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Journal of Helminthology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637530/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-ortleppascaris-sinensis-nematoda-heterocheilidae-and-comparative-mitogenomic-analysis-of-eighteen-ascaridida-nematodes
#1
J H Zhao, G J Tu, X B Wu, C P Li
Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637526/hiding-in-the-swamp-new-capillariid-nematode-parasitizing-new-zealand-brown-mudfish
#2
F Jorge, R S A White, R A Paterson
The extent of New Zealand's freshwater fish-parasite diversity has yet to be fully revealed, with host-parasite relationships still to be described from nearly half the known fish community. While advances in the number of fish species examined and parasite taxa described are being made, some parasite groups, such as nematodes, remain poorly understood. In the present study we combined morphological and molecular analyses to characterize a capillariid nematode found infecting the swim bladder of the brown mudfish Neochanna apoda, an endemic New Zealand fish from peat-swamp-forests...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615087/association-between-intestinal-helminth-infections-and-mid-upper-arm-circumference-among-children-in-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
L S Galgamuwa, D Iddawela, S D Dharmaratne
Intestinal helminth infections constitute a major health problem in low socio-economic communities worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged between 12 and 60 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and stool samples were subjected to direct smear, stained with Lugol's iodine, and formaldehyde-ether concentration techniques to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections. The circumference of each child's left mid upper arm (MUAC) was measured using standard procedures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606189/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemisia-absinthium-against-hymenolepis-nana-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-in-comparison-with-the-anthelmintic-praziquantel
#4
E V N Beshay
Hymenolepis nana is a common intestinal tapeworm that affects humans. Drugs are available for the treatment of this infection, including praziquantel (PZQ), nitazoxanide and niclosamide. Although the drug of choice is praziquantel, due to its high cure rates, indicators of the development of PZQ resistance by different parasites have begun to appear over recent decades. Therefore, this study was a trial to find an alternative to PZQ by assessing the activity of the crude aqueous extract of the medicinal herb Artemisia absinthium against H...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595672/in-vitro-larvicidal-and-in-vivo-anthelmintic-effects-of-oxalis-tetraphylla-oxalidaceae-hydroalcoholic-extract-against-haemonchus-contortus-in-lambs
#5
B J González-Cruz, M Rodríguez-Labastida, M González-Cortázar, A Zamilpa, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, R González-Garduño, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592337/phylogenetic-relationships-among-european-and-asian-representatives-of-the-genus-aspidogaster-baer-1827-trematoda-aspidogastrea-inferred-from-molecular-data
#6
D M Atopkin, M B Shedko, S G Sokolov, A E Zhokhov
In the present study, phylogenetic relationships of European and Far Eastern representatives of the genus Aspidogaster Baer, 1827 were analysed: A. conchicola Baer, 1827, A. limacoides Diesing, 1834, A. ijimai Kawamura, 1915 and A. chongqingensis Wei, Huang & Dai, 2001. Based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence data, an obvious differentiation was seen between specimens of A. limacoides s ensu stricto from the European part of Russia and A. limacoides sensu Chen et al., 2010 from China (13.7%); the latter parasites were recognized as A...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589871/prevalence-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
H R Khalkhali, M Foroutan, S Khademvatan, H Majidiani, S Aryamand, P Khezri, A Aminpour
As a significant zoonosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East. There are studies on the prevalence of this infection in animal and human reservoirs in Iran; hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to elucidate the prevalence of CE in Iran. English (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar) and Persian (Magiran, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and SID) databases were explored. In the case of definitive, animal and human intermediate hosts, 37, 90 and 33 studies, respectively, have been included in the current review from January 1990 to December 2015...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566098/fish-parasites-as-indicators-of-organic-pollution-in-southern-brazil
#8
A C F Lacerda, K Roumbedakis, J G S Bereta Junior, A P O Nuñer, M M Petrucio, M L Martins
