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Journal of Helminthology

S Shamsi, A Stoddart, L Smales, S Wassens
There is a paucity of information on the diversity and occurrence of freshwater fish parasites in Australia. This study investigates the distribution and occurrence of a parasitic nematode of the genus Contracaecum in freshwater fish from south-eastern Australia. Fish (n = 508) belonging to nine species and eight families were collected from eight wetlands associated with the Murrumbidgee River floodplain in the southern Murray-Darling Basin and subjected to laboratory examination. Third-stage nematode larvae were found in eight of the nine fish species...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
K K Gupta, A Singh, A K Singh, S K Singh, M Tripathi, R K Gupta, K N Prasad
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Swine cysticercosis results in economic losses for pig farmers in disease endemic areas. Consumption of cysticercotic pork leads to taeniasis in humans. Eggs excreted in the faeces of T. solium carriers disseminate to humans and pigs through the faecal-oral route, thus maintaining the life cycle in endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed using whole crude T. solium cysticercus antigens (WCA) for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
F B Pereira, V L Ferreira, W M Tomas, C Elisei, F Paiva, L E R Tavares
Diaphanocephalus galeatus collected from the small intestine of the lizard Dracaena paraguayensis in the Pantanal wetlands, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, is redescribed. Genetic characterization and observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the first time. The vouchers of D. galeatus and the type specimens of its congeners, deposited in the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC), were consulted. Light and SEM observations revealed several undescribed features of D...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
V M Jovanović, B Čabrilo, I Budinski, O Bjelić-Čabrilo, T Adnađević, J Blagojević, M Vujošević
The yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, can be considered as a model for genetic polymorphism produced by the frequent presence of supernumerary or B chromosomes (Bs). Host genetic background is rarely taken into account in studies of parasite sex ratio. The main aim of this study was to investigate the range of infrapopulation sex ratios for nematode parasites of the yellow-necked mouse and to determine which factors most influence variation in parasite sex ratios. Six nematode species found in the collected yellow-necked mice were analysed...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
H B Wang, H J Zhang, L L Song, L Zhu, M Chen, G J Ren, G H Liu, G H Zhao
The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered species endemic to China. Relatively little is known about the taxonomic status of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in these monkeys. Trichuris spp. (syn. Trichocephalus) are among the most important STHs, causing significant socio-economic losses and public health concerns. To date, five Trichuris species have been reported in golden monkeys, including a novel species, T. rhinopiptheroxella, based on morphology. In the present study, molecular and morphological analysis was conducted on adult Trichuris worms obtained from a dead golden snub-nosed monkey, to better understand their taxonomic status...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A L May-Tec, A Martínez-Aquino, M L Aguirre-Macedo, V M Vidal-Martínez
We describe the larval developmental stages and life cycle of the dracunculid nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae in both the intermediate, Argulus yucatanus (Crustacea: Branchiura), and definitive hosts, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), from the Celestun tropical coastal lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico. The morphological analyses showed significant differences between the total length of L1 found in M. cichlasomae gravid female and L2-L3 in A. yucatanus. This result indicates that the M. cichlasomae larval development occurs in the intermediate host...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Bruno, A M Fedynich, D Rollins, D B Wester
One hundred and sixty-one northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter 'bobwhite') were examined from the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and western Oklahoma from 2011 to 2013. Complete necropsies yielded 13 species, of which two are new host (Gongylonema phasianella) and region (Eucoleus contortus) records and three (Dispharynx nasuta, Tetrameres pattersoni and Oxyspirura petrowi) are known to cause morbidity and mortality. Of the species found, Aulonocephalus pennula commonly occurred, Oxyspirura petrowi was intermediate in prevalence, and the remaining species were rare...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M J Sarink, R Koelewijn, B C G C Slingerland, A G M Tielens, P J J van Genderen, J J van Hellemond
Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is at present mainly based on imaging techniques. Serology has a complementary role, partly due to the small number of standardized and commercially available assays. Therefore we examined the clinical performance of the SERION ELISA classic Echinococcus IgG test. Using 10 U/ml as a cut-off point, and serum samples from 50 CE patients and 105 healthy controls, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.0% and 96.2%, respectively. If patients with other infectious diseases were used as negative controls, the specificity decreased to 76...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Yaghoubi, E Pourjam, M Pedram
Anguillonema iranicum n. sp. is described and illustrated as the second species of this genus from Iran, based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characteristics. It is identified by a short, thin body, a continuous lip region, six lines on the lateral field, a short, thin stylet, a posteriorly located pharyngo-intestinal junction to excretory pore, the presence of a post-vulval uterine sac, vulval position at 89% (87.4-89.9%) of body length, an elongate conoid tail with a rounded to pointed tip and not dorsally bent, and common functional males with short spicules and lacking a bursa...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R A Paterson, R Knudsen, I Blasco-Costa, A M Dunn, S Hytterød, H Hansen
Parasite distribution patterns in lotic catchments are driven by the combined influences of unidirectional water flow and the mobility of the most mobile host. However, the importance of such drivers in catchments dominated by lentic habitats are poorly understood. We examined parasite populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from a series of linear-connected lakes in northern Norway to assess the generality of lotic-derived catchment-scale parasite assemblage patterns. Our results demonstrated that the abundance of most parasite taxa increased from the upper to lower catchment...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M Ondračková, Y Kvach, A Martens, P Jurajda
