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Journal of Genetic Psychology

Claire Brechet
The author's purpose was to examine children's recognition of emotional facial expressions, by comparing two types of stimulus: photographs and drawings. The author aimed to investigate whether drawings could be considered as a more evocative material than photographs, as a function of age and emotion. Five- and 7-year-old children were presented with photographs and drawings displaying facial expressions of 4 basic emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, and fear) and were asked to perform a matching task by pointing to the face corresponding to the target emotion labeled by the experimenter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Aleksandra V Petkova, Kathleen M Cain
Distinguishing between fantasy and reality is an important developmental milestone, achieved in the preschool years, that has been linked to children's cognitive capabilities and emotional knowledge. The authors examined the influence of both trait and prime fearfulness on preschoolers' ability to differentiate between fantastic and real situations. Forty 3-5-year-old preschoolers were administered a fearfulness assessment, a standard theory-of-mind task, and a fantasy-reality discrimination task (with or without a fear prime)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Melissa R Witkow, Nicolette P Rickert, Laura E Cullen
Research on adolescent best friendships typically focuses on school-based friendships, ignoring important differences between classroom-based and out-of-school friendships. With data from 156 ninth-grade students, many of whom named more than 1 best friend across the 14-day period, the authors examined associations between the daily school context of one's best friendship and adjustment. Benefits of in-grade best friendships were found in academic engagement when a composite was assessed across the 2-week period...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Namik Top, Jeffrey Liew, Wen Luo
The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jan S Pfetsch
Empathy, as the ability to understand and feel the emotions of others, is related to less bullying behavior. However, the link of bullying behavior with self-reports of empathy seems to be stronger than with behavioral measures of empathy (e.g., empathic accuracy). Few studies have analyzed the relationship of affective and cognitive empathy to cyberbullying behavior, especially among young adults. In a quasiexperimental dyadic interaction paradigm with 72 young adults, empathic accuracy was operationalized as the match of other- and self-reported emotions for the target, and emotional congruence as the match of the target's and the perceiver's self-reported emotions...
January 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Joanna Peplak, Tina Malti
The authors examined the role of sympathy and moral respect in children's overt aggression, and the subtypes of proactive and reactive aggression, in an ethnically diverse sample of 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (N = 110). Aggressive behaviors were measured through teacher reports and peer nominations. Sympathy was assessed through teacher reports. Children reported on their moral respect within an interview procedure where they were asked for their feelings of respect toward hypothetical peers who displayed morally relevant behaviors...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jee Young Lee, Yeji Kwon, Soeun Yang, Sora Park, Eun-Mee Kim, Eun-Yeong Na
Cyberbullying is one of the negative consequences of online social interaction. The digital environment enables adolescents to engage in online social interaction beyond the traditional physical boundaries of families, neighborhoods, and schools. The authors examined connections to friendship networks in both online and offline settings are related to their experiences as victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyberbullying. A comparative face-to-face survey of adolescents (12-15-year-olds) was conducted in Korea (n = 520) and Australia (n = 401)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Teresa Ostler
The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Dennis Thompson
A 1918 survey (H. E. Jones, 1956 ) indicated that only 3 psychologists in the United States expressed an interest in conducting research on child development. By the end of the 1920s there were more than 600 who expressed such an interest, and their areas of inquiry encompassed not only child development but also adolescence, the lifespan, and old age. The author explores the factors and people that contributed to this remarkable transition and highlights some of the major contributions that resulted from their work...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Elissa N Rodkey
Previous scholarship on the life of psychologist Milicent Shinn (E. Scarborough & L. Furumoto, 1987 ) emphasized Shinn's failure to pursue an academic career in psychology following her PhD in 1898. Scarborough and Furumoto used Shinn as an example of "the family claim"-the career limitations women faced in terms of their family obligations. This narrative, however, obscured Shinn's continued engagement with child study before and after her years in graduate school, as a recent article documenting Shinn's leadership of network of home-based observers of infant development makes clear (C...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jacy L Young
In the final decades of the 19th century psychologist Granville Stanley Hall was among the most prominent pedagogical experts in the nation. The author explores Hall's carefully crafted persona as an educational expert, and his engagements with the American public, from 1880 to 1900, arguably the height of his influence. Drawing from accounts of Hall's lecture circuit in the popular press, a map of his talks across the nation is constructed to assess the geographic scope of his influence. These talks to educators on the psychology underlying childhood and pedagogy, and his views and research on child life more generally, were regularly discussed in newspapers and popular periodicals...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
John D Hogan
The Journal of Genetic Psychology (originally called The Pedagogical Seminary) has a complicated history. Known primarily as a journal of development psychology, it was originally intended to be a journal of higher education. In addition, G. Stanley Hall created it, at least in part, to curry favor with Jonas Clark, the benefactor of Clark University. The journal had a cumbersome start, with irregular issues for most of its first decade. Hall was a hands-on editor, often contributing articles and reviews as well as the texts of many of his speeches...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Bernard C Beins
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed...
November 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Belén López-Pérez, Michaela Gummerum, Ellie Wilson, Giulia Dellaria
The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Zhong-Hua He, Wen-Gang Yin
There is increasing evidence that inadequate family environments (family material environment and family psychosocial environment) are not only social problems but also factors contributing to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship among family environments, children's naturalistic affective state, self-reported stress, and executive functions in a sample of 157 Chinese families. These findings revealed that in inadequate family material environments, reduced children's cognitive flexibility is associated with increased naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jennifer Van Reet
Many theories of how pretense is mentally represented have been posited, but none have been effectually empirically tested to date. This research is the first to explore how children and adults mentally process simple pretend actions, specifically pretend object substitutions, and whether this representation changes with age. Preschoolers, older children, and undergraduates heard or read about a variety of pretend object substitutions, and their reaction time to name an image related to the object's real identity, pretend identity, or an unrelated image was measured...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Hagit Sasson, Gustavo Mesch
Cyberbullying is a disturbing behavior associated with the use of communication technologies among adolescents. Many studies have been devoted to the activities of cyber victims as risk factors, while others have considered parental mediation a protective factor. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the joint contribution of parental mediation, peer norms and risky online activities to the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet. To fill this gap, we conducted a study among a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade adolescents...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Michelle F Wright, Takuya Yanagida, Ikuko Aoyama, Lenka Dědková, Zheng Li, Shanmukh V Kamble, Fatih Bayraktar, Anna Ševčíková, Shruti Soudi, Hana Macháčková, Li Lei, Chang Shu
The authors' aim was to investigate gender and cultural differences in the attributions used to determine causality for hypothetical public and private face-to-face and cyber victimization scenarios among 3,432 adolescents (age range = 11-15 years; 49% girls) from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States, while accounting for their individualism and collectivism. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on cultural values and read four hypothetical victimization scenarios, including public face-to-face victimization, public cyber victimization, private face-to-face victimization, and private cyber victimization...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Nicola McGuigan, Amy Stevenson
The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals...
July 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
RaeAnne M Pearson, Bradford H Pillow
The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i...
July 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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