Increasing urbanization along riverbanks is a constant source of stressors to the aquatic community, and the use of bioindicators is suitable to detect and monitor the effect of each stressor. We investigated the parasites of the 'cará' fish (Geophagus brasiliensis) as potential bioindicators in a river whose banks are subject to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Samples were taken at four points of the Sangradouro River, in Florianópolis, southern Brazil, bimonthly for 12 months. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and salinity were measured at each point and water samples were taken for nutrient analysis (total nitrogen, nitrite, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, phosphate), and total and faecal coliforms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560932/redescription-and-genetic-characterization-of-cystidicoloides-vaucheri-including-first-description-of-male-and-current-status-on-the-phylogeny-of-cystidicolidae-nematoda-habronematoidea
#9
F B Pereira, A N Pereira, J L Luque
Cystidicoloides vaucheri collected in the stomach of the redtail catfish Phractocephalus hemioliopterus from River Acre, State of Acre, Brazil is redescribed, including the first description of males and the first genetic characterization based upon 18S and 28S genes of the rRNA. Newly collected females were biometrically smaller than those reported in the original description, but similar morphology shared by the two samples revealed that they belong to the same species. Scanning electron micrographs showed the accurate structure of the cephalic region, described here in detail...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535826/the-distribution-of-digenean-metacercariae-within-bream-abramis-brama-gill-apparatus-preferences-co-occurrence-and-interactions-of-parasites
#10
M Zolovs, J Kanto, I Jakubāne
Species-specific microenvironmental preferences and interactions between parasite species have been the focus of many ecological studies. Here, we studied the distribution of ectoparasite species within the gill apparatus of bream (Abramis brama) from Lake Lubāns (Latvia) to establish whether digenean metacercariae: (1) prefer specific patches within the gill apparatus; (2) co-occur in the same patches with monogeneans and copepods within a host individual; and (3) interact with monogeneans and copepods. We recorded all parasites on gill arches of the same host species and used null models to analyse co-occurrences of digenean metacercariae, monogeneans and copepods...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528590/a-review-of-bovine-fasciolosis-and-other-trematode-infections-in-nigeria
#11
N Elelu, M C Eisler
Trematode infections cause serious economic losses to livestock worldwide. Global production losses due to fasciolosis alone exceed US$3 billion annually. Many trematode infections are also zoonotic and thus a public health concern. The World Health Organization has estimated that about 56 million people worldwide are infected by at least one zoonotic trematode species, and up to 750 million people are at risk of infection. Fasciolosis caused by the fluke Fasciola gigantica is endemic in Nigeria and is one of the most common causes of liver condemnation in abattoirs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528580/update-on-the-distribution-of-the-co-invasive-schyzocotyle-acheilognathi-bothriocephalus-acheilognathi-the-asian-fish-tapeworm-in-freshwater-fishes-of-mexico
#12
G Pérez-Ponce de León, O Lagunas-Calvo, L García-Prieto, R Briosio-Aguilar, R Aguilar-Aguilar
The Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) represents a threat to freshwater fish, mainly cyprinids, across the globe. This tapeworm possesses an extraordinary ability to adapt to different environmental conditions and, because of that, from its natural geographical origin in mainland Asia, it has colonized every continent except Antarctica. It is thought that this pathogenic tapeworm was first co-introduced into Mexico in 1965 from China, with the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, although the first formal record of its presence was published in 1981...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502254/dactylogyrids-platyhelminthes-monogenoidea-from-the-gills-of-hoplias-malabaricus-characiformes-erythrinidae-from-coastal-rivers-of-the-oriental-amazon-basin-species-of-urocleidoides-and-constrictoanchoratus-n-gen
#13
K D C Ferreira, A R O Rodrigues, J-M Cunha, M V Domingues
Five species of Urocleidoides (one new) and two new species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. are described in this study. All were collected from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) captured in six localities of coastal rivers of the north-eastern sector the State of Pará (Oriental Amazon): Urocleidoides brasiliensis Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides bulbophallus n. sp.; Urocleidoides cuiabai Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986; Urocleidoides malabaricusi Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Constrictoanchoratus lemmyi n...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480837/anthelmintic-activity-of-tunisian-chamomile-matricaria-recutita-l-against-haemonchus-contortus