Metazoan parasite communities of Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae), one of the most successfully introduced fish species in Europe, were studied at two isolated ponds (Knielingen, Tropfen) along the Upper Rhine in Germany. Nine parasite taxa were observed, including North American species co-introduced to Europe (ancyrocephalid monogeneans, diplostomid trematodes), circumpolar species infecting L. gibbosus in both their native and non-native ranges (bothriocephalid cestodes) and locally acquired parasitic nematodes...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
J F Gao, X X Zhang, X X Wang, Q Li, Y Li, W W Xu, Y Gao, C R Wang
Parascarosis is caused mainly by parasitic infections with Parascaris equorum and Parascaris univalens, the most common ascarid nematodes, in the small intestine of equines. Parascarosis often causes severe illness and even death in foals and yearlings. In this study, we obtained the complete sequence of the P. equorum mitochondrial (mt) genome and compared its organization and structure with that of P. equorum Japan isolate (nearly complete), and the complete mtDNA sequences of P. univalens Switzerland and USA isolates...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
C Gilardoni, G Di Giorgio, E Bagnato, F Cremonte
Larval trematodes are the main parasites of snails, and they play a crucial role because they usually castrate their snail hosts and can thus alter their population and community dynamics. This study involved a survey of seven gastropod species (Crepipatella dilatata, Fissurella radiosa, Nacella magellanica, Pareuthria fuscata, Siphonaria lessonii, S. lateralis and Trophon geversianus) parasitized by 12 trematode species (one hemiurid, one gymnophallid, two lepocreadiids, two microphallids, one notocotylid, two renicolids, one philophtalmid, one schistosomatid and one zoogonid) from southern Patagonia (47°S, 65°W), Argentina...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
B Sures, M Nachev, B M Gilbert, Q M Dos Santos, M A Jochmann, D Köster, T C Schmidt, A Avenant-Oldewage
The analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen has been used as a fingerprint for understanding the trophic interactions of organisms. Most of these studies have been applied to free-living organisms, while parasites have largely been neglected. Studies dealing with parasites so far have assessed the carbon and nitrogen signatures in endoparasites or ectoparasites of different hosts, without showing general trends concerning the nutritional relationships within host-parasite associations. Moreover, in most cases such systems involved a single host and parasite species...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S N El-Beshbishi, S El Bardicy, M Tadros, M Ayoub, A Taman
Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections have broadly overlapping geographical distributions. Praziquantel is the only treatment for human schistosomiasis, so drug tolerance and/or resistance are major concerns. Artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate (CO-ArNp), an artemisinin-based combination therapy endorsed by the World Health Organization as a gold standard therapy for malaria, has also been identified as a promising treatment for S. mansoni. In this in vitro study, we tested the effect of 1-40 μg/ml CO-ArNp on S...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Briosio-Aguilar, M García-Varela, D I Hernández-Mena, M Rubio-Godoy, G Pérez-Ponce de León
The family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 contains 29 species allocated to seven genera, of which Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is the most diverse, with c. 14 valid species. The diversity of Clinostomum has been assessed, combining morphological and molecular data. The genetic library for species in this genus has increased steadily, although there is little or no information for the other genera included in the family. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of clinostomids have not been assessed, and their classification is still based on morphological traits...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
E S Ivanova, N E Dokuchaev, S E Spiridonov
Antechiniella septentrionalis n. sp. (Spirurida: Acuariidae) is described from the duodenum of a tundra vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), collected in the Magadan region in the north-east part of Russia. It differs from A. suffodiax (Beveridge & Barker, 1975) and A. sertatum Smales, 1991 mainly in having a larger number of postcloacal papillae (5-6 pairs vs 4 pairs), a differently shaped left spicule, the disposition of precloacal papillae in two rows vs one, and oblong vs oval eggs. Other differences include the different disposition of ovaries in A...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S P Stock, R Campos-Herrera, F E El-Borai, L W Duncan
In this study, molecular (ribosomal sequence data), morphological and cross-hybridization properties were used to identify a new Steinernema sp. from Florida, USA. Molecular and morphological data provided evidence for placing the novel species into Clade V, or the 'glaseri-group' of Steinernema spp. Within this clade, analysis of sequence data of the rDNA genes, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), depicted the novel species as a distinctive entity and closely related to S. glaseri and S. cubanum. Additionally, cross-hybridization assays showed that the new species is unable to interbreed with either of the latter two species, reinforcing its uniqueness from a biological species concept standpoint...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M Choobineh, F Mikaeili, S M Sadjjadi, S Ebrahimi, S Iranmanesh
Human toxocariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is caused by the larval stage of intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats, namely Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs present in the soil, vegetables or on other contaminated surfaces, as well as via consumption of uncooked paratenic hosts, such as bird meat and giblets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of soil in public parks and playgrounds in Shiraz using microscopy and molecular methods...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Zamilpa, C García-Alanís, M E López-Arellano, V M Hernández-Velázquez, M G Valladares-Cisneros, D O Salinas-Sánchez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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