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Journal of Helminthology

J F Gao, X X Zhang, X X Wang, Q Li, Y Li, W W Xu, Y Gao, C R Wang
Parascarosis is caused mainly by parasitic infections with Parascaris equorum and Parascaris univalens, the most common ascarid nematodes, in the small intestine of equines. Parascarosis often causes severe illness and even death in foals and yearlings. In this study, we obtained the complete sequence of the P. equorum mitochondrial (mt) genome and compared its organization and structure with that of P. equorum Japan isolate (nearly complete), and the complete mtDNA sequences of P. univalens Switzerland and USA isolates...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
C Gilardoni, G Di Giorgio, E Bagnato, F Cremonte
Larval trematodes are the main parasites of snails, and they play a crucial role because they usually castrate their snail hosts and can thus alter their population and community dynamics. This study involved a survey of seven gastropod species (Crepipatella dilatata, Fissurella radiosa, Nacella magellanica, Pareuthria fuscata, Siphonaria lessonii, S. lateralis and Trophon geversianus) parasitized by 12 trematode species (one hemiurid, one gymnophallid, two lepocreadiids, two microphallids, one notocotylid, two renicolids, one philophtalmid, one schistosomatid and one zoogonid) from southern Patagonia (47°S, 65°W), Argentina...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
B Sures, M Nachev, B M Gilbert, Q M Dos Santos, M A Jochmann, D Köster, T C Schmidt, A Avenant-Oldewage
The analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen has been used as a fingerprint for understanding the trophic interactions of organisms. Most of these studies have been applied to free-living organisms, while parasites have largely been neglected. Studies dealing with parasites so far have assessed the carbon and nitrogen signatures in endoparasites or ectoparasites of different hosts, without showing general trends concerning the nutritional relationships within host-parasite associations. Moreover, in most cases such systems involved a single host and parasite species...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S N El-Beshbishi, S El Bardicy, M Tadros, M Ayoub, A Taman
Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections have broadly overlapping geographical distributions. Praziquantel is the only treatment for human schistosomiasis, so drug tolerance and/or resistance are major concerns. Artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate (CO-ArNp), an artemisinin-based combination therapy endorsed by the World Health Organization as a gold standard therapy for malaria, has also been identified as a promising treatment for S. mansoni. In this in vitro study, we tested the effect of 1-40 μg/ml CO-ArNp on S...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Briosio-Aguilar, M García-Varela, D I Hernández-Mena, M Rubio-Godoy, G Pérez-Ponce de León
The family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 contains 29 species allocated to seven genera, of which Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 is the most diverse, with c. 14 valid species. The diversity of Clinostomum has been assessed, combining morphological and molecular data. The genetic library for species in this genus has increased steadily, although there is little or no information for the other genera included in the family. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among the genera of clinostomids have not been assessed, and their classification is still based on morphological traits...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
E S Ivanova, N E Dokuchaev, S E Spiridonov
Antechiniella septentrionalis n. sp. (Spirurida: Acuariidae) is described from the duodenum of a tundra vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), collected in the Magadan region in the north-east part of Russia. It differs from A. suffodiax (Beveridge & Barker, 1975) and A. sertatum Smales, 1991 mainly in having a larger number of postcloacal papillae (5-6 pairs vs 4 pairs), a differently shaped left spicule, the disposition of precloacal papillae in two rows vs one, and oblong vs oval eggs. Other differences include the different disposition of ovaries in A...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S P Stock, R Campos-Herrera, F E El-Borai, L W Duncan
In this study, molecular (ribosomal sequence data), morphological and cross-hybridization properties were used to identify a new Steinernema sp. from Florida, USA. Molecular and morphological data provided evidence for placing the novel species into Clade V, or the 'glaseri-group' of Steinernema spp. Within this clade, analysis of sequence data of the rDNA genes, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), depicted the novel species as a distinctive entity and closely related to S. glaseri and S. cubanum. Additionally, cross-hybridization assays showed that the new species is unable to interbreed with either of the latter two species, reinforcing its uniqueness from a biological species concept standpoint...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M Choobineh, F Mikaeili, S M Sadjjadi, S Ebrahimi, S Iranmanesh
Human toxocariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is caused by the larval stage of intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats, namely Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs present in the soil, vegetables or on other contaminated surfaces, as well as via consumption of uncooked paratenic hosts, such as bird meat and giblets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of soil in public parks and playgrounds in Shiraz using microscopy and molecular methods...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A Zamilpa, C García-Alanís, M E López-Arellano, V M Hernández-Velázquez, M G Valladares-Cisneros, D O Salinas-Sánchez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
A M Bronstein, A N Lukashev
Although there have been occasional reports of rare and low-level trichinellae infestation in beavers, no human cases of beaver-associated trichinellosis have been described. This report presents a possible case of human trichinellosis linked to beaver meat. Increasing consumption of beaver meat necessitates raising awareness of this potential source of trichinellosis.
