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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781839/modeling-the-skeleton-weight-of-an-adult-caucasian-man
#1
Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height...
May 17, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781838/a-new-dual-purpose-quality-control-dosimetry-protocol-for-diagnostic-reference-level-determination-in-computed-tomography
#2
Mehdi Sohrabi, Masoumeh Parsi, Sedigheh Sina
A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country...
May 17, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750674/evaluating-plutonium-intake-and-radiation-dose-following-extensive-chelation-treatment
#3
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A voluntary partial-body donor (U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries Case 0785) was accidentally exposed to Pu via inhalation and wounds. This individual underwent medical treatment including wound excision and extensive chelation treatment with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Approximately 2.2 kBq of Pu was measured in the wound site 44 y after the accident. Major soft tissues and selected bones were collected at autopsy and radiochemically analyzed for Pu, Pu, and Am...
May 4, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595755/the-pseudo-pelger-hu%C3%A3-t-cell-as-a-retrospective-dosimeter-analysis-of-a-radium-dial-painter-cohort
#4
Ronald E Goans, Richard E Toohey, Carol J Iddins, Stacey L McComish, Sergei Y Tolmachev, Nicholas Dainiak
Recently, the pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly in peripheral blood neutrophils has been described as a new radiation-induced, stable biomarker. In this study, pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly was examined in peripheral blood slides from a cohort of 166 former radium dial painters and ancillary personnel in the radium dial industry, 35 of whom had a marrow dose of zero above background. Members of the radium dial painter cohort ingested Ra and Ra at an early age (average age 20.6 ± 5.4 y; range 13-40 y) during the years 1914-1955...
March 28, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595754/the-importance-and-quantification-of-plutonium-binding-in-human-lungs
#5
Alan Birchall, Matthew Puncher, Alan Hodgson, Sergei Y Tolmachev
Epidemiological studies have shown that the main risk arising from exposure to plutonium aerosols is lung cancer, with other detrimental effects in the bone and liver. A realistic assessment of these risks, in turn, depends on the accuracy of the dosimetric models used to calculate doses in such studies. A state-of-the-art biokinetic model for plutonium, based on the current International Commission on Radiological Protection biokinetic model, has been developed for this purpose in an epidemiological study involving the plutonium exposure of Mayak workers in Ozersk, Russia...
March 28, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787447/health-physics-society-%C3%A2-2018-affiliate-members
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787445/deployment-of-the-dosikit-system-under-operational-conditions-experience-from-a-french-defense-national-nuclear-exercise
#7
F Entine, J Bensimon Etzol, C Bettencourt, M Dondey, X Michel, G Gagna, G Gellie, Y Corre, N Ugolin, S Chevillard, J-C Amabile
Estimation of the dose received by accidentally irradiated victims is based on a tripod: clinical, biological, and physical dosimetry. The DosiKit system is an operational and mobile biodosimetry device allowing the measurement of external irradiation directly on the site of a radiological accident. This tool is based on capillary blood sample and hair follicle collection. The aim is to obtain a whole-body and local-surface dose assessment. This paper is about the technical evaluation of the DosiKit; the analytical process and scientific validation are briefly described...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787444/french-policies-for-victim-management-during-mass-radiological-accidents-attacks
#8
Diane Riccobono, Marco Valente, Michel Drouet, Franck Calamai, Amandine Abriat
In the current international context, emergency medical services have to be prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Emergency response to radiological or nuclear events requires coordination between many components: the fire brigade, emergency medical services (including nurses and physicians), police, hospitals, etc. To optimize efficiency, victim management in France is governed by specific policies and planned responses. This plan for radiological/nuclear event response is inspired by military chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear victim management in the operational theatre and is based on extraction (removal to a safe environment), first triage, decontamination, second triage, treatment, substance identification, and training...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787443/old-data-new-concepts-integrating-indirect-effects-into-radiation-protection
