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Journal of Dairy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929997/seasonal-variation-in-the-composition-and-processing-characteristics-of-herd-milk-with-varying-proportions-of-milk-from-spring-calving-and-autumn-calving-cows
#1
Yingchen Lin, James A O'Mahony, Alan L Kelly, Timothy P Guinee
The study investigated the seasonal changes in the compositional, physicochemical and processing characteristics of milk from a mixed-herd of spring- and autumn-calving cows during the year 2014-2015. The volume proportion of autumn-calving milk (% of total milk) varied with season, from ~10-20 in Spring (March-May), 5-13 in Summer (June-August), 20-40 in Autumn (September-November) and 50-100 in Winter (December-February). While all characteristics varied somewhat from month to month, variation was inconsistent, showing no significant trend with progression of time (year)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929994/effect-of-chelators-on-functionality-of-milk-protein-concentrates-obtained-by-ultrafiltration-at-a-constant-ph-and-temperature
#2
Lata Ramchandran, XiaoXia Luo, Todor Vasiljevic
Modulating conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk appears to be a feasible strategy to obtain milk protein concentrates (MPC) with tailored functionalities. Adjustment of pH and process temperature attenuated properties of casein micelle resulting in enhanced emulsification capacity. Additional pre-treatment options such as addition of calcium chelators can further impact on the functionality of MPC by modifying the calcium distribution and casein micelle integrity. The objective of the project was to establish effects of pre-treating skim milk with calcium chelators (EDTA or citrate) in concentrations between 10 to 30 mm prior to UF on the physical properties of the feed, corresponding retentates and dried MPC, including particle size, zeta potential and calcium distribution in skim milk and the corresponding retentates, as well as the physical functionalities such as solubility, heat stability and emulsifying properties...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929993/reduced-claw-vacuum-and-b-phase-during-low-milk-flow-does-not-impact-oxytocin-release-and-milking-performance
#3
Anna-Lena Neuheuser, Ann-Catherine Schwinn, Olga Wellnitz, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Oxytocin release, milking characteristics, and teat condition were investigated with reduced claw vacuum and pulsation settings compared to milking at regular settings with or without pre-stimulation. The reduced vacuum and pulsation settings during low milk flow are expected to protect the teat tissue before the occurrence of milk ejection at the start of milking, and at the end of milking during a potential overmilking period, i.e. at a milk flow <200 g/min. Seven cows were machine-milked either after a 60 s manual pre-stimulation, or without pre-stimulation and reduced vacuum and pulsation settings, or at full vacuum and normal pulsation during the start of milking...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929991/effects-of-different-dosages-of-propylene-glycol-in-dry-cows-and-cows-in-early-lactation
#4
Michaela Maurer, Walter Peinhopf, Jutta Gottschalk, Almut Einspanier, Gabor Koeller, Thomas Wittek
In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929983/genetic-perspective-of-milk-yield-persistency-in-the-first-three-lactations-of-iranian-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#5
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar
The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for different measures of persistency (PM) for milk yield in Iranian buffaloes using a random regression test day model. Test day records of the first three lactations of buffaloes within 715 herds comprising 43 014, 38 941 and 33 937 records, respectively, were obtained from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran during 1992 to 2012. Legendre polynomial functions were chosen to fit the lactation curves in the framework of a random regression test day model for estimating (co)variance components...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929978/a-new-study-of-the-kinetics-of-curd-production-in-the-process-of-cheese-manufacture
#6
Susana Vargas Muñoz, Maykel González Torres, Francisco Quintanilla Guerrero, Rogelio Rodríguez Talavera
We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929976/response-surface-methodology-as-a-tool-for-modelling-galacto-oligosaccharide-production
#7
Claudia I Vénica, Carina V Bergamini, María C Perotti
The experiments reported in this research paper describe the effects of β-galactosidase enzyme dose and cheese whey amount, on the maximum concentration and yield of galacto-oligosaccahride (GOS) and reaction time. The experimental plan was based on central composite rotational design (CCRD) and modelled by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicate that the proposed mathematical models could adequately describe the concentration and yield of GOS and the reaction time within the limits of the factors that are being investigated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651665/using-milk-leukocyte-differentials-for-diagnosis-of-subclinical-bovine-mastitis
#8
Juliano Leonel Gonçalves, Roberta L Lyman, Mitchell Hockett, Rudy Rodriguez, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos, Kevin L Anderson
This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831975/detailed-fatty-acid-profile-of-milk-cheese-ricotta-and-by-products-from-cows-grazing-summer-highland-pastures
#9
Matteo Bergamaschi, Giovanni Bittante
In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831974/expression-profiles-of-mirnas-from-bovine-mammary-glands-in-response-to-streptococcus-agalactiae-induced-mastitis
#10
Junhua Pu, Rui Li, Chenglong Zhang, Dan Chen, Xiangxiang Liao, Yihui Zhu, Xiaohan Geng, Dejun Ji, Yongjiang Mao, Yunchen Gong, Zhangping Yang
This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831973/analysis-of-microsatellite-markers-in-a-cuban-water-buffalo-breed
