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Journal of Genetic Psychology

Sandra Bosacki, Valentina Sitnik, Keeley Dutcher, Victoria Talwar
The authors explored Canadian emerging adolescents' social and moral reasoning skills (empathy, theory of mind), and their perceptions of gratitude, self-competencies, and well-being (spiritual, emotional). As part of a larger five-year longitudinal study, the authors describe results of Year 2 (2016-2017) data from 46 ninth-grade students (33 girls; Mage  = 13.5 years, SD = 5.436 years) from eight schools (Ontario, Canada). Students' perceptions of gratitude, spirituality, self-compassion, competencies, and well-being were measured by self-report questionnaires...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Plousia Misailidi
The author examined the relation between individual differences in children's understanding of guilt and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Two hundred and eighteen 8- to 10-year-old children were asked to define what guilt is and report a personal experience in which they felt this emotion. ToM was assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (Children's version; Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) and with the Strange Stories test (Happè, 1994). There were marked differences in children's understanding of guilt even after controlling for age...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Mary B Eberly-Lewis, Melissa Vera-Hughes, Taryn M Coetzee
While particular parenting styles and parenting qualities have been linked to adolescent narcissistic tendencies, their association is likely indirect. Parents aim to indoctrinate adolescents with dispositional tendencies, such as self-confidence independence and a focus on peer acceptance, which incidentally manifest in narcissism. The authors investigated whether mothers' and fathers' positive parenting and lax discipline were linked indirectly to adolescent grandiose narcissism through a need for positive approval and independent self-construal...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Alexandra N Davis, Haley Luce, Natasha Davalos
The goal of the present study was to examine the links between life events and adolescents' social behaviors (prosocial and aggressive behaviors) toward specific targets and to examine how empathic concern may play a role in these associations. The study examined two hypotheses: both the mediating role of empathic concern and the moderating role of empathic concern. The sample included 311 high school students from the Midwest (M age = 16.10 years; age range = 14-19 years; 58.7% girls; 82.7% White, 13.6% Latino)...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jeremy E C Genovese
The Flynn effect is the long-term trend for scores on tests of cognitive ability to increase across cohorts. Several samples of children's human figure drawings, published in 1902, 1926, 1963, and 1968, are examined for evidence of a Flynn effect. Results show that larger percentages of children draw more complete human figures over the course of the 20th century.
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Özge Metin Aslan
The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Amanda R Tarullo, Srishti Nayak, Ashley M St John, Stacey N Doan
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is one of the most widely used measures of preschool executive function, yet relatively little is known about how altering emotional demands of the task affects DCCS performance. This study examined the effects of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback on preschool children's performance on the DCCS in a sample of 105 children aged 3.5-4.5 years. In a within-subjects design, children completed the standard DCCS and a modified version of the DCCS in which sticker rewards were gained or lost after each trial...
July 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Matthew R Jamnik, Lisabeth F DiLalla
The association between aggressive media and related behavior is complicated, and the role of underlying genetics has not been adequately explored. A better understanding of the role of genetics on the relationship between aggressive media and behavior, especially in young children, is critical. Using a twin/triplets sample (N = 184 children), the authors investigated the association between preschoolers' preferred media choices and their aggressive behaviors. A multimeasure methodology was utilized, examining children's reports of their preferred media games and shows, observed child negativity and aggression in the lab, and parent reports of their own and their children's aggressive behaviors...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Beatrice Accorti Gamannossi
The authors investigated children's narrative competence by analyzing the development of the reciprocal relationship between storytelling and story retelling performances over a school year through a cross-lagged panel design. The participants in this study were 170 Italian kindergarten pupils (M age = 4.98 ± 0.31 years). Children were asked to produce oral narratives in two different tasks: a storytelling and a story retelling task. Narrative competence was assessed in terms of structure and coherence. The cross-lagged panel analyses showed that both storytelling and story retelling tasks are stable constructs, but they differ in the emphasis on coherence...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Franca Tani, Lucia Ponti
The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Isabel C Sumaya, Emily Darling
The authors' aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Rachael D Reavis, Stephanie E Miller, Jordyn A Grimes, Abou-Nica N M Fomukong
Although work with children demonstrates a benefit of process-focused praise relative to person-focused praise on post-failure motivation, few studies have examined this result in adults. We tested the effect of three types of praise on adults' post-failure outcomes: person-focused intelligence ("high intelligence"), person-focused effort ("hard worker"), and process-focused effort ("worked hard") in a sample of 156 adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk. Participants completed a set of easy visual pattern recognition problems and were told that they performed better than most adults and were given one of the three types of feedback...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Meredith McGinley
