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Journal of Dairy Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889129/biofouling-of-ultrafiltration-membrane-by-dairy-fluids-characterization-of-pioneer-colonizer-bacteria-using-a-dna-metabarcoding-approach
#1
Julien Chamberland, Marie-Hélène Lessard, Alain Doyen, Steve Labrie, Yves Pouliot
Biofouling of filtration membranes is a major quality and performance issue for the dairy industry. Because biofilms that survive cleaning cycles become resistant over time, prevention strategies limiting the adhesion of bacteria to membranes should be prioritized for sustainable control of biofouling. However, this cannot be achieved because the pioneer bacteria colonizing these membranes are still unknown. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize pioneer bacteria on the filtration membrane surface and to measure the effect of filtration operational parameters on their diversity...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889128/genome-wide-association-study-for-lactation-persistency-female-fertility-longevity-and-lifetime-profit-index-traits-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#2
S Nayeri, M Sargolzaei, M K Abo-Ismail, S Miller, F Schenkel, S S Moore, P Stothard
Female fertility in Holstein cattle can decline when intense genetic selection is placed on milk production. One approach to improving fertility is to identify the genomic regions and variants affecting fertility traits and then incorporate this knowledge into selection decisions. The objectives of this study were to identify or refine the positions of the genomic regions associated with lactation persistency, female fertility traits (age at first service, cow first service to conception, heifer and cow nonreturn rates), longevity traits (herd life, indirect herd life, and direct herd life), and lifetime profit index in the North American Holstein dairy cattle population...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889127/a-comparison-of-semen-diluents-on-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-fertility-of-liquid-bull-semen
#3
Edel M Murphy, Craig Murphy, Ciara O'Meara, Gemma Dunne, Bernard Eivers, Patrick Lonergan, Sean Fair
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on calving rate (CR) following artificial insemination with liquid bull semen stored for up to 3 d postcollection. In experiment 1, the effect of storing liquid semen maintained at a constant ambient temperature in 1 of 7 different diluents [Caprogen (homemade), OptiXcell, BioXcell, BullXcell, INRA96, NutriXcell, or AndroMed (all commercially available)] on total and progressive motility was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 2, the field fertility of liquid semen diluted in Caprogen, BioXcell, or INRA96 and inseminated on d 1, 2, or 3 postcollection was assessed in comparison to frozen-thawed semen (total of n = 19,126 inseminations)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889126/identification-of-the-major-yeasts-isolated-from-high-moisture-corn-and-corn-silages-in-the-united-states-using-genetic-and-biochemical-methods
#4
M C Santos, C Golt, R D Joerger, G D Mechor, Gerson B Mourão, L Kung
The objective of this study was to identify species of yeasts in samples of high moisture corn (HMC) and corn silage (CS) collected from farms throughout the United States. Samples were plated and colonies were isolated for identification using DNA analysis. Randomly selected colonies were also identified by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and by physiological substrate profiling (ID 32C). For CS, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomyces bulderi, Pichia anomala, Kazachstania unispora, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889125/analysis-of-pasture-supplementation-strategies-by-means-of-a-mechanistic-model-of-ruminal-digestion-and-metabolism-in-the-dairy-cow
#5
J P McNamara, M J Auldist, L C Marett, P J Moate, W J Wales
Effective pasture supplementation is critical to the efficiency of resource management in milk production. We understand a great deal about ruminal and metabolic processes in dairy cattle that control efficiency but we need to improve our ability to predict effects of practical feeding strategies based on the basic biological processes of the cow. Therefore, a large-scale pasture supplementation study was used to explore the details of both practical management and the underlying biological principles and processes involved...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889124/assessing-genomic-prediction-accuracy-for-holstein-sires-using-bootstrap-aggregation-sampling-and-leave-one-out-cross-validation
#6
Ashley A Mikshowsky, Daniel Gianola, Kent A Weigel
Since the introduction of genome-enabled prediction for dairy cattle in 2009, genomic selection has markedly changed many aspects of the dairy genetics industry and enhanced the rate of response to selection for most economically important traits. Young dairy bulls are genotyped to obtain their genomic predicted transmitting ability (GPTA) and reliability (REL) values. These GPTA are a main factor in most purchasing, marketing, and culling decisions until bulls reach 5 yr of age and their milk-recorded offspring become available...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889123/validation-of-the-m-stage-scoring-system-for-digital-dermatitis-on-dairy-cows-in-the-milking-parlor
