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Journal of General Psychology

Rachel A Robbins, Terri L Lewis, Daphne Maurer
Adults need to discriminate between stimuli and recognize those previously seen. For faces, feature changes (e.g., different eyes) and spacing changes (e.g., distances between eyes) are important cues. In two experiments, we assessed the influence of these on discrimination and recognition of houses, a commonly used control in face studies. In both experiments, discrimination was better for feature than spacing changes. Memory for spacing changes was generally poor but aided by extra learning and intermixing change types...
April 2, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Piotr Styrkowiec, Anna Chrzanowska
Multiple object tracking (MOT) requires visually attending to dynamically moving targets and distractors. This cognitive ability is based on perceptual-attentional processes that are also involved in goal-directed movements. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that MOT affects the motor performance of aiming movements. Therefore, the participants performed pointing movements using their fingers or a computer mouse that controlled the movements of a cursor directed at the targets in the MOT task. The precision of the pointing movements was measured, and it was predicted that a higher number of targets and distractors in the MOT task would result in a lower pointing precision...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Yoonhee Jang, Elaine Marshall
We investigated how different types of feedback in multiple-choice testing influence long-term retention. Participants completed an initial multiple-choice test on general-knowledge questions. Then, they were randomly placed into one of the following four conditions: feedback displaying the original question and four alternative options including the correct answer (Feedback 1); feedback displaying the original question and the correct answer (Feedback 2); feedback displaying only the correct answer (Feedback 3); and no feedback (Control)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Paola Palladino, Caterina Artuso
In the present study, we aimed to examine how specific objects are updated in working memory. We compared conditions in which contents or content-context bindings from working memory were both encoded and updated (Experiment 1). In addition, for bindings, we manipulated the memory load (i.e., number of contents) to maintain during updating. Results indicated that memory load did not specifically affect the process; rather, the content-context binding (vs. single contents) was critical in determining the increase in response latencies...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Özlem Bozo, Dilek Demirtepe-Saygılı, Seren Güneş, Gaye Zeynep Çenesiz, Abdullah Baysan
The present study examined the moderating role of problem-focused coping in trait anxiety-depressive symptoms' relationship in patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Eighty-eight CU patients, who applied to an outpatient clinic of Clinical Immunology and Allergic Diseases, filled out a questionnaire set including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Ways of Coping Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. The results suggested that CU patients high on trait anxiety reported more depressive symptoms, and the ones using more problem-focused coping (PFC) strategies reported less depressive symptoms...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
F Richard Ferraro, Rachel Kramer, Stephanie Weigel
We applied Brinley ( 1965 ) plot analysis to the eating disorders field. Across 23 studies and 165 experimental conditions [experienced by a total of 773 eating disorder (ED) participants, including anorexia nervosa (AN), binge eating (BE), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and 995 controls], the best-fit regression equation was Y (ED) = 1.08 X (CONTROL) - 31. This equation accounted for 98.2% of the variance. Thus, the ED subjects were only 1.08 times slower than the control subjects, suggesting little processing speed slowing in ED...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Abbas Abdollahi, Simin Hosseinian, Gordon J G Asmundson
To better understand depression among adolescent university students, this study was designed to examine coping style as a potential mediator between perfectionism and depression. Participants comprised 510 undergraduate students from Malaysia. Structural Equation Modelling demonstrated that personal standards perfectionism and task-focused coping style were negatively associated with depression, while emotion-focused coping style, avoidant coping style, and evaluative concerns perfectionism were positively associated with depression...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Metehan Irak, Dicle Çapan
The goal of the present study was to investigate relationships between personal beliefs about memory, metacognitive beliefs, and actual memory performance. One hundred thirty-seven participants' (aged 20 to 60 years) metacognitive beliefs were measured using the Metacognition Questionnaire (MCQ-30), memory beliefs were measured using the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (PBMI), and an episodic memory task was used to measure actual memory performance, memory predictions, and postdictions. Younger adults had lower scores on the positive beliefs subfactor of the MCQ-30, higher scores on retrospective change and control subfactors of the PBMI, and outperformed middle-aged adults on recall and recall postdiction...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Elena V Stepanova, Michael J Strube
Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perceived as more attractive than single-race faces. Experiment 2 further confirmed that faces with medium levels of skin tone and facial features are perceived as more attractive than faces with extreme levels of these factors...
