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Journal of Dairy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625184/detection-of-70-kda-heat-shock-protein-in-the-saliva-of-dairy-cows
#1
Elsa Lamy, Viktor Jurkovich, Lénia Rodrigues, Ana Geraldo, Liliana Cachucho, Flávio Silva, Catarina Matos, Fernando Capela E Silva, Cristina Pinheiro, László Könyves, Mikolt Bakony, Alfredo Pereira
This Research Communication describes, for the first time, the detection of HSP70 in saliva of dairy cows. Thermal stress is a major environmental stress that limits animal growth, metabolism, and productivity. The cellular response to heat stress involves the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs), presumably to protect the functional stability of cells at increasing temperatures. HSP70 has been found to be present in cattle blood serum and may also be present in other secretory fluids, such as saliva, as already observed in humans...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625182/bovine-intra-mammary-challenge-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-spp-dysgalactiae-to-explore-the-effect-on-the-response-of-complement-activity
#2
Susan Maye, James Flynn, Catherine Stanton, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Philip M Kelly
Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349857/fitting-milk-production-curves-through-nonlinear-mixed-models
#3
Monica Piccardi, Raúl Macchiavelli, Ariel Capitaine Funes, Gabriel A Bó, Mónica Balzarini
The aim of this work was to fit and compare three non-linear models (Wood, Milkbot and diphasic) to model lactation curves from two approaches: with and without cow random effect. Knowing the behaviour of lactation curves is critical for decision-making in a dairy farm. Knowledge of the model of milk production progress along each lactation is necessary not only at the mean population level (dairy farm), but also at individual level (cow-lactation). The fits were made in a group of high production and reproduction dairy farms; in first and third lactations in cool seasons...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524021/editorial-hypothetically-speaking
#4
Christopher H Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524020/altered-gene-expression-of-epigenetic-modifying-enzymes-in-response-to-dietary-supplementation-with-linseed-oil
#5
Ran Li, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu
Recently we showed that 5% linseed oil (LSO) and 5% safflower oil (SFO) supplementation of cow's diets reduced milk fat yield by 30·38 and 32·42% respectively, accompanied by differential expression of genes and regulation by microRNAs (miRNA). This research communication addresses the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation could be involved in the observed milk fat reduction. Thus, this study investigated the gene expression pattern of major epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with LSO or SFO...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#6
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524018/comparison-of-the-immune-responses-associated-with-experimental-bovine-mastitis-caused-by-different-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#7
Shlomo E Blum, Elimelech D Heller, Shamay Jacoby, Oleg Krifucks, Gabriel Leitner
We studied the mammary immune response to different mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) strains in cows, hypothesising that the dynamics of response would differ. E. coli is a major aetiologic agent of acute clinical bovine mastitis of various degrees of severity with specific strains being associated with persistent infections. We compared challenge with three distinct pathogenic MPEC strains (VL2874, VL2732 and P4), isolated from different forms of mastitis (per-acute, persistent and acute, respectively)...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524017/effect-of-homogenisation-in-formation-of-thermally-induced-aggregates-in-a-non-and-low-fat-milk-model-system-with-microparticulated-whey-proteins
#8
Isabel Celigueta Torres, Gema Nieto, Tommy Nylander, Adam Cohen Simonsen, Alexander Tolkach, Richard Ipsen
The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate how different characteristics of whey protein microparticles (MWP) added to milk as fat replacers influence intermolecular interactions occurring with other milk proteins during homogenisation and heating. These interactions are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524016/towards-practical-application-of-sensors-for-monitoring-animal-health-the-effect-of-post-calving-health-problems-on-rumination-duration-activity-and-milk-yield
#9
Machteld Steensels, Ephraim Maltz, Claudia Bahr, Daniel Berckmans, Aharon Antler, Ilan Halachmi
