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Journal of Genetic Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812974/the-psychological-effects-of-unemployment-and-unsatisfactory-employment-on-young-adults-findings-from-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#1
Anthony H Winefield, Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, David Duong, Catia Malvaso
The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812973/parent-adolescent-attachment-and-procrastination-the-mediating-role-of-self-worth
#2
Bin-Bin Chen
Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777711/children-s-understanding-of-lies-in-elementary-school-years
#3
Hajimu Hayashi
The author examined whether children's understanding of lies exhibits developmental trends in the elementary school years. Four story contexts were presented to 51 first-grade students, 44 fourth-grade students, and 58 adults. These stories represented combinations of a protagonist's intention (truthful or deceptive) and the truth of the protagonist's message (true or false). The results showed that adults judged whether these messages were lies by considering the protagonist's intentions. By contrast, approximately 30% of first-grade students and some fourth-grade students did not consider intentions in making judgments, although they appropriately predicted the outcomes of the messages...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682193/developmental-changes-in-early-comprehension-and-production-of-drawings-evidence-from-two-socioeconomic-backgrounds
#4
Analía M Salsa, Romina Vivaldi
Two studies examined young children's comprehension and production of representational drawings across and within 2 socioeconomic strata (SES). Participants were 130 middle-SES (MSES) and low-SES (LSES) Argentine children, from 30 to 60 months old, given a task with 2 phases, production and comprehension. The production phase assessed free drawing and drawings from simple 3-dimensional objects (model drawing); the comprehension phase assessed children's understanding of an adult's line drawings of the objects...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682188/do-feelings-of-loneliness-mediate-the-relationship-between-sociocognitive-understanding-and-depressive-symptoms-during-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#5
Marcella Caputi, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Simona Scaini
An interesting association between sociocognitive understanding and depression has been documented in clinical populations, with high levels of depression apparently related to theory-of-mind deficits. Yet no research has so far investigated this relationship among typically developing preadolescents. Therefore, the authors' main aim was to extend previous findings to the general population and to a younger age group. A secondary aim was to explore the role of feelings of loneliness referring to the previous link...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742469/when-fairness-clashes-with-personal-autonomy-and-parental-authority-a-comparison-of-daughters-and-mothers-reasoning-in-two-cultural-contexts-in-turkey
#6
Melike Acar
The author examined religious and secular daughters' and mothers' reasoning about personal autonomy, maternal authority, and moral concepts in family decision-making situations in urban Turkey. Sixty-eight daughters and 34 mothers were individually interviewed about decision-making autonomy in general issues and hypothetical daughter-mother conflicts. Results indicated participants regardless of their family status and religious background assigned more decision-making autonomy to mothers when evaluating general issues...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402227/developing-the-cyber-victimization-experiences-and-cyberbullying-behaviors-scales
#7
Lucy R Betts, Karin A Spenser
The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402224/temperament-and-social-emotional-difficulties-the-dark-side-of-learning-disabilities
#8
Ilaria Buonomo, Caterina Fiorilli, Maria Angela Geraci, Alessandro Pepe
The authors compared the relations between general psychological difficulties and dimensions of temperament in children with and without learning disability (LD). The main aim was to analyze whether and to what extent children's temperament dimensions contribute to their general psychological difficulties when LD diagnosis, age, and gender are taken into account. Participants were 52 elementary school children 7-11 years old (M age = 8.61 years, SD = 1.21 years). Twenty-six of them had been diagnosed with LD...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402183/halloween-costume-choices-reflections-of-gender-development-in-early-childhood
#9
Lisa M Dinella
The author examined whether preschoolers' Halloween costume choices reflect their gender development. The sample consisted of 110 (53 boys, 57 girls) infant through preschool-aged participants, and 1 parent of each child. Both observational methodologies and parent-report surveys were used to assess the gender-typed nature of children's Halloween costumes, information about the Halloween costume choice process, and about the children's gender development. Boys' costumes were more masculine and girls' costumes were more feminine...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375827/maternal-agreeableness-moderates-associations-between-young-children-s-emotion-dysregulation-and-socioemotional-functioning-at-school
#10
Will E Hipson, Sarah L Gardiner, Robert J Coplan, Laura L Ooi
The goal of this study was to explore associations among maternal agreeableness, child temperament (i.e., emotion dysregulation), and children's social adjustment at school. Participants were 146 children in kindergarten and Grade 1 (76 girls; Mage = 67.78 months, SD = 10.81 months). Mothers provided ratings of their own agreeableness and their child's temperament, and teachers assessed indices of children's socioemotional functioning at school. Among the results, maternal agreeableness moderated associations between child dysregulation and aspects of adjustment at school...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323534/children-s-recognition-of-emotional-facial-expressions-through-photographs-and-drawings
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Claire Brechet
