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Journal of Dairy Science

I Elsohaby, J T McClure, L A Waite, M Cameron, L C Heider, G P Keefe
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the differences in IgG and total protein (TP) content of serum and plasma samples collected from the same calves; (2) to evaluate the correlation between calf serum and plasma IgG levels, Brix scores, and TP concentrations; (3) to determine whether different cut-off values should be used for plasma and serum to assess failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves; and (4) to evaluate the level of agreement between results obtained from using serum and plasma samples of the same calves to assess FTPI using optimal cut-off values...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hongdou Jia, Xiaobing Li, Guowen Liu, Juan J Loor, Ryan Buctrout, Xudong Sun, Guojin Li, Xin Shu, Jihong Dong, Yazhe Wang, Rankun Zuo, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li
Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5), a lipid droplet coat protein, plays important roles in the development of hepatic steatosis in mice and humans. Whether PLIN5 plays a role in the development of fatty liver in dairy cows is unknown. An in vivo study consisting of 10 healthy and 10 cows with fatty liver was performed to harvest liver tissue and blood samples. In addition, hepatocytes isolated from calves were infected with PLIN5 overexpression adenovirus for 48 h; treated with 0, 0...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Strutzke, D Fiske, G Hoffmann, C Ammon, W Heuwieser, T Amon
The measurement of the respiration rate (RR) in cattle is a valuable tool for monitoring health status. Thus, an RR sensor can be essential for stress detection, especially heat stress. Heat stress leads to a deviation of the normal RR and results in a decrease of milk production and fertility. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the RR can help early detection of heat stress and, thus, initiate timely counteractive actions to minimize physical stress. The most common method to measure the RR in cattle is to count the flank movement visually; however, this method is time-consuming and labor-intensive...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
H K J P Wickramasinghe, A J Kramer, J A D R N Appuhamy
Although it is recommended to offer free drinking water (called drinking water hereafter) immediately after birth, producers wait, on average, 17 d to first offer drinking water to newborn dairy calves. The objective of this study was to examine water and feed intake, growth performance, health status, and nutrient digestibility of Holstein heifer calves offered drinking water from birth (W0) as compared with those offered it at 17 d of age (W17), when fed an ad libitum volume of milk. Thirty Holstein heifer calves, balanced for parity of the dam, birth weight, and birth week, were randomly assigned (n = 15) to W0 or W17...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K Pandalaneni, K Bhanduriya, J K Amamcharla, C Marella, L E Metzger
Control of calcium-mediated storage defects, such as age gelation and sedimentation, were evaluated in enteral high-protein dairy beverages during storage. To investigate the effects of reduced-calcium ingredients on storage stability, 2 batches each of milk protein concentrates (MPC) with 3 levels of calcium content were acquired [control, 20% calcium-reduced (MPC-20), and 30% calcium-reduced (MPC-30)]. Control and calcium-reduced MPC were used to formulate 8% (wt/wt) protein enteral dairy beverages. The formulation also consisted of other ingredients, such as gums, maltodextrin, potassium citrate, and sucrose...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
X Z Tian, P Paengkoum, S Paengkoum, S Chumpawadee, C Ban, S Thongpea
The present study used 16 multiparous lactating Saanen dairy goats (body weight, 41.80 ± 2.92 kg; mean ± standard deviation) with healthy and symmetrical udders. Goats were divided into 2 blocks of 8 goats based on milk yield averaged from 75 d in milk in a randomized completed block design. The 2 study groups were the control (CSSS), in which goats were fed sticky corn stover silage, and the treatment (TPSS), in which goats were fed anthocyanin-rich purple corn (Zea mays L.) stover silage (PSS). The results indicated that the TPSS group led to an elevation in the content of milk lactose relative to the CSSS...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Zheng-Yong Zhang, Dong-Dong Gui, Min Sha, Jun Liu, Hai-Yan Wang
As a fast information acquisition technique, Raman spectroscopy can be used to control the quality of dairy products. Feature extraction is a necessary processing step to improve the efficiency of Raman spectral data. Principal component analysis is a traditional method that can effectively extract the feature and reduce the dimension of spectral data. However, it is difficult to analyze the chemical information of the extracted feature, thus limiting its practical application. In this work, Raman spectral chemical feature extraction was carried out...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
B D Enger, S C Nickerson, H L M Tucker, C L M Parsons, R M Akers
Bovine mastitis is a common and costly disease in the dairy industry and is known to negatively affect the amount of epithelium in nonlactating mammary glands. Despite this recognition, an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to reductions in epithelium is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate cellular apoptosis and proliferation in uninfected and Staphylococcus aureus-infected mammary glands that were stimulated to rapidly grow and develop. Estradiol and progesterone injections were administered to 18 nonlactating dairy cows to induce mammary growth, and 2 quarters from each animal were infused with saline or Staph...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Line Svennesen, Søren S Nielsen, Yasser S Mahmmod, Volker Krömker, Karl Pedersen, Ilka C Klaas
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between teat skin colonization and intramammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level in herds with automatic milking systems. Milk and teat skin samples from 1,142 quarters were collected from 300 cows with somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL from 8 herds positive for Strep. agalactiae. All milk and teat skin samples were cultured on calf blood agar and selective media. A subset of samples from 287 quarters was further analyzed using a PCR assay (Mastit4 PCR; DNA Diagnostic A/S, Risskov, Denmark)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K A Dolecheck, M W Overton, T B Mark, J M Bewley
A farm-level stochastic simulation model was adapted to estimate the value of implementing foot disorder prevention on a dairy farm by calculating the return on investment associated with implementation of foot disorder prevention. Two potential strategies for foot disorder prevention were tested: strategy 1 was prevention focused on reducing infectious foot disorders (i.e., digital dermatitis) in the model, and strategy 2 was prevention focused on reducing noninfectious foot disorders (i.e., sole ulcer and white line disease) in the model...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
