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Journal of Dairy Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624288/short-communication-behavioral-evaluation-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-flunixin-meglumine-in-lame-dairy-cows
#1
S A Wagner, J M Young, J K Tena, B H Manning
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624287/variants-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-the-ovine-acetyl-coenzyme-a-acyltransferase-2-gene-are-associated-with-dairy-traits-and-exhibit-differential-allelic-expression
#2
D Miltiadou, A L Hager-Theodorides, S Symeou, C Constantinou, A Psifidi, G Banos, O Tzamaloukas
The acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2) gene encodes an enzyme of the thiolase family that is involved in mitochondrial fatty acid elongation and degradation by catalyzing the last step of the respective β-oxidation pathway. The increased energy needs for gluconeogenesis and triglyceride synthesis during lactation are met primarily by increased fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, the ACAA2 enzyme plays an important role in the supply of energy and carbon substrates for lactation and may thus affect milk production traits...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624286/genomic-evaluation-of-age-at-first-calving
#3
J L Hutchison, P M VanRaden, D J Null, J B Cole, D M Bickhart
From their time of birth until their first lactation, dairy heifers incur management, health, and feed expenses while not producing milk. Much effort has been made to estimate optimal ages of first calving (AFC) for cows to reduce these costs, which can be as high as $2.50 per day, and ensure that animals are productive earlier in life. To identify AFC for 3 dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss) that maximizes production, we retrieved phenotypic records for more than 14 million cows calving between 1997 and 2015 from the US national dairy database...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624285/short-communication-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-and-vancomycin-heteroresistance-in-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis
#4
Priscila Luiza Mello, Luiza Pinheiro, Lisiane de Almeida Martins, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
The use of antimicrobial agents has led to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains over a relatively short period. Furthermore, Staphylococcus spp. can produce β-lactamase, which explains the survival of these strains in a focus of infection despite the use of a β-lactam antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis to oxacillin and vancomycin (by minimum inhibitory concentration) and to detect vancomycin heteroresistance by a screening method...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#5
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624283/effect-of-pasture-versus-indoor-feeding-systems-on-quality-characteristics-nutritional-composition-and-sensory-and-volatile-properties-of-full-fat-cheddar-cheese
#6
Tom F O'Callaghan, David T Mannion, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Natasha Leeuwendaal, Tom P Beresford, Pat Dillon, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a TMR diet of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624282/effect-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-and-stress-signaling-and-kidney-specific-functions-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells
#7
E Chiappisi, R Ringseis, K Eder, D K Gessner
Recent studies demonstrated induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tissues of cows after parturition, but knowledge about the effect of ER stress on important cellular processes, such as critical signaling and metabolic pathways, in cattle is scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ER stress induction on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBF1) pathway in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a widely used in vitro model in ruminant research...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624281/short-communication-genetic-parameters-for-milk-protein-composition-predicted-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-french-montb%C3%A3-liarde-normande-and-holstein-dairy-cattle-breeds
#8
M P Sanchez, M Ferrand, M Gelé, D Pourchet, G Miranda, P Martin, M Brochard, D Boichard
Genetic parameters for the major milk proteins were estimated in the 3 main French dairy cattle breeds (i.e. Montbéliarde, Normande, and Holstein) as part of the PhénoFinlait program. The 6 major milk protein contents as well as the total protein content (PC) were estimated from mid-infrared spectrometry on 133,592 test-day milk samples from 20,434 cows in first lactation. Lactation means, expressed as a percentage of milk (protein contents) or of protein (protein fractions), were analyzed with an animal mixed model including fixed environmental effects (herd, year × month of calving, and spectrometer) and a random genetic effect...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624280/technical-note-evaluation-of-endogenous-control-gene-expression-in-bovine-neutrophils-by-reverse-transcription-quantitative-pcr-using-microfluidics-gene-expression-arrays
#9
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, B Kuhn-Sherlock, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, A Heiser, J R Roche
Reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR) is commonly used for assessing the cellular response to changes in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The selection of stable endogenous control genes is an important step of any RT-qPCR study, as expression can vary depending on the experimental environment. Our objective was to identify endogenous control genes in circulating neutrophils isolated from cows during the peripartum period. To do this, we used microfluidics gene expression arrays (Fluidigm, San Francisco, CA) for RT-qPCR analysis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624279/the-use-of-national-level-data-to-describe-trends-in-intramammary-antimicrobial-usage-on-irish-dairy-farms-from-2003-to-2015
#10
Simon J More, Tracy A Clegg, Finola McCoy
In this study, we used national-level data to describe trends in on-farm intramammary antimicrobial usage in Ireland from 2003 to 2015. We calculated actual sales of intramammary tubes and the quantity of active substance sold, by year, product type [lactation or dry cow therapy (DCT)], antimicrobial group, World Health Organization antimicrobial classification, and from 2009 to 2015, prescribing route. We also estimated on-farm usage of lactation and dry cow intramammary antimicrobials using defined daily dose (DDDvet) and defined course dose (DCDvet) calculations, and dry cow coverage...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624278/estimation-of-prevalence-and-incidence-of-subclinical-mastitis-in-a-large-population-of-brazilian-dairy-herds
