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Journal of General Psychology

Ikuo Suzuki
False memories of one's past are often created by unconscious influences of previous experiences. This study examined whether action sequences, scripts that are frequent in everyday life, might induce false beliefs of having visited a location. Participants were shown photos of places they had not previously visited. Next, they rated how strongly they felt that they had visited the locations in the target scenes. Results indicated that when typical actions were presented in canonical order before the target scene, the feeling of having previously visited the location increased, relative to a condition with a random ordering of typical actions or to one with no presented actions...
November 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Shuyuan Yu, Baichen Li, Shudong Zhang, Tao Yang, Ting Jiang, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong
Many previous studies have demonstrated the SNARC effect-i.e., participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers. However, there is a debate on whether it is based on working or long-term memory (i.e., relative or absolute magnitude). Here, we examined the flexibility of the spatial-numerical associations using orientation judgment tasks. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a rotated frame surrounding an Arabic digit under numerical ranges 1-6, 4-9 (Experiment 1), and 1-9 (Experiment 2)...
November 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Jennifer C Veilleux, Melissa J Zielinski, Nicole E Moyen, Matthew A Tucker, Erin K Dougherty, Matthew S Ganio
In the current study, we tested the effects of core body temperature increases (e.g. heat stress) on affect, self-reported physical discomfort, and subsequent self-control in male smokers and nonsmokers using a novel passive heat stress paradigm, within a distress tolerance framework. Twenty-eight men (14 smokers), completed both heat stress and control sessions in randomized order. Results revealed that increases in core body temperature were associated with increased anxiety, irritability, and body discomfort as well as decreased happiness, with stronger effects for smokers...
October 25, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Magali Ginet, Olivier Dodier, Brigitte Bardin, Michel Désert, Catherine Greffeuille, Fanny Verkampt
The two present studies examined the influence of perspective instructions given during encoding and retrieval on the recall of a visual event. Participants viewed slides or a film depicting a day in the life of a man. Before viewing the to-be-remembered event, they were instructed to adopt the perspective of an alcoholic vs. an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 1), or of an unemployed man vs. no perspective (Experiment 2). Participants in the first study were interviewed twice, with the second recall being preceded by either a change perspective instruction or without any specific instruction...
October 16, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Arnold L Glass, Neha Sinha
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether performance on a subsequent exam was affected when two lessons were as similar as possible except that one was presented in class and the other was presented online. In a hybrid course, half of the lessons were presented in the classroom as narrated Power Point presentations and half of the lessons were presented online as narrated Power Point presentations. Online student-teacher interaction took place in a chatroom. Furthermore, for each question on the midterm or final examination, the students had answered a pre-lesson and post-lesson question, integrated with the appropriate lesson, which queried the same fact statement as the exam question...
October 15, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Frédérique Robin, Tifenn Cébron, Marine Letellier, Julien Nizard
Source confusion refers to a person's failure to distinguish whether an event has been actually seen or simply imagined. Nevertheless, prior research has demonstrated a reduction of source confusion for negative arousing information. According to the emotional-congruence effect, this emotional benefit is likely observed in patients suffering from chronic pain. This hypothesis was tested on 15 patients suffering of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 15 healthy women. In a source-monitoring task, participants had to decide whether positive, negative, and neutral words were imagined or seen with a picture...
September 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Riccardo M Martoni, Paola M V Rancoita, Roberta De Filippis, Clelia Di Serio, Chiara Brombin
Selecting visual stimuli for inducing specific emotional states is very challenging, since the choice relies on specific conceptualization of emotions. In this work, we present a set of 55 stimuli, realized integrating discrete and dimensional theories of emotions, and specifically selected to investigate anger, fear, and disgust reactions in non-clinical and clinical contexts. Our set of stimuli presents several aspects of novelty since (1) a large and heterogeneous sample of subjects from the general population was involved in the labelling task, and (2) bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to integrate emotion models...
July 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Chu Zhou, Tianjiao Jiang, Lei Zhu
Self-other merging can arise not only between acquainted people but also between strangers. To date, the factors determining self-other merging between strangers remain to be elucidated. We investigate whether strangers' facial appearance (i.e. gaze direction) modulates such initial processes of self-other merging. In the two experiments, participants viewed strangers' faces whose gaze either directed to or averted from them. The extent of self-other merging was measured in terms of perception of face resemblance, Inclusion of the Other in the Self (IOS) scale, and correlations of personality judgments...
July 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Nikole D Patson, Julie M Hupp
Sentences such as "The girls read a book" can lead to multiple interpretations: They could be reading the same book (collective) or they could each be reading their own book (distributive). In ambiguous contexts, adults prefer the collective interpretation, and preschool children show a slight bias for a distributive interpretation. The current research investigated whether conceptual factors (number of actors) influences interpretations of these kinds of predicates. The data with children show a stronger collective bias when there are four actors compared to two actors...
