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Journal of Helminthology

M P Ortega-Olivares, M García-Varela
Tapeworms of the family Gryporhynchidae are endoparasites of fish-eating birds distributed worldwide. Currently the family contains 16 genera classified on the basis of the morphology of the rostellar apparatus, rostellar hooks and strobilar anatomy. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the genera are still unknown. In this study, sequences of the near complete 18S (SSU) and 28S (LSU) from rDNA of 13 species of gryporhynchids (adult specimens) representing eight genera (Cyclustera, Dendrouterina, Glossocercus, Gryporhynchidae gen...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
K Chaisiri, S Dusitsittipon, N Panitvong, T Ketboonlue, S Nuamtanong, U Thaenkham, S Morand, P Dekumyoy
Invasive species constitute one of the most serious threats to biodiversity and ecosystems, and they potentially cause economic problems and impact human health. The globally invasive New Guinea flatworm, Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes: Geoplanidae), has been identified as a threat to terrestrial biodiversity, particularly soil-dwelling native species (e.g. molluscs, annelids and other land planarians), and is listed among 100 of the world's worst invasive alien species. We report here, for the first time, P...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
W Pakdee, K Ogawa, S Pornruseetriratn, U Thaenkham, T Yeemin
Ligophorus satunensis n. sp. was collected from the bluetail mullet, Crenimugil buchanani (Bleeker, 1853), caught off Satun, Thailand, representing the first report of the Ligophorus species in Thailand. The new species is most similar to Ligophorus fenestrum Soo & Lim, 2012 in its fenestrated dorsal hamuli, a ventral bar with a long, bifurcated anteromedian protuberance (AMP) without lateral pieces, and a non-sclerotized vagina. However, it differs from the latter in its dorsal hamuli (up to two layers of fenestrations of the dorsal hamuli in L...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A De Sousa, F Jorge, M A Carretero, D J Harris, V Roca, A Perera
Despite the advances of molecular tools, new nematode species are still described mainly based on morphological characters. Parapharyngodon and Thelandros are two genera of oxyurids with unclear related taxonomic histories. Here we use morphological characters (linear measurements and categorical variables) and genetic information (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and COI partial gene sequences) to confirm the relationships between representatives of these two genera and to determine whether they can be discriminated morphologically...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S F Costa-Neto, T S Cardoso, R G Boullosa, A Maldonado, R Gentile
Among the Brazilian marsupials, the species of the genus Didelphis are the most parasitized by helminths. This study aimed to describe the species composition and to analyse the helminth communities of the Atlantic Forest common opossum Didelphis aurita at infracommunity and component community levels using the Elements of Metacommunity Structure Analysis, considering peri-urban, sylvatic and rural environments in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Seventy-three specimens of D. aurita were captured during the study...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Beer, T Ingram, H S Randhawa
An understanding of the mechanisms that determine host and parasite relationships is a central aim in parasitology. Association of a parasite species with a host species may be influenced primarily by phylogenetic constraints that cause parasite species to co-speciate with their host species, or predominantly by ecological parameters that influence all other co-evolutionary scenarios. This study aimed to investigate the role of co-speciation as well as other co-evolutionary scenarios in influencing the assemblages of tapeworm parasites (marine cestodes) in skate hosts (Rajiformes) using a modification of the PACo (Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny) method...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Rodriguez, A S S Sandri, S M Porto, J B Osório, C A Muller, B B Cognato, M F Casagrande, C Graeff-Teixeira, S R Gomes, A L Morassutti
Many molluscs may be infected with angiostrongylid larvae. Following the histopathological diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a grape farmer from southern Brazil, molluscs in the area were investigated. During a nocturnal search, 245 specimens of slugs were collected and identified as the invasive Chinese slug Meghimatium pictum. Angiostrongylus costaricensis worms were recovered from mice that were experimentally infected with larvae obtained from 11 (4.5%) of the molluscs. This study presents the first report of M...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Villa-Mancera, A Reynoso-Palomar
Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite that causes huge economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Fasciolosis is an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease that affects both humans and grazing animals. This study investigated the associations between climatic/environmental factors (derived from satellite data) and management factors affecting the spatial distribution of this liver fluke in cattle herds across different climate zones in three Mexican states. A bulk-tank milk (BTM) IgG1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to detect F...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M C Santos, M R V Amarante, A F T Amarante
This study aimed to evaluate the simultaneous infections of Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei in sheep, as well as the production of hybrids. A parental group of lambs (n = 6) were mix-infected with 2000 infective larvae (L3) of H. placei and 2000 L3 of H. contortus. Faecal samples were taken from each of these six lambs to produce the first generation of L3 (F1-L3) in individual cultures. These F1-L3 were used to infect 12 lambs; six of them were euthanized at 42 days (Group F1-42) and six at 84 days (Group F1-84) post infection...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J R Ambrosio, M I Palacios-Arreola, D G Ríos-Valencia, O Reynoso-Ducoing, K E Nava-Castro, P Ostoa-Saloma, J Morales-Montor
Androgens have been shown to exert a cysticidal effect upon Taenia crassiceps, an experimental model of cysticercosis. To further inquire into this matter, the Taenia crassiceps model was used to evaluate the expression of several proteins after testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in vitro treatment. Under 2-D proteomic maps, parasite extracts were resolved into approximately 130 proteins distributed in a molecular weight range of 10-250 kDa and isoelectrical point range of 3-10. The resultant proteomic pattern was analysed, and significant changes were observed in response to T4 and DHT...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
C Angel, N Akhter, A Arijo, T A Qureshi, J A Gandahi, I H Qazi
In this study, we evaluated the in vivo comparative efficacy of ivermectin and Nigella sativa extract against helminths in Aseel chickens, and the effects of helminths on blood parameters before and after treatment in Aseel chickens. Forty naturally infected adult Aseel chickens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): group A (ivermectin at 300 μg/kg); group B (N. sativa extract at 200 mg/kg); group C (ivermectin at 300 μg/kg + N. sativa extract at 200 mg/kg); group D was kept as a positive control to monitor time-related changes...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
K Chaisiri, T Kusolsuk, N Homsuwan, S Sanguankiat, P Dekumyoy, G Peunpipoom, S Khiriphattharaphon, Y Sako, T Yanagida, M Okamoto, A Ito
As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S Shamsi, S Miles, K Tozer, S R Raidal, L R Smales
We describe the first case of angiostrongyliasis in a water rat, Hydromys chrysogaster, a large rodent adapted to aquatic life, which is endemic to Australia, New Guinea and adjacent islands.