W J J Gerrits
Recent interest in increasing rates of body weight gain in heifer calves before weaning is based on the promise of an increase in milk production during first lactation. This increase is usually realized by increasing milk or milk replacer intake, delaying the onset of rumen development. Simultaneously feeding liquids and solid feeds brings about new challenges. Macronutrient metabolism in growing calves is reviewed, combining literature from heifer and veal calves with the objective to provide insights useful for developing novel feeding strategies...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Z Lipkens, S Piepers, J Verbeke, S De Vliegher
In this study, we studied infection dynamics across the dry period using test-day somatic cell count (SCC) data from 739 Holstein cows from 33 randomly selected commercial dairy herds in Flanders, all of which applied blanket dry-cow therapy at dry-off. First, we determined infection dynamics, combining the last test-day SCC before dry-off and the first test-day SCC after calving. Next, we determined the effect of dry period infection dynamics, adjusting for the level of the second test-day SCC after calving, on the evolution of test-day SCC and milk yield (MY) and on clinical mastitis and culling hazard in the subsequent lactation...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Feng Yang, Shidong Zhang, Xiaofei Shang, Xurong Wang, Zuoting Yan, Hongsheng Li, Jianxi Li
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis cases in China. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were tested by PCR. Overall, E. faecalis was recovered from 81 of 1,787 (4.5%) mastitic milk samples. The isolates showed high resistance against tetracycline (87...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Joana Ortega-Anaya, Rafael Jiménez-Flores
This paper reflects the concepts reviewed during the presentation in the Joint MILK/Lactation Biology Symposium at the ADSA 2018 Annual Meeting. Our intention is to update the concepts and advances in the area of research regarding milk phospholipids or polar lipid fraction as part of a dairy ingredient used today in nutritional studies that focus on gut health as well as brain development of infants. Although processing advances have allowed the production of novel ingredients rich in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) components, mostly monitored by phospholipid concentration and presence of membrane proteins, there is wide variability in their composition and structure...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J B Clasen, A Fogh, M Kargo
Crossbreeding in dairy cattle has recently become of increased interest. However, farmers in Scandinavian countries are reluctant to implement crossbreeding in their herds, and one reason is the common opinion that only herds at a poor level of management can benefit from crossbreeding. The Danish Cattle Database (SEGES, Aarhus, Denmark) provided data on 14 traits regarding milk yield, udder health, fertility traits, stillbirth, and survival. The data were collected from 103,307 pure Holstein cows and 14,832 F1 crosses (Holstein dam and Nordic Red sire)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J I Sánchez-Duarte, K F Kalscheur, A D García, F E Contreras-Govea
A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of feeding dairy cows conventional sorghum silage (CSS) or conventional corn silage (CCS) compared with brown midrib sorghum silage (BMRSS) diets on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition. Data from 9 published articles (1984 to 2015) were used to contrast diets with CSS (7 means comparisons; 104 cows) or CCS (13 means comparisons; 204 cows) versus BMRSS diets. Statistical analysis was performed using fixed or random effects models with the Metafor package of R (https://www...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
N N Gandhi, G Barrett-Wilt, J L Steele, S A Rankin
Undesired browning of Parmesan cheese can occur during the latter period of ripening and cold storage despite the relative absence of reducing sugars and high temperatures typically associated with Maillard browning. Highly reactive α-dicarbonyls such as methylglyoxal (MG) are products and accelerants of Maillard browning chemistry and can result from the microbial metabolism of sugars and AA by lactic acid bacteria. We demonstrate the effects of microbially produced MG in a model Parmesan cheese extract using a strain of Lactobacillus casei 12A engineered for inducible overexpression of MG synthase (mgsA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum HG-8...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J Bokma, R Boone, P Deprez, B Pardon
The intensive use of antimicrobials in the veal industry is heavily criticized, but drivers for antimicrobial usage (AMU) are still poorly understood. The industry fears that a drastic reduction in AMU would increase mortality, creating an unacceptable welfare issue. The objectives of the present study were to identify risk factors for AMU and to explore the relationship between AMU and mortality. A retrospective cohort study was performed on the antimicrobial registration data from the largest Belgian veterinary veal practice...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
L Castelani, J R P Arcaro, J E P Braga, A S Bosso, Q Moura, F Esposito, I P Sauter, M Cortez, N Lincopan
Staphylococci are the main etiological agents of bovine mastitis. Bacteriocins and nanoparticles have emerged as promising alternatives for the future development of antimicrobial agents. This study evaluated the activity of the bacteriocin nisin and bicelles of the synthetic cationic lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, alone and in combination, against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In summary, cationic nisin/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide nanoparticles are shown to be a promising alternative for the control of mastitis caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus spp...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K A Dolecheck, M W Overton, T B Mark, J M Bewley
A farm-level stochastic simulation model was modified to estimate the cost per case of 3 foot disorders (digital dermatitis, sole ulcer, and white line disease) by parity group and incidence timing. Disorder expenditures considered within the model included therapeutics, outside labor, and on-farm labor. Disorder losses considered within the model included discarded milk, reduced milk production, extended days open, an increased risk of culling, an increased risk of death (natural or euthanized), and disease recurrence...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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