#9
Carmel Mothersill, Colin Seymour
PURPOSE: To address the following key question, what are the consequences of nontargeted and delayed effects for linear nonthreshold models of radiation risk? This paper considers low-dose "indirect" or nontargeted effects and how they might impact radiation protection, particularly at the level of the environment. Nontargeted effects refer to effects in cells, tissues, or organisms that were not targeted by irradiation and that did not receive direct energy deposition. They include genomic instability and lethal mutations in progeny of irradiated cells and bystander effects in neighboring cells, tissues, or organisms...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787442/epidemiology-of-late-health-effects-in-ukrainian-chornobyl-cleanup-workers
#10
Dimitry Bazyka, Anatoly Prysyazhnyuk, Natalya Gudzenko, Iryna Dyagil, David Belyi, Vadim Chumak, Volodymyr Buzunov
This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787441/exome-sequencing-discloses-ionizing-radiation-induced-dna-variants-in-the-genome-of-human-gingiva-fibroblasts
#11
Neetika Nath, Jennifer Esche, Jessica Müller, Lars R Jensen, Matthias Port, Mario Stanke, Lars Kaderali, Harry Scherthan, Andreas W Kuss
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics of the DNA damage response and the repair mechanisms involved...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787440/developments-in-biodosimetry-methods-for-triage-with-a-focus-on-x-band-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-in-vivo-fingernail-dosimetry
#12
Steven G Swarts, Jason W Sidabras, Oleg Grinberg, Dmitriy S Tipikin, Maciej M Kmiec, Sergey V Petryakov, Wilson Schreiber, Victoria A Wood, Benjamin B Williams, Ann Barry Flood, Harold M Swartz
Instrumentation and application methodologies for rapidly and accurately estimating individual ionizing radiation dose are needed for on-site triage in a radiological/nuclear event. One such methodology is an in vivo X-band, electron paramagnetic resonance, physically based dosimetry method to directly measure the radiation-induced signal in fingernails. The primary components under development are key instrument features, such as resonators with unique geometries that allow for large sampling volumes but limit radiation-induced signal measurements to the nail plate, and methodological approaches for addressing interfering signals in the nail and for calibrating dose from radiation-induced signal measurements...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787439/genotoxic-effects-in-human-fibroblasts-exposed-to-microwave-radiation
#13
Valeria Franchini, Elisa Regalbuto, Andrea De Amicis, Stefania De Sanctis, Sara Di Cristofaro, Elisa Coluzzi, Jessica Marinaccio, Antonella Sgura, Silvio Ceccuzzi, Andrea Doria, Gian Piero Gallerano, Emilio Giovenale, Gian Luca Ravera, Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Andrea Modesti, Laura Masuelli, Florigio Lista
In the last decades, technological development has led to an increasing use of devices and systems based on microwave radiation. The increased employment of these devices has elicited questions about the potential long-term health consequences associated with microwave radiation exposure. From this perspective, biological effects of microwave radiation have been the focus of many studies, but the reported scientific data are unclear and contradictory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential genotoxic and cellular effects associated with in vitro exposure of human fetal and adult fibroblasts to microwave radiation at the frequency of 25 GHz...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787438/predicting-the-public-health-consequences-of-a-nuclear-terrorism-attack-drawing-on-the-experiences-of-hiroshima-and-fukushima
#14
Timothy J Jorgensen
The increasing threat of nuclear terrorism warrants consideration of the health consequences of a terrorist incident should preventive measures fail. Although there has not yet been a nuclear terrorist attack of any kind, experiences with the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and the core meltdowns at Fukushima can provide useful insight and allow some inferences to be made regarding the types of casualties that might be sustained and the rescue efforts that might be required. There are many parallels between the events at Hiroshima and what might be expected from an improvised nuclear device, and there are parallels between the radioactivity released to the environment at Fukushima and the aftermath of a radiological dispersal device attack...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787437/liquid-biopsy-using-whole-blood-from-testis-tumor-and-colon-cancer-patients-a-new-and-simple-way