May 3, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
S A El-Refai, A F Atia, S F Mahmoud
Schistosomiasis is a chronic debilitating parasitic disease that causes hepatic damage and is known to be endemic in developing countries. Recent control strategies for schistosomiasis depend exclusively on chemotherapeutic agents, specifically praziquantel. Unfortunately, praziquantel has low efficacy in the early phase of infection, and resistance to treatment is increasingly reported. The aim of this work was to find an alternative treatment by assessing the in vivo activity of aqueous extract of Callistemon citrinus against Schistosoma mansoni in both prepatent and patent phases in experimentally infected mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R Jafari, B Sanei, A Baradaran, M Kolahdouzan, B Bagherpour, H Yousofi Darani
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of local immune cell infiltration in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) by identifying the subtypes of immune cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Fifty surgically removed hydatid cyst samples and surrounding tissues were collected from patients referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. IHC was performed on the surrounding host tissue of hydatid cysts using anti-human CD3, CD19, CD8, CD4, CD68, CD56, Ki-67 and Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) antibodies. The results were then compared to hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M K Kouam, R Meningue, D E Fon
An abattoir study was carried out between May and October 2016 to determine the parasitic causes of organ condemnation during meat inspection and to evaluate the attendant financial losses in Fako abattoirs, in the South-West region of Cameroon. Organs (liver, lungs, heart, tongue, kidney, spleen and intestine) were examined at meat inspection following standard procedures and the financial loss was estimated by considering the total weight of condemned organs and the price per kilogram of marketable organs, obtained from the local market...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
N B Chilton, F Huby-Chilton, A Koehler, R B Gasser, I Beveridge
The phylogenetic relationships of 42 species of cloacinine nematodes belonging to three tribes (Coronostrongylinea, Macropostrongylinea and Zoniolaiminea) were examined based on sequence data of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. All nematodes examined are parasites of Australian macropodid marsupials. None of the three nematode tribes was monophyletic. Paraphyly was also encountered in three genera: Papillostrongylus, Monilonema and Wallabinema...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
L T Gressler, T H Grando, G Machado do Carmo, R A Vaucher, L M Stefani, S G Monteiro
Many important studies on resistance reversion, anthelmintic efficacy and, especially, new molecules with antiparasitic effects are performed in laboratories using gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as the experimental model. This study aimed to evaluate the use of corticosteroids (dexamethasone and methylprednisolone acetate) in gerbils experimentally infected with different doses of infective larvae (sheathed or exsheathed) of Haemonchus contortus. In the first experiment, 28 gerbils were divided into seven groups infected by 2-6 × 103 larvae, with or without immunosuppression using corticosteroids...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
D Alimi, M Rekik, H Akkari
One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
M Lis, E Sajnaga, A Kreft, T Skrzypek, W Kazimierczak
Four strains of entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated with a live trap method in southern Poland. The isolates were identified as Steinernema silvaticum based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Infective juveniles of Polish S. silvaticum isolates differ in body length from S. weiseri (951 vs 740 μm, respectively), and in the hyaline tail portion from S. kraussei (48 vs 38%, respectively). First-generation males of S. silvaticum are longer than those of S. kraussei, S. weiseri and S. ichnusae (1829 vs 1400, 1180 and 1341 μm, respectively)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
C M Monteiro, E W Wendt, Y D Zebral
A new species of Dendrorchis is described and compared with others in the genus. The parasites were found in the swim bladder of the annual killifish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia. Hosts were collected from a seasonal wetland in southern Brazil. The main characteristics of D. pampae are: genital pore in the intestinal bifurcation region elongate and lobed vitellaria uterine loops limited to the acetabular region and to the rear end of the body; and wide intestinal caeca. An emended diagnosis of the genus Dendrorchis includes the characteristics of the new species...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
E V N Beshay, A A Rady, A F Afifi, A H Mohamed
Despite the seriousness of schistosomiasis, its treatment depends only on praziquantel (PZQ), which has begun to lose its efficacy against the emergent Schistosoma mansoni-resistant strains. Therefore, the discovery of a novel schistosomicidal drug is an urgent priority. This study was designed to evaluate treatment with Cucurbita pepo L. (pumpkin) seed oil (PSO) alone and combined with PZQ against S. mansoni in experimentally infected mice. The study involved five groups: GI was the normal control; GII was the infected control; GIII was treated with an oral dose of PZQ of 500 mg/kg/day for two successive days, starting in the sixth week post infection; GIV was treated with an oral dose of PSO of 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks, starting in the fourth week post infection; and GV was treated with combined PSO-PZQ...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
R G Boullosa, R O Simões, B E Andrade-Silva, R Gentile, A Maldonado
A new species of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae), Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp., is described from specimens collected from the small intestine of the rodent Euryoryzomys russatus in the Atlantic Forest (Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil). The genus Stilestrongylus includes 23 species, which parasitize rodents occurring in the Neotropical region. Stilestrongylus aureus (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S. azarai (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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