The author's purpose was to examine children's recognition of emotional facial expressions, by comparing two types of stimulus: photographs and drawings. The author aimed to investigate whether drawings could be considered as a more evocative material than photographs, as a function of age and emotion. Five- and 7-year-old children were presented with photographs and drawings displaying facial expressions of 4 basic emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, and fear) and were asked to perform a matching task by pointing to the face corresponding to the target emotion labeled by the experimenter...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306483/preschool-fantasy-reality-discrimination-influences-of-trait-and-primed-fearfulness
#12
Aleksandra V Petkova, Kathleen M Cain
Distinguishing between fantasy and reality is an important developmental milestone, achieved in the preschool years, that has been linked to children's cognitive capabilities and emotional knowledge. The authors examined the influence of both trait and prime fearfulness on preschoolers' ability to differentiate between fantastic and real situations. Forty 3-5-year-old preschoolers were administered a fearfulness assessment, a standard theory-of-mind task, and a fantasy-reality discrimination task (with or without a fear prime)...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306385/daily-school-context-of-adolescents-single-best-friendship-and-adjustment
#13
Melissa R Witkow, Nicolette P Rickert, Laura E Cullen
Research on adolescent best friendships typically focuses on school-based friendships, ignoring important differences between classroom-based and out-of-school friendships. With data from 156 ninth-grade students, many of whom named more than 1 best friend across the 14-day period, the authors examined associations between the daily school context of one's best friendship and adjustment. Benefits of in-grade best friendships were found in academic engagement when a composite was assessed across the 2-week period...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266896/family-and-school-influences-on-youths-behavioral-and-academic-outcomes-cross-level-interactions-between-parental-monitoring-and-character-development-curriculum
#14
Namik Top, Jeffrey Liew, Wen Luo
The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819535/-that-really-hurt-charlie-investigating-the-role-of-sympathy-and-moral-respect-in-children-s-aggressive-behavior
#15
Joanna Peplak, Tina Malti
The authors examined the role of sympathy and moral respect in children's overt aggression, and the subtypes of proactive and reactive aggression, in an ethnically diverse sample of 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (N = 110). Aggressive behaviors were measured through teacher reports and peer nominations. Sympathy was assessed through teacher reports. Children reported on their moral respect within an interview procedure where they were asked for their feelings of respect toward hypothetical peers who displayed morally relevant behaviors...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739934/studying-children-s-intrapersonal-emotion-regulation-strategies-from-the-process-model-of-emotion-regulation
#16
Belén López-Pérez, Michaela Gummerum, Ellie Wilson, Giulia Dellaria
The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121287/empathic-skills-and-cyberbullying-relationship-of-different-measures-of-empathy-to-cyberbullying-in-comparison-to-offline-bullying-among-young-adults
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jan S Pfetsch
Empathy, as the ability to understand and feel the emotions of others, is related to less bullying behavior. However, the link of bullying behavior with self-reports of empathy seems to be stronger than with behavioral measures of empathy (e.g., empathic accuracy). Few studies have analyzed the relationship of affective and cognitive empathy to cyberbullying behavior, especially among young adults. In a quasiexperimental dyadic interaction paradigm with 72 young adults, empathic accuracy was operationalized as the match of other- and self-reported emotions for the target, and emotional congruence as the match of the target's and the perceiver's self-reported emotions...
January 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805478/differences-in-friendship-networks-and-experiences-of-cyberbullying-among-korean-and-australian-adolescents
#18
Jee Young Lee, Yeji Kwon, Soeun Yang, Sora Park, Eun-Mee Kim, Eun-Yeong Na
Cyberbullying is one of the negative consequences of online social interaction. The digital environment enables adolescents to engage in online social interaction beyond the traditional physical boundaries of families, neighborhoods, and schools. The authors examined connections to friendship networks in both online and offline settings are related to their experiences as victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyberbullying. A comparative face-to-face survey of adolescents (12-15-year-olds) was conducted in Korea (n = 520) and Australia (n = 401)...
January 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391950/the-role-of-parental-mediation-and-peer-norms-on-the-likelihood-of-cyberbullying
#19
Hagit Sasson, Gustavo Mesch
Cyberbullying is a disturbing behavior associated with the use of communication technologies among adolescents. Many studies have been devoted to the activities of cyber victims as risk factors, while others have considered parental mediation a protective factor. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the joint contribution of parental mediation, peer norms and risky online activities to the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet. To fill this gap, we conducted a study among a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade adolescents...
January 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379372/differences-in-attributions-for-public-and-private-face-to-face-and-cyber-victimization-among-adolescents-in-china-cyprus-the-czech-republic-india-japan-and-the-united-states
#20
Michelle F Wright, Takuya Yanagida, Ikuko Aoyama, Lenka Dědková, Zheng Li, Shanmukh V Kamble, Fatih Bayraktar, Anna Ševčíková, Shruti Soudi, Hana Macháčková, Li Lei, Chang Shu
The authors' aim was to investigate gender and cultural differences in the attributions used to determine causality for hypothetical public and private face-to-face and cyber victimization scenarios among 3,432 adolescents (age range = 11-15 years; 49% girls) from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States, while accounting for their individualism and collectivism. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on cultural values and read four hypothetical victimization scenarios, including public face-to-face victimization, public cyber victimization, private face-to-face victimization, and private cyber victimization...
January 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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