While previous research has established links among multiple aspects of parenting, empathy, and prosocial behaviors in youth, little is known regarding the relations between helicopter parenting, a particular type of parental over control, and empathy and prosocial behaviors (Padilla-Walker, 2014). Because helicopter parenting could undermine empathic and prosocial outcomes by negatively impacting self-regulatory behaviors and promoting narcissistic tendencies (Padilla-Walker, 2014; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, Bauer, & Murphy, 2012; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, & Montgomery, 2013), the author sought to examine potential relationships among these constructs...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Amy L Gentzler, Cara A Palmer, Chit Yuen Yi, Amy E Root, Karena M Moran
Parents generally want their children to be happy, but little is known about particular types of positive affect (PA) that parents want their children to experience. Tsai's (2007) affect valuation theory offers a useful framework to understand how parents' emotional goals may shape the socialization of particular types of PA (e.g., excitement vs. relaxation). Participants were 96 mothers and their 7- to 12-year-old children. Results indicated that mothers endorsed similar levels of ideal PA (IPA) for low-, moderate-, and high-arousal PA for both themselves and for their child, suggesting that mothers desire the same type of PA for their children as they want for themselves...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Cirenia Quintana-Orts, Lourdes Rey
With the development of positive psychology, protective factors have received increased attention as buffers against suicidal ideation and attempts and against the risk factors for suicide (e.g., depressive symptoms). Empirical evidence suggests that one of the protective factors associated with depression and suicide is forgiveness. Although previous studies have demonstrated a negative association between forgiveness and risk of suicide, studies on gender differences in adolescents are still scarce. Thus, the authors assessed the moderating role of gender in a sample of adolescents...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Juan F Díaz-Morales, Zaida Parra-Robledo
Work psychology has noted the importance of considering the temporal dimension of behavior in organizations. Given that society widely operates on a 24-hr schedule, it is important to know how circadian typologies are distributed in the general population. In this study, diurnal preference was analyzed among 4,175 Spanish participants (61.3% women), 12-59 years old, who completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (Smith, Reilly, & Midkiff, 1989). Several measurement models of the CSM were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Fiorenzo Laghi, Antonia Lonigro, Susanna Pallini, Roberto Baiocco
A shared consensus among researchers deals with the positive association between the ability to effectively regulate and manage one's emotion and the engagement in empathic behavior and morally desirable actions. This study was designed to investigate how dispositional reliance on suppression and reappraisal differently impacted on the cognitive and affective components of empathy and on social conduct, distinguishing among prosocial, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Two hundred nineteen middle adolescents were enrolled and fulfilled self-reports assessing emotion regulation strategies, empathy, and social behaviors...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Dimitra Pouliou, Fotini Bonoti, Niki Nikonanou
The present study was designed to examine preschoolers' ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of an art painting, through its colors. To attain this aim 78 children, 3-5 years old were presented with realistic and abstract paintings conveying either happiness or sadness and were asked to choose those which matched the appropriate emotion. In total 16 paintings were used, which varied in color, while their subject matter was held as constant as possible after they had been previously rated by a group of adults to ensure that they conveyed the two emotions under investigation...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Tadamasa Narimoto, Naomi Matsuura, Michio Hiratani
Previous studies provide clear evidence that visuospatial memory performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is significantly lower than in typically developing children. In the present study, we investigated a major cause of their low performance using a spatial span test. Possibly, inattention resulting from lack of motivation or interest causes their low performance so that they do not correctly encode targets to be remembered. On the other hand, a deficit in temporary maintenance per se may cause their low performance; that is, their inefficient use of rehearsal during a retention interval may lead to memory traces' fast decay...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Petra Jansen, Jennifer Lehmann, Christoph Tafelmeier
It was the main goal of this study to investigate the motor and visual-spatial development in primary school-aged children in Cameroon and Germany. Thirty-four children from each country completed a motor test and a mental rotation test. It was found that children in Cameroon showed a better motor ability (better overall gross motor score and also on most single items) than children in Germany did. This can be explained by the early motor stimulation in infancy in Cameroon. Concerning mental rotation performance, Cameroonian children perform below chance level...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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