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Journal of Helminthology

N P Gabagambi, A Skorping
Engraulicypris sardella is an endemic and economically important cyprinid species in Lake Nyasa/Malawi which has recently been infected by the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis. This parasite is known to induce severe pathological and behavioural effects on other cyprinids, including castration, followed by a collapse of infected populations. As a first step to understanding the dynamics between this parasite and E. sardella, we studied the spatial and temporal variation in prevalence over a period of 1 year. Overall prevalence was about 15%, but we observed a consistently higher prevalence in the littoral compared to the pelagic zone...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
E-K Moon, S-H Lee, T W Goo, F-S Quan
Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria hepatica are zoonotic parasites that mainly infect the liver and cause serious liver disorders. However, immunological parameters induced by co-infection with these parasites remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, we investigated immunological profiles induced by co-infection with C. hepatica (CH) in C. sinensis (CS)-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were infected primarily with 50 metacercariae of C. sinensis; 4 weeks later, they were subsequently infected with 1000 infective C...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
M Knoff, J N Santos, E G Giese, D C Gomes, Â T Silva-Souza
A new species of the genus Diomedenema, a spiruromorph nematode, collected from the lung of Spheniscus magellanicus (Sphenisciformes) found on the southern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described. The new species is differentiated from the only previously described species of the genus, D. diomedeae Johston & Mawson, 1952, by males possessing a set of caudal papillae with three pairs of precloacal, two pairs of adcloacal and one pair of postcloacal papillae; precloacal papillae with the papillae of the first two pairs being closer to each other than those of the third pair; a longer and pointed tail in males; and females with the vulva at mid-body...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
G Fontenelle, M Knoff, M A Verícimo, S C São Clemente
Fish consumption plays an important role in the human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, trahira, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and it is frequently infected by Contracaecum multipapillatum third-instar larvae (L3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the C. multipapillatum L3 crude extract (CECM). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with 10 or 50 μg CECM associated with 2 mg of aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 14 and 48. The determination of specific IgG and IgE antibody levels was done after immunization, and the late immunity was evaluated by the intradermal reaction in the ear pavilion...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
E Bagnato, M Frixione, M C Digiani, F Cremonte
Procyrnea choique n. sp. is described from the lesser rhea, Rhea pennata d´Orbigny (Aves: Rheidae), from the Protected Natural Area Península Valdés, Chubut province, Argentina. The new species resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. excisiformis, P. dollfusi, P. haliasturi, P. anterovulvata, P. graculae, P. brevicaudata, P. uncinipenis, P. javaensis, P. ameerae, P. ornata, P. aegotheles, P. spiralis, P. ruschii and P. aptera, mainly in the absence of lateral alae; but differs from its congeners by having a left spicule without barbs, the position of the vulva which is post-equatorial, the absence of lateral ridges, absent median precloacal papilla, asymmetrical caudal alae, males more than 6 mm long, left spicule 1 mm long and spicule ratio 1:3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Y Mitsui, K E Ureña-Tatis, Y Aoki
Urocanic acid (UCA) is known as a major chemoattractant for Strongyloides stercoralis infective third-stage larvae (L3). Since Brugia pahangi is a skin-penetrating parasitic nematode similar to S. stercoralis, UCA was expected to be a chemoattractant for B. pahangi L3. Thus, the chemoattractant activity of UCA for B. pahangi L3 was assessed. The chemotactic responses of B. pahangi L3 to UCA or acetic acid (CH3COOH) dissolved in amine solutions were assessed using an agar-plate assay. A test solution of 200 mm UCA dissolved in aqueous 270 mm tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) significantly attracted B...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J Xu, H Lin, J Chen, Y Cai, W Fu, H Wang, X Gu, W Lai, X Peng, G Yang
The musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) is an economically important species from which musk is extracted and used in perfumes and medicines. Cestodes (parasitic flatworms) of the genus Moniezia are important parasites that infect this endangered species and can cause high mortality in young deer. In 1982, Moniezia (S.) sichuanensis sp. nov. was described from a specimen obtained from wild musk deer. The new species was distinct from the other described species of Moniezia by the sawtooth-shaped interproglottidal glands, the thick vagina and the absence of a cirrus spine...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J Mrus, B Baeten, M Engelen, S A Silber
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms). Mebendazole is one of the recommended preventive chemotherapy agents for STH. This review summarizes the efficacy data from 29 studies with single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in STH treatment and compares the results with those of a recently conducted phase 3 study of a 500 mg mebendazole chewable tablet against A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J Abolafia, R Peña-Santiago
A new genus and new species, Tarantobelus arachnicida, was found in the oral opening of tarantula spiders bred in captivity in Poland. The new species is characterized by having a small body (0.77-0.95 mm long in females and 0.66-0.84 mm in males), cuticle poorly annulated by transverse incisures, lateral field inconspicuous, lips separated with small cuticular flaps topping each lip, stoma panagrolaimoid with gymnostom well developed with robust and refringent rhabdia, pharynx panagrolaimoid with isthmus slightly longer than the basal bulb, intestine with cardiac (anterior) and rectal (posterior) areas with narrower walls...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