August 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Poulin
In recent decades, parasite community ecology has produced hundreds of studies on an ever-growing number of host species, and developed into an active sub-discipline of parasitology. However, this growth has been characterized by a lack of standards in the practices used by researchers, with many common approaches being flawed, unjustified or misleading. Here, in the hope of promoting advances in the study of parasite community ecology, I identify some of the most common errors or weaknesses in past studies, and propose ten simple rules for best practice in the field...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
N Zepeda, N Copitin, J L Chávez, F García, F Jaimes-Miranda, R Rincón-Heredia, R Paredes, S Solano, A M Fernández, J L Molinari
An experimental Taenia crassiceps mouse model was used to assess the role of Taenia solium metacestode factor (Fac) in human neurocysticercosis. Intraperitoneal infection with T. crassiceps metacestodes or subcutaneous inoculation with a T. crassiceps metacestode factor (Fac) produced significant impairment of performance (learning) in the Barnes maze and induced bilateral hippocampal sclerosis in mice. Several staining techniques revealed important cell dispersion, extensive apoptosis and cell loss in the dentate gyrus, hilus and CA1-CA3 regions of both hippocampi, as well as intense deterioration of the adjacent cortex...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Y Y Qiu, M H Zeng, P W Diao, X X Wang, Q Li, Y Li, Y Gao, C R Wang
The parasite Cyathostomum pateratum, which occurs in the large intestine of equines, is a common species of the subfamily Cyathostominae. Cyathostominae nematodes are a complex nematode group for which only limited genetic information has been reported. To re-examine the phylogenetic relationships among Cyathostominae nematodes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cy. pateratum and compared it with the mt genome of the congeneric species Cyathostomum catinatum. The complete mtDNA sequence of Cy...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
K Benmeslem, H S Randhawa, F Tazerouti
Examination of rajid skates off the Algerian coast in the Mediterranean Sea revealed that three of the 33 Dipturus batis Linnaeus, 1758 examined harboured a new tapeworm species: Echeneibothrium algeriensis n. sp. This new species, collected from the anterior half of the spiral valves, is described on the basis of morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from previously described Echeneibothrium species by details of the scolex and loculi, total length, the length of the myzorhynchus, the number of proglottides, and the number of testes...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J Fabbri, M C Elissondo
Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by encysted larvae of Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Cysts mainly affect the cerebral hemispheres, although they can also be found in ventricles, basal cisterns, and subarachnoid spaces, and rarely in the cerebellum. Given the impossibility of studying the disease in human patients, Cardona et al. (1999) developed a mouse model of neurocysticercosis, using Mesocestoides corti, a closely related cestode. This allows us to study the parasite-host relationship and the mechanisms involved in the disease, in order to improve the therapy...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A K Dixit, G Das, P Dixit, R L Sharma
This study assessed the efficacy of closantel vis-à-vis herbal extracts with known anti-parasitic properties, against fenbendazole-resistant nematodes in goats maintained under a semi-intensive system of management at the University goat farm, Jabalpur. Fifty goats were randomly assigned to five groups, each comprising 10 animals, irrespective of their breed, age and sex. Each animal in Group I, II and III was orally administered with aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) at 1 g/kg body weight, sitaphal (Annona squamosa) at 1...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S G Sokolov, S V Shchenkov, I I Gordeev
Opecoelid species Pseudopecoelus cf. vulgaris and Anomalotrema koiae Gibson & Bray, 1984 were found in fish collected in the boreal waters of the North Pacific. Pseudopecoelus cf. vulgaris differs from Pseudopecoelus vulgaris (Manter, 1934) in terms of the egg size. This is the first record of A. koiae in the North Pacific, and the second of Pseudopecoelus cf. vulgaris. Previously, A. koiae was recorded only in North Atlantic fish. Partial sequences of 28S rDNA obtained for these two species and six other previously unsequenced representatives of the family Opecoelidae were analysed together with data from GenBank...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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