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Journal of Helminthology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#1
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424102/gaining-insights-into-the-ecological-role-of-the-new-zealand-sole-peltorhamphus-novaezeelandiae-through-parasites
#2
T Anglade, H S Randhawa
Despite the fact that tapeworms comprise the bulk of parasite communities of sharks in marine ecosystems, little is known about their life cycles and, more specifically, about the potential intermediate hosts they utilize as transmission routes. In the absence of morphological features required for specific identification of larval tapeworms from potential intermediate hosts, recent molecular advances have contributed to linking larval and adult parasites and, in some instances, uncovering unknown trophic links...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412980/arctic-systems-in-the-quaternary-ecological-collision-faunal-mosaics-and-the-consequences-of-a-wobbling-climate
#3
E P Hoberg, J A Cook, S J Agosta, W Boeger, K E Galbreath, S Laaksonen, S J Kutz, D R Brooks
Climate oscillations and episodic processes interact with evolution, ecology and biogeography to determine the structure and complex mosaic that is the biosphere. Parasites and parasite-host assemblages are key components in a general explanatory paradigm for global biodiversity. We explore faunal assembly in the context of Quaternary time frames of the past 2.6 million years, a period dominated by episodic shifts in climate. Climate drivers cross a continuum from geological to contemporary timescales and serve to determine the structure and distribution of complex biotas...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397641/reviewing-biodiversity-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-anisakid-nematodes-from-the-north-east-atlantic-ocean
#4
S Mattiucci, P Cipriani, M Paoletti, A Levsen, G Nascetti
This review provides an inventory of the biodiversity of the anisakid species identified so far from fish and marine mammals of the NE Atlantic Ocean. The paper reviews and discusses various taxonomical and epidemiological aspects related to biodiversity assessment, with emphasis on: (1) taxa recognized as 'biological species' based on molecular/genetic markers; (2) current molecular/genetic approaches to identify the species at different developmental stages; (3) ecological data related to the actual geographical distribution and definitive host preferences of the species; (4) their distribution in various, commercially important fish species in northern European waters; (5) their possible occurrence in farmed fish; and, finally, (6) an update of their zoonotic potential as causative agents of anisakidosis in humans...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397630/philometra-saltatrix-nematoda-philometridae-in-the-ovary-of-the-bluefish-pomatomus-saltatrix-linnaeus-1766-off-the-coast-of-the-state-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
S C São Clemente, N N Felizardo, M F Ferreira, R C Menezes, N C Cunha, F C C Aguiar, E R Nascimento, E L Telleria, R Tortelly, M Knoff
The aims of the present study were to identify and describe the occurrence of nematode parasites in the gonads of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix from off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Only females were found to be parasitized by the nematodes, which were identified as P. saltatrix using morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Infection of female bluefish by this nematode had the following values: prevalence, 48.7%; mean intensity, 2.6; mean abundance, 1.3; and range of infection, 1-10 specimens...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382887/morphology-and-molecular-characterization-of-demidospermus-spirophallus-n-sp-d-prolixus-n-sp-monogenea-dactylogyridae-and-a-redescription-of-d-anus-in-siluriform-catfish-from-brazil
#6
L Franceschini, A C Zago, M I Müller, C J Francisco, R M Takemoto, R J da Silva
The present study describes Demidospermus spirophallus n. sp. and Demidospermus prolixus n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the siluriform catfish Loricaria prolixa Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1978 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, supported by morphological and molecular data. In addition, notes on the circumscription of the genus with a redescription of Demisdospermus anus are presented. Demidospermus spirophallus n. sp. differed from other congeners mainly because of the morphology of the male copulatory organ (MCO), which exhibited 2½ counterclockwise rings, a tubular accessory piece with one bifurcated end and a weakly sclerotized vagina with sinistral opening...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382873/modulation-of-murine-intestinal-immunity-by-moringa-oleifera-extract-in-experimental-hymenolepiasis-nana
#7
M Abdel-Latif, G El-Shahawi, S M Aboelhadid, H Abdel-Tawab
