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Journal of Dairy Research

Arash Omidi, Mohammad Hasan Fathi, Matthew O Parker
The purpose of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate alterations in concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, plasma total thiols as markers of oxidative protein damage and malondialdehyde (as a final product of lipid peroxidation) in samples obtained at different stages of the lactation cycle and dry period of dairy cows. We found that TAC was significantly lower in the primiparous cows compared to multiparous cows. This study clearly demonstrates a need for monitoring primiparous cows during the production cycle, especially when they are faced with severe metabolic conditions...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Maria Selvaggi, Angela Gabriella D'Alessandro, Cataldo Dario
The aims of the study described in the Research Communication were to determine the level of influence of some environmental factors on milk yield and quality traits, including lactose, and lactation length in ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds and to estimate the heritability for the same traits. A total of 2138 lactation records obtained from 535 ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds (Comisana, Leccese, and Sarda) were used. Breed significantly affected all of the considered traits...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Carla Margarida Duarte, Carla Carneiro, Susana Cardoso, Paulo Peixeiro Freitas, Ricardo Bexiga
Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers, hence, control measures to prevent it are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. Staphylococcus aureus is considered a major mastitis pathogen because of its impact on milk quality and low cure rates. Prevention of S. aureus mastitis includes segregation of infected animals, whilst treatment of such animals should be performed for a longer time to improve cure rates. This makes identification of S. aureus infected quarters and animals of significant importance...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Lin Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Ge Su, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Susana Vargas Muñoz, Francisco Quintanilla Guerrero, Maykel González Torres, Ma Del Pilar Carreón Castro, Rogelio Rodríguez Talavera
Probiotic-based starter cultures are generally used to produce fermented milks with improved characteristics in the final product. In this study, Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lc1-St) were used as the starter inoculum. The transformation kinetics and properties of the final product were compared with systems produced with other inocula. The Lc1-St inoculum delayed the production of lactic acid from 40 to 70 min (depending on temperature and concentration) when compared to Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Yonas Hailu, Egon Bech Hansen, Eyassu Seifu, Mitiku Eshetu, Richard Ipsen, Stefan Kappeler
This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Marion P Costa, Beatriz S Frasao, Bruna L Rodrigues, Adriana Co Silva, Carlos A Conte-Junior
The aim of this Research Communication was to investigate the changes in physicochemical, colour, apparent viscosity and texture properties in low-fat goat milk yogurts prepared with cupuassu pulp by the addition of inulin (SI), maltodextrin (SM), whey protein (SW) and skim milk powder (SP). Three batches of each cupuassu goat milk yogurt were prepared and analysed on the 1st day of storage by pH, proximate composition, colour, apparent viscosity, and texture. In comparison to yogurts from whole (W) or skimmed milk (S), all of the fat replacers improved the physicochemical properties (P < 0·05)...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Christopher H Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Catherine Jean, Martine Boulianne, Michel Britten, Gilles Robitaille
Antibiotics are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promoters. This practice is questioned given the arising importance of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial peptides can be used as food additives for a potent alternative to synthetic or semi-synthetic antibiotics. The objective of this study was to develop a peptide production method based on membrane adsorption chromatography in order to produce extracts with antimicrobial activity against avian pathogens (Salmonella enterica var. Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica var...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Klemens Kiesner, Nicole Wente, Otto Volling, Volker Krömker
Restrictions regarding the use of antibiotics make selective antibiotic dry cow therapy (DCT) mandatory on organic farms in Germany. This requires methods for identifying cows with an intramammary infection (IMI) at dry-off. The aim of this field study was to create a decision scheme for the use of DCT based on cow level factors associated with IMI at dry-off and the probability of both cure and new infection (NI) during the dry period. Data from 250 cows from five organic farms were collected including somatic cell counts (SCC) from Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records, California mastitis test (CMT) results at dry-off, clinical mastitis (CM) history, parity and dry-off treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
David Ranucci, Angela Garofalo, Eleonora Urbani, Stefano Rea, Anna Rita Loschi, Roberta Stocchi, Dino Miraglia, Raffaella Branciari
