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Health Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369940/a-case-study-of-the-ncrp-156-wound-model-of-embedded-du-using-data-from-urine-uranium-concentrations-of-wounded-veterans
#1
Michael T Walkingstick, Eric S Krage, Richard R Brey
Depleted uranium (DU) munitions were initially used by the United States (U.S.) military during the first Persian Gulf War in 1991 in order to penetrate heavily armored vehicles. However, as a result of friendly fire, several U.S. military personnel received intakes from DU munitions. One of the ongoing concerns for these wounded veterans is the potential long-term exposure received from DU embedded fragments. The United States Army Institute of Public Health (AIPH) is the first laboratory that analyzes the urine bioassays from Army Soldiers that are injured with DU fragments...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369939/a-pilot-examination-of-the-methods-used-to-counteract-insider-threat-security-risks-associated-with-the-use-of-radioactive-materials-in-the-research-and-clinical-setting
#2
B G Tsenov, R J Emery, L W Whitehead, J Reingle Gonzalez, G L Gemeinhardt
While many organizations maintain multiple layers of security control methodologies to prevent outsiders from gaining unauthorized access, persons such as employees or contractors who have been granted legitimate access can represent an "insider threat" risk. Interestingly, some of the most notable radiological events involving the purposeful contamination or exposure of individuals appear to have been perpetrated by insiders. In the academic and medical settings, radiation safety professionals focus their security efforts on (1) ensuring controls are in place to prevent unauthorized access or removal of sources, and (2) increasing security controls for the unescorted accessing of large sources of radioactivity (known as "quantities of concern")...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369938/preliminary-work-toward-a-transuranic-activity-estimation-method-for-rapid-discrimination-of-anthropogenic-from-transuranic-activity-in-alpha-air-samples
#3
S Joseph Cope, Robert B Hayes
Radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) progeny (primarily bismuth and polonium) are known interferents when rapid evaluation of transuranic content on air filters is of interest. These complexities stem from the overlapping energies of the progeny alpha particles onto the transuranic region of interest (3-5.5 MeV) where naturally-occurring alpha emitters can overwhelm the spectra. Due to the immediacy of the alpha counting methods employed, coupled with the half-life of thoron progeny dominated by Pb (t1/2=10.6 h), a conservative transuranic activity estimate with rigorous uncertainty is being sought...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360716/health-physics-society-%C3%A2-2018-affiliate-members
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360714/temporal-fluctuations-in-indoor-background-gamma-radiation-using-nai-tl
#5
Travis Smith, Sana Cao, Kimberlee J Kearfott
An enhanced understanding of background gamma radiation is necessary for accurate radionuclide activity quantification. Background spectra are routinely subtracted from spectra of samples prepared in known geometries, with data collection time chosen to optimize statistics for counting uncertainties. The work presents measured background spectra collected inside and outside shields of varying geometry and composition, showing the effects of these on background. Gamma background measurements with and without blank samples are included along with spectra from different sizes and shapes of NaI(Tl) detectors...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360713/erratum-practical-considerations-for-gamma-ray-spectroscopy-with-nai-tl-a-tutorial
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360712/reply-to-doss-et-al
#7
John D Boice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360711/comments-on-space-the-final-frontier-research-relevant-to-mars
#8
S M J Mortazavi, J J Bevelacqua, K W Fornalski, James Welsh, Mohan Doss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360710/deterministic-effects-to-the-lens-of-the-eye-following-ionizing-radiation-exposure-is-there-evidence-to-support-a-reduction-in-threshold-dose
#9
Christopher Thome, Douglas B Chambers, Antony M Hooker, Jeroen W Thompson, Douglas R Boreham
Ionizing radiation exposure to the lens of the eye is a known cause of cataractogenesis. Historically, it was believed that the acute threshold dose for cataract formation was 5 Sv, and annual dose limits to the lens were set at 150 mSv. Recently, however, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced their threshold dose estimate for deterministic effects to 0.5 Gy and is now recommending an occupational limit of 20 mSv per year on average. A number of organizations have questioned whether this new threshold and dose limit are justified based on the limited reliable data concerning radiation-induced cataracts...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360709/some-considerations-for-chelation-treatment-and-surgical-excision-following-incorporation-of-plutonium-in-wounds
#10
Deepesh Poudel, Luiz Bertelli, John A Klumpp, Tom L Waters