#15
Matthäus Majewski, Tim Nestler, Sebastian Kägler, Ines Richardsen, Christian G Ruf, Cord Matthies, Arnulf Willms, Hans-Ulrich Schmelz, Walter Wagner, Robert Schwab, Michael Abend
Tumor cells shed exosomes, which are released to the blood. Detecting tumor-derived exosomes containing RNA in plasma (liquid biopsy) is currently being investigated for early identification of occult metastases or relapses. Isolation of exosomes is laborious, resulting in low RNA yields. As a more robust (but less sensitive) alternative, the authors examined whether whole blood can be used as well. Tumor samples from nonmetastasized seminoma (n = 5) and colon cancer patients (n = 6) were taken during surgery...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787436/immunological-markers-of-chronic-occupational-radiation-exposure
#16
Valentina L Rybkina, Maria V Bannikova, Galina V Adamova, Harald Dörr, Harry Scherthan, Tamara V Azizova
This study aimed to identify immunological biomarkers for prolonged occupational radiation exposure and thus studied a random sample of the Mayak Production Association worker cohort (91 individuals). The control group included 43 local individuals never employed at the Mayak Production Association. To identify biomarkers, two groups of workers were formed: the first one included workers chronically exposed to external gamma rays at cumulative doses of 0.5-3.0 Gy (14 individuals); the second one included workers exposed to combined radiation-external gamma rays at doses ranging from 0...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787435/nhej-contributes-to-the-fast-repair-of-radiation-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-at-late-prophase-i-telomeres
#17
Emad A Ahmed, Michael Rosemann, Harry Scherthan
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lacking an intervening S-phase...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787434/influence-of-confounding-factors-on-radiation-dose-estimation-using-in-vivo-validated-transcriptional-biomarkers
#18
Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Grainne O'Brien, Ellen Donovan, Lone Gothard, Sue Boyle, Antoine Laval, Isabelle Testard, Lucyna Ponge, Grzegorz Woźniak, Leszek Miszczyk, Serge M Candéias, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Piotr Widlak, Navita Somaiah, Christophe Badie
For triage purposes following a nuclear accident, blood-based gene expression biomarkers can provide rapid dose estimates for a large number of individuals. Ionizing-radiation-responsive genes are regulated through the DNA damage-response pathway, which includes activation of multiple transcription factors. Modulators of this pathway could potentially affect the response of these biomarkers and consequently compromise accurate dose estimation calculations. In the present study, four potential confounding factors were selected: cancer condition, sex, simulated bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide), and curcumin, an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787433/investigation-of-spatial-organization-of-chromosome-territories-in-chromosome-exchange-aberrations-after-ionizing-radiation-exposure
#19
Adayabalam S Balajee, Jacob T Sanders, Rosela Golloshi, Igor Shuryak, Rachel Patton McCord, Nicholas Dainiak
Higher-order organization of the human genome is well established with chromosomes occupying distinct domains or territories in the interphase nucleus. Spatial organization of chromosome territories in the interphase nucleus occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. Since both stable and unstable aberrations induced by ionizing radiation involve the exchange of material between two or more chromosomes, this study investigated the role of spatial organization of chromosome domains in ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome translocation events...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787432/pegylated-il-11-bbt-059-a-novel-radiation-countermeasure-for-hematopoietic-acute-radiation-syndrome
#20
Vidya P Kumar, Shukla Biswas, Neel K Sharma, Sasha Stone, Christine M Fam, George N Cox, Sanchita P Ghosh
Interleukin-11 was developed to reduce chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia; however, its clinical use was limited by severe adverse effects in humans. PEGylated interleukin-11 (BBT-059), developed by Bolder Biotechnology, Inc., exhibited a longer half-life in rodents and induced longer-lasting increases in hematopoietic cells than interleukin-11. A single dose of 1.2 mg kg of BBT-059, administered subcutaneously to CD2F1 mice (12-14 wk, male) was found to be safe in a 14 d toxicity study. The drug demonstrated its efficacy both as a prophylactic countermeasure and a mitigator in CD2F1 mice exposed to Co gamma total-body irradiation...
July 2018: Health Physics
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