#7
L Solano, H W Barkema, C Jacobs, K Orsel
A high prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD) and the benefits of early topical treatment highlight the need for simple tools for routine DD detection. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of scoring DD lesions using the 5 M-stage scoring system in the milking parlor compared with the trimming chute as the gold standard. Three observers inspected 3,585 cows and 6,991 hind feet from 9 farms in the milking parlor using a mirror (glued to a plastic kitchen spatula) and a headlamp, followed by inspection in a trimming chute within 5 d...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889122/genome-wide-association-study-for-cheese-yield-and-curd-nutrient-recovery-in-dairy-cows
#8
C Dadousis, S Biffani, C Cipolat-Gotet, E L Nicolazzi, G J M Rosa, D Gianola, A Rossoni, E Santus, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
Cheese production and consumption are increasing in many countries worldwide. As a result, interest has increased in strategies for genetic selection of individuals for technological traits of milk related to cheese yield (CY) in dairy cattle breeding. However, little is known about the genetic background of a cow's ability to produce cheese. Recently, a relatively large panel (1,264 cows) of different measures of individual cow CY and milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the cheese (REC) became available...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889121/increasing-estrus-expression-in-the-lactating-dairy-cow
#9
J A Sauls, B E Voelz, S L Hill, L G D Mendonça, J S Stevenson
Using an activity monitoring system (AMS) equipped with an accelerometer, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) enhancing progesterone before inducing luteolysis or (2) exposing cows to estradiol cypionate (ECP) or testosterone propionate (TP) after luteolysis would increase occurrence and intensity of estrus. Our goal was to determine if more cows could be detected in estrus by an AMS compared with other estrus-detection aids. In experiment 1, cows (n = 154) were fitted with both an AMS collar and a pressure-sensitive, rump-mounted device (HeatWatch; HW) and assigned to 3 treatments: (1) no CL + progesterone insert (CIDR) for 5 d, (2) CL only, or (3) CL + 2 CIDR inserts for 5 d to achieve a range in concentrations of progesterone...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889120/comparison-of-commercial-dna-extraction-kits-and-quantitative-pcr-systems-for-better-sensitivity-in-detecting-the-causative-agent-of-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cow-fecal-samples
#10
D Fock-Chow-Tho, E Topp, E A Ibeagha-Awemu, N Bissonnette
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) worldwide. Oral-fecal contamination is the most important mode of transmission of paratuberculosis, so eradicating MAP-shedding animals could prevent disease propagation. Fecal culture, a well-known method for MAP diagnosis, requires costly specialized media and a long incubation time that sometimes ends in disappointing bacterial contamination. To facilitate the efforts of control programs, we evaluated the performance of direct fecal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for their sensitivity and robustness for MAP detection...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889119/determining-suitable-dimensions-for-dairy-goat-feeding-places-by-evaluating-body-posture-and-feeding-reach
#11
Nina M Keil, Marc Pommereau, Antonia Patt, Beat Wechsler, Lorenz Gygax
Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865514/coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-species-in-bulk-milk-prevalence-distribution-and-associated-subgroup-and-species-specific-risk-factors
#12
A De Visscher, S Piepers, F Haesebrouck, K Supré, S De Vliegher
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865513/the-effect-of-milk-allowance-on-behavior-and-weight-gains-in-dairy-calves
#13
K Rosenberger, J H C Costa, H W Neave, M A G von Keyserlingk, D M Weary
The objective of this study was to investigate how milk allowance affects body weight gains and behavior before, during, and after weaning in dairy calves. Fifty-six Holstein calves were randomly assigned at 1 wk of age to 1 of 4 feeding treatments of whole pasteurized milk: 6, 8, 10, or 12 L/d. Milk allowance was reduced by 50% at d 42, and then reduced by 20% per day starting at d 50, so that calves were completely weaned at d 55. Calves were provided ad libitum access to calf starter and hay. Body weight was measured weekly from 2 to 10 wk of age...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865512/the-effect-of-supplemental-concentrate-fed-during-the-dry-period-on-morphological-and-functional-aspects-of-rumen-adaptation-in-dairy-cattle-during-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#14
K Dieho, J Dijkstra, G Klop, J T Schonewille, A Bannink
Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of supplemental concentrate [3.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] from 28 d antepartum (ap) until the day of calving, whereas control did not receive supplemental concentrate. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to the dry period ration (27% grass silage, 28% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a DM basis) and, from calving onward, to a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 42% corn silage, and 16% soybean meal on a DM basis)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865511/modeling-genetic-and-nongenetic-variation-of-feed-efficiency-and-its-partial-relationships-between-component-traits-as-a-function-of-management-and-environmental-factors
