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Journal of Dairy Research

Enrico Fiore, Laura Perillo, Massimo Morgante, Elisabetta Giudice, Barbara Contiero, Giulio Curone, Elisabetta Manuali, Silvia Pavone, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for diagnosis of fatty liver by means of ultrasonographic measurement of liver and perivisceral adipose tissue as an alternative to blood indicators of lipomobilization and liver biopsy in periparturient high-yielding dairy cows. Thirty cows were enrolled and divided into two groups. The evaluation of body condition score (BCS), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), liver and perivisceral adipose tissue ultrasonographic measurement and histological liver lipid content (GdL) was performed at 15 ± 5 d prepartum (T0), 10 ± 2 d postpartum (T1), 30 ± 2 d postpartum (T2) and 50 ± 2 d postpartum (T3)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Alexandra Contreras-Jodar, Ahmed Ak Salama, Soufiane Hamzaoui, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Gerardo Caja, Juan J Loor
High temperature is a major stress that negatively affects welfare, health, and productivity of dairy animals. Heat-stressed animals are more prone to disease, suggesting that their immunity is hindered. Although productive and physiologic responses of dairy animals to heat stress are well known, there is still limited information on the response at the transcriptome level. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in performance and blood transcriptomics of dairy goats under heat stress. Eight multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation were assigned to 1 of 2 climatic treatments for 35 d...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Ce Wang, Cuina Wang, Feng Gao, Yanyang Xu, Mingruo Guo
Goaty flavor and poor consistency may impact consumer acceptance of fermented goat milk. The undesirable characteristics can mainly be attributed to the presence of short-medium chain free fatty acid (SM-FFA) especially C6-C10 fatty acids and low αs1-casein content in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the effects of polymerized whey protein (PWP) on goaty flavor as well as the texture properties of fermented goat milk in comparison with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Samples were evaluated on sensory properties, SM-FFA contents, texture, and apparent viscosity...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Manman Shi, Cheng Zhang, Diana Stewart
This Technical Research Communication describes a new method by which thermally treated Coxiella in milk products may be grown in a liquid growth medium and quantitated using an MPN-PCR assay. Coxiella is generally not used in studies on thermal and non-thermal processing of milk due to the need for specialized and highly laborious techniques such as animal assays and tissue culture for determining viability. Recently, a liquid growth medium (ACCM-2) and modified atmosphere were used to grow Coxiella from pure cultures, infected mouse tissues, and clinical samples, however, the ability to grow Coxiella from a food such as milk has not been shown...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Ishfaq Ahmad Sheikh, Muhammad Yasir, Imran Khan, Sher Bahadur Khan, Naveed Azum, Essam Hussain Jiffri, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mohd Amin Beg
Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an antimicrobial protein present in milk that plays an important role in natural defence mechanisms during neonatal and adult life. The antimicrobial activity of LPO has been commercially adapted for increasing the shelf life of dairy products. Immobilization of LPO on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a promising way to enhance the antimicrobial activity of LPO. In the current study, LPO was immobilized on AgNPs to form LPO/AgNP conjugate. The immobilized LPO/AgNP conjugate was characterized by various biophysical techniques...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Mina Martini, Federica Salari, Iolanda Altomonte, Giuseppe Ragona, Alice Piazza, Roberta Gori, Daniela Casati, Giovanni Brajon
Until now there are only few data on the effects of thermal treatments on the nutritional and hygienic characteristics of donkey milk. This Research Communication aims to provide information on the effects of pasteurization (at +65 °C for 30 min) and prolonged storage at refrigeration and freezing temperatures (21 d at + 3 °C ± 2 °C and up to 90 d at -20 °C ± 5 °C) on some nutritional and hygienic characteristics of Amiata donkey milk. The milk was monitored by chemical and microbiological analysis. Pasteurization ensured compliance with EC Regulation No 1441/2007, as Enterobacteriaceae were never found in the milk, or during storage at refrigeration and freezing temperatures...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Valery Gutsal, Sander Sieuwerts, Rodrigo Bibiloni
