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Journal of Helminthology

M M O Abdelaal, G P Brennan, A Abdel-Aziz, I Fairweather
An in vivo study in the laboratory rat model has been carried out to monitor changes to the tegument and gut of adult Fasciola hepatica following treatment with myrrh ('Mirazid'). Rats infected with the triclabendazole-resistant Dutch isolate were dosed orally with Mirazid at a concentration of 250 mg/kg and flukes recovered 2, 3 and 7 days post-treatment (pt). The flukes were processed for examination by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A variety of changes to the external surface were observed, culminating in the sloughing of the tegumental syncytium...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
O M Kandil, K A Abdelrahman, H A Fahmy, M S Mahmoud, A H El Namaky, J E Miller
Haemonchus contortus is a major parasite of small ruminants and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to death. Knowledge of the genetic variation within and among H. contortus populations can provide the foundation for understanding transmission patterns and aid in the control of haemonchosis. Adult male H. contortus were collected from three geographical regions in Egypt. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
M Miterpáková, D Antolová, Z Hurníková, N Březinová, V Čabanová, K Reiterová
Trichinellosis is constantly present in the sylvatic cycle in Slovakia, with several sporadic human outbreaks registered since the 1960s. The largest outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in 1998 and was related to the consumption of dog meat that had been added to smoked pork sausages. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in various regions of Slovakia. Out of 439 dogs tested, 56 (12.8%) were classified as a seropositive based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with confirmation by Western blotting...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
K L Sheehan, K C Hanson-Dorr, B S Dorr, G K Yarrow, R J Johnson
Here the intestinal helminth infracommunities of 218 double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from 11 locations in Alabama, Minnesota, Mississippi and Vermont are documented. Trematode infections were present in 98% of hosts; 65% of cormorants carried cestode infections, 4% were infected with acanthocephalans and 66% had nematode intestinal parasites. Parasite infracommunities of hosts collected on wintering grounds had higher richness and diversity than did birds collected on breeding grounds. Differences in parasite richness and diversity between male and female P...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
N R Dunham, S T Peper, C Downing, E Brake, D Rollins, R J Kendall
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
E G N Santos, M Chame, V A Chagas-Moutinho, C P Santos
Oncicola venezuelensis Marteau, 1977 was found parasitizing adults of Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) found dead in Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí state, Brazil, a new geographical locality reported for the species. The diversity of Oncicola Travassos, 1916 species is large, but genetic data are scarce. This article presents the results of genetic, morphological and ultrastructural studies carried out for taxonomic purposes. The first ultrastructural view showed a globular, short proboscis with 36 hooks, divided into six longitudinal rows of six hooks each...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
N P Amdare, V K Khatri, R S P Yadav, A Tarnekar, K Goswami, M V R Reddy
Epidemiological and experimental evidence has supported the concept of using helminths as alternative bio-therapeutic agents in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the current study, two filarial proteins, recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti L2 (rWbL2) and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT-2) have been investigated, individually and in combination, for their therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D. The rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins, when administered individually or in combination, have resulted in lowering of the blood glucose levels and reducing the incidence of T1D in mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
S M Rodríguez, G D'Elía, N Valdivia
Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
C Nithikathkul, A Trevanich, T Wongsaroj, C Wongsawad, P Reungsang
At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
V V Besprozvannykh, D M Atopkin, A V Ermolenko, A Yu Beloded
A new species of Skrjabinolecithum (Digenea: Waretrematinae), Skrjabinolecithum pyriforme n. sp., has been found in the intestines of Liza haematocheila and Mugil cephalus from the Primorsky Region, Russia. These worms differ from S. vitellosum and S. lobolecithum by the presence of two caeca, as do S. spasskii, S. indicum and S. bengalensis. These species differ morphologically from S. pyriforme n. sp. by a number of features, including body width, oral sucker, pharynx, eggs and ratio of length and width of the body...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
S Shamsi
