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Health Physics

Sara A Abraham, Kimberlee J Kearfott
Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters are devices that, when stimulated with light, emit light in proportion to the integrated ionizing radiation dose. The stimulation of optically stimulated luminescent material results in the loss of a small fraction of signal stored within the dosimetric traps. Previous studies have investigated the signal loss due to readout stimulation and the optical annealing of optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters. This study builds on former research by examining the behavior of optically stimulated luminescent signals after annealing, exploring the functionality of a previously developed signal loss model, and comparing uncertainties for dosimeters reused with or without annealing...
June 15, 2018: Health Physics
Mari Komperød, Lavrans Skuterud
Ingestion doses between and within countries are expected to vary significantly due to differences in dietary habits and geographical variations in radionuclide concentrations. This paper presents the most comprehensive assessment to date of the effective radiation dose from the Norwegian diet, from natural as well as anthropogenic radionuclides. Ingestion doses to the Norwegian public are calculated using national dietary statistics and the most relevant radionuclide concentration data for the various food products...
June 13, 2018: Health Physics
Michiya Sasaki, Haruyuki Ogino, Takatoshi Hattori
In order to prove a small increment in a risk of concern in an epidemiological study, a large sample of a population is generally required. Since the background risk of an end point of interest, such as cancer mortality, is affected by various factors, such as lifestyle (diet, smoking, etc.), adjustment for such factors is necessary. However, it is impossible to inclusively and completely adjust for such factors; therefore, uncertainty in the background risk remains for control and exposed populations, indicating that there is a minimum limit to the lower bound for the provable risk regardless of the sample size...
June 8, 2018: Health Physics
Dawn A Montgomery, Nimisha Edayilam, Nishanth Tharayil, Brian A Powell, Nicole E Martinez
Hydroponic uptake studies were conducted to evaluate the uptake and translocation of Tc, Cs (stable analog for Cs), Np, and U into established and seedling Andropogon virginicus specimens under controlled laboratory conditions. Plant specimens were grown in analyte-spiked Hoagland nutrient solution for 24 h, 3 d, and 5 d. Translocation to shoots was greatest for Tc and Cs, likely due to their analogous nature to plant nutrients, while U (and Np to a lesser extent) predominantly partitioned to root tissue with less extensive translocation to the shoots...
June 6, 2018: Health Physics
Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height...
May 17, 2018: Health Physics
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A voluntary partial-body donor (U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries Case 0785) was accidentally exposed to Pu via inhalation and wounds. This individual underwent medical treatment including wound excision and extensive chelation treatment with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Approximately 2.2 kBq of Pu was measured in the wound site 44 y after the accident. Major soft tissues and selected bones were collected at autopsy and radiochemically analyzed for Pu, Pu, and Am...
May 4, 2018: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Health Physics
Kenneth R Foster, Marvin C Ziskin, Quirino Balzano, Giorgi Bit-Babik
This review/commentary addresses recent thermal and electromagnetic modeling studies that use image-based anthropomorphic human models to establish the local absorption of radiofrequency energy and the resulting increase in temperature in the body. The frequency range of present interest is from 100 MHz through the transition frequency (where the basic restrictions in exposure guidelines change from specific absorption rate to incident power density, which occurs at 3-10 GHz depending on the guideline). Several detailed thermal modeling studies are reviewed to compare a recently introduced dosimetric quantity, the heating factor, across different exposure conditions as related to the peak temperature rise in tissue that would be permitted by limits for local body exposure...
August 2018: Health Physics
A Owens, L Bertelli, A Brandl
Retrospective dose assessment following acute radiation exposures during radiological incidents can be difficult and inaccurate due to the large uncertainties associated with dose estimation. However, rapid and accurate dose assessment is critical following an incident so that appropriate treatment can be provided to the patient as early as possible. Incident dose assessment relies heavily on biological dosimetry with corresponding large uncertainties for inhomogeneous exposures, resulting from the estimates of whole-body doses, while the assessment of absorbed doses to individual tissues might actually be more appropriate for acute radiation exposures...
August 2018: Health Physics
Osamu Kurihara, Chunsheng Li, Maria Antonia Lopez, Eunjoo Kim, Kotaro Tani, Takashi Nakano, Chie Takada, Takumaro Momose, Makoto Akashi
Whole-body counter measurements of residents of Fukushima Prefecture have been extensively performed after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. These measurements have demonstrated that the levels of internal contamination with radioactive cesium (Cs and Cs) in the residents are very low. This article provides an overview of and lessons learned from these whole-body counter measurements with emphasis on the technical problems encountered, and it discusses the effective use of whole-body counters for assessing the internal thyroid doses of individuals when direct measurements of I in the thyroid are difficult or impossible to implement for the total affected population in a short time after a nuclear reactor accident...