#15
Y Lu, M J Vandehaar, D M Spurlock, K A Weigel, L E Armentano, C R Staples, E E Connor, Z Wang, M Coffey, R F Veerkamp, Y de Haas, R J Tempelman
Feed efficiency (FE), characterized as the fraction of feed nutrients converted into salable milk or meat, is of increasing economic importance in the dairy industry. We conjecture that FE is a complex trait whose variation and relationships or partial efficiencies (PE) involving the conversion of dry matter intake to milk energy and metabolic body weight may be highly heterogeneous across environments or management scenarios. In this study, a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate mixed model was proposed to jointly infer upon such heterogeneity at both genetic and nongenetic levels on PE and variance components (VC)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865510/electrophoretic-characterization-of-protein-interactions-suggesting-limited-feasibility-of-accelerated-shelf-life-testing-of-ultra-high-temperature-milk
#16
Manpreet Kaur Grewal, Jayani Chandrapala, Osaana Donkor, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Todor Vasiljevic
Accelerated shelf-life testing is applied to a variety of products to estimate keeping quality over a short period of time. The industry has not been successful in applying this approach to ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk because of chemical and physical changes in the milk proteins that take place during processing and storage. We investigated these protein changes, applying accelerated shelf-life principles to UHT milk samples with different fat levels and using native- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Samples of UHT skim and whole milk were stored at 20, 30, 40, and 50°C for 28 d...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865509/effect-of-incremental-amounts-of-camelina-oil-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-lactating-cows-fed-diets-based-on-a-mixture-of-grass-and-red-clover-silage-and-concentrates-containing-camelina-expeller
#17
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, K J Shingfield, I Simpura, T Kokkonen, S Jaakkola, V Toivonen, A Vanhatalo
Camelina is an ancient oilseed crop that produces an oil rich in cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid, LA) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA); however, reports on the use of camelina oil (CO) for ruminants are limited. The present study investigated the effects of incremental CO supplementation on animal performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, and milk sensory quality. Eight Finnish Ayrshire cows (91 d in milk) were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Treatments comprised 4 concentrates (12 kg/d on an air-dry basis) based on cereals and camelina expeller containing 0 (control), 2, 4, or 6% CO on an air-dry basis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865508/occurrence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-cattle-herds-related-swine-farms-and-humans-in-contact-with-herds
#18
C Locatelli, P Cremonesi, A Caprioli, V Carfora, A Ianzano, A Barberio, S Morandi, A Casula, B Castiglioni, V Bronzo, P Moroni
In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865507/plasma-protein-and-supplemental-isoleucine-in-milk-replacers-for-dairy-calves
#19
K M Vasquez, S Y Morrison, J M Campbell, J K Drackley
We measured the effects of milk replacers containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% of the total replaceable whey protein as bovine plasma protein (PP), without or with Ile supplementation, on the intake, growth, and health of 124 male Holstein calves for 35 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 20% fat, with contents of Lys and Met equalized. When fed to calves at 1.5% of body weight (dry matter basis) under thermoneutral conditions, diets were predicted to allow average daily gains of 0.55 kg/d based on metabolizable energy or 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865506/synthesis-of-the-suspected-trans-11-cis-13-conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomer-in-ruminant-mammary-tissue-by-fads3-catalyzed-%C3%AE-13-desaturation-of-vaccenic-acid
#20
Cyrielle Garcia, Cécile Duby, Daniel Catheline, Pablo G Toral, Laurence Bernard, Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
The octadecadienoic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer with trans-11 and cis-13 double bonds (trans-11,cis-13 CLA) has been described in ruminant milk. For now, this specific CLA is suspected to derive exclusively from ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary α-linolenic acid. However, in rodents, the fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene was recently shown to code for an enzyme able to catalyze the unexpected Δ13-desaturation of vaccenic acid, producing a Δ11,13-CLA with all the structural characteristics of the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, although no commercial standard exists for complete conclusive identification...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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