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Journal of General Psychology

Nikole D Patson, Julie M Hupp
Sentences such as "The girls read a book" can lead to multiple interpretations: They could be reading the same book (collective) or they could each be reading their own book (distributive). In ambiguous contexts, adults prefer the collective interpretation, and preschool children show a slight bias for a distributive interpretation. The current research investigated whether conceptual factors (number of actors) influences interpretations of these kinds of predicates. The data with children show a stronger collective bias when there are four actors compared to two actors...
June 5, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Kim Fredman Stein, Wakefield L Morys-Carter, Lisa Hinkley
Prospective memory (PM), remembering to remember, is crucial to everyday functioning. Understanding factors associated with PM impairments is thus important. One likely factor is rumination: a common cognitive process comprising repetitive self-focused thoughts. We investigated whether rumination is associated with impaired PM, and whether any associated impairment is exacerbated with negative stimuli. A sentence-rating task with sentences varying in valence was used with embedded PM cues in a non-clinical sample (N = 60)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Kyoko Hine, Yuji Itoh
Our memories are quite fragile. We sometimes recognize something unseen as something seen before. This error often causes serious problems, such as the misidentification of composite faces in a criminal investigation. In such a scene, people occasionally claim to have seen a face that is actually a composite face consisting of facial parts separately seen before; this error is called the memory conjunction error. Although the likelihood of the memory conjunction error increases over time, previous studies suggest that it could be suppressed by the number of response options, which are expected to affect the criterion for the "Old" response...
May 30, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Attila Szabo, Lilla Jobbágy, Ferenc Köteles
Expectations shape human behavior. Initial drug use might be associated with information-based expectations. In this study, we presumed that changes in affect and perceived physical wellbeing will be stronger after receiving an active placebo (Tic Tac mint; n = 40), than a pure placebo (inert pill; n = 40) given as a mood-enhancing "super pill." After baseline measures, participants completed a treatment-expectancy scale, ingested the mint/super pill, and attended to the effects over 3-minutes. Subsequently, they completed again the psychological tests...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Germano Vera Cruz
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the relative contribution of skin tone and symmetry on judgment of attractiveness regarding female faces. Two hundred and fifteen Mozambican adults were presented with a set of faces, and instructed to rate their degree of attractiveness along a continuous scale. Chi-square, factorial weight analyses and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Face skin tone had a significant impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment of target faces. However, the target face skin tone contribution to the participants' attractiveness judgment (5% of the total variance) was much weaker than the contribution of the target face symmetry (85% of the total variance)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Octavio Luque-Reca, Manuel Pulido-Martos, Esther Lopez-Zafra, José M Augusto-Landa
Despite previous evidence showing a positive relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and quality of life (QoL), associating older adults' emotional processing with several health indicators, few studies have explored both the IE and the a mechanisms through which they affect QoL. This cross-sectional study analyzes the mediator role of optimistic and pessimistic cognitive styles in the relationship between perceived EI (PEI) and QoL in 115 institutionalized older adults from Southern Spain. Regression analyses showed, after controlling for cognitive style, that PEI predicted a significant percentage of variance in: Health (β = ...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Carmen Moret-Tatay, Daniel Gamermann, Michael Murphy, Anezka Kuzmičová
Word frequency is one of the most robust factors in the literature on word processing, based on the lexical corpus of a language. However, different sources might be used in order to determine the actual frequency of each word. Recent research has determined frequencies based on movie subtitles, Twitter, blog posts, or newspapers. In this paper, we examine a determination of these frequencies based on the World Wide Web. For this purpose, a Python script was developed to obtain frequencies of a word through online search results...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
F Richard Ferraro
Little research has examined how age impacts texting dependence, despite the increased usage of texting and other social media applications in older adults. In the present study, three age groups (18-29 years of age, n = 135; 30-49 years of age, n = 58; 50-69 years of age, n = 19) were given the Self-Perceptions of Text Messaging Dependency Scale (SPTMDS). This self-report measure examines Emotion Reaction, Excessive Use, Disruption of Relationships with text Messages and Psychological/Behavioral Symptoms Concerning Heavy Usage)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Rachel A Robbins, Terri L Lewis, Daphne Maurer
Adults need to discriminate between stimuli and recognize those previously seen. For faces, feature changes (e.g., different eyes) and spacing changes (e.g., distances between eyes) are important cues. In two experiments, we assessed the influence of these on discrimination and recognition of houses, a commonly used control in face studies. In both experiments, discrimination was better for feature than spacing changes. Memory for spacing changes was generally poor but aided by extra learning and intermixing change types...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Piotr Styrkowiec, Anna Chrzanowska
