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Journal of Dairy Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224885/economic-optimization-of-selective-dry-cow-treatment
#1
C G M Scherpenzeel, H Hogeveen, L Maas, T J G M Lam
The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as antimicrobial use were quantified. Based on data from a large field trial, a linear programming model was built with the goal to minimize the costs associated with antimicrobial use at drying off. To enable calculations on minimizing costs of dry cow treatment on herd-level by drying-off decisions in an "average" herd, we created an example herd...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224884/a-genome-wide-association-study-for-left-sided-displacement-of-the-abomasum-using-a-high-density-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-array
#2
S Lehner, I Zerbin, K Doll, J Rehage, O Distl
Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a frequent disease in dairy cattle causing significant financial losses for dairy farmers. Heritability (h2) of this complex disease was estimated at up to 0.5 in German Holstein (GH) cattle. Using the Bovine High Density BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) comprising 588,753 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) after quality control for 126 LDA cases and 280 population-based controls, we used a mixed linear model analysis in a genome-wide association study (GWAS)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224883/utilization-of-protein-in-red-clover-and-alfalfa-silages-by-lactating-dairy-cows-and-growing-lambs
#3
Glen A Broderick
Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224882/genetic-parameters-for-%C3%AE-s1-casein-and-%C3%AE-s2-casein-phosphorylation-isoforms-in-dutch-holstein-friesian
#4
Z H Fang, H Bovenhuis, H J F van Valenberg, P Martin, T Huppertz, M H P W Visker
Relative concentrations of αS1-casein and αS2-casein (αS1-CN and αS2-CN) phosphorylation isoforms vary considerably among milk of individual cows. We estimated heritabilities for αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms, determined by capillary zone electrophoresis from 1,857 morning milk samples, and genetic correlations among αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms in Dutch Holstein Friesian. To investigate if phosphorylation of αS1-CN and αS2-CN are due to the same genetic mechanism, we also estimated genetic correlations between αS1-CN and αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms as well as the genetic correlations between the phosphorylation degrees (PD) of αS1-CN and αS2-CN defined as the proportion of isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation in total αS1-CN and αS2-CN, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224881/early-lactation-extended-pirlimycin-therapy-against-naturally-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-intramammary-infections-in-heifers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
S Skoulikas, S Dufour, D Haine, J-Y Perreault, J-P Roy
The primary objective of the current study was to evaluate cure rate following an early-lactation extended intramammary pirlimycin treatment on heifers naturally infected by Staphylococcus aureus. The secondary objective was to assess Petrifilm Staph Express (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, MN) count plate characteristics when used in a protocol for early-lactation detection of infected quarters in heifers. Milk samples were collected from heifers (n = 946) in the first few days following calving (mean = 5 d). Heifers with laboratory-confirmed S...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224880/the-effect-of-different-treatments-for-early-lactation-hyperketonemia-on-liver-triglycerides-glycogen-and-expression-of-key-metabolic-enzymes-in-dairy-cattle
#6
S Mann, F A Leal Yepes, J J Wakshlag, E Behling-Kelly, J A A McArt
Despite the widespread use of treatments for postpartum hyperketonemia in dairy cows, there is currently a lack of evidence comparing their effects on both the resolution of hyperketonemia and the potential effects on the liver of affected animals. The objective of our work was to investigate the effect of commonly used hyperketonemia treatments on hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as well as on the mRNA and protein abundance of key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, and lipid metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224879/plant-oil-supplements-reduce-methane-emissions-and-improve-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-dairy-cows-fed-grass-silage-based-diets-without-affecting-milk-yield
#7
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224878/short-communication-variability-in-milk-urea-nitrogen-and-dairy-total-mixed-ration-composition-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#8
A N Hristov, M Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G Cudoc, J Clay, R Ward, L E Chase
