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Journal of General Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448245/temperament-character-profile-and-psychopathologies-in-patients-with-alopecia-areata
#1
Ali Talaei, Yalda Nahidi, Golsan Kardan, Lida Jarahi, Behzad Aminzadeh, Hasan Jahed Taherani, Mahsa Nahidi, Maliheh Ziaee
The aim of this study is to investigate psychopathologies and the temperament-character profile of Alopecia Areata patients and to compare them with healthy controls. Patients and controls who presented at a dermatology clinic were selected by convenience sampling to respond to Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), SCL-90-R, and a checklist about the demographic data and their dermatologic and psychiatric history. Patients reported higher harm avoidance and reward dependence than controls (Cohen's d =...
April 27, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398166/transparency-for-the-public-good-when-feeling-powerful-does-and-does-not-affect-willingness-to-sacrifice-for-the-environment
#2
Kyle E Conlon, Paul Rose
In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of feeling powerful on willingness to sacrifice for the preservation of shared resources depends on whether such willingness is expressed publically or privately. Participants were randomly assigned to either a power priming condition or a control condition and then completed measures assessing their attitudes, future intentions, and willingness to sacrifice for environmental conservation. Consistent with our hypothesis, the psychological experience of power decreased people's environmental attitudes and willingness to sacrifice for the environment, but only when these responses were made privately...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398132/on-the-reality-of-illusory-conjunctions
#3
Juan Botella, Manuel Suero, Juan I Durán
The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362234/dissociating-medial-temporal-and-striatal-memory-systems-with-a-same-different-matching-task-evidence-for-two-neural-systems-in-human-recognition
#4
Neha Sinha, Arnold Lewis Glass
The medial temporal lobe and striatum have both been implicated as brain substrates of memory and learning. Here, we show dissociation between these two memory systems using a same/different matching task, in which subjects judged whether four-letter strings were the same or different. Different RT was determined by the left-to-right location of the first letter different between the study and test string, consistent with a left-to-right comparison of the study and test strings, terminating when a difference was found...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362233/resiliency-in-the-face-of-adversity-a-short-longitudinal-test-of-the-trait-hypothesis
#5
Özlem Karaırmak, Charles Figley
Resilience represents coping with adversity and is in line with a more positive paradigm for viewing responses to adversity. Most research has focused on resilience as coping-a state-based response to adversity. However, a competing hypothesis views resilience or resiliency as a trait that exists across time and types of adversity. We tested undergraduates enrolled in social work classes at a large southern university at two time periods during a single semester using measures of adversity, positive and negative affect, and trait-based resiliency...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362232/an-investigation-of-sound-symbolism-in-the-context-of-tactile-feeling
#6
Lap-Yan Lo, H M Luk, Nigel Thompson
Sound symbolism suggests a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and the concepts to which those sounds refer (Hinton, Nichols, & Ohala, 2006 ). Supporting evidence comes primarily from studies investigating how speech sounds relate to semantically compatible visual concepts. The present study therefore attempted to examine sound symbolism in the context of tactile perception. Contrary to the propositions of sound symbolism, participants in Experiment 1 did not consistently assign names with plosive consonant to objects with curved frames...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362231/cognitive-factors-affecting-freeze-like-behavior-in-humans
#7
Michael W Alban, Victoria Pocknell
Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362230/destigmatization-by-association-improving-children-s-reactions-to-an-obese-storybook-character
#8
Taylor W Wadian, Mark A Barnett, Tammy L Sonnentag
Second- through fourth-grade students were read a storybook that described a typical boy who interacted with an obese boy for one of four reasons (sympathy, curiosity, teacher instructed, or no reason) to explore the manner in which a typical storybook character's reason for associating with an obese storybook character influences children's responses to both characters. Results revealed that the children responded more favorably to the obese storybook character after than before learning about the typical storybook character's association with him, especially when the typical storybook character's reason for association was presented as internally motivated (sympathy or curiosity)...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098523/effects-of-psychological-distance-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-on-impression-formation
#9
Ivan Tomić, Mirjana Tonković, Dragutin Ivanec
Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098522/mcgurk-effect-in-gender-identification-vision-trumps-audition-in-voice-judgments
#10
Zehra F Peynircioǧlu, William Brent, Joshua R Tatz, Jordan Wyatt
Demonstrations of non-speech McGurk effects are rare, mostly limited to emotion identification, and sometimes not considered true analogues. We presented videos of males and females singing a single syllable on the same pitch and asked participants to indicate the true range of the voice-soprano, alto, tenor, or bass. For one group of participants, the gender shown on the video matched the gender of the voice heard, and for the other group they were mismatched. Soprano or alto responses were interpreted as "female voice" decisions and tenor or bass responses as "male voice" decisions...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098521/semantic-and-syntactic-associations-during-word-search-modulate-the-relationship-between-attention-and-subsequent-memory
