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Journal of Dairy Science

J E Freitas, C S Takiya, T A Del Valle, R V Barletta, B C Venturelli, T H A Vendramini, R D Mingoti, G D Calomeni, R Gardinal, J R Gandra, V P Bettero, E Ferreira de Jesus, M D S Oliveira, F P Rennó
Ruminants have a unique metabolism and digestion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Unlike monogastric animals, the fatty acid (FA) profile ingested by ruminants is not the same as that reaching the small intestine. The objective of this study was to evaluate whole raw soybeans (WS) in diets as a replacer for calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in terms of UFA profile in the abomasal digesta of early- to mid-lactation cows. Eight Holstein cows (80 ± 20 d in milk, 22.9 ± 0.69 kg/d of milk yield, and 580 ± 20 kg of body weight; mean ± standard deviation) with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 22-d periods...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Maxwell J Holle, Luis A Ibarra-Sánchez, Xiaoji Liu, Matthew J Stasiewicz, Michael J Miller
Queso Fresco (QF), a fresh Hispanic-style cheese, is often associated with Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks and recalls. Queso Fresco's susceptibility to bacterial contamination is partially due to its high pH and moisture content as well as Listeria's tolerance for the salt content typical for QF. Nine different brands of US QF, 2 packages from 4 different lots (to account for temporal variability), were sampled. The pH, salt content, and moisture content were analyzed in addition to microbial testing including yeasts and molds, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria enumeration, and L...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Mansouryar, H Mirzaei-Alamouti, M Dehghan Banadaky, H Sauerwein, M Mielenz, M O Nielsen
We hypothesized that plasma adipokine concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows are related to body condition score (BCS) at calving and to markers of metabolic status of the cow. As part of a larger study with 117 multiparous Holstein dairy cows, which had high BCS (BCS >4.0) or normal BCS (3.25-3.5) at calving, 22 cows were randomly selected (n = 11 per group) to be enrolled in this study. Cows were divided into 2 groups based on their BCS at calving: (1) normal BCS with BCS of 3.35 ± 0.13 (mean ± SD) and (2) high BCS cows with BCS of 4...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
W A Knauer, S M Godden, A Dietrich, D M Hawkins, R E James
Group housing and computerized feeding of preweaned dairy calves are gaining in popularity among dairy producers, yet disease detection remains a challenge for this management system. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of statistical process control charting techniques to daily average feeding behavior to predict and detect illness and to describe the diagnostic test characteristics of using this technique to find a sick calf compared with detection by calf personnel. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 10 farms in Minnesota (n = 4) and Virginia (n = 6) utilizing group housing and computerized feeding from February until October 2014...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
T Bobbo, F Tiezzi, M Penasa, M De Marchi, M Cassandro
The aim of the present study was to determine the allele frequencies of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) K232A mutation in Italian Holstein bulls and to estimate the effect of the mutation on milk yield, composition, somatic cell score, and coagulation traits (rennet coagulation time and curd firmness). For this purpose, 349 Italian Holstein bulls were genotyped for the DGAT1 mutation on chromosome 14. Association analysis was performed by regressing the number of copies for the K allele on the deregressed estimated breeding value of the individual...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D L Morris, L R Rebelo, P A Dieter, C Lee
Indirect methods of spot sampling with intrinsic markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility often have been used in dairy nutrition research as alternatives to total collection of feces (TC) because of labor and expense. However, fecal output and nutrient digestibility estimated from the indirect method must be accurate regardless of altering dietary conditions. This experiment was designed to validate the accuracy of using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) or acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as intrinsic markers to estimate fecal outputs and nutrient digestibility compared with TC and to determine the optimal number of spot sampling events to accurately determine fecal output and then nutrient excretion...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D M Liebe, J L Firkins, H Tran, P J Kononoff, R R White
When formulating dairy cow rations, characterization of protein in feeds requires estimation of protein degradation in the rumen and digestion in the intestine. The objective of this work was to evaluate experimental and feed-related factors that affect characterization using in situ, in vitro, or mobile bag techniques, of 0-h washout (A), potentially degradable (B), and undegradable (C) protein fractions, protein degradation rate (Kd ), and digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (dRUP). Data sets of 136 studies on A, B, C, and Kd and 113 studies on dRUP were amassed from the literature...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Y Nawaz, F Jimenez-Krassel, J P Steibel, Y Lu, A Baktula, N Vukasinovic, L Neuder, J L H Ireland, J J Ireland, R J Tempelman
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian growth factor that plays an important role in regulation of ovarian follicle growth. The objectives of this study were to estimate the genomic heritability of AMH and identify genomic regions associated with AMH production in a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. Concentrations of AMH were determined in 2,905 dairy Holstein heifers genotyped using the Zoetis medium density panel (Zoetis Inclusions, Kalamazoo, MI) with 54,519 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers remaining after standard genotype quality control edits...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
G S Moura, W A Gebreyes, M F S Marques, D T Stipp, F N Souza, L B Da Costa, C J B Oliveira
In light of the scarcity of information about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) in small ruminants in general, and particularly dairy goats, we launched this limited-scope study. The findings reported here show the detection of MRSA and MRCNS in goat milk and teat skin samples from dairy goat herds in the state of Ohio. A total of 120 milk samples and 120 teat-swab samples were collected from 5 farms. After conventional isolation and phenotypic characterization of the staphylococci colonies, bacterial isolates were tested by PCR assay targeting the genes nuc to identify Staphylococcus aureus and mecA to detect MRSA and MRCNS...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D M Wang, B X Zhang, J K Wang, H Y Liu, J X Liu