After a plutonium-contaminated wound, the role of an internal dosimetrist is to inform the patient and the physician of the dosimetric considerations. The doses averted due to medical treatments (excision or chelation) are higher if the treatments are administered early; therefore, the internal dosimetrist needs to rely on limited information on wound counts and process knowledge for advising the physician. Several wound cases in the literature were reviewed to obtain estimates of the efficacies of surgical excision and chelation treatment after plutonium-contaminated wounds...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360708/screening-internal-contamination-of-inhaled-and-ingested-radionuclides-with-hand-held-survey-meters
#11
Tim G Adams, Rocco Casagrande
During the aftermath of a radiological accident or attack, the rapid identification of individuals who have internalized medically significant amounts of material is paramount to guide medical and public health decisions. This paper explores the utility of hand-held, pancake GM detectors to determine if an individual has inhaled Sr, Cs, Pu, Pu, or Am in quantities requiring treatment. Additionally, ingestion of Sr or Cs was considered. Both Sr and Cs were modeled in equilibrium with their progeny, but the progeny of Pu, Pu, and Am were excluded...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360707/application-of-the-icrp-67-and-ncrp-156-biokinetic-models-to-241-am-wound-data-from-nonhuman-primates
#12
Nada A Alomairy, Richard R Brey, Raymond A Guilmette
Distribution, retention, and excretion of intramuscularly injected Am citrate have been investigated in cynomolgus and rhesus nonhuman primates (NHP). Bioassay and retention data, obtained from experiments done by Patricia Durbin and her colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, were evaluated against the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 67) Am systemic model coupled with to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement wound model (NCRP 156). The default transfer rates suggested in these models were used with the urine and feces excretion data to predict the intake as well as liver and skeleton tissue contents at the time of death...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360706/measurement-and-simulation-of-the-counting-efficiency-of-a-whole-body-counter-using-a-bomab-phantom-inserted-with-rod-sources-containing-mixed-radionuclides
#13
MinSeok Park, Jaeryong Yoo, Wi-Ho Ha, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
The examination of internal contamination is important for providing an adequate medical response during a radiological emergency. A whole-body counting system can assess gamma-emitting radionuclides in a human body when monitoring internal contamination. It is necessary to calibrate whole-body counting systems by using a calibration phantom, such as a Bottle Manikin Absorption phantom, to properly assess internal contamination. However, the total weight of the Bottle Manikin Absorber phantom is high, and there can be leakage of radioactive sources, which are disadvantages of using such a phantom...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360705/determination-of-examination-specific-diagnostic-reference-level-in-computed-tomography-by-a-new-quality-control-based-dose-survey-method
#14
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
A new "quality-control-based (QC-based) dose survey method" has been developed for determination of diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations. The "QC-based dose survey method" is based on the use of retrospective data in the QC documents and reports, which are typically available from the National Regulatory Authority database. The method was applied to 70 CT scanners in Tehran, Iran, by using the available QC reports from the database. The commonly used "data collection method" was also applied by filling each questionnaire on-site to validate the new method...
March 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112623/health-physics-society-%C3%A2-2017-affiliate-members
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112621/the-role-of-extracellular-fluid-in-biokinetic-modeling
#16
Guthrie Miller, John A Klumpp, Dunstana Melo, Deepesh Poudel
The pharmacokinetic equations of Pierson et al. describing the behavior of bromide in rat provide a general approach to the modeling of extracellular fluid (ECF). The movement of material into ECF spaces is rapid and is completely characterized by tissue volumes and vascular flow rates to and from a tissue, the volumes of the tissue, and the ECF associated with the tissue. Early-time measurements are needed to characterize ECF. Measurements of DTPA disappearance from plasma by Wedeking et al. are discussed as an example of such measurements...
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112620/evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-polymer-gels-for-determining-electron-dose-distributions-in-the-presence-of-small-heterogeneities
#17
R Ghahraman Asl, H A Nedaie, N Banaee
The aim of this study is to evaluate the application and accuracy of polymer gels for determining electron dose distributions in the presence of small heterogeneities made of bone and air. Different cylindrical phantoms containing MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) normoxic polymer gel were used under the slab phantoms during irradiation. MR images of the irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 (spin-spin) relaxation maps for conversion to absorbed dose...
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112619/2017-american-academy-of-health-physics-awards
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112618/2017-student-fellowships
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112617/2017-student-travel-grant-recipients
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health Physics
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