July 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Kim Fredman Stein, Wakefield L Morys-Carter, Lisa Hinkley
Prospective memory (PM), remembering to remember, is crucial to everyday functioning. Understanding factors associated with PM impairments is thus important. One likely factor is rumination: a common cognitive process comprising repetitive self-focused thoughts. We investigated whether rumination is associated with impaired PM, and whether any associated impairment is exacerbated with negative stimuli. A sentence-rating task with sentences varying in valence was used with embedded PM cues in a non-clinical sample (N = 60)...
July 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Kyoko Hine, Yuji Itoh
Our memories are quite fragile. We sometimes recognize something unseen as something seen before. This error often causes serious problems, such as the misidentification of composite faces in a criminal investigation. In such a scene, people occasionally claim to have seen a face that is actually a composite face consisting of facial parts separately seen before; this error is called the memory conjunction error. Although the likelihood of the memory conjunction error increases over time, previous studies suggest that it could be suppressed by the number of response options, which are expected to affect the criterion for the "Old" response...
July 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Attila Szabo, Lilla Jobbágy, Ferenc Köteles
Expectations shape human behavior. Initial drug use might be associated with information-based expectations. In this study, we presumed that changes in affect and perceived physical wellbeing will be stronger after receiving an active placebo (Tic Tac mint; n = 40), than a pure placebo (inert pill; n = 40) given as a mood-enhancing "super pill." After baseline measures, participants completed a treatment-expectancy scale, ingested the mint/super pill, and attended to the effects over 3-minutes. Subsequently, they completed again the psychological tests...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Germano Vera Cruz
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the relative contribution of skin tone and symmetry on judgment of attractiveness regarding female faces. Two hundred and fifteen Mozambican adults were presented with a set of faces, and instructed to rate their degree of attractiveness along a continuous scale. Chi-square, factorial weight analyses and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Face skin tone had a significant impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment of target faces. However, the target face skin tone contribution to the participants' attractiveness judgment (5% of the total variance) was much weaker than the contribution of the target face symmetry (85% of the total variance)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Octavio Luque-Reca, Manuel Pulido-Martos, Esther Lopez-Zafra, José M Augusto-Landa
Despite previous evidence showing a positive relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and quality of life (QoL), associating older adults' emotional processing with several health indicators, few studies have explored both the IE and the a mechanisms through which they affect QoL. This cross-sectional study analyzes the mediator role of optimistic and pessimistic cognitive styles in the relationship between perceived EI (PEI) and QoL in 115 institutionalized older adults from Southern Spain. Regression analyses showed, after controlling for cognitive style, that PEI predicted a significant percentage of variance in: Health (β = ...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Carmen Moret-Tatay, Daniel Gamermann, Michael Murphy, Anezka Kuzmičová
Word frequency is one of the most robust factors in the literature on word processing, based on the lexical corpus of a language. However, different sources might be used in order to determine the actual frequency of each word. Recent research has determined frequencies based on movie subtitles, Twitter, blog posts, or newspapers. In this paper, we examine a determination of these frequencies based on the World Wide Web. For this purpose, a Python script was developed to obtain frequencies of a word through online search results...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
F Richard Ferraro
Little research has examined how age impacts texting dependence, despite the increased usage of texting and other social media applications in older adults. In the present study, three age groups (18-29 years of age, n = 135; 30-49 years of age, n = 58; 50-69 years of age, n = 19) were given the Self-Perceptions of Text Messaging Dependency Scale (SPTMDS). This self-report measure examines Emotion Reaction, Excessive Use, Disruption of Relationships with text Messages and Psychological/Behavioral Symptoms Concerning Heavy Usage)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
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April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Rachel A Robbins, Terri L Lewis, Daphne Maurer
Adults need to discriminate between stimuli and recognize those previously seen. For faces, feature changes (e.g., different eyes) and spacing changes (e.g., distances between eyes) are important cues. In two experiments, we assessed the influence of these on discrimination and recognition of houses, a commonly used control in face studies. In both experiments, discrimination was better for feature than spacing changes. Memory for spacing changes was generally poor but aided by extra learning and intermixing change types...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Piotr Styrkowiec, Anna Chrzanowska
Multiple object tracking (MOT) requires visually attending to dynamically moving targets and distractors. This cognitive ability is based on perceptual-attentional processes that are also involved in goal-directed movements. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that MOT affects the motor performance of aiming movements. Therefore, the participants performed pointing movements using their fingers or a computer mouse that controlled the movements of a cursor directed at the targets in the MOT task. The precision of the pointing movements was measured, and it was predicted that a higher number of targets and distractors in the MOT task would result in a lower pointing precision...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Yoonhee Jang, Elaine Marshall
We investigated how different types of feedback in multiple-choice testing influence long-term retention. Participants completed an initial multiple-choice test on general-knowledge questions. Then, they were randomly placed into one of the following four conditions: feedback displaying the original question and four alternative options including the correct answer (Feedback 1); feedback displaying the original question and the correct answer (Feedback 2); feedback displaying only the correct answer (Feedback 3); and no feedback (Control)...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
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