Multiple object tracking (MOT) requires visually attending to dynamically moving targets and distractors. This cognitive ability is based on perceptual-attentional processes that are also involved in goal-directed movements. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that MOT affects the motor performance of aiming movements. Therefore, the participants performed pointing movements using their fingers or a computer mouse that controlled the movements of a cursor directed at the targets in the MOT task. The precision of the pointing movements was measured, and it was predicted that a higher number of targets and distractors in the MOT task would result in a lower pointing precision...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Yoonhee Jang, Elaine Marshall
We investigated how different types of feedback in multiple-choice testing influence long-term retention. Participants completed an initial multiple-choice test on general-knowledge questions. Then, they were randomly placed into one of the following four conditions: feedback displaying the original question and four alternative options including the correct answer (Feedback 1); feedback displaying the original question and the correct answer (Feedback 2); feedback displaying only the correct answer (Feedback 3); and no feedback (Control)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Paola Palladino, Caterina Artuso
In the present study, we aimed to examine how specific objects are updated in working memory. We compared conditions in which contents or content-context bindings from working memory were both encoded and updated (Experiment 1). In addition, for bindings, we manipulated the memory load (i.e., number of contents) to maintain during updating. Results indicated that memory load did not specifically affect the process; rather, the content-context binding (vs. single contents) was critical in determining the increase in response latencies...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Özlem Bozo, Dilek Demirtepe-Saygılı, Seren Güneş, Gaye Zeynep Çenesiz, Abdullah Baysan
The present study examined the moderating role of problem-focused coping in trait anxiety-depressive symptoms' relationship in patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Eighty-eight CU patients, who applied to an outpatient clinic of Clinical Immunology and Allergic Diseases, filled out a questionnaire set including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Ways of Coping Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. The results suggested that CU patients high on trait anxiety reported more depressive symptoms, and the ones using more problem-focused coping (PFC) strategies reported less depressive symptoms...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
F Richard Ferraro, Rachel Kramer, Stephanie Weigel
We applied Brinley ( 1965 ) plot analysis to the eating disorders field. Across 23 studies and 165 experimental conditions [experienced by a total of 773 eating disorder (ED) participants, including anorexia nervosa (AN), binge eating (BE), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and 995 controls], the best-fit regression equation was Y (ED) = 1.08 X (CONTROL) - 31. This equation accounted for 98.2% of the variance. Thus, the ED subjects were only 1.08 times slower than the control subjects, suggesting little processing speed slowing in ED...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Abbas Abdollahi, Simin Hosseinian, Gordon J G Asmundson
To better understand depression among adolescent university students, this study was designed to examine coping style as a potential mediator between perfectionism and depression. Participants comprised 510 undergraduate students from Malaysia. Structural Equation Modelling demonstrated that personal standards perfectionism and task-focused coping style were negatively associated with depression, while emotion-focused coping style, avoidant coping style, and evaluative concerns perfectionism were positively associated with depression...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Metehan Irak, Dicle Çapan
The goal of the present study was to investigate relationships between personal beliefs about memory, metacognitive beliefs, and actual memory performance. One hundred thirty-seven participants' (aged 20 to 60 years) metacognitive beliefs were measured using the Metacognition Questionnaire (MCQ-30), memory beliefs were measured using the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (PBMI), and an episodic memory task was used to measure actual memory performance, memory predictions, and postdictions. Younger adults had lower scores on the positive beliefs subfactor of the MCQ-30, higher scores on retrospective change and control subfactors of the PBMI, and outperformed middle-aged adults on recall and recall postdiction...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Elena V Stepanova, Michael J Strube
Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perceived as more attractive than single-race faces. Experiment 2 further confirmed that faces with medium levels of skin tone and facial features are perceived as more attractive than faces with extreme levels of these factors...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Michael T Bradley, Andrew Brand
It is difficult to obtain adequate power to test a small effect size with a set criterion alpha of 0.05. Probably an inferential test will indicate non-statistical significance and not be published. Rarely, statistical significance will be obtained, and an exaggerated effect size calculated and reported. Accepting all inferential probabilities and associated effect sizes could solve exaggeration problems. Graphs, generated through Monte Carlo methods, are presented to illustrate this. The first graph presents effect sizes (Cohen's d) as lines from 1 to 0 with probabilities on the Y axis and the number of measures on the X axis...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
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