Water buffalo Mozzarella cheese is more appreciated in the summer, but milk production is higher during wintertime, as water buffalo are seasonally polyoestrous animals. The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate the effect of the reversing of the calving period on Mozzarella cheese composition and quality traits. Ten batches of Mozzarella cheeses produced during the summer and winter periods were analysed for pH, colour, chemical composition. Seasonal differences were observed for cheese yield (26·66% in winter and 25·61% in summer), moisture content (66·54% in winter and 61·18% in summer) colour and consumer evaluation...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Elisa C Ale, Marcos J Perezlindo, Patricia Burns, Eduardo Tabacman, Jorge A Reinheimer, Ana G Binetti
Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Elva Cha, Rebecca L Smith, Anders R Kristensen, Julia A Hertl, Ynte H Schukken, Loren W Tauer, Frank L Welcome, Yrjö T Gröhn
The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen causing CM is Gram-positive, Gram-negative or other (including no growth) can be determined by using on-farm culture methods. The most detailed level of information for mastitis diagnostics is obtainable by sending milk samples for culture to an external laboratory...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Inmaculada Orjales, Marta López-Alonso, Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Francisco Rey-Crespo, Ana Villar, Marta Miranda
This research communication aimed to compare somatic cell count (SCC), the main marker of udder health status, in organic farms not using antibiotics (O, n = 6), organic farms using antibiotics (OA, n = 7) and conventional farms (CA, n = 5) using antibiotic treatments, all of them at pasture. SCC was statistically significantly higher in O (173780) compared to CA (93325) and OA (107152). Milk yield had a significant diluting effect on SCC and differences between groups increased with parities. Stratified analysis of SCC depending on lactation number and % of monthly SCC test with different linear scores (LS) indicated that there is no difference in udder health in the primiparous heifers from the three groups of farms, but it deteriorates in older cows because of chronic infections in O (possibly due to lack of antibiotic use)...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Mette Krogh Larsen, Stefania Vogdanou, Anne Louise F Hellwing, Iga Rybicka, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
The composition of grass/clover silage varies depending on time of harvest time. In particular silage from late regrowths is expected to contain lower fibre and higher linolenic acid concentrations compared to spring growth, thereby autumn silage is expected to increase linolenic acid content of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Enrico Fiore, Laura Perillo, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella, Silvia Bedin, Leonardo Armato, Elisabetta Giudice, Massimo Morgante
The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of a combined acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin and α-lipoic acid treatment, on some metabolic parameters of early lactating high-yielding dairy cows. Thirty cows were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 10). EG received 20 ml of treatment and CG received 20 ml of placebo. The treatments were administered for seven times every 2 d. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 3 time points: 10 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 d postpartum...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Julia Ruoff, Sandra Bertulat, Onno Burfeind, Wolfgang Heuwieser
While laboratory tests for measuring the concentration of NEFA in serum are well established, a point of care test to determine NEFA on farm is not available. Several hand-held measuring devices, however, have been validated for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in cattle or cholesterol, triglycerides (TAG), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human medicine, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between NEFA and different parameters related to lipid metabolism. Specifically, we set out to determine if it is feasible to predict the concentration of NEFA by means of surrogate measures...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Xiaoxia Shi, Dangdang Li, Qinghua Deng, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Dairy cows with fatty liver or ketosis exhibit hyperketonemia, oxidative stress, and a low rate of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and there may be a potential link among these characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of acetoacetic acid (AcAc) on the assembly of VLDL in cow hepatocytes. Cultured cow hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of AcAc with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). AcAc treatment decreased the mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, indicative of oxidative stress...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Veronica Caldeo, John A Hannon, Dara-Kate Hickey, Dave Waldron, Martin G Wilkinson, Thomas P Beresford, Paul L H McSweeney
In cheese, a negative oxidation-reduction (redox) potential is required for the stability of aroma, especially that associated with volatile sulphur compounds. To control the redox potential during ripening, redox agents were added to the salted curd of Cheddar cheese before pressing. The control cheese contained only salt, while different oxidising or reducing agents were added with the NaCl to the experimental cheeses. KIO3 (at 0·05, 0·1 and 1%, w/w) was used as the oxidising agent while cysteine (at 2%, w/w) and Na2S2O4 (at 0·05 and 0·1%, w/w) were used as reducing agents...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Fatemeh Hoseyni, Ehsan Mahjoubi, Davood Zahmatkesh, Mehdi Hossein Yazdi
This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
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