#11
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098520/the-role-of-the-relationship-with-parents-with-respect-to-work-orientation-and-work-ethic
#12
Monique V E Leenders, Abraham P Buunk, Kène Henkens
We examined the extent to which individual relationships with mother and father, social support from partner, and quality of the relationship with the partner, are related to work orientation and work ethic. Survey data were obtained from 3841 respondents from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (wave 2). The results showed that, overall, people with a more positive relationship with their parents had a more positive work orientation and a stronger work ethic. A positive relationship with the father had a greater influence on these work aspects than a positive relationship with the mother, particularly for men...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098519/who-knows-knowledge-activation-belief-in-certainty-of-knowledge-maximization-tendencies-and-need-for-cognition-in-answerability-judgments
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sandra Buratti, Carl Martin Allwood, Bodil Karlsson
In this study, investigating answerability judgments, 123 participants judged whether each of 46 general knowledge questions could currently be answered by themselves, by someone else, or by no one. There were 26 consensus questions (high expected consensus about their answerability) and 20 non-consensus questions. Before each question, half of the participants rated the extent of their knowledge related to the question. Results showed that answering consensus questions compared with non-consensus led to a lower proportion of "No one knows" answers...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649363/editorial-board-page-eov
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649362/corrigendum
#15
R Shane Westfall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649361/individual-differences-associated-with-emotional-and-behavioral-responses-to-ambiguous-social-situations-in-which-rejection-might-be-inferred
#16
Tucker L Jones, Mark A Barnett, Taylor W Wadian, Tammy L Sonnentag
This study sought to examine the extent to which undergraduates' experiences with and attitudes relevant to rejection may be associated with their emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous social situations in which rejection might be inferred. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed their experiences with and attitudes relevant to being rejected. Next, each participant read six hypothetical scenarios that described various situations that could be interpreted as interpersonal rejection...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649360/adrenaline-instead-of-amphetamine-replacing-psychoactive-substances-with-parachute-jumps
#17
Ryszard Makarowski, Piotr Makarowski, Zbigniew Kamiński
The "Adrenaline Instead of Amphetamine" program was launched by Gdańsk's MONAR association-a center for drug treatment. The purpose of the program was to show some alternatives to using psychoactive substances and to propose replacing these anti-medical behaviors with parachuting. The treatment effectiveness in this center is about 30%, and the program's effectiveness was 80%.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649359/asymmetric-reinstatement-effects-in-recognition
#18
Shaan S Shahabuddin, Steven M Smith
Our experiment examined two questions: (1) Does reinstating a studied context affect recognition of an associated word, and (2) Does reinstating a studied word affect recognition of an associated context? After encoding 75 words, each of which was shown superimposed over a different 5-sec video of an environment (e.g., a playground, a traffic scene, or a grocery store), participants were asked to recognize 50 of the words and 50 of the video scenes. On the test, half of the studied words were shown superimposed over the same video contexts that had been present at encoding, and half were shown over new scenes...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649358/exploring-the-relationship-between-psychopathy-and-helping-behaviors-in-naturalistic-settings-preliminary-findings
#19
Mehmet K Mahmut, Louise Cridland, Richard J Stevenson
This study examined the helping behavior of participants with high (High-P; 15 males, 13 females) and low (Low-P; 14 males, 16 females) psychopathic traits without their awareness. In the first of three tests, we found Low-P participants offered more help to an apparently lost female confederate than High-P participants. In the second test, High-P compared to Low-P males offered more help to an "injured" female experimenter, the reverse was true for females. In the third test, High-P compared to Low-P females offered more help to a female confederate who had apparently dropped papers they were carrying; whereas the reverse was true for males...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649357/dynamic-selective-exposure-during-decision-making
#20
James G Phillips, Teressa Hoon, Jason Landon
To understand dynamic changes in the likelihood that people would access and selectively expose themselves to information online, the present study examined the checking of account balances during simulated gambling. Sixteen participants played 120 hands of computer Blackjack for points, at higher or lower levels of risk (different point multipliers), and after each win or loss the computer recorded if participants checked their account balances. There were individual differences in checking rates. Participants who were more likely to check balances exhibited a selectivity of exposure to decision consonant information after a win at low risk...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
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