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Journal of Helminthology

H M L P B Herath, Y I N S Gunawardene, M Pathiranage, P D S U Wickramasinghe, P G T S Wickramatunge, R S Dassanayake
The transmembrane protein, ARV1, plays a key role in intracellular sterol homeostasis by controlling sterol distribution and cellular uptake. To date, only the ARV1s from yeast and humans have been characterized to some extent. In this study, the ARV1 of an animal filarial parasite, Setaria digitata (SdARV1), was characterized; its cDNA was 761 bp and encoded a protein of 217 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25 kDa, containing a highly conserved ARV1 homology domain and three transmembrane domains in the bioinformatic analyses...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
M L S Silva, E J Inês, J N Souza, A B S Souza, V M S Dias, L N Oliveira, C M Guimarães, E R Menezes, L G Barbosa, M C M Alves, M C A Teixeira, N M Soares
Alcoholic patients are more susceptible to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. The chronic use of alcohol raises the levels of endogenous corticosteroids, which regulates the development of larvae and stimulates the differentiation of rhabditiform into infective filariform larvae, thus inducing internal autoinfection. Therefore, early diagnosis is important to prevent severe strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of parasitological methods, according to the parasite load and the number of stool samples, for diagnosis of S...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
M Gnjatovic, A Gruden-Movsesijan, N Miladinovic-Tasic, N Ilic, S Vasilev, J Cvetkovic, Lj Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Infection with parasites from the Trichinella genus occurs in many vertebrates but disease only occurs in humans (trichinellosis). Humans are infected after the consumption of raw or undercooked meat from infected wild or domestic animals (usually swine or horses). Using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7C2C5, specific for an epitope unique to the muscle larvae of the genus Trichinella, we have developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) that enables the rapid detection of Trichinella-specific antibodies in sera originating from two different host species (human, swine) infected with either Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella britovi...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
S Mukaratirwa, L J La Grange, M P Malatji, B Reininghaus, J Lamb
Trichinella species are widely distributed on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, although the full spectrum of Trichinella species found in sub-Saharan African countries, and their hosts, has not been fully documented. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichinella in wildlife from the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP) and adjacent areas located in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, and to identify the species and/or genotypes of Trichinella larvae isolated from muscle tissues, using molecular techniques...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
D M Güiris-Andrade, A Oceguera-Figueroa, D Osorio-Sarabia, M E Pérez-Escobar, M G Nieto-López, N M Rojas-Hernández, L García-Prieto
A new genus and species of nematode, Tziminema unachi n. gen., n. sp. is described from the caecum and colon of Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865), found dead in the Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo, Chiapas State, in the Neotropical realm of Mexico. Tziminema n. gen. differs from the other nine genera included in the Strongylinae by two main characteristics: having 7-9 posteriorly directed tooth-like structures at the anterior end of the buccal capsule, and the external surface of the buccal capsule being heavily striated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
T H Cribb, N Q-X Wee, R A Bray, S C Cutmore
We describe Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther, 1859) (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. The new species differs from most existing species of Monorchis Monticelli, 1893 in its possession of an elongate I-shaped excretory vesicle, and from other congeners in the relative configuration of the gut and suckers. Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998 is re-reported from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) (Carangidae) from Moreton Bay. We report new second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequence data for both species...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
A Ma, Y Wang, X L Liu, H M Zhang, P Eamsobhana, H S Yong, X X Gan
Human gnathostomiasis is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. Currently, serological tests are commonly applied to support clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a simple and rapid filtration-based test, dot immune-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was developed using a partially purified antigen of Gnathostoma third-stage larvae (L3). A total of 180 serum samples were tested to evaluate the diagnostic potential of DIGFA for gnathostomiasis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 96...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
B Presswell, M García-Varela, L R Smales
Two new species of Andracantha (Polymorphidae) are described from the intestine of the shags Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray) and Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman), and the penguin Eudyptula minor (Forster) from southern South Island, New Zealand. Andracantha leucocarboi n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by having no genital or ventral trunk spines, but possessing a scattering of small spines between the anterior fields of spines. This is the first record of a species of Andracantha from a penguin. Circumbursal papillae are illustrated in a scanning electron micrograph for the first time in the polymorphids...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
R Jafari, B Sanei, A Baradaran, A Spotin, B Bagherpour, H Yousofi Darani
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a medically important parasite-caused human disease. Humans may acquire the infection accidentally by ingestion of E. granulosus eggs. The parasite has a broad range of hosts and genotypes, which may affect its aetiological and biological characteristics. The present study aimed to determine the genetic characteristics of human isolates of E. granulosus in Isfahan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 50 surgically removed hydatid cysts were collected from hospitalized patients in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, over a period of 2 years (2015-2017)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