Three new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917, including H. australe, H. kajikiae and H. brucei, from Australian marine fish are described and illustrated by light microscopy followed by genetic characterization of their first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively). This is the first study reporting ITS sequence data for adult Hysterothylacium spp. in Australia, which provides an insight into the identification of some of the Hysterothylacium larval types. Alignment of ITS sequences of these species with Hysterothylacium larval types previously reported in Australia showed that fourth-stage Hysterothylacium larval type XI from Seriola lalandi and third-stage Hysterothylacium larval type X from Sphyraene novae-hollandiae are identical with ITS sequences of H...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
M-R Lee, J-W Ju, H-W Yang, T-S Kim, M-Y Park, S-H Cho
Sparganosis is one of the top three tissue-dwelling heterologous helminthic diseases, along with cysticercosis and paragonimiasis, in Korea. Due to a lack of effective early diagnosis and treatment methods, this parasitic disease is regarded as a public health threat. This study evaluated reactivity, against sparganum extracts, of sera from inhabitants of Cheorwon-gun, Goseong-gun and Ongjin-gun in Korea. The sera from 836 subjects were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
C Carmona, J F Tort
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica severely affects the efficiency of livestock production systems worldwide. In addition to the economic impact inflicted on livestock farmers, fasciolosis is an emergent zoonosis. This review emphasizes different aspects of the disease in South America. Available data on epidemiology in bovines and ovines in different countries, as well as a growing body of information on other domestic and wildlife definitive hosts, are summarized. The issue of drug resistance that compromises the long-term sustainability of current pharmacological strategies is examined from a regional perspective...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
M Zibaei, S M Sadjjadi, S Maraghi
Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
M L Aguirre-Macedo, A L May-Tec, A Martínez-Aquino, F Cremonte, S R Martorelli
Helminths in aquatic invertebrate hosts have been overlooked in comparison with vertebrate hosts. Therefore, the known diversity, ecology and distribution of these host-parasite systems are very limited in terms of their taxonomic diversity, habitat and geographic regions. In this study we examined the published literature on helminth parasites of aquatic invertebrates from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to identify the state of the knowledge in the region and to identify patterns of helminth diversity...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
B Horáková, Z Čadková, J Száková, I Jankovská
The rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta can bioconcentrate several elements to conspicuously higher concentrations than tissues of their definitive host. The main aim of this study was to locate parts of the tapeworm into which lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, manganese and iron are accumulated. Male Wistar rats were experimentally infected with H. diminuta and worms were exposed to two different forms of lead for 6 weeks through the oral exposure of their rat hosts. After the exposure period, the element levels were determined in the posterior and anterior proglottids of the tapeworm...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
N K Kumbhakar, P K Sanyal, D Rawte, D Kumar, A E Kerketta, S Pal
To test the hypothesis that modulation of hepatic microsomal sulphoxidation and sulphonation by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide could increase bioavailability of albendazole, the present study was undertaken to understand the pharmacokinetics of albendazole in goats at a dose of 7.5 mg kg- 1 body weight with and without co-administration with piperonyl butoxide at 63.0 mg kg- 1 body weight. Plasma albendazole sulphoxide metabolite, the anthelmintically active moiety, reached its maximum concentration of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Helminthology
T D Bui, P N Doanh, C Saegerman, B Losson
Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011)...
September 2016: Journal of Helminthology
D Odendaal, M F Addison, A P Malan
Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S...
September 2016: Journal of Helminthology
R Sahu, D K Biswal, B Roy, V Tandon
Opisthorchiasis is a public health problem in South-East Asian countries and Eastern Europe. The infection implicates mainly two species of Opisthorchis, namely O. viverrini and O. felineus, that occur mostly in fish-eating mammals and humans, although there are rare reports of human cases involving two other species, O. noverca and O. guayaquilensis. Opisthorchis noverca has been reported frequently in dogs and pigs from the Indian subcontinent, with rare reports from cattle and human subjects. With a view to supplementing morphology-based identification of this species, the present study aimed to provide molecular characterization of O...
September 2016: Journal of Helminthology
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