The potential therapeutic value of Moringa oleifera extract (MOE), due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, has been reported previously. In this study, Hymenolepis nana antigen (HNA) in combination with MOE was used in immunization against H. nana infection. Adult worm and egg counts were taken, while histological changes in the intestine were observed. Mucosal mast (MMCs) and goblet cells (GCs) were stained with specific stains, while serum and intestinal IgA were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372597/trichinella-and-polar-bears-a-limited-risk-for-humans
#8
J Dupouy-Camet, P Bourée, H Yera
In this review, we identified 63 cases reported since World War II of human trichinellosis linked to the consumption of parasitized polar bear (Ursus maritimus) meat. This low number contrasts to the numerous cases of human trichinellosis related to consumption of the meat of black (U. americanus) or brown bears (U. arctos). The prevalence of Trichinella infection is high in bears, but larval muscular burden is usually lower in polar bears compared to other bear species. Polar bears, therefore, seem to play a limited role in the transmission of trichinellosis to humans, as native residents living in the Arctic traditionally consume well-cooked bear meat, and travellers and foreign hunters have only limited access to this protected species due to the declining polar bear population...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349853/molecular-identification-of-cryptic-cysticercosis-taenia-ovis-krabbei-in-wild-intermediate-and-domestic-definitive-hosts
#9
N Formenti, M Chiari, T Trogu, A Gaffuri, C Garbarino, M B Boniotti, C Corradini, P Lanfranchi, N Ferrari
The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349852/impact-of-the-degree-of-urbanization-on-composition-and-structure-of-helminth-communities-in-the-mongolian-racerunner-eremias-argus-peters-1869
#10
Z N Dugarov, D R Baldanova, T R Khamnueva
The effects of the degree of urbanization on the composition and mean abundance of helminth species and the structure of helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were investigated along a rural-urban gradient in the region of Ulan-Ude city (the Republic of Buryatia, Russia) and neighbouring rural districts. Racerunners were obtained from key areas and categorized into three grades based on the degree of urbanization. In this study, a total of 208 lizards were examined. The helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were studied at the infracommunity and component community levels...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349851/first-report-of-neurotoxic-effect-of-the-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-on-the-motility-of-trematode-metacercariae
#11
K C Lopes, A S Ferrão-Filho, E G N Santos, C P Santos
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that can produce cytotoxic (cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxic cyanotoxins (saxitoxins). In Brazil the strains of C. raciborskii are reported to produce only saxitoxins (STX) and their effect on fish parasites has not been tested to date. The fish Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider is a common host for the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, and this fish-parasite interaction is a model for behavioural and ecotoxicological studies...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330511/cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-haplotype-reveals-high-genetic-diversity-of-angiostrongylus-malaysiensis-nematoda-angiostrongylidae
#12
P Eamsobhana, H S Yong, S L Song, A Prasartvit, S Boonyong, A Tungtrongchitr
The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus malaysiensis is a metastrongyloid nematode parasite. It has been reported in Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Indonesia and Japan. In this study, A. malaysiensis adult worms recovered from the lungs of wild rats in different geographical regions/provinces in Thailand were used to determine their haplotype by means of the mitochondrial partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence. The results revealed high COI haplotype diversity of A. malaysiensis from Thailand...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325173/patterns-and-processes-influencing-helminth-parasites-of-arctic-coastal-communities-during-climate-change
#13
K V Galaktionov
This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322174/acanthocotyle-gurgesiella-n-sp-monogenea-acanthocotylidae-from-the-deep-sea-skate-gurgesiella-furvescens-rajidae-in-the-south-eastern-pacific
#14
L A Ñacari, F A Sepulveda, R Escribano, M E Oliva
Little is known about the diversity of parasites of the deep-sea fish of the world's oceans. Here, a new species of monogenean parasite of the deep-sea skate Gurgesiella furvescens is described. Specimens of parasites were obtained from the skin of two specimens of the dusky finless skate, G. furvescens (Rajidae), in the vicinity of Valparaiso (33°S, 72°W), central Chile, from midwater trawl fishing at depths of 350-450 m. Both morphological and molecular analyses were conducted to provide a full description of the new species, named Acanthocotyle gurgesiella...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274281/the-philometrid-nematode-philometroides-acreanensis-n-sp-from-the-stomach-wall-of-the-catfish-pimelodus-blochii-in-north-western-brazil
#15
P H O Cavalcante, F Moravec, C P Santos
