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Journal of Dairy Science

Curtis W Park, Mark A Stout, MaryAnne Drake
Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
H L M Tucker, K L Beaudry, C L M Parsons, S E Ellis, R M Akers
Prepubertal mammary development involves elongation and branching of ducts and stromal tissue remodeling. This process is closely linked with ovarian and pituitary hormones, growth factors, and local regulators. Accumulating evidence suggests that the myoepithelial cells also play a role in ductal development in addition to their well-recognized importance in the milk ejection reflex. Following reports that myoepithelial cells changed in correspondence with decreased mammary growth after ovariectomy of prepubertal heifers, we evaluated myoepithelial cells in mammary tissue collected from prepubertal heifers treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A S Hancock, P J Younis, D S Beggs, P D Mansell, M A Stevenson, M F Pyman
In the pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BBSE) were performed on 256 bulls from 32 dairy herds in southwest Victoria, using guidelines produced by the Australian Cattle Veterinarians, before and immediately after a single natural mating period. At the same time, herd managers were questioned regarding the management of the bulls...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A P Lee, D M Barbano, M A Drake
The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1 h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
W A Knauer, S M Godden, N McDonald
Indwelling rumen temperature bolus (RTB) systems have the potential to offer a convenient and timely method of detecting pyrexia, indicative of active infectious disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of using RTB systems in preweaned dairy calves. First, an in vitro study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the RTB in its immediate environment. Thirteen RTB were immersed in a hot water bath (WB). Variably collected RTB temperatures were then matched to WB temperatures, which varied from 36 to 41°C, with 1 h spent at each temperature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Corwin D Nelson, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Randy E Sacco, Jessi L Powell, Mary E Drewnoski, Matthew O'Neil, Donald C Beitz, William P Weiss
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30 ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
M X Rodrigues, S F Lima, C H Higgins, S G Canniatti-Brazaca, R C Bicalho
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis is widely used in food production and in medical applications, and is considered safe for human and animal use. However, studies have also linked Lactococcus bacteria to infection. For example, certain variants of Lactococcus species have been associated with bovine mastitis (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae). In this study, we investigated an outbreak of bovine mastitis thought to be associated with Lactococcus bacteria by using microbiological and molecular techniques...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A Palmonari, G Canestrari, M Fustini, E Bonfante, L Mammi, A Formigoni
In vitro methods requiring ruminal microorganisms to ferment and digest feeds have been used for decades. Though commonly accepted, collecting and pooling rumen fluid from different donor animals to avoid individual characteristics could affect in vitro fermentations. The current study evaluated the effects of individual or pooled liquors on in vitro digestibility of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom). The study was conducted on 24 samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
F C Ferreira, R S Gennari, G E Dahl, A De Vries
Heat stress during the dry period reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. Our objectives were to quantify the economic losses due to heat stress if dry cows are not cooled and to evaluate the economic feasibility of dry cow cooling. We used weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to calculate the number of heat stress days for each of the 50 US states. A heat stress day was declared when the daily average temperature-humidity index was ≥68. The number of dairy cows in each state in 2015 was obtained from the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Larissa Di Marzo, David M Barbano
Our objective was to determine the effect of mid-infrared (MIR) homogenizer efficiency on accuracy and repeatability of Fourier transform MIR predicted fat, true protein, and anhydrous lactose determination given by traditional filter and partial least squares (PLS) prediction models. Five homogenizers with different homogenization performance based on laser light-scattering particle size analysis were used. Repeatability and accuracy were determined by conducting 17 sequential readings on milk homogenized externally to the instrument (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ting Wang, Siow-Ying Tan, William Mutilangi, Marcal Plans, Luis Rodriguez-Saona
Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A S Hancock, P J Younis, D S Beggs, P D Mansell, M A Stevenson, M F Pyman
In pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. The primary objective of this study was to identify associations between individual bull- and herd-level management factors and bull fertility as measured by a pre- and postmating bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE). Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with bulls being classified as high risk of reduced fertility at the premating and postmating BBSE...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Y H Li, W J Wang
Oxidized flavor stability of milk is highly associated with consumer acceptance. This study characterized oxidized flavor stability as affected by milk concentration. The selected volatiles in raw milk (RM), heated milk (HM), concentrated milk, and distillate were investigated using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrated milk and distillate showed higher levels of heptanal (14.52-17.24 μg/kg), nonanal (5.08-8.64 μg/kg), 2-heptanone (25.22-73.25 μg/kg), and 2-nonanone (10...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Tom F O'Callaghan, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Kieran N Kilcawley, Michael O'Donovan, Pat Dillon, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on milk quality and composition. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian lactating cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) to study the effects of 3 feeding systems over a full lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and offered a total mixed ration diet (TMR), group 2 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass pasture (referred to as grass), and group 3 was also grazed outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (referred to as clover)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to identify the key management and disease issues affecting the Canadian dairy industry. An online questionnaire (FluidSurveys, was conducted between March 1 and May 31, 2014. A total of 1,025 responses were received from across Canada of which 68% (n = 698) of respondents were dairy producers, and the remaining respondents represented veterinarians, university researchers, government personnel, and other allied industries. Participants were asked to identify their top 3 management and disease priorities from 2 lists offered...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
L W Hall, F R Dunshea, J D Allen, S Rungruang, J L Collier, N M Long, R J Collier
Betaine (BET), a natural, organic osmolyte, improves cellular efficiency by acting as a chaperone, refolding denatured proteins. To test if dietary BET reduced the effect of heat stress (HS) in lactating dairy cows, multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n = 24) were blocked by days in milk (101.4 ± 8.6 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 daily intakes of dietary BET: the control (CON) group received no BET, mid intake (MID) received 57 mg of BET/kg of body weight, and high dose (HI) received 114 mg of BET/kg of body weight...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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