S-L Song, H-S Yong, P Eamsobhana
Angiostrongylus mackerrasae is a parasitic nematode of rats found in Australia. When first reported, it was referred to as A. cantonensis. Recent molecular studies, including the mitochondrial genome, indicate that it is highly similar to A. cantonensis. These studies did not include A. malaysiensis, another member of the A. cantonensis species complex, for comparison. The present study examined the genetic distance and phylogenetic relationship between the component taxa (A. cantonensis, A. mackerrasae and A...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
M L Kičinjaová, M Barson, M Gelnar, E Řehulková
Two new and one known species of Annulotrema Paperna & Thurston, 1969 are reported from the gills of the tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus Castelnau, 1861, collected in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. The new species, Annulotrema pseudonili n. sp. and A. bracteatum n. sp., are described and distinguished mainly on the basis of features of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Annulotrema pseudonili n. sp. most closely resembles A. nili Paperna, 1973, but differs from it by possessing a more delicate MCO with a thin-walled base without a fibrous distal part...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
G M Toledo, H O Schwartz, H A Q Nomura, A Aguiar, R A M V Velota, R J da Silva, L A Anjos
This study aimed to evaluate the community composition and structure of the helminths found in 13 anuran species, and to evaluate whether this parasite community is determined by anuran characteristics. We found that the helminth fauna of the amphibians from five anuran families consisted of 13 taxa and that Cosmocercidae gen. sp. was the most prevalent taxon, followed by Oswaldocruzia subauricularis. Host body size was a determining factor of the composition and structure of the parasitic fauna. Helminth abundance and richness were positively correlated with host body size...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
A Diosdado, P J Gómez, J González-Miguel, F Simón, R Morchón
Since dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is a vector-borne disease, its distribution depends on environmental conditions as well as demographic factors and the management of pets by humans. In the province of Salamanca (west-central Spain) the disease has been known for many years, appearing in an area with extensive irrigated crops along the Tormes river. Because recent demographic changes have occurred in this area, the present study has been carried out with the aim of monitoring the distribution and prevalence of the disease in the canine population of this area...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
D Zhang, H Zou, S G Wu, M Li, I Jakovlić, J Zhang, R Chen, G T Wang, W X Li
Despite the worldwide distribution and pathogenicity of monogenean parasites belonging to the largest helminth genus, Dactylogyrus, there are no complete Dactylogyrinae (subfamily) mitogenomes published to date. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we have sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Dactylogyrus lamellatus, a common parasite on the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The circular mitogenome is 15,187 bp in size, containing the standard 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 12 protein-encoding genes and a long non-coding region (NCR)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
X Su, Y Zhang, X Zheng, X X Wang, Y Li, Q Li, C R Wang
Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common trematodes of cattle and sheep, and also infects humans occasionally, causing great economic losses and medical costs. In this study, the sequences of the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units of five E. pancreaticum individuals were determined for the first time. They were 8306-8310 bp in length, including the small subunit (18S) rDNA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), large subunit (28S) rDNA and intergenic spacer (IGS)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J H Zhao, G J Tu, X B Wu, C P Li
Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
F Jorge, R S A White, R A Paterson
The extent of New Zealand's freshwater fish-parasite diversity has yet to be fully revealed, with host-parasite relationships still to be described from nearly half the known fish community. While advances in the number of fish species examined and parasite taxa described are being made, some parasite groups, such as nematodes, remain poorly understood. In the present study we combined morphological and molecular analyses to characterize a capillariid nematode found infecting the swim bladder of the brown mudfish Neochanna apoda, an endemic New Zealand fish from peat-swamp-forests...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
L S Galgamuwa, D Iddawela, S D Dharmaratne
Intestinal helminth infections constitute a major health problem in low socio-economic communities worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged between 12 and 60 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and stool samples were subjected to direct smear, stained with Lugol's iodine, and formaldehyde-ether concentration techniques to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. The circumference of each child's left mid upper arm (MUAC) was measured using standard procedures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
E V N Beshay
Hymenolepis nana is a common intestinal tapeworm that affects humans. Drugs are available for the treatment of this infection, including praziquantel (PZQ), nitazoxanide and niclosamide. Although the drug of choice is praziquantel, due to its high cure rates, indicators of the development of PZQ resistance by different parasites have begun to appear over recent decades. Therefore, this study was a trial to find an alternative to PZQ by assessing the activity of the crude aqueous extract of the medicinal herb Artemisia absinthium against H...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
B J González-Cruz, M Rodríguez-Labastida, M González-Cortázar, A Zamilpa, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, R González-Garduño, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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