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Journal of Genetic Psychology

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November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jamie M Gajos, Kevin M Beaver
Recent evidence suggests that paternal age at birth influences myriad developmental outcomes among children, but few studies have examined the possibility for father's age to influence children's intellectual development among a sample of high-risk families. The authors use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between paternal age at birth among 480 male and 449 female children's verbal IQ scores, as assessed with a version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 9 years old...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Curtis S Dunkel, Dimitri van der Linden
Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Maria Guarnera, Zira Hichy, Maura Cascio, Stefano Carrubba, Stefania L Buccheri
The authors sought to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, and neutral emotions from facial information. They aimed to investigate if-regardless of age-this pattern changes. More specifically, the present study aimed to compare the difference between the performance of adults and 6- to 7-year-old children in detecting emotions from the whole face and a specific face region, namely the eyes and mouth. The findings seem to indicate that, for both groups, recognizing disgust, happiness, and surprise is facilitated when pictures represent the whole face...
November 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Somayeh Keshavarz, Nina S Mounts
The authors examined the moderating role of adolescent's gender and father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and self-efficacy in a socioeconomical diverse sample of Iranian ado-lescents (n = 382). Results revealed that paternal authoritative parenting was significantly and positively related to self-efficacy. Interestingly, a significant and positive relation was also found between paternal authoritarian parenting and self-efficacy. This finding might have been the result of the fact that this study was conducted as part of a collectivist culture...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Chin-Siang Ang, Kam-Fong Lee
Excessive technology use among young children remains a public health concern with diverse serious consequences. It is important to find out how children resist the temptation to use technology. Using focus group interviews, the authors explored what factors influence children's ability to delay gratification in using technology. Four specific themes emerged from the interview data: they found (a) fear of punishment, (b) self-directed speech, (c) reinforcement, and (d) parental modeling are effective measures to train children to forgo immediate pleasures of using technology...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Simona Scaini, Paola M V Rancoita, Riccardo M Martoni, Micol Omero, Anna Ogliari, Chiara Brombin
The selection of appropriate stimuli for inducing specific emotional states has become one of the most challenging topics in psychological research. In the literature there is a lack of affective picture database specifically suited to investigate emotional response in children. Here the authors present the methodology that led us to create a new database (called Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children) of affective stimuli inducing experiences of 3 target emotions (neutral, anger, and fear) to use in experimental session involving children...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Lisa M Dinella, Juliana M Claps, Gary W Lewandowski
The goal of the present study was to identify whether children recognize the gender stereotypes prevalent within the increasingly popular princess, prince, and superhero characters. Interviews with 126 children from the northeast region of the Unites States (3-11 years old) indicated that children recognized the gender-typed personality traits of princesses, princes, and superheroes, with older children holding more gender-typed cognitions about the characters. Children's own-schemas (i.e., beliefs that apply to themselves) and superordinate schemas (i...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Jeremy E C Genovese, Kenneth E Sparks, Kathleen D Little
The authors tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between hemispheric cognitive style and ear temperature. A sample of 100 participants completed a measure of hemispheric cognitive style, the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile. Ear temperatures were taken in 2 sessions, 2 times for each ear at each session. Average left ear temperature was subtracted from average right ear temperature as an index of dominant temperature. Only 56 of the participants showed a stable dominant ear temperature...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
SvenOlof Dahlgren, Helena Almén, Annika Dahlgren Sandberg
Few studies have explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and bilingualism at the same time. In this study 14 young bilingual children were compared with monolingual children on a test battery composed of 5 ToM tests, 5 EF tests, and 1 test of general language ability. The result showed that despite significantly lower verbal ability, the bilingual children outperformed the monolingual ones on tests of EF. There were no differences in ToM performance. The authors argue that there is a strong relationship between bilingualism and EF, but, contrary to results from earlier studies, they could not find any relationship between bilingualism and ToM...
September 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Anthony H Winefield, Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, David Duong, Catia Malvaso
The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Bin-Bin Chen
Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Hajimu Hayashi
The author examined whether children's understanding of lies exhibits developmental trends in the elementary school years. Four story contexts were presented to 51 first-grade students, 44 fourth-grade students, and 58 adults. These stories represented combinations of a protagonist's intention (truthful or deceptive) and the truth of the protagonist's message (true or false). The results showed that adults judged whether these messages were lies by considering the protagonist's intentions. By contrast, approximately 30% of first-grade students and some fourth-grade students did not consider intentions in making judgments, although they appropriately predicted the outcomes of the messages...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Analía M Salsa, Romina Vivaldi
Two studies examined young children's comprehension and production of representational drawings across and within 2 socioeconomic strata (SES). Participants were 130 middle-SES (MSES) and low-SES (LSES) Argentine children, from 30 to 60 months old, given a task with 2 phases, production and comprehension. The production phase assessed free drawing and drawings from simple 3-dimensional objects (model drawing); the comprehension phase assessed children's understanding of an adult's line drawings of the objects...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Marcella Caputi, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Simona Scaini
An interesting association between sociocognitive understanding and depression has been documented in clinical populations, with high levels of depression apparently related to theory-of-mind deficits. Yet no research has so far investigated this relationship among typically developing preadolescents. Therefore, the authors' main aim was to extend previous findings to the general population and to a younger age group. A secondary aim was to explore the role of feelings of loneliness referring to the previous link...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Melike Acar
The author examined religious and secular daughters' and mothers' reasoning about personal autonomy, maternal authority, and moral concepts in family decision-making situations in urban Turkey. Sixty-eight daughters and 34 mothers were individually interviewed about decision-making autonomy in general issues and hypothetical daughter-mother conflicts. Results indicated participants regardless of their family status and religious background assigned more decision-making autonomy to mothers when evaluating general issues...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Lucy R Betts, Karin A Spenser
The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Ilaria Buonomo, Caterina Fiorilli, Maria Angela Geraci, Alessandro Pepe
The authors compared the relations between general psychological difficulties and dimensions of temperament in children with and without learning disability (LD). The main aim was to analyze whether and to what extent children's temperament dimensions contribute to their general psychological difficulties when LD diagnosis, age, and gender are taken into account. Participants were 52 elementary school children 7-11 years old (M age = 8.61 years, SD = 1.21 years). Twenty-six of them had been diagnosed with LD...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Lisa M Dinella
The author examined whether preschoolers' Halloween costume choices reflect their gender development. The sample consisted of 110 (53 boys, 57 girls) infant through preschool-aged participants, and 1 parent of each child. Both observational methodologies and parent-report surveys were used to assess the gender-typed nature of children's Halloween costumes, information about the Halloween costume choice process, and about the children's gender development. Boys' costumes were more masculine and girls' costumes were more feminine...
May 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Will E Hipson, Sarah L Gardiner, Robert J Coplan, Laura L Ooi
The goal of this study was to explore associations among maternal agreeableness, child temperament (i.e., emotion dysregulation), and children's social adjustment at school. Participants were 146 children in kindergarten and Grade 1 (76 girls; Mage = 67.78 months, SD = 10.81 months). Mothers provided ratings of their own agreeableness and their child's temperament, and teachers assessed indices of children's socioemotional functioning at school. Among the results, maternal agreeableness moderated associations between child dysregulation and aspects of adjustment at school...
March 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
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