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Health Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30652977/acute-proteomic-changes-in-the-lung-after-wtli-in-a-mouse-model-identification-of-potential-initiating-events-for-delayed-effects-of-acute-radiation-exposure
#1
Weiliang Huang, Jianshi Yu, Jace W Jones, Claire L Carter, I Lauren Jackson, Zeljko Vujaskovic, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation-induced lung injury is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure resulting in pulmonary pneumonitis and fibrosis. Molecular mechanisms that lead to radiation-induced lung injury remain incompletely understood. Using a murine model of whole-thorax lung irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were irradiated at 8, 10, 12, and 14 Gy and assayed at day 1, 3, and 6 postexposure and compared to nonirradiated (sham) controls. Tryptic digests of lung tissues were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a