#11
Marcos Busanello, Rodolfo S Rossi, Laerte D Cassoli, José C F Pantoja, Paulo F Machado
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis (SM) in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds and to describe how these indices changed over time. A data set comprising individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from 18,316 test days (TD) of 1,809 herds that participated in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program between January 2011 and May 2015 was available for analysis. Only tests that had ≥10 lactating cows and that were performed at 30 ± 10-d intervals were used for analysis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624277/technical-note-at-line-prediction-of-mineral-composition-of-fresh-cheeses-using-near-infrared-technologies
#12
C L Manuelian, S Currò, G Visentin, M Penasa, M Cassandro, C Dellea, M Bernardi, M De Marchi
Milk and dairy products are important sources of macro- and trace elements for human health. However, fresh cheeses usually have a lower mineral content than other cheeses, and this makes mineral prediction more difficult. Although mineral prediction in several food matrices using infrared spectroscopy has been reported in the literature, very little information is available for cheeses. The present study was aimed at developing near-infrared reflectance (NIR, 866-2,530 nm) and transmittance (NIT, 850-1,050 nm) spectroscopy models to predict the major mineral content of fresh cheeses...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624276/cow-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-protein-fractions-and-free-amino-acids-predicted-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-bovine-milk
#13
A McDermott, M De Marchi, D P Berry, G Visentin, M A Fenelon, N Lopez-Villalobos, S McParland
The objective of the present study was to identify the factors associated with both the protein composition and free amino acid (FAA) composition of bovine milk predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Milk samples were available from 7 research herds and 69 commercial herds. The spectral data from the research herds comprised 94,286 separate morning and evening milk samples; the spectral data from the commercial herds comprised 40,260 milk samples representing a composite sample of both the morning and evening milkings...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624275/nuclear-receptor-subfamily-1-group-h-member-2-lxrb-is-the-predominant-liver-x-receptor-subtype-regulating-transcription-of-2-major-lipogenic-genes-in-goat-primary-mammary-epithelial-cells
#14
H B Shi, C H Zhang, Z A Xu, X F Xu, Z B Lv, J Luo, J J Loor
In ruminants, recent research has identified a crucial role for liver X receptors (LXR) in regulating lipid metabolism in mammary cells. However, the differences between LXR subtypes in regulating ruminant lipid metabolism are unknown. We used overexpression and knockdown of LXRA and LXRB in goat primary mammary epithelial cells to distinguish subtype-specific regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA expression and their promoter activity. Incubation with siRNA targeting LXR decreased expression of LXRA and LXRB...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624274/effect-of-nutritional-immunomodulation-and-heat-stress-during-the-dry-period-on-subsequent-performance-of-cows
#15
Thiago F Fabris, Jimena Laporta, Fabiana N Corra, Yazielis M Torres, David J Kirk, Derek J McLean, J D Chapman, Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624273/temporal-and-spatial-water-use-on-irrigated-and-nonirrigated-pasture-based-dairy-farms
#16
C D Higham, D Horne, R Singh, B Kuhn-Sherlock, M R Scarsbrook
Robust information for water use on pasture-based dairy farms is critical to farmers' attempts to use water more efficiently and the improved allocation of freshwater resources to dairy farmers. To quantify the water requirements of dairy farms across regions in a practicable manner, it will be necessary to develop predictive models. The objectives of this study were to compare water use on a group of irrigated and nonirrigated farms, validate existing water use models using the data measured on the group of nonirrigated farms, and modify the model so that it can be used to predict water use on irrigated dairy farms...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624272/effects-of-partial-replacement-of-corn-grain-with-lactose-in-calf-starters-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-growth-performance
#17
A Saegusa, K Inouchi, M Ueno, Y Inabu, S Koike, T Sugino, M Oba
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of dry ground corn with lactose in calf starters on dry matter intake, growth rate, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid profile. Sixty Holstein bull calves were raised on a high plane of nutrition program until 55 d of age. Calves were fed texturized calf starters containing 30.1% steam-flaked grains and lactose at 0 (control), 5, or 10% (n = 20 for each treatment) on a dry matter basis. All calves were fed treatment calf starters ad libitum from d 7 and kleingrass hay from d 35...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#18
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601466/survey-of-work-processes-on-german-dairy-farms
#19
A Hesse, S Bertulat, W Heuwieser
The objective of this study was to conduct a survey to gain insight into the organization of work processes on commercial German dairy farms analyzing the use of standard operating procedures (SOP). Practices and routines were surveyed regarding the existence, creation, and use of SOP. A total of 250 survey forms were returned, and 248 could be used for final analysis. The existence of SOP was indicated by 82% of all respondents, but only 54% stated that these SOP were written down. Existence of SOP correlated with farm size such that larger farms were more likely to implement SOP than smaller farms...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601465/evaluation-of-an-automated-milk-leukocyte-differential-test-and-the-california-mastitis-test-for-detecting-intramammary-infection-in-early-and-late-lactation-quarters-and-cows
#20
S M Godden, E Royster, J Timmerman, P Rapnicki, H Green
Study objectives were to (1) describe the diagnostic test characteristics of an automated milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test and the California mastitis test (CMT) to identify intramammary infection (IMI) in early- (EL) and late-lactation (LL) quarters and cows when using 3 different approaches to define IMI from milk culture, and (2) describe the repeatability of MLD test results at both the quarter and cow level. Eighty-six EL and 90 LL Holstein cows were sampled from 3 Midwest herds. Quarter milk samples were collected for a cow-side CMT test, milk culture, and MLD testing...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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