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Journal of Genetic Psychology

Tadamasa Narimoto, Naomi Matsuura, Michio Hiratani
Previous studies provide clear evidence that visuospatial memory performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is significantly lower than in typically developing children. In the present study, we investigated a major cause of their low performance using a spatial span test. Possibly, inattention resulting from lack of motivation or interest causes their low performance so that they do not correctly encode targets to be remembered. On the other hand, a deficit in temporary maintenance per se may cause their low performance; that is, their inefficient use of rehearsal during a retention interval may lead to memory traces' fast decay...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Petra Jansen, Jennifer Lehmann, Christoph Tafelmeier
It was the main goal of this study to investigate the motor and visual-spatial development in primary school-aged children in Cameroon and Germany. Thirty-four children from each country completed a motor test and a mental rotation test. It was found that children in Cameroon showed a better motor ability (better overall gross motor score and also on most single items) than children in Germany did. This can be explained by the early motor stimulation in infancy in Cameroon. Concerning mental rotation performance, Cameroonian children perform below chance level...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Sonia Ingoglia, Palmira Faraci, Pasquale Musso, Alidia Lo Coco, Francesca Liga
The Self-Other Differentiation Scale (Olver, Aries, & Batgos, 1989 ) is a self-report instrument assessing the experience of a separate sense of self from others. The authors aimed to examine its dimensionality, reliability, and measurement invariance across gender. It was completed by 348 participants (48% men) from 17 to 30 years old in Study 1, 348 participants (40% men) from 18 to 28 years old in Study 2, and 1,068 participants (49% men) from 17 to 28 years old in Study 3. The results supported the hypothesis of just one factor underlying the scale; they also showed an appropriate internal consistency and a partial measurement invariance across gender...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Tucker L Jones, Taylor W Wadian, Mark A Barnett, Mary K Hellmer, Lauren N Pino
The present study was designed to (a) examine 5- to 8-year-old children's ability to discriminate between antisocial and prosocial teases and (b) determine whether their age and experiences within the home are associated with their ability to recognize these two types of teases. Results revealed that the 5- to 8-year-old children were able to discriminate between antisocial and prosocial teases. Although the children's parents or legal guardians indicated that the children had more frequent experience with prosocial than antisocial teases in the home, (a) the children were better able to correctly identify the intent of antisocial teasers than prosocial teasers and (b) the parents or legal guardians (correctly) indicated that their child would be better able to recognize an antisocial tease than a prosocial tease...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Gwendolyn Rehrig, Karin Stromswold
Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jamie M Gajos, Kevin M Beaver
Recent evidence suggests that paternal age at birth influences myriad developmental outcomes among children, but few studies have examined the possibility for father's age to influence children's intellectual development among a sample of high-risk families. The authors use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between paternal age at birth among 480 male and 449 female children's verbal IQ scores, as assessed with a version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 9 years old...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Curtis S Dunkel, Dimitri van der Linden
Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Maria Guarnera, Zira Hichy, Maura Cascio, Stefano Carrubba, Stefania L Buccheri
The authors sought to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, and neutral emotions from facial information. They aimed to investigate if-regardless of age-this pattern changes. More specifically, the present study aimed to compare the difference between the performance of adults and 6- to 7-year-old children in detecting emotions from the whole face and a specific face region, namely the eyes and mouth. The findings seem to indicate that, for both groups, recognizing disgust, happiness, and surprise is facilitated when pictures represent the whole face...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Somayeh Keshavarz, Nina S Mounts
The authors examined the moderating role of adolescent's gender and father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and self-efficacy in a socioeconomical diverse sample of Iranian ado-lescents (n = 382). Results revealed that paternal authoritative parenting was significantly and positively related to self-efficacy. Interestingly, a significant and positive relation was also found between paternal authoritarian parenting and self-efficacy. This finding might have been the result of the fact that this study was conducted as part of a collectivist culture...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Chin-Siang Ang, Kam-Fong Lee