The main objective of this survey was to examine variability in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) for Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) herds in the northeastern United States (the Northeast), examine trends in dairy cow diet composition, and determine potential relationships for MUN and diet composition. Trends in milk fat and protein concentrations, milk yield, days in milk on test day, and lactation number of the cows were also evaluated. The data set for the survey included 10,839,461 DHIA dairy cow records from 2004 to 2015 for 13 states (CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, and WV) and was retrieved from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224877/effects-of-early-postpartum-sodium-salicylate-treatment-on-long-term-milk-intake-and-blood-parameters-of-dairy-cows
#9
A J Carpenter, C M Ylioja, L K Mamedova, K E Olagaray, B J Bradford
Previous research has shown that cows who receive treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after calving may have increased milk yield beginning near peak lactation, resulting in greater 305-d milk production. It has not been demonstrated whether this response is associated with greater feed intake following the first 3 wk of lactation. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were measured daily for 56 cows over the first 120 d in milk. Cows in their second parity and greater were blocked by parity and alternately enrolled 12 to 36 h after calving into 1 of 2 treatments: either 3 daily drenches of water or 3 daily drenches of a similar volume of water containing 125 g of sodium salicylate (SAL) beginning 12 to 36 h after calving...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224876/effect-of-different-forage-types-on-the-volatile-and-sensory-properties-of-bovine-milk
#10
Hope Faulkner, Tom F O'Callaghan, Stephen McAuliffe, Deirdre Hennessy, Catherine Stanton, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry, Kieran N Kilcawley
The effect of 3 diets (grass, grass/clover, and total mixed ration) on the volatile and sensory properties of bovine milk was assessed over an entire lactation season. Little evidence was found of direct transfer of terpenes into raw milk from the different diets, and it is likely that the monocultures of ryegrass used with and without white clover were factors as these contained very few terpenes. Evidence of direct transfer of nonterpene volatiles from forage to the subsequent raw milks was probable; however, differences in the protein carbohydrate availability and digestion in the rumen appeared to have a greater contribution to volatile profiles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224875/dairy-cow-preference-for-different-types-of-outdoor-access
#11
Anne-Marieke C Smid, Daniel M Weary, Joao H C Costa, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224874/prepartum-application-of-internal-teat-sealant-or-intramammary-amoxicillin-on-dairy-heifers-effect-on-udder-health-survival-and-performance
#12
V S Machado, R C Bicalho
Intramammary infusion of antimicrobials (IA) and application of an internal teat sealant (ITS) at the end of the lactation is a common strategy to prevent and treat intramammary infections during the dry period. In heifers, precalving IA has been reported to improve udder health and milk quality; however, the effect of ITS in heifers housed in freestall barns is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum application of ITS or IA on udder health of dairy heifers. A total of 886 heifers were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatment groups when they were 245 ± 3 d pregnant...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224873/a-clinical-and-histopathological-comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-salicylic-acid-to-a-compound-of-inorganic-acids-for-the-treatment-of-digital-dermatitis-in-cattle
#13
N Capion, E K Larsson, O L Nielsen
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful infectious disease, causing lameness, reduced animal welfare, and production losses in dairy herds. The main factors contributing to DD are an infection with Treponema spp. and poor hygiene. Topical treatment has primarily consisted of antibiotics; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224872/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-liquid-dairy-manure-prediction-and-mitigation
#14
Søren O Petersen
The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more efficient recycling of manure nutrients for crop production. Opportunities for GHG mitigation will depend on the baseline situation with respect to handling and storage, and therefore prediction and mitigation at the farm level requires a dynamic description of housing systems and storage conditions, and use of treatment technologies...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224871/short-communication-stall-occupancy-behavior-of-nili-ravi-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-when-first-introduced-to-freestall-housing
#15
S H Magsi, M N Haque, N Ahmad, M Q Shahid