#11
Odalys Uffo, Nadia Martínez, Atzel Acosta, Arianne Sanz, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, Rosario Osta, Clementina Rodellar, Pilar Zaragoza
The aim of this Regional Research Communication was to validate a panel of 30 microsatellite markers recommended by FAO/ISAG for studies of biodiversity in cattle to improve the characterisation of Cuban buffalo populations. The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an economically important livestock species. Therefore, research focused on the study of the genetic relationships among water buffalo populations is useful to support conservation decisions and to design breeding schemes. Twenty-eight of the 30 tested regions were amplified, one of which (ETH10) turned out to be monomorphic...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831972/influence-of-milk-processing-temperature-on-growth-performance-nitrogen-retention-and-hindgut-s-inflammatory-status-and-bacterial-populations-in-a-calf-model
#12
Alex Bach, Anna Aris, Maria Vidal, Francesc Fàbregas, Marta Terré
This research communication describes a study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat treatment of milk on growth performance, N retention, and hindgut's inflammatory status and bacterial populations using young dairy calves as a model. Twenty-one Holstein calves were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: raw milk (RM), pasteurised milk (PAST), or UHT milk (UHT). Calves were submitted to a N balance study, and a biopsy from the distal colon and a faecal sample were obtained from 5 animals per treatment to determine expression of several genes and potential changes in the hindgut's bacterial population...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831971/capacity-of-milk-composition-to-identify-the-feeding-system-used-to-feed-dairy-cows
#13
Fernando Vicente, Carme Santiago, José D Jiménez-Calderón, Adela Martínez-Fernández
This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that is possible to identify the type of feed used for dairy cows by means of the analysis of milk composition and the fatty acid profile of milk fat. Sixteen dairy farms were monitored during 1 year with quarterly visits between summer 2014 and spring 2015. Rations varied throughout the year due to annual dynamic change of forage production, forage rotation, variation of nutrient requirements according to physiological state of the animal, etc. The ingredients of the rations were analysed by cluster identifying five feeding systems based on the main ingredient of the diet: grazing, maize silage, grass silage, dry forage and concentrate...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831970/characterisation-of-gene-expression-related-to-milk-fat-synthesis-in-the-mammary-tissue-of-lactating-yaks
#14
Jung Nam Lee, Yong Wang, Ya Ou Xu, Yu Can Li, Fang Tian, Ming Feng Jiang
This research communication describes the profile of gene expression related to the synthesis of yak milk as determined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Significant up-regulation during lactation were observed in genes related to fatty acid (FA) uptake from blood (LPL, CD36), intracellular FA transport (FABP3), intracellular FA activation of long- and short-chain FAs (ACSS1, ACSS2, ACSL1), de novo synthesis (ACACA), desaturation (SCD), triacyglycerol (TAG) synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1), lipid droplet formation (PLIN2, BTN1A1, XDH), ketone body utilisation (BDH1, OXCT1), and transcription regulation (THRSP, PPARGC1A)...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831969/statistical-properties-of-proportional-residual-energy-intake-as-a-new-measure-of-energetic-efficiency
#15
Pouya Zamani
Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831968/mammary-gland-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-of-two-dairy-goat-breeds-under-feed-restriction
#16
Mariana Palma, Susana P Alves, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Juan Capote, Noemí Castro, Anastasio Argüello, Manolis Matzapetakis, Rui J B Bessa, André M de Almeida
Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high tolerance to SWL are relevant to understand the physiological responses to pasture scarcity so they could be used in programs for animal breeding. In the Canary Islands there are two dairy goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to SWL: the Palmera, susceptible to SWL; and the Majorera, tolerant to SWL...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831967/replacing-wheat-with-canola-meal-and-maize-grain-in-the-diet-of-lactating-dairy-cows-feed-intake-milk-production-and-cow-condition-responses
#17
Ruairi P McDonnell, Martin vH Staines
This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831966/editorial-we-need-to-bring-the-calves-back-to-the-dairy-cows
#18
Sigrid Agenäs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831965/a-comparative-analysis-of-vehicle-related-greenhouse-gas-emissions-between-organic-and-conventional-dairy-production
#19
Vivianne Aggestam, Jon Buick
Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831964/biological-activity-of-the-non-microbial-fraction-of-kefir-antagonism-against-intestinal-pathogens
#20
Carolina Iraporda, Mário Abatemarco Júnior, Elisabeth Neumann, Álvaro Cantini Nunes, Jacques R Nicoli, Analía G Abraham, Graciela L Garrote
Kefir is a fermented milk obtained by the activity of kefir grains which are composed of lactic and acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Many beneficial health effects have been associated with kefir consumption such as stimulation of the immune system and inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The biological activity of kefir may be attributed to the presence of a complex microbiota as well as the microbial metabolites that are released during fermentation. The aim of this work was to characterise the non-microbial fraction of kefir and to study its antagonism against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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