophoblast and are detectable in maternal circulation around the time of attachment of the fetal placenta, as well as in blood and milk throughout gestation. The understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling PAG levels can confer advantages for livestock breeding programs given the precocity and the ease of obtaining this phenotype from routine pregnancy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to characterize PAG levels by estimating genetic parameters and correlations with other dairy traits, and to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with PAG levels in milk...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R Collado, C Montbrau, M Sitjà, A Prenafeta
Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Nevertheless, commercial vaccines are currently not available and measures to control S. uberis mastitis are limited to the implementation of good management practices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an S. uberis subunit vaccine against bovine mastitis (Laboratorios Hipra S.A., Amer, Spain) administered precalving against an experimental intramammary challenge with a heterologous S...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
I Demirkan, M Erdoğan, A Çevik Demirkan, F Bozkurt, M Altındiş, F Zemheri Navruz, Z Köse
The isolation and identification of microorganisms associated with digital dermatitis (DD) in Turkish dairy cattle was investigated using punch skin biopsy samples from typical clinical lesions; they were collected from dairy farms and abattoirs in 5 different geographical locations in Turkey. Morphological characteristics and flagellation types were examined using a transmission electron microscope, and their enzyme profiles by enzyme activation kits; their catalase reaction characteristics were evaluated by the addition of 3% H2 O2 ...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jie Luo, Chenbo Jiang, Liang Zhao, Ming Zhang, Fang Wang, Erna Sun, Fazheng Ren
3-Methylbutanal is one of the primary substances that contribute to the nutty flavor in cheese. Lactococcus strains have been shown to have higher aminotransferase and α-keto acid decarboxylase activities compared with other microbes, indicating that they might form a higher amount of 3-methylbutanal by decarboxylation. Several dairy lactococcal strains have been successfully applied as adjunct cultures to increase the 3-methylbutanal content of cheese. Moreover, compared with dairy cultures, the nondairy lactococci are generally metabolically more diverse with more active AA-converting enzymes...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
B Vincze, A Gáspárdy, F L Kézér, M Pálffy, Zs Bangha, O Szenci, L Kovács
Dystocia and perinatal calf mortality cause significant economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. Despite advanced ultrasound examination procedures, there is no reliable method to estimate the birth weight of calves in order to predict, prepartum, the risk of dystocia. The aim of this study was to predict calf birth weight and dystocia based on transrectal ultrasonographic (TRUS) examinations in late-term Holstein heifers and cows. Therefore, TRUS examination was performed on 128 animals that were between 265 and 282 d of gestation to measure the bone thickness of the fetal metacarpus (MC) or metatarsus (MT)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P J Gorden, M D Kleinhenz, J A Ydstie, T A Brick, L M Slinden, M P Peterson, D E Straub, D T Burkhardt
Clinical mastitis caused by Klebsiella spp. is an emerging problem in the US dairy industry and results in a high degree of financial losses to dairy workers. This study was conducted as a randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled efficacy study of a Klebsiella pneumoniae siderophore receptor protein (SRP) vaccine (Kleb-SRP), with a total of 569 cows and heifers enrolled. The study was designed to look at vaccine effect on Klebsiella mastitis; however, the SRP in Klebsiella are highly conserved across coliform bacteria, which means that the vaccine has potential for cross-protection against all coliforms...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
L F Greco, J T Neves Neto, A Pedrico, F S Lima, R S Bisinotto, N Martinez, E S Ribeiro, W W Thatcher, C R Staples, J E P Santos
Objectives were to evaluate the effects of altering the dietary ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on the profile of fatty acids and expression of genes related to the prostaglandin biosynthesis on endometrial tissue, uterine secretion of PGF2α , and timing of spontaneous luteolysis in dairy cows. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 45) were blocked based on milk yield and, within each block, assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments at 14 d postpartum for 90 d. Diets were supplemented with a mixture of Ca salts of fish, safflower, and palm oils to create 3 different ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, namely R4, R5, and R6, which resulted in 3...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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