Optimization of dairy fermentation processes often requires multiplexed pH measurements over several hours. The method developed here measures up to 90 samples simultaneously, where traditional electrode-based methods require a lot more time for handing the same number of samples. Moreover, the new method employs commonly used materials and can be used with a wider range of fluorescence readers than commercial 96-well plates with optical pH sensors. For this application, a milk-like transparent medium is developed that shows acidification properties with dairy starters that are similar to milk...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Fernando César Dos Santos, Fabiano Érisson da Cunha, Érika de Pádua Alves, Flávia de Almeida Bergonse Pereira, Elsa Helena Walter de Santana, Bruno Garcia Botaro
This Research Communication describes the relationship between casein, free fatty acids (FFAs) and the storage period of ultra-high temperature-treated (UHT) whole milk observed for a period of 120 d of labelled shelf-life. Moreover, we aim to estimate the daily rate of casein degradation in UHT whole milk, and the total length of time estimated for its full degradation. With this aim, ten sets of samples were evaluated from batches of UHT milk manufactured by a dairy processing plant in Parana State, Brazil on 10 different days...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Ali Mostafaie, Gholamreza Bahrami, Maryam Chalabi
The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of fermentation temperature (37 and 45 °C) and different ratios of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus bulgaricus (3 : 1, 1 : 1 and 1 : 3) on Kermanshahi roghan and yoghurt fatty acid profiles (FAP) in order to obtain a product with optimized fatty acid profiles. Kermanshahi roghan is a yoghurt by-product in western Iran (Kermanshah). The results revealed that incubation temperature at 37 °C as compared to 45 °C had a better effect on fatty acid profiles of roghan and yoghurt...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Mengqi Wang, Hailiang Song, Xiaorui Zhu, Shiyu Xing, Meirong Zhang, Huimin Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Zhangping Yang, Xiangdong Ding, Niel A Karrow, Sven König, Yongjiang Mao
The research reported in this Research Communication aimed to describe the influence of Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important member of the toll-like receptor gene family that is widely found in various organisms. Since TLR4 can identify molecular patterns from various pathogenic microorganisms and induce natural and acquired immunity, it plays an important role in disease resistance in dairy cows. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR4 (c...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Jianfa Wang, Xu Zhang, Xianjing He, Bin Yang, Hai Wang, Xufei Shan, Chunqiu Li, Dongbo Sun, Rui Wu
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) has a central regulatory effect on milk fat synthesis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce mastitis and cause milk fat depression in cows. SREBP1 is also known to be associated with inflammatory regulation. Thus, in the current study, we hypothesized that LPS-induced milk fat depression in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) operates via decreased SREBP1 expression and activity. To examine the hypothesis, DCMECs were isolated and purified from dairy cow mammary tissue and treated with LPS (10 µg/ml)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Evrydiki Armaou, Panagiotis Simitzis, Panagiota Koutsouli, Evagelia Zoidou, Theofilos Massouras, Michael Goliomytis, Iosif Bizelis, Ioannis Politis
The majority of the work today regarding the effects of extended milking intervals has focused on dairy cattle and only to a limited extent on dairy goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different non-milking intervals on milk yield and composition, mammary physiology and welfare indices in dairy ewes. Thirty-six multiparous ewes in late lactation were allocated to one of four groups of nine and subjected to 24, 48 or 72 h of non-milking or normal milking interval (12 h) (group A, B, C and D, respectively)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Jun Li, Shenhe Liu, Zipeng Li, Shujun Zhang, Guohua Hua, Angela Salzano, Giuseppe Campanile, Bianca Gasparrini, Aixin Liang, Liguo Yang