#14
S Hajaji, D Alimi, M A Jabri, S Abuseir, M Gharbi, H Akkari
The chemical treatment of gastrointestinal parasitic diseases has been undermined by increasing resistance and high toxicity. There is an urgent need to search for alternative natural sources for the treatment of such parasites. In this respect, the present study aims to quantify phenolic compounds of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and to study their in vitro anti-oxidant and anthelmintic activities in solvents with increasing polarity. In vitro determination of anti-oxidant capacity was carried out using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation methods...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480835/case-series-study-of-hepatic-echinococcal-cysts-in-serbia-viability-of-scolices-seropositivity-and-epidemiological-characteristics
#15
I Colovic Calovski, A Barac, Z Golubovic, A Karamarkovic, S Mitrovic, M Milicevic, M Cvetkovic, A M Dzamic
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes. Although CE is endemic in the Balkan region, the exact epidemiology remains unknown. We conducted a case-series study with the aim of evaluating the correlation between seropositivity, socio-epidemiological data, pre-operative treatment with albendazole and viability of protoscolices in human hepatic hydatid cysts. Consecutive patients with hepatic CE underwent surgery to extract E. granulosis cysts...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473011/description-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-new-contracaecum-larval-type-nematoda-anisakidae-from-australia
#16
S Shamsi, A Turner, S Wassens
Nematode parasites belonging to the genus Contracaecum are economically important parasites with zoonotic significance. Adult Contracaecum spp. are found in the stomach of marine mammals or piscivorous birds, and larval stages infect a wide range of invertebrates and fish species. Human infection with Contracaecum larvae has been reported in Australia and other countries after the consumption of infected fish. Although the genus Contracaecum comprises numerous species, thus far only four Contracaecum larval types have been specifically identified, therefore their life cycle and biology are not yet fully understood...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#17
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424102/gaining-insights-into-the-ecological-role-of-the-new-zealand-sole-peltorhamphus-novaezeelandiae-through-parasites
#18
T Anglade, H S Randhawa
Despite the fact that tapeworms comprise the bulk of parasite communities of sharks in marine ecosystems, little is known about their life cycles and, more specifically, about the potential intermediate hosts they utilize as transmission routes. In the absence of morphological features required for specific identification of larval tapeworms from potential intermediate hosts, recent molecular advances have contributed to linking larval and adult parasites and, in some instances, uncovering unknown trophic links...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412980/arctic-systems-in-the-quaternary-ecological-collision-faunal-mosaics-and-the-consequences-of-a-wobbling-climate
#19
E P Hoberg, J A Cook, S J Agosta, W Boeger, K E Galbreath, S Laaksonen, S J Kutz, D R Brooks
Climate oscillations and episodic processes interact with evolution, ecology and biogeography to determine the structure and complex mosaic that is the biosphere. Parasites and parasite-host assemblages are key components in a general explanatory paradigm for global biodiversity. We explore faunal assembly in the context of Quaternary time frames of the past 2.6 million years, a period dominated by episodic shifts in climate. Climate drivers cross a continuum from geological to contemporary timescales and serve to determine the structure and distribution of complex biotas...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397641/reviewing-biodiversity-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-anisakid-nematodes-from-the-north-east-atlantic-ocean
#20
S Mattiucci, P Cipriani, M Paoletti, A Levsen, G Nascetti
This review provides an inventory of the biodiversity of the anisakid species identified so far from fish and marine mammals of the NE Atlantic Ocean. The paper reviews and discusses various taxonomical and epidemiological aspects related to biodiversity assessment, with emphasis on: (1) taxa recognized as 'biological species' based on molecular/genetic markers; (2) current molecular/genetic approaches to identify the species at different developmental stages; (3) ecological data related to the actual geographical distribution and definitive host preferences of the species; (4) their distribution in various, commercially important fish species in northern European waters; (5) their possible occurrence in farmed fish; and, finally, (6) an update of their zoonotic potential as causative agents of anisakidosis in humans...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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