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Journal of Genetic Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757113/performance-effects-of-reward-related-feedback-on-the-dimensional-change-card-sort-task
#1
Amanda R Tarullo, Srishti Nayak, Ashley M St John, Stacey N Doan
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is one of the most widely used measures of preschool executive function, yet relatively little is known about how altering emotional demands of the task affects DCCS performance. This study examined the effects of emotionally evocative reward-related feedback on preschool children's performance on the DCCS in a sample of 105 children aged 3.5-4.5 years. In a within-subjects design, children completed the standard DCCS and a modified version of the DCCS in which sticker rewards were gained or lost after each trial...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672232/a-multimethodological-study-of-preschoolers-preferences-for-aggressive-television-and-video-games
#2
Matthew R Jamnik, Lisabeth F DiLalla
The association between aggressive media and related behavior is complicated, and the role of underlying genetics has not been adequately explored. A better understanding of the role of genetics on the relationship between aggressive media and behavior, especially in young children, is critical. Using a twin/triplets sample (N = 184 children), the authors investigated the association between preschoolers' preferred media choices and their aggressive behaviors. A multimeasure methodology was utilized, examining children's reports of their preferred media games and shows, observed child negativity and aggression in the lab, and parent reports of their own and their children's aggressive behaviors...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648966/kindergarteners-narrative-competence-across-tasks-and-time
#3
Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Beatrice Accorti Gamannossi
The authors investigated children's narrative competence by analyzing the development of the reciprocal relationship between storytelling and story retelling performances over a school year through a cross-lagged panel design. The participants in this study were 170 Italian kindergarten pupils (M age = 4.98 ± 0.31 years). Children were asked to produce oral narratives in two different tasks: a storytelling and a story retelling task. Narrative competence was assessed in terms of structure and coherence. The cross-lagged panel analyses showed that both storytelling and story retelling tasks are stable constructs, but they differ in the emphasis on coherence...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624119/how-different-guilt-feelings-can-affect-social-competence-development-in-childhood
#4
Franca Tani, Lucia Ponti
The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595377/procrastination-flow-and-academic-performance-in-real-time-using-the-experience-sampling-method
#5
Isabel C Sumaya, Emily Darling
The authors' aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533166/effort-as-person-focused-praise-hard-worker-has-negative-effects-for-adults-after-a-failure
#6
Rachael D Reavis, Stephanie E Miller, Jordyn A Grimes, Abou-Nica N M Fomukong
Although work with children demonstrates a benefit of process-focused praise relative to person-focused praise on post-failure motivation, few studies have examined this result in adults. We tested the effect of three types of praise on adults' post-failure outcomes: person-focused intelligence ("high intelligence"), person-focused effort ("hard worker"), and process-focused effort ("worked hard") in a sample of 156 adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk. Participants completed a set of easy visual pattern recognition problems and were told that they performed better than most adults and were given one of the three types of feedback...
May 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509069/can-hovering-hinder-helping-examining-the-joint-effects-of-helicopter-parenting-and-attachment-on-prosocial-behaviors-and-empathy-in-emerging-adults
#7
Meredith McGinley
While previous research has established links among multiple aspects of parenting, empathy, and prosocial behaviors in youth, little is known regarding the relations between helicopter parenting, a particular type of parental over control, and empathy and prosocial behaviors (Padilla-Walker, 2014). Because helicopter parenting could undermine empathic and prosocial outcomes by negatively impacting self-regulatory behaviors and promoting narcissistic tendencies (Padilla-Walker, 2014; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, Bauer, & Murphy, 2012; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, & Montgomery, 2013), the author sought to examine potential relationships among these constructs...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482477/mothers-ideal-positive-affect-predicts-their-socialization-of-children-s-positive-affect
#8
Amy L Gentzler, Cara A Palmer, Chit Yuen Yi, Amy E Root, Karena M Moran
Parents generally want their children to be happy, but little is known about particular types of positive affect (PA) that parents want their children to experience. Tsai's (2007) affect valuation theory offers a useful framework to understand how parents' emotional goals may shape the socialization of particular types of PA (e.g., excitement vs. relaxation). Participants were 96 mothers and their 7- to 12-year-old children. Results indicated that mothers endorsed similar levels of ideal PA (IPA) for low-, moderate-, and high-arousal PA for both themselves and for their child, suggesting that mothers desire the same type of PA for their children as they want for themselves...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469673/forgiveness-depression-and-suicidal-behavior-in-adolescents-gender-differences-in-this-relationship
#9
Cirenia Quintana-Orts, Lourdes Rey
With the development of positive psychology, protective factors have received increased attention as buffers against suicidal ideation and attempts and against the risk factors for suicide (e.g., depressive symptoms). Empirical evidence suggests that one of the protective factors associated with depression and suicide is forgiveness. Although previous studies have demonstrated a negative association between forgiveness and risk of suicide, studies on gender differences in adolescents are still scarce. Thus, the authors assessed the moderating role of gender in a sample of adolescents...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424669/age-and-sex-differences-in-morningness-eveningness-along-the-life-span-a-cross-sectional-study-in-spain
#10
Juan F Díaz-Morales, Zaida Parra-Robledo
Work psychology has noted the importance of considering the temporal dimension of behavior in organizations. Given that society widely operates on a 24-hr schedule, it is important to know how circadian typologies are distributed in the general population. In this study, diurnal preference was analyzed among 4,175 Spanish participants (61.3% women), 12-59 years old, who completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (Smith, Reilly, & Midkiff, 1989). Several measurement models of the CSM were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384468/emotion-regulation-and-empathy-which-relation-with-social-conduct
#11
Fiorenzo Laghi, Antonia Lonigro, Susanna Pallini, Roberto Baiocco
A shared consensus among researchers deals with the positive association between the ability to effectively regulate and manage one's emotion and the engagement in empathic behavior and morally desirable actions. This study was designed to investigate how dispositional reliance on suppression and reappraisal differently impacted on the cognitive and affective components of empathy and on social conduct, distinguishing among prosocial, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Two hundred nineteen middle adolescents were enrolled and fulfilled self-reports assessing emotion regulation strategies, empathy, and social behaviors...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384439/do-preschoolers-recognize-the-emotional-expressiveness-of-colors-in-realistic-and-abstract-art-paintings
#12
Dimitra Pouliou, Fotini Bonoti, Niki Nikonanou
The present study was designed to examine preschoolers' ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of an art painting, through its colors. To attain this aim 78 children, 3-5 years old were presented with realistic and abstract paintings conveying either happiness or sadness and were asked to choose those which matched the appropriate emotion. In total 16 paintings were used, which varied in color, while their subject matter was held as constant as possible after they had been previously rated by a group of adults to ensure that they conveyed the two emotions under investigation...