This Research Communication describes the polymorphisms in the coding region of DGAT1 gene in Riverine buffalo, Swamp buffalo and crossbred buffalo, and associations between polymorphisms and milk production performance in Riverine buffalo. Two polymorphisms of DGAT1were identified, located in exon 13 and exon 17, respectively. The distribution of the genotypes of the two SNP loci in different buffalo population varied, especially the polymorphism located in exon 13 which was not found in the Swamp buffalo...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Christopher H Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Francisco Javier Espejo-Carpio, Raúl Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio Guadix, Emilia María Guadix
The enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins yield final products with improved properties and reduced allergenicity. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) influences both technological (e.g., solubility, water binding capacity) and biological (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antioxidation) properties of the resulting hydrolysate. Phenomenological models are unable to reproduce the complexity of enzymatic reactions in dairy systems. However, empirical approaches offer high predictability and can be easily transposed to different substrates and enzymes...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Kelly Fitzhenry, Neil Rowan, William Finnegan, Xinmin Zhan, Eoghan Clifford
In this Research Communication we investigate the microbiological profile of 12 dairy wastewater streams from three contrasting Irish dairy processing factories to determine whether faecal indicators/pathogens were present and in turn, whether disinfection may be required for potential water reuse within the factory. Subsequently, the impact of suspended solids on the inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli via two means of ultravoilet (UV) disinfection; flow-through pulsed UV (PUV) and continuous low pressure UV (LPUV) disinfection was analysed...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Ratan K Choudhary, Shanti Choudhary, Devendra Pathak, Rahul Udehiya, Ramneek Verma, Sandeep Kaswan, Arpan Sharma, Dhiraj Gupta, Mrigank Honparkhe, Anthony V Capuco
This study examined the hypothesis that xanthosine (XS) treatment would promote mammary-specific gene expression and stem cell transcripts and have a positive influence on milk yield of dairy goats. Seven primiparous Beetal goats were assigned to the study. Five days after kidding, one gland (either left or right) was infused with XS (TRT) twice daily for 3 d and the other gland with no XS infusion served as a control (CON). Mammary biopsies were collected at 10 d and RNA was isolated. Gene expression analysis of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cell markers, cell proliferation and differentiation markers were performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Aristo Vojdani, Chris Turnpaugh, Elroy Vojdani
The research reported here seeks to evaluate the allergenicity and antigenicity of different mammalian and plant-based milks/milk substitutes in healthy subjects. We used ELISA to measure IgE and IgG antibodies against cow, goat, sheep, camel, human milks, and soy, almond, and coconut plant-based milk substitutes, as well as IgA antibodies against all these apart from human milk, in 500 individuals in order to find the percentage of antibody elevation. IgG and IgE positivity showed that human milk was the least antigenic and allergenic, followed by camel milk...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
James C Carlson, Randal S Stahl, John J Wagner, Terry E Engle, Shelagh T DeLiberto, Dustin A Reid, Scott J Werner
This Research Communication describes an investigation of the nutritional depletion of total mixed rations (TMR) by pest birds. We hypothesized that species-specific bird depredation of TMR can alter the nutritional composition of the ration and that these changes can negatively impact the performance of dairy cows. Blackbirds selected the high energy fraction of the TMR (i.e., flaked corn) and reduced starch, crude fat and total digestible nutrients during controlled feeding experiments. For Holsteins producing 37·1 kg of milk/d, dairy production modeling illustrated that total required net energy intake (NEI) was 35·8 Mcal/d...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Fei Gao, Liwen Xiao, Hongzhou Zhang
The studies described in the Research Communication aimed to describe the feasibility of using coal fly ash to synthesize nano-zeolite, and the ammonium and phosphate adsorption efficiencies of the nanomaterial in dairy wastewater. Chemical treatment of coal fly ash was conducted and changes observed. Samples treated with NaOH had an increased cation exchange capacity and P sorption index compared to the initial fly ash, due to particle modification from smooth surface to plate- and rod-shape crystals, referred to as nano-zeolite...
August 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
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