The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of biotin, intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 (VB12 ), or both beginning at the prepartum period on feed intake and lactation performance in postpartum dairy cows. Forty-eight dairy cows were allocated into 12 blocks, based on parity and milk yield of the previous lactation cycle, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Supplementation of VB12 (weekly intramuscular injections of 0 or 10 mg) and biotin (dietary supplements of 0 or 30 mg/d) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design of 12 blocks with repeated measures...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Izabelle S Rehfeld, Ana Luiza S Fraiha, Ana Carolina D Matos, Aristóteles G Costa, Grazielle C F Gallinari, Érica A Costa, Maria Isabel M C Guedes, Zélia Inês P Lobato
Several studies have shown the occurrence of poxvirus infections associated with exanthematic lesions in cattle from many Brazilian states. Coinfection between viruses belonging to 2 genera, Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV), was already identified from the lesions of affected cows and humans. The DNA and infectious viral particles of Vaccinia virus, an OPXV, have been detected in milk of naturally and experimentally infected cows. However, to date no reports have described the detection of Pseudocowpox virus, a PPV, in milk...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K Nichols, A Bannink, S Pacheco, H J van Valenberg, J Dijkstra, H van Laar
Fifty-six Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a randomized complete block design to test the effects of supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. During the control period, cows were adapted for 28 d to a basal total mixed ration consisting of 34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Experimental rations were fed for 28 d immediately following the control period and consisted of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF), (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF), (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF), or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF)...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P J Polowsky, G F Tansman, P S Kindstedt, J M Hughes
Surface crystallization and radial demineralization of Ca, P, and Mg occur in smear-ripened cheese. Furthermore, crystals of ikaite, struvite, calcite, and brushite have been identified in cheese smears by powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD), and ikaite and struvite exist in smears as single crystals. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a simple, inexpensive, and well-established method in geology to detect and identify single crystals. However, use of PLM to identify cheese crystals has not been reported previously...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R Zimpel, M B Poindexter, A Vieira-Neto, E Block, C D Nelson, C R Staples, W W Thatcher, J E P Santos
The objective was to determine if the reduction in dry matter (DM) intake of acidogenic diets is mediated by inclusion of acidogenic products, content of salts containing Cl, or changes in acid-base status. The hypothesis was that a decrease in intake is mediated by metabolic acidosis. Ten primigravid Holstein cows at 148 ± 8 d of gestation were used in a duplicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. The dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of diets and acid-base status of cows were manipulated by incorporating an acidogenic product or by adding salts containing Cl, Na, and K to the diets...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Caroprese, M G Ciliberti, P De Palo, A Santillo, A Sevi, M Albenzio
The present experiment aimed at understanding the effects of cortisol levels on sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and cytokine production during hyperthermia. To mimic stress related to the exposition of high ambient temperatures, PBMC were cultured at 43°C for 12 h, and subsequently at 39°C for additional 12 h. Cells in normothermia were cultured at 39°C for 24 h. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated PBMC were cultured with different cortisol levels: 0 ng/mL; 100 ng/mL, representing the physiological cortisol concentration simulating stress condition (Cort100); and 1,000 ng/mL, representing the hyperactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Cort1000)...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M A Overvest, R E Crossley, E K Miller-Cushon, T J DeVries
We investigated the effect of social housing on the behavioral, intake, and physiological changes that occur at weaning for dairy calves fed milk ad libitum. These changes were evaluated during the weaning (d 40 to 48 of age) and postweaning (d 49 to 56 of age) stages. Twenty male Holstein calves were fed milk replacer ad libitum and weaned gradually by dilution over 9 d starting at d 40 of age. Calves were housed in pairs (10 calves) or individually (10 calves) from birth until the beginning of the postweaning phase, when all calves were paired...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Giulia Grassi, Emilio Gambacorta
The aim of this work was to evaluate the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of goat milk yogurt characterized by different αS1 -casein genotypes and fortified with Rhus coriaria leaf powder. The αS1 -casein genotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV analysis, and antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A Albaaj, P G Marnet, C Hurtaud, J Guinard-Flament
Milk accumulation in the udder decreases milk secretion and this effect is explained as well by the effects of the quantity of milk stored in the udder as by the duration and repetition of periods of milk stasis. This experiment aimed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of decreased milk yield in response to the specific effects of the quantity of milk stored in the udder, independent from storage duration, on milk yield and composition. Sixteen Holstein cows were assigned to 4 blocks of 4 cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7-d periods, with a 4-d sampling period and a 3-d washout period...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jiwon Lee, Silvana Martini
Aging of cream is an important process to manage production time and to produce butter with consistent quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of temperature (5, 10, and 15°C) and agitation rate (0, 40, and 240 rpm) during aging of cream on the physical properties of cream and butter in a model system. Cream's solid fat content (SFC), melting behavior, and droplet size distribution were measured during and after 90 min of aging. Butter physical properties such as melting behavior, water content, and hardness were measured...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Nanbing Qin, Ali-Reza Bayat, Erminio Trevisi, Andrea Minuti, Piia Kairenius, Sirja Viitala, Mervi Mutikainen, Heidi Leskinen, Kari Elo, Tuomo Kokkonen, Johanna Vilkki
To investigate the metabolic changes in the adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows under milk fat depression (MFD), 30 cows were randomly allocated to a control diet, a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-supplemented diet, or a high-starch diet supplemented with a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (2:1; as HSO diet) from 1 to 112 d in milk. Performance of animals, milk yield, milk composition, energy balance, and blood metabolites were measured during lactation. Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted on the AT samples collected at wk 3 and 15 of lactation...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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