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Journal of Helminthology

T A P Santos, E G G Argolo, A N Santos, A R O Rodrigues, C E Gonzaléz, J N Santos, F T V Melo
Parapharyngodon politoedi n. sp. is described here, based on specimens found in the large intestines of Osteocephalus taurinus from the Caxiuanã National Forest, State of Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Parapharyngodon based on the presence of non-embryonated eggs with sub-terminal opercula, when in the ovijector. Parapharyngodon politoedi belongs to a group of species with three pairs of cloacal papillae and differs from its congeners by morphometric aspects, such as the length of the spicule, and the combination of the following morphological characters: ovaries never encircling the oesophagus, tail shape in females, cloacal lips, sharply pointed spicule and presence of genital cone...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
T Gorgani-Firouzjaee, N Kalantrai, S Ghaffari, J Alipour, S Siadati
Echinococcus granulosus is a helminth from the family Taeniidae, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and diverse livestock around the world. The identification of existing genotypes in different regions is a major step towards the prevention and establishment of control programmes for the disease. This study aimed to detect CE genotypes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene in isolates from the central part of Mazandaran province, northern Iran...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
D P Benesh
When many worms co-infect the same host, their average size is often reduced. This negative density-dependent growth is called the crowding effect. Crowding has been reported many times for worms in their intermediate hosts, but rarely have the fitness consequences of crowding been examined. This study tested whether larval crowding reduces establishment success in the next host for two parasites with complex life cycles, the nematode Camallanus lacustris and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Infected copepods, the first host, were fed to sticklebacks, the second host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J Abolafia, A N Ruiz-Cuenca, J Foit, V Čermak
Three species belonging to the genus Macrolaimus, namely M. canadensis, M. crucis and M. ruehmi, have been obtained from areas of natural vegetation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica (France), the Czech Republic and Spain. These three species are characterized by the body length of males and females, stomatal proportion of the gymnostom and cheilostom, excretory pore position, postvulval uterine sac length, male and female tail length and morphology, and the length and morphology of the spicules and gubernacula...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
L Ghanbarzadeh, M Saraei, E B Kia, F Amini, M Sharifdini
Trichostrongylus spp. are primarily parasites of ruminants, but humans can become infected as accidental hosts. Information about the clinical aspects of human trichostrongyliasis is limited. This study investigated the clinical and haematological characteristics of a large number of trichostrongyliasis patients. In the Fouman district of Guilan Province in northern Iran, during 2015-2016, 60 patients were identified as positive for Trichostrongylus spp., using stool examination methods. The clinical manifestations and demographic data of all patients were recorded and further analysed...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R M El-S Hassanine, Z M Al-Hasawi, M S Hariri, H El-S Touliabah
Currently, fish helminth parasites, especially cestodes and acanthocephalans, are regarded as sentinel organisms to elucidate metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Here, 34 specimens of the fish Siganus rivulatus were collected in the Red Sea, from a seriously polluted, small lagoon named Sharm-Elmaya Bay, at Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt; 22 (64.7%) were infected by Sclerocollum saudii (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). Thus, 22 natural infrapopulations (26-245 individuals) of this parasite were collected from infected fish...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J F Santos Neto, N G S Costa, G B Soares, M V Domingues
Two new species of Diaphorocleidus and one new species of Rhinoxenoides n. gen. are described from the gills of Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch) from rivers of north-eastern Pará, Brazil. Diaphorocleidus jaymedeloyolai n. sp. is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) possessing three counterclockwise coils; similar anchors with subtriangular superficial roots; a ventral bar with posteromedial projection; and hooks of pairs 1, 4 and 7 approximately three times longer than hook pair 5. Diaphorocleidus sclerocolpus n...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M W Wang, X X Yan, J X Hang, X L Shi, Y Q Fu, P Zhang, F Yang, W D Pan, G Q Li
To investigate the prevalence of canine and feline hookworms in South China, and to assess the risk of zoonotic hookworms to humans, one pair of primers (HRM-F/HRM-R) was designed to establish a high-resolution melting (HRM) method based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) rDNA for the detection of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum and A. tubaeforme infection. The results showed that the HRM for the three hookworms produced different melting-curve profiles, where melting temperature (T m) values were 84...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Binkienė, A Miliūtė, V Stunžėnas
The cestode Hymenolepis erinacei is regarded as a widely distributed parasite in European hedgehogs of the genus Erinaceus, although the taxonomic position of this hymenolepidid has been debated for a considerable period of time. We present the first molecular data for this cestode, including partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis clusters H. erinacei in one clade together with representatives of the genus Hymenolepis from rodents. Characteristic morphological features, including the oval embryophore without filaments and shape of the embryonic hooks of H...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M H Miño, E J Rojas Herrera, J Notarnicola, K Hodara
In the Pampa region of Argentina, farming activities have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century, but in the 1990s, land-use patterns rapidly changed towards intensive agriculture and poultry breeding. This study compares the helminth community of Akodon azarae (Rodentia) among three habitats with different land use in pampean agroecosystems: poultry farms, mono-cultivated fields and abandoned fields (not used for 35 years), under the prediction that there will be greater helminth richness and diversity in mice from abandoned fields compared to those from the other habitats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Uspensky, L Bukina, I Odoevskaya, S Movsesyan, M Voronin
Trichinellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella, is still a public health concern in the Arctic. The aims of this study were to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Trichinella IgG in aboriginal peoples of two settlements in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian Federation) on the Arctic coast of the Bering Sea, and to evaluate the survival of Trichinella nativa larvae in local fermented and frozen meat products. A seroprevalence of 24.3% was detected in 259 people tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
N J Morley, J W Lewis
Vertebrate hosts commonly harbour concurrent infections of different helminth species which may interact with each other in a synergistic, antagonistic or negligible manner. Direct interactions between helminths that share a common site in the host have been regularly reported, but indirect interactions between species that occur in different sites are rarely described, especially in fish hosts. Plerocercoids of Ligula intestinalis are common infections of the peritoneal (body) cavity of roach (Rutilus rutilus) in freshwater habitats...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A L Sereno-Uribe, A López-Jimenez, L Andrade-Gómez, M García-Varela
Adults of Hysteromorpha triloba (Rudolpi, 1819), Lutz, 1931 inhabit primarily the intestine of cormorants across the globe, whereas metacercariae have been found in the body cavity of freshwater fishes of the families Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Ariidae, Pimelodidae and Catostomidae. In this study, adults and metacercariae identified as H. triloba were collected from the Neotropical cormorant (Nannopterum brasilianus) and from the Mexican tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean slopes in the Neotropical region...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M A Hasby Saad, M M Watany
With the growing incidence of closed schistosomiasis and uncommon presentations, there is a risk of the infection rate being underestimated. A study in Japan reported an unexplained case of endocarditis that was finally diagnosed as a complex Schistosoma japonicum infection; in the absence of advanced techniques, the diagnosis was delayed. We therefore set out to explore the incidence of Schistosoma mansoni in endocarditis patients coming from areas of Egypt where S. mansoni is endemic. We also investigated histopathological changes in the cardiac valves and the presence of cell-free parasite DNA (CFPD) in cardiac tissues of laboratory mice infected with S...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A H Bhat, A K Chaubey, V Půža
During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
K Okumura, T Kubota, A K Lefor, A Saito, K Mizokami
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between eosinophils in ascites and the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis in patients with peritoneal signs on physical examination. We reviewed retrospectively 16 patients diagnosed with intestinal anisakidosis, evaluated between 2012 and 2015. All patients had ingested raw anchovies. The analysis of ascites fluid in ten of these patients was compared with that of 15 patients with ascites and other abdominal pathology (except liver cirrhosis). All patients had an increased number of white blood cells in the ascites fluid...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Y V Tatonova, P G Shumenko, V V Besprozvannykh
As a result of experimental studies conducted in the Russian southern Far East, adult worms from the genus Metagonimus were obtained. A comparative analysis of the morphometry of these worms with other Metagonimus representatives showed that they are most similar to M. katsuradai Izumi, 1935 and M. otsurui Shimazu & Urabe, 2002 found in Japan, due to the ratio of suckers and the positions of the testicle, uterus and vitellaria. However, Russian worms differ from species in Japan by other metric characters: they differ from M...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
C T Garrido, A L Morassutti, J R S Barradas, C Graeff-Teixeira
Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasite that infects rodents, including the wild cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus and pygmy rice rats Oligoryzomys spp., among others. However, urban Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus have not been identified as important hosts of A. costaricensis. In this study, Swiss mice (SW), Wistar R. norvegicus (RN), wild Oligoryzomys nigripes (ON) and a local strain of M. musculus (RGS) were experimentally infected with A. costaricensis. Survival, elimination of L1 (total sum per group, A0), and the number of adult worms recovered divided by the dose of each L3 inoculum (yield ratio, YR) were examined for each group after a 40-day post-infection period...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
A G Trasviña-Moreno, F Ascencio, C Angulo, K S Hutson, A Avilés-Quevedo, R B Inohuye-Rivera, J C Pérez-Urbiola
The toxicity of water-ethanol extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter chaparro (Castela tortuousa), onion (Allium cepa) and papaya (Carica papaya) against adults, eggs and oncomiracidia of Neobenedenia spp. parasites was examined. Parasites were exposed to continuous immersion and treated as follows: extracts were tested at three dilutions: 1:10, 1:50 and 1:100 made with filtered seawater (35 g l-1); ethanol (70%) was evaluated at the same dilutions of 1:10 (7% ethanol), 1:50 (1...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
I Varela-Benavides, R Peña-Santiago
The new species Metaxonchium toroense n. sp. from natural habitats of Costa Rica is described, including light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular (D2-D3 28S rDNA) analyses. The new species is characterized by its general size, the dimensions and appearance of its lip region, the length of the odontostyle and its fusiform aspect, the length of the neck and its pharyngeal expansion, the reduction of the anterior genital branch to a very short uterine sac without any rudiment of ovary or oviduct, tripartite and non-echinophor posterior uterus, the somewhat posterior vulva position, the length and shape of the caudal region, and the absence of males...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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