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Journal of General Psychology

Ivan Tomić, Mirjana Tonković, Dragutin Ivanec
Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Zehra F Peynircioǧlu, William Brent, Joshua R Tatz, Jordan Wyatt
Demonstrations of non-speech McGurk effects are rare, mostly limited to emotion identification, and sometimes not considered true analogues. We presented videos of males and females singing a single syllable on the same pitch and asked participants to indicate the true range of the voice-soprano, alto, tenor, or bass. For one group of participants, the gender shown on the video matched the gender of the voice heard, and for the other group they were mismatched. Soprano or alto responses were interpreted as "female voice" decisions and tenor or bass responses as "male voice" decisions...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Monique V E Leenders, Abraham P Buunk, Kène Henkens
We examined the extent to which individual relationships with mother and father, social support from partner, and quality of the relationship with the partner, are related to work orientation and work ethic. Survey data were obtained from 3841 respondents from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (wave 2). The results showed that, overall, people with a more positive relationship with their parents had a more positive work orientation and a stronger work ethic. A positive relationship with the father had a greater influence on these work aspects than a positive relationship with the mother, particularly for men...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Sandra Buratti, Carl Martin Allwood, Bodil Karlsson
In this study, investigating answerability judgments, 123 participants judged whether each of 46 general knowledge questions could currently be answered by themselves, by someone else, or by no one. There were 26 consensus questions (high expected consensus about their answerability) and 20 non-consensus questions. Before each question, half of the participants rated the extent of their knowledge related to the question. Results showed that answering consensus questions compared with non-consensus led to a lower proportion of "No one knows" answers...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
R Shane Westfall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Tucker L Jones, Mark A Barnett, Taylor W Wadian, Tammy L Sonnentag
This study sought to examine the extent to which undergraduates' experiences with and attitudes relevant to rejection may be associated with their emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous social situations in which rejection might be inferred. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed their experiences with and attitudes relevant to being rejected. Next, each participant read six hypothetical scenarios that described various situations that could be interpreted as interpersonal rejection...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Ryszard Makarowski, Piotr Makarowski, Zbigniew Kamiński
The "Adrenaline Instead of Amphetamine" program was launched by Gdańsk's MONAR association-a center for drug treatment. The purpose of the program was to show some alternatives to using psychoactive substances and to propose replacing these anti-medical behaviors with parachuting. The treatment effectiveness in this center is about 30%, and the program's effectiveness was 80%.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Shaan S Shahabuddin, Steven M Smith
Our experiment examined two questions: (1) Does reinstating a studied context affect recognition of an associated word, and (2) Does reinstating a studied word affect recognition of an associated context? After encoding 75 words, each of which was shown superimposed over a different 5-sec video of an environment (e.g., a playground, a traffic scene, or a grocery store), participants were asked to recognize 50 of the words and 50 of the video scenes. On the test, half of the studied words were shown superimposed over the same video contexts that had been present at encoding, and half were shown over new scenes...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Mehmet K Mahmut, Louise Cridland, Richard J Stevenson
This study examined the helping behavior of participants with high (High-P; 15 males, 13 females) and low (Low-P; 14 males, 16 females) psychopathic traits without their awareness. In the first of three tests, we found Low-P participants offered more help to an apparently lost female confederate than High-P participants. In the second test, High-P compared to Low-P males offered more help to an "injured" female experimenter, the reverse was true for females. In the third test, High-P compared to Low-P females offered more help to a female confederate who had apparently dropped papers they were carrying; whereas the reverse was true for males...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
James G Phillips, Teressa Hoon, Jason Landon
To understand dynamic changes in the likelihood that people would access and selectively expose themselves to information online, the present study examined the checking of account balances during simulated gambling. Sixteen participants played 120 hands of computer Blackjack for points, at higher or lower levels of risk (different point multipliers), and after each win or loss the computer recorded if participants checked their account balances. There were individual differences in checking rates. Participants who were more likely to check balances exhibited a selectivity of exposure to decision consonant information after a win at low risk...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Malgorzata Sobol-Kwapinska, Aneta Przepiorka, Czeslaw Nosal
The aim of the present study was to develop a short version of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire (TMQ; Sobol-Kwapinska & Nosal, 2009 ). The original TMQ consists of 95 items and was designed to measure time conceiving. Because completing the TMQ is very time-consuming, this research develops a short form of this questionnaire-Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form (TMQ-SF). A sample of 990 Polish adults completed the TMQ. One-half of the sample was used to construct the TMQ-SF by selecting items based on the exploratory factor analysis...
July 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Rosemary Stock, John E Fisk, Catharine Montgomery
While the majority of similar studies examining Bayesian reasoning investigate how participants avoid common errors such as base-rate neglect, the current research also examines whether different formats (frequency and probability) lead to a difference in levels of absolute accuracy. In Study One, older (≥60 years) and younger (18 to 29 years) participants completed tasks in probability and normalized frequency formats. In Study 2, participants completed tasks in probability and natural frequency formats...
July 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Ilmiye Seçer
The current study examined skills of cognitive flexibility and sustained attention in late bilingual and monolingual younger adults. One-hundred and sixty two younger adults aged between 18 and 34 years old (M = 22.39) classified as Turkish-English late bilinguals (N = 74) and Turkish monolinguals (N = 88) completed the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B). Results from this study showed that Turkish-English late bilinguals had shorter RTs than Turkish monolinguals on the TMT-B, however there were no significant RT differences between the groups on the TMT-A...
July 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Richard Westfall, Murray Millar, Mandy Walsh
Although a considerable body of research has examined the impact of student attractiveness on instructors, little attention has been given to the influence of instructor attractiveness on students. This study tested the hypothesis that persons would perform significantly better on a learning task when they perceived their instructor to be high in physical attractiveness. To test the hypothesis, participants listened to an audio lecture while viewing a photograph of instructor. The photograph depicted either a physically attractive instructor or a less attractive instructor...
July 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Güler Boyraz, Sharon G Horne, Archandria C Owens, Aisha P Armstrong
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points...
2016: Journal of General Psychology
Ömer Faruk Şimşek, Yaşar Kuzucu
In two studies, we compared intentional and non-intentional measures of emotional well-being in terms of reliability and validity. In the first study, we expanded on the findings of Şimşek ( 2011 ) by showing that an intentional measure of emotional well-being, namely the Emotional Well-Being Scale, accounted for unique variance in both negative and positive mental health indicators above and beyond the variance accounted for by Larsen and Diener's Scales (1992), which measures all dimensions of affect circumplex...
2016: Journal of General Psychology
Dustin P Calvillo, Whitney C Hawkins
Inattentional blindness occurs when individuals are engaged in an attention-demanding task and fail to detect unexpected objects in their visual field. Two experiments examined whether certain unexpected objects are more easily detected than others. The unexpected objects were animate and threatening (e.g., snake), animate and nonthreatening (e.g., bird), inanimate and threatening (e.g., gun), or inanimate and nonthreatening (e.g., bed). Three hypotheses were tested: the snake detection hypothesis (snakes will be detected more frequently than all other objects), the animate monitoring hypothesis (animate objects will be detected more frequently than inanimate objects), and the threat superiority hypothesis (threatening objects will be detected more frequently than nonthreatening objects)...
2016: Journal of General Psychology
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