A new nematode species, Philometroides acreanensis n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from female specimens recovered from the stomach wall of the freshwater catfish Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes (Pimelodidae) collected in the Acre River (Amazon River basin), Acre State, Brazil. Based on examination by light and scanning electron microscopy, the new species differs from the two other South American congeneric species mainly in the body length of the gravid female (240-280 mm), the length of the oesophagus (1...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264753/quantitative-real-time-pcr-qpcr-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-dactylogyrid-parasites-infecting-lutjanus-guttatus
#16
L C Soler-Jiménez, A García-Gasca, E J Fajer-Ávila
Severe infections of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus resulting from dactylogyrid monogeneans present a risk to aquaculture. Currently, the diagnosis of this infection requires the morphological identification and manual quantification of parasites. Based on the characterization of the 28S rRNA gene of dactylogyrid species present in L. guttatus, specific primers were designed for real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using EvaGreen® chemistry. The standard curve method estimated the number of dactylogyrids accurately...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260533/an-updated-look-at-the-uneven-distribution-of-cryptic-diversity-among-parasitic-helminths
#17
G Pérez-Ponce de León, R Poulin
Cryptic parasite diversity is a major issue for taxonomy and systematics, and for attempts to control diseases of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Here, we re-examine an earlier report that, after correcting for sampling effort, more cryptic species of trematodes are found per published study than for other helminth taxa. We performed a meta-analysis of 110 studies that used DNA sequences to search for cryptic species in parasitic helminth taxa. After correcting for study effort and accounting for the biogeographical region of origins, we found that more cryptic species tend to be uncovered among trematodes, and fewer among cestodes and animal-parasitic nematodes, than in other helminth groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260532/the-role-of-chewing-lice-phthiraptera-philopteridae-as-intermediate-hosts-in-the-transmission-of-hymenolepis-microps-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-from-the-willow-ptarmigan-lagopus-lagopus-aves-tetraonidae
#18
D Pistone, M Lindgren, P Holmstad, N K Ellingsen, H Kongshaug, F Nilsen, A Skorping
The cestode Hymenolepis microps is an intestinal parasite of tetraonid birds, including the willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). This parasite is able to maintain a high prevalence and intensity throughout the year, even in a subarctic environment in bird populations with relatively low host densities, indicating effective transmission routes. Willow ptarmigan consume mainly vegetal material and active consumption of invertebrates is confined to the first two or three weeks of life. Ptarmigan are infected by different species of ectoparasites, of which two species of feather lice, Lagopoecus affinis and Goniodes lagopi, are the most abundant...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249628/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-selected-species-of-hysterothylacium-nematoda-raphidascarididae-from-marine-fish-in-iraqi-waters
#19
M Ghadam, M Banaii, E T Mohammed, J Suthar, S Shamsi
Hysterothylacium species are perhaps the most abundant and diverse group of marine ascaridoids; however, their life cycle and specific identification in larval stages in many parts of the world, particularly in Iraqi marine waters, have not been completely understood. In this study three members of the genus Hysterothylacium collected from Khor Abdulla in Iraq are morphologically described, genetically characterized and their relationship with other closely related taxa are compared and discussed. A new Hysterothylacium larval type in the fourth stage of development is described, and morphological and molecular evidence (based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers) are provided for its distinction from previously known fourth-stage Hysterothylacium larval types...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249626/association-between-an-ectoparasitic-copepod-caligus-sp-and-the-monogenean-udonella-cf-caligorum-johnston-1835-on-a-catfish-population
#20
D Fogel, J L Fuentes, L M Soto, C López
We analysed the association between a monogenean (Udonella cf. caligorum Johnston 1835) and its copepod host (Caligus sp.) living on a wild population of Arius herzbergii Bloch, 1794 in a north-eastern coastal lagoon from Venezuela. This study characterized infestation levels and analysed the effects of monogeneans on the fecundity and hatching success of the copepod host, as well as damage to its egg capsules and genital complex. A total of 218 Caligus specimens were analysed (94 males, 110 females and 14 immature stages) in which a total of 1017 monogeneans were found...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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