March 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336733/impaired-visuospatial-short-term-memory-in-children-with-adhd
#13
Tadamasa Narimoto, Naomi Matsuura, Michio Hiratani
Previous studies provide clear evidence that visuospatial memory performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is significantly lower than in typically developing children. In the present study, we investigated a major cause of their low performance using a spatial span test. Possibly, inattention resulting from lack of motivation or interest causes their low performance so that they do not correctly encode targets to be remembered. On the other hand, a deficit in temporary maintenance per se may cause their low performance; that is, their inefficient use of rehearsal during a retention interval may lead to memory traces' fast decay...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336730/motor-and-visual-spatial-cognition-development-in-primary-school-aged-children-in-cameroon-and-germany
#14
Petra Jansen, Jennifer Lehmann, Christoph Tafelmeier
It was the main goal of this study to investigate the motor and visual-spatial development in primary school-aged children in Cameroon and Germany. Thirty-four children from each country completed a motor test and a mental rotation test. It was found that children in Cameroon showed a better motor ability (better overall gross motor score and also on most single items) than children in Germany did. This can be explained by the early motor stimulation in infancy in Cameroon. Concerning mental rotation performance, Cameroonian children perform below chance level...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336693/self-other-differentiation-scale-dimensionality-irt-parameterization-and-measurement-invariance
#15
Sonia Ingoglia, Palmira Faraci, Pasquale Musso, Alidia Lo Coco, Francesca Liga
The Self-Other Differentiation Scale (Olver, Aries, & Batgos, 1989 ) is a self-report instrument assessing the experience of a separate sense of self from others. The authors aimed to examine its dimensionality, reliability, and measurement invariance across gender. It was completed by 348 participants (48% men) from 17 to 30 years old in Study 1, 348 participants (40% men) from 18 to 28 years old in Study 2, and 1,068 participants (49% men) from 17 to 28 years old in Study 3. The results supported the hypothesis of just one factor underlying the scale; they also showed an appropriate internal consistency and a partial measurement invariance across gender...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192874/young-children-s-ability-to-discriminate-between-antisocial-and-prosocial-teases
#16
Tucker L Jones, Taylor W Wadian, Mark A Barnett, Mary K Hellmer, Lauren N Pino
The present study was designed to (a) examine 5- to 8-year-old children's ability to discriminate between antisocial and prosocial teases and (b) determine whether their age and experiences within the home are associated with their ability to recognize these two types of teases. Results revealed that the 5- to 8-year-old children were able to discriminate between antisocial and prosocial teases. Although the children's parents or legal guardians indicated that the children had more frequent experience with prosocial than antisocial teases in the home, (a) the children were better able to correctly identify the intent of antisocial teasers than prosocial teasers and (b) the parents or legal guardians (correctly) indicated that their child would be better able to recognize an antisocial tease than a prosocial tease...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192871/what-does-the-dap-iq-measure-drawing-comparisons-between-drawing-performance-and-developmental-assessments
#17
Gwendolyn Rehrig, Karin Stromswold
Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores...
January 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099674/the-role-of-paternal-age-in-the-prediction-of-offspring-intelligence
#18
Jamie M Gajos, Kevin M Beaver
Recent evidence suggests that paternal age at birth influences myriad developmental outcomes among children, but few studies have examined the possibility for father's age to influence children's intellectual development among a sample of high-risk families. The authors use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between paternal age at birth among 480 male and 449 female children's verbal IQ scores, as assessed with a version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 9 years old...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072543/the-general-factor-of-personality-and-character-a-reanalysis
#19
Curtis S Dunkel, Dimitri van der Linden
Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976285/facial-expressions-and-the-ability-to-recognize-emotions-from-the-eyes-or-mouth-a-comparison-between-children-and-adults
#20
Maria Guarnera, Zira Hichy, Maura Cascio, Stefano Carrubba, Stefania L Buccheri
The authors sought to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, and neutral emotions from facial information. They aimed to investigate if-regardless of age-this pattern changes. More specifically, the present study aimed to compare the difference between the performance of adults and 6- to 7-year-old children in detecting emotions from the whole face and a specific face region, namely the eyes and mouth. The findings seem to indicate that, for both groups, recognizing disgust, happiness, and surprise is facilitated when pictures represent the whole face...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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