January 2018: Journal of General Psychology
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October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Michael T Bradley, Andrew Brand
It is difficult to obtain adequate power to test a small effect size with a set criterion alpha of 0.05. Probably an inferential test will indicate non-statistical significance and not be published. Rarely, statistical significance will be obtained, and an exaggerated effect size calculated and reported. Accepting all inferential probabilities and associated effect sizes could solve exaggeration problems. Graphs, generated through Monte Carlo methods, are presented to illustrate this. The first graph presents effect sizes (Cohen's d) as lines from 1 to 0 with probabilities on the Y axis and the number of measures on the X axis...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Pei Wang, Ya-Ping Yang, Chen-Hao Tan, Qin-Wei Chen, Thomas Cantfort
It is an open question whether social stereotype activation can be distinguished from nonsocial semantic activation. To address this question, gender stereotype activation (GSA) and lexical semantic activation (LSA) were directly compared. EEGs were recorded in 20 participants as they identified the congruence between prime-target word pairs under four different conditions (stereotype congruent, stereotype incongruent, semantic congruent, and semantic incongruent). We found that congruent targets elicited faster and more accurate responses and reduced N400 amplitudes irrespective of priming category types...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Liliia D Korol
The present study reports on the relations between multicultural personality and ethnic tolerance via associations with cross-group friendship in a sample of Portuguese university students (n = 270). It was found that the multicultural personality dimensions, particularly cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, and flexibility, were significantly correlated with ethnic tolerance. At the same time, a mediation model demonstrated that the relationship between open-mindedness and ethnic tolerance was partially mediated by cross-group friendship...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Pelin Buruk, Ömer Faruk Şimşek, Ercan Kocayörük
This study attempts to explain the relationship between job satisfaction and the Big Two, Stability and Plasticity, which are the higher-order traits of Big Five. Occupational Project, a narrative construct, was considered a mediator variable in this relationship. Occupational Project consists of affective and cognitive evaluations of an individual's work life as a project in terms of the completed (past), the ongoing (present) and the prospective (future) parts. The survey method was applied to a sample of 253 participants...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Jeremy Grabbe
The effects of letter substitutions have been linked to their position within a word (letter position effects). The current study expanded upon previous research by examining letter-position effects for letter substitutions using forward- and reverse-spelled word primes. Often substituting a letter on one side of a word will have a stronger impact on performance than substituting a letter on the other side of a word. In three experiments it was revealed that the letter-position effects of substitutions changed places when words were spelled backwards...
July 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Alfonso Pitarque, Juan C Melendez, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Joaquin Escudero, Salvador Algarabel
The aim of the current study was to examine if recollection and familiarity decline in nondemented Parkinson's patients. To do so we compared a sample of older people with Parkinson's disease (n = 32) to a control sample of healthy older people (n = 32) on an associative recognition task in which we manipulated the repetition of the pairs during the study phase (half of the pairs were presented once and half twice) to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity, and false recognition based on the logic of the process-dissociation procedure...
July 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Ali Talaei, Yalda Nahidi, Golsan Kardan, Lida Jarahi, Behzad Aminzadeh, Hasan Jahed Taherani, Mahsa Nahidi, Maliheh Ziaee
The aim of this study is to investigate psychopathologies and the temperament-character profile of Alopecia Areata patients and to compare them with healthy controls. Patients and controls who presented at a dermatology clinic were selected by convenience sampling to respond to Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), SCL-90-R, and a checklist about the demographic data and their dermatologic and psychiatric history. Patients reported higher harm avoidance and reward dependence than controls (Cohen's d = ...
July 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Kyle E Conlon, Paul Rose
In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of feeling powerful on willingness to sacrifice for the preservation of shared resources depends on whether such willingness is expressed publically or privately. Participants were randomly assigned to either a power priming condition or a control condition and then completed measures assessing their attitudes, future intentions, and willingness to sacrifice for environmental conservation. Consistent with our hypothesis, the psychological experience of power decreased people's environmental attitudes and willingness to sacrifice for the environment, but only when these responses were made privately...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Juan Botella, Manuel Suero, Juan I Durán
The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
Neha Sinha, Arnold Lewis Glass
The medial temporal lobe and striatum have both been implicated as brain substrates of memory and learning. Here, we show dissociation between these two memory systems using a same/different matching task, in which subjects judged whether four-letter strings were the same or different. Different RT was determined by the left-to-right location of the first letter different between the study and test string, consistent with a left-to-right comparison of the study and test strings, terminating when a difference was found...
April 2017: Journal of General Psychology
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