August 2018: Health Physics
Shibiao Su, Shanyu Zhou, Cuiju Wen, Jianming Zou, Danying Zhang, Jiwu Geng, Min Yang, Ming Liu, Lichun Li, Wei Wen
Our previous studies have shown that cancer mortality in high background-radiation areas of China was lower than that in a control area, indicating the possibility of an adaptive response in high background-radiation areas. Our aim is to determine the effect of low-dose radiation on the level of DNA oxidative damage, DNA damage repair, antioxidant capacity, and apoptosis in high background-radiation area and control area populations of Guangdong through a molecular epidemiological study in order to identify adaptive response...
August 2018: Health Physics
Shizuhiko Deji, Xiaojuan Li, Shigeki Ito, Masahiro Hirota, Takuya Saze, Kunihide Nishizawa
The effect of temperature and shielding on the lower detection limit of a thyroid I monitoring system was investigated in an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom fitted with an imaging plate. The phantom was loaded with an I aqueous solution and monitored with the imaging plate for 10 min. After exposure, the plates were incubated with or without the shield at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, or 40°C. The latent image was read out at 0 min to 7 d after exposure. The thyroid equivalent doses corresponding to the detection limit were calculated in six age categories, using the inhalation equivalent dose coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection...
August 2018: Health Physics
Takahisa Kato, Miroslaw Janik, Reiko Kanda, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Masaya Kawase, Takuo Kawamoto
The practicality of using a liquid scintillation method with a nonvolatile liquid scintillation absorbent for the measurement of airborne Rn (radon) in a residence was examined. The relationship between the radioactivity absorbed by the liquid scintillation absorbent and the radon concentration in the air was investigated in a calibrated walk-in radon chamber. The equivalent radioactivity of radon was calculated for Po radioactivity immediately after radioactive equilibrium was attained using successive decay equations via alpha-particle spectrometry based on the 1 h, indirect, selective measurement of the Po alpha-particle spectrum generated after sampling radon...
August 2018: Health Physics
Chih-Chuan Hsieh, Chiao-Zhu Li, Meng-Chi Lin, Yun-Ju Yang, Kun-Ting Hong, Yi-Hsun Chen, Zih-Hsian Syu, Da-Tong Ju
This study aims to compare the effect of Philips' Brilliance 64-slice and 256-slice (multislice) computed tomography on effective doses when changing the operating parameters for simulated examinations of patients' spine tumors, including changes in pitch, tube voltage (kV), and effective tube current-time product (mA s). This study considers the possibility of using other probable operating conditions to reduce patients' effective doses. The absorbed doses to organs and skin are measured by taking data from thermoluminescent dosimeters (GR-200 and GR-200F) in relevant positions on the anthropomorphic Rando phantom...
August 2018: Health Physics
Geoffrey Korir, P Andrew Karam
In the event of a significant radiological release in a major urban area where a large number of people reside, it is inevitable that radiological screening and dose assessment must be conducted. Lives may be saved if an emergency response plan and radiological screening method are established for use in such cases. Thousands to tens of thousands of people might present themselves with some levels of external contamination and/or the potential for internal contamination. Each of these individuals will require varying degrees of radiological screening, and those with a high likelihood of internal and/or external contamination will require radiological assessment to determine the need for medical attention and decontamination...
August 2018: Health Physics
Jillian Kunkler, Tim G Adams, Morgan Manger, Rocco Casagrande
Radiation sickness is challenging to diagnose, and the diagnosis is often based on nonclinical data. In accidents where patients are not aware of their exposure to radiation (so-called "occult exposures"), a correct diagnosis can take weeks or months. The purpose of this study is to review the time to diagnosis of radiation sickness for occult exposures where neither the physician nor the patients are aware of their exposure. We reviewed eight case reports involving occult exposures and examined the factors that contributed to a diagnosis...
August 2018: Health Physics
Steven T Ratliff, Kawsu Barry
Retrospective dosimetry is the method of using materials on or near a person who is exposed to ionizing radiation to determine the amount of radiation received by the person. A possible candidate material for retrospective dosimetry is Ivoclar Vivadent IPS e.max® CAD ceramic dental restoration material, which exhibits radiation-induced thermoluminescence when exposed to gamma- and x-ray radiation from a Cs source. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the material and study the behavior of the thermoluminescence signal with radiation dose and with delay time between radiation exposure and thermoluminescence measurement...
August 2018: Health Physics
Mehdi Sohrabi, Masoumeh Parsi, Sedigheh Sina
A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country...
August 2018: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Health Physics
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