E H Torres-Montoya, J M Zazueta-Moreno, L U Osuna-Martínez, H Castillo-Ureta, G Silva-Hidalgo, H S López-Moreno, I Osuna-Ramírez, E Noguera-Corona, J G Rendón-Maldonado
Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
D C Huston, S C Cutmore, T H Cribb
We describe Isorchis cannoni n. sp. from the rabbitfishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Siganidae) collected off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia and, using molecular data, demonstrate that 'Cercariae queenslandae II' of Cannon (1978) from the gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) is the larval form of this new species. The cercariae of I. cannoni n. sp. develop in rediae, encyst in the environment after emergence, and are inferred to then be consumed by grazing rabbitfish...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
W-T Zhao, Z Xu, L Li
A rare ascaridoid species, Mawsonascaris australis (Johnston & Mawson, 1943), is reported from the Taiwan Strait for the first time, and the brown guitarfish Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle (Rhinopristiformes: Rhinobatidae) represents a new fish host. The detailed morphology of M. australis was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based on the newly collected specimens. The results revealed some important, but previously unreported or erroneous, morphological features, including the lateral alae starting well posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, the presence of one pair of double paracloacal papillae and a single, small precloacal median papilla on the anterior margin of the cloaca...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J C Eiras, G C Pavanelli, R M Takemoto, Y Nawa
Fish-borne zoonotic nematodes may infect humans when fish or squid are ingested raw or inadequately cooked. Human infections may have serious consequences, including the unexpected deaths of infected people. This kind of disease is poorly known in general, and the characteristics of such infections in South American countries as a whole have never been assessed. In this paper the present status of fish-borne nematodiases in humans in South American countries is characterized. Potentially zoonotic nematode species are very common in both freshwater and marine fish in South America...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
S S Santa Rosa, F O Santos, H G Lima, I M A Reis, D S A Cassiano, I J C Vieira, R Braz-Filho, R S Uzeda, M B Botura, A Branco, M J M Batatinha
This study describes the effects of extracts and fractions of Persea willdenovii leaves against goat gastrointestinal nematodes and their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the crude ethanolic, hexane, ethyl acetate (EAE), butanolic and residual hydroethanolic extracts were assessed through the inhibition of egg hatching and larval motility assays. The most active extract (EAE) was then fractionated by chromatography in an open column containing silica gel, to furnish six fractions (Fr1-Fr6), which were also tested...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
C P Raccurt
Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
G Zhang, J Wang, Y Luo, M Yuan, Q Gao, H Gao, X Song, Y Shi, K Dong, X Ma
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
B Golhasan, R Heydari, E Miraeiz, J Abolafia, R Peña-Santiago
A new species belonging to the genus Belondira is described from natural areas in Iran. Belondira coomansi n. sp. is characterized by its general size, the dimensions and appearance of its lip region, presence of distinct labial and post-labial sclerotization, the length of the odontostyle and its inconspicuous lumen and aperture, the length of the neck and its pharyngeal expansion, the reduction of the female anterior genital branch to a simple uterine sac, a very short posterior uterus, the anterior position of the vulva, the length and shape of the caudal region with distinctly thick cuticle at its tip, the length of the spicules, and the presence of only one pair of ventromedian supplements...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
V V Besprozvannykh, D M Atopkin, H D Ngo, N V Ha, N V Tang, A Yu Beloded
Adults of Skrjabinolecithum spinosum n. sp. were discovered in Mugil cephalus from the Gulf of Peter the Great in southern Far-East Russia. Additionally, adults of Unisaccus tonkini n. sp. were found in the intestine of Moolgarda cunnesius and Moolgarda seheli from the coastal waters of Cat Ba Island, Tonkin Bay, northern Vietnam. Skrjabinolecithum spinosum n. sp. possesses a larger body, and ventral and oral sucker size in comparison with Skrjabinolecithum vitellosum, a smaller pharynx size and body length/width rate ratio in comparison to Skrjabinolecithum pyriforme, a smaller body length and prepharynx size in comparison to Skrjabinolecithum lobolecitum and a smaller pharynx length and egg size in comparison to Skrjabinolecithum indicum and S...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
G Maldonado, G Nava, A Plancarte
We identified and characterized the first two glutathione transferases (GSTs) isolated from juvenile cysts of Taenia crassiceps (EC The two glutathione transferases (TcGST1 and TcGST2) were purified in a single-step protocol using glutathione (GSH)-sepharose chromatography in combination with a GSH gradient. The specific activities of TcGST1 and TcGST2 were 26 U mg-1 and 19 U mg-1, respectively, both at 25°C and pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and GSH as substrates. The K m(CDNB) and K cat(CDNB) values for TcGST1 and TcGST2 (0...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
J Pawlak, K Nadolna-Ałtyn, B Szostakowska, M Pachur, M Podolska
The parasite fauna of cod (Gadus morhus) is well described, but the life cycles of Baltic cod parasites are known only in general terms. Invertebrates commonly found in the stomach of cod are recognized as intermediate hosts in the life cycles of nematodes or acanthocephalans. The aim of this study was to determine the source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites found in situ in invertebrates present in the cod stomach. Our results indicate that Saduria entomon is both a source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites and an intermediate host in the life cycle of Hysterothylacium aduncum in the Baltic Sea...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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