The aim of the present study was to assess stall occupancy of Nili Ravi buffaloes when first introduced to freestall housing. Thirty Nili Ravi buffaloes of different parity, weight, and pregnancy status were enrolled from the dairy farm of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. All of the enrolled animals had no previous experience with freestalls. The selected buffaloes were introduced to the freestall shed. During an adaptation period of 7 d, all buffaloes had 24 h of free access to lie down in 1 of 3 areas: (1) freestalls, (2) alleys, and (3) an outside open area...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224870/effect-of-dose-and-timing-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-treatments-during-a-resynch-protocol-on-luteal-regression-and-fertility-to-timed-artificial-insemination-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#16
R V Barletta, P D Carvalho, V G Santos, L F Melo, C E Consentini, A S Netto, P M Fricke
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment (25 mg of dinoprost) or a double dose of PGF2α (50 mg of dinoprost) during a Resynch protocol on luteal regression and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,100) were randomly assigned at a nonpregnancy diagnosis to receive (1) Ovsynch (control: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH), (2) Ovsynch with a second PGF2α treatment (GPPG: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 24 h, 25 mg of PGF2α; 32 h, 100 µg of GnRH), or (3) Ovsynch with a double dose of PGF2α (GDDP: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 50 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224869/effects-of-straw-processing-and-pen-overstocking-on-the-growth-performance-and-sorting-characteristics-of-diets-offered-to-replacement-holstein-dairy-heifers
#17
W K Coblentz, M S Akins, N M Esser, R K Ogden, S L Gelsinger
Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the growth performance, feed-bunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers. Two corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets diluted with wheat straw were offered; diet composition was identical, except that one diet contained short (well-processed) straw (SS; 46.0% neutral detergent fiber, 12.9% crude protein, 60.7% total digestible nutrients, TDN), and the other long (poorly processed) straw (LS; 46.5% neutral detergent fiber, 12...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224868/technical-note-validation-of-the-bhbcheck-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-meter-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-hyperketonemia-in-dairy-cows
#18
K J Sailer, R S Pralle, R C Oliveira, S J Erb, G R Oetzel, H M White
Accurate cow-side blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) detection meters are valuable tools for rapid diagnosis of hyperketonemia. The main objective of this study was to compare the blood BHB measured in whole blood by the BHBCheck meter (PortaCheck, Moorestown, NJ) to a previously validated meter, Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and a colorimetric laboratory assay. Samples (n = 426) were collected from postpartum primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 79 cows) enrolled in 1 of 2 experiments (Exp) with different sampling schedules (Exp 1: n = 39 cows, 58 samples; Exp 2: n = 40 cows, 368 samples)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224867/dairy-system-parity-and-lactation-stage-affect-enteric-methane-production-yield-and-intensity-per-kilogram-of-milk-and-cheese-predicted-from-gas-chromatography-fatty-acids
#19
Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Stefano Schiavon
Ruminants (and milk production) contribute to global climate change through enteric methane emissions (EME), and any attempt to reduce them is complicated by the fact that they are difficult and expensive to measure directly. In the case of dairy cows, a promising indirect method of estimating EME is to use the milk fatty acid profile as a proxy, as a relationship exists between microbial activity in the rumen and the molecules available for milk synthesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we analyzed the detailed fatty acid profiles (through gas chromatography) of a large number of milk samples from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows reared on 85 farms with the aim of testing in the field 2 equations for estimating EME taken from a published meta-analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224866/the-effects-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-on-milk-protein-synthesis-in-mammary-glands-of-dairy-cows
#20
Ye Lin, Xiaoyu Duan, He Lv, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Xuejun Gao, Xiaoming Hou
The mammary gland requires the uptake of AA for milk protein synthesis during lactation. The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, encoded by SLC7A5), found in many different types of mammalian cells, is indispensable as a transporter of essential AA to maintain cell growth and protein synthesis. However, the function of LAT1 in regulating milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland of the dairy cow remains largely unknown. For the current study, we characterized the relationship between LAT1 expression and milk protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows and investigated whether the mammalian target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) signaling controls the expression of LAT1 in their mammary glands...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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