Three sources of sensory data: cow's individual rumination duration, activity and milk yield were evaluated as possible indicators for clinical diagnosis, focusing on post-calving health problems such as ketosis and metritis. Data were collected from a computerised dairy-management system on a commercial dairy farm with Israeli Holstein cows. In the analysis, 300 healthy and 403 sick multiparous cows were studied during the first 3 weeks after calving. A mixed model with repeated measurements was used to compare healthy cows with sick cows...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524015/presence-of-mycobacterium-avium-subs-paratuberculosis-dna-in-milk-used-to-feed-calves-in-portugal
#10
Célia Leão, Ana Botelho, Elisabete Martins, Carla Aguiar, Inês Rebelo, Telmo Nunes, Ricardo Bexiga
This Technical Research communication describes results of a study aimed at detecting the presence of Map in milk fed to calves, and identifying possible risk factors for that presence. A questionnaire was performed on 37 dairy farms and waste milk samples were collected on 3 occasions separated by a minimum of 1 week. For farms not feeding waste milk, bulk tank milk samples were collected instead. A real time PCR for the detection of the IS900 sequence was performed for the detection of Map. A majority of farms (89·2%) fed waste milk, with only one pasteurising the milk before feeding it to calves...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524014/composition-and-enzymatic-activity-in-bulk-milk-from-dairy-farms-with-conventional-or-robotic-milking-systems
#11
Monika Johansson, Åse Lundh, Ruben de Vries, Kerstin Svennersten Sjaunja
The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate differences in composition and enzymatic activities in bulk milk samples provided from Swedish dairy farms with different management systems, i.e. automated (AMS) and conventional milking systems (CMS). A bulk milk sample was collected from each of 104 dairy farms, 51 using AMS and 53 using CMS, located in the same geographical region. Sampling took place within two consecutive days during the indoor period (October). Milk samples were analysed for contents of total fat and protein, free fatty acids (FFA), caseins and whey proteins, somatic cell count (SCC), pH, plasmin and plasminogen derived activities, and total proteolysis...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524013/probiotic-supplementation-effects-on-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-ewes
#12
Shahab Payandeh, Farokh Kafilzadeh, Manuela Juárez, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Darab Ghadimi, Andrés L Martínez Marín
We hypothesised that probiotic feeding would alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep's milk. Sixteen lactating ewes, kept under the same feeding and management practices, were randomly allocated to receive either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with a commercial multi-strain bacterial probiotic. Milk fat FA contents were monitored fortnightly for eight consecutive weeks from 14 d after lambing. Probiotic supplementation increased the contents of butyric and caproic acids in milk fat and had no negative effects on other relevant FA from the human's health point of view (i...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524012/towards-practical-application-of-sensors-for-monitoring-animal-health-design-and-validation-of-a-model-to-detect-ketosis
#13
Machteld Steensels, Ephraim Maltz, Claudia Bahr, Daniel Berckmans, Aharon Antler, Ilan Halachmi
The objective of this study was to design and validate a mathematical model to detect post-calving ketosis. The validation was conducted in four commercial dairy farms in Israel, on a total of 706 multiparous Holstein dairy cows: 203 cows clinically diagnosed with ketosis and 503 healthy cows. A logistic binary regression model was developed, where the dependent variable is categorical (healthy/diseased) and a set of explanatory variables were measured with existing commercial sensors: rumination duration, activity and milk yield of each individual cow...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524011/effects-of-heating-and-calcium-and-phosphate-mineral-supplementation-on-the-physical-properties-of-rennet-induced-coagulation-of-camel-and-cow-milk-gels
#14
Mohammad Kamal, Mohammed Foukani, Romdhane Karoui
The physical properties of rennet-induced coagulation of preheated camel and cow milk gels (50 and 70 °C for 10 min) enriched with calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (Na2HPO42H2O) were evaluated using the dynamic low amplitude oscillatory shear analysis. The storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") of camel milk gels showed significant (P < 0·05) lower values than those of cow milk gels. The preheating of camel milk at 50 °C affected negatively the gelation properties, while the preheating at 70 °C prevented the formation of rennet-induced milk gels...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524010/effect-of-g-9476869g-a-myeloperoxidase-mpo-gene-polymorphism-on-the-antioxidant-activity-of-milk-from-polish-holstein-friesian-cows-of-the-black-and-white-variety-ho