Excessive technology use among young children remains a public health concern with diverse serious consequences. It is important to find out how children resist the temptation to use technology. Using focus group interviews, the authors explored what factors influence children's ability to delay gratification in using technology. Four specific themes emerged from the interview data: they found (a) fear of punishment, (b) self-directed speech, (c) reinforcement, and (d) parental modeling are effective measures to train children to forgo immediate pleasures of using technology...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Simona Scaini, Paola M V Rancoita, Riccardo M Martoni, Micol Omero, Anna Ogliari, Chiara Brombin
The selection of appropriate stimuli for inducing specific emotional states has become one of the most challenging topics in psychological research. In the literature there is a lack of affective picture database specifically suited to investigate emotional response in children. Here the authors present the methodology that led us to create a new database (called Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children) of affective stimuli inducing experiences of 3 target emotions (neutral, anger, and fear) to use in experimental session involving children...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Lisa M Dinella, Juliana M Claps, Gary W Lewandowski
The goal of the present study was to identify whether children recognize the gender stereotypes prevalent within the increasingly popular princess, prince, and superhero characters. Interviews with 126 children from the northeast region of the Unites States (3-11 years old) indicated that children recognized the gender-typed personality traits of princesses, princes, and superheroes, with older children holding more gender-typed cognitions about the characters. Children's own-schemas (i.e., beliefs that apply to themselves) and superordinate schemas (i...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jeremy E C Genovese, Kenneth E Sparks, Kathleen D Little
The authors tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between hemispheric cognitive style and ear temperature. A sample of 100 participants completed a measure of hemispheric cognitive style, the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile. Ear temperatures were taken in 2 sessions, 2 times for each ear at each session. Average left ear temperature was subtracted from average right ear temperature as an index of dominant temperature. Only 56 of the participants showed a stable dominant ear temperature...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
SvenOlof Dahlgren, Helena Almén, Annika Dahlgren Sandberg
Few studies have explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and bilingualism at the same time. In this study 14 young bilingual children were compared with monolingual children on a test battery composed of 5 ToM tests, 5 EF tests, and 1 test of general language ability. The result showed that despite significantly lower verbal ability, the bilingual children outperformed the monolingual ones on tests of EF. There were no differences in ToM performance. The authors argue that there is a strong relationship between bilingualism and EF, but, contrary to results from earlier studies, they could not find any relationship between bilingualism and ToM...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Anthony H Winefield, Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, David Duong, Catia Malvaso
The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Bin-Bin Chen
Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Hajimu Hayashi
The author examined whether children's understanding of lies exhibits developmental trends in the elementary school years. Four story contexts were presented to 51 first-grade students, 44 fourth-grade students, and 58 adults. These stories represented combinations of a protagonist's intention (truthful or deceptive) and the truth of the protagonist's message (true or false). The results showed that adults judged whether these messages were lies by considering the protagonist's intentions. By contrast, approximately 30% of first-grade students and some fourth-grade students did not consider intentions in making judgments, although they appropriately predicted the outcomes of the messages...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Analía M Salsa, Romina Vivaldi
Two studies examined young children's comprehension and production of representational drawings across and within 2 socioeconomic strata (SES). Participants were 130 middle-SES (MSES) and low-SES (LSES) Argentine children, from 30 to 60 months old, given a task with 2 phases, production and comprehension. The production phase assessed free drawing and drawings from simple 3-dimensional objects (model drawing); the comprehension phase assessed children's understanding of an adult's line drawings of the objects...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Marcella Caputi, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Simona Scaini
An interesting association between sociocognitive understanding and depression has been documented in clinical populations, with high levels of depression apparently related to theory-of-mind deficits. Yet no research has so far investigated this relationship among typically developing preadolescents. Therefore, the authors' main aim was to extend previous findings to the general population and to a younger age group. A secondary aim was to explore the role of feelings of loneliness referring to the previous link...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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