#15
Joanna Pokorska, Karolina Poskart, Dominika Kułaj, Andrzej Ochrem, Magdalena Dusza, Zygmunt Gil, Ewa Świętek, Joanna Makulska
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme, which is one of the components of the antibacterial system in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO participates in the inflammatory response in multiple locations in the body, including the mammary glands. As a result of the activity of MPO, many oxidising compounds as well as reactive oxygen species are generated. It seems that myeloperoxidase may be a marker linking inflammation processes and oxidative stress. So far, there are no literature data on the association between the MPO gene polymorphism and the antioxidant properties of milk...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524009/a-novel-polymorphism-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-encoding-gene-oxtr-affects-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-italian-mediterranean-river-buffalo
#16
Gianfranco Cosenza, Nicolò P P Macciotta, Anna Nudda, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Ramunno, Alfredo Pauciullo
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin and the complex oxytocin-oxytocin receptor plays an important role in the uterus during calving. A characterisation of the river buffalo OXTR gene, amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis is presented. The DNA regions of the OXTR gene spanning exons 1, 2 and 3 of ten Mediterranean river buffalo DNA samples were analysed and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. We focused on the g...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325170/rapid-discrimination-between-buffalo-and-cow-milk-and-detection-of-adulteration-of-buffalo-milk-with-cow-milk-using-synchronous-fluorescence-spectroscopy-in-combination-with-multivariate-methods
#17
Serap Durakli Velioglu, Elif Ercioglu, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294933/differences-in-sheep-and-goats-milk-microbiological-profile-between-conventional-and-organic-farming-systems-in-greece
#18
Eleni Malissiova, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Kyriazi, Maria Mparda, Christina Sakorafa, Antonios Katsioulis, Anna Katsiaflaka, Maria Kyritsi, Antonios Zdragas, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
The aim of this study was to examine differences in the microbiological profile and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from milk from organic and conventional sheep and goat farms. Twenty-five organic and 25 conventional sheep and goat farms in the region of Thessaly, Greece participated in this study. A standardised detailed questionnaire was used to describe farming practices. A total of 50 samples were collected and analysed for total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and somatic cell count (SCC), while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated using standard methods...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290268/molecular-characterisation-genetic-variability-and-detection-of-a-functional-polymorphism-influencing-the-promoter-activity-of-oxt-gene-in-goat-and-sheep
#19
Gianfranco Cosenza, Marco Iannaccone, Boipuso Alpheus Pico, Daniela Gallo, Rosanna Capparelli, Alfredo Pauciullo
The purpose of the study described in this Research Communication was to report the full characterisation of the goat and sheep oxytocin-neurophysin I gene (OXT), their promoters and amino acid sequences. Using the genomic DNA as template, we sequenced and compared the whole OXT gene (3 exons), plus 958/960 nucleotides at the 5' flanking region and 478/477 nucleotides at the 3' flanking region, in 46 sheep and 24 goats belonging to different breeds/genetic types reared in Italy, Greece and Germany. The comparison of the obtained sequences showed a high degree of genetic variability at these loci...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290267/characterisation-of-penicillin-and-tetracycline-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-milk-samples-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#20
Caroline L Martini, Carla C Lange, Maria Avp Brito, João B Ribeiro, Letícia C Mendonça, Eliana K Vaz
This Regional Research Communication describes the characterisation of ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ninety S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis exhibiting phenotypic resistance to ampicillin, penicillin and/or tetracycline were selected for this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic was determined using the E-Test® and the production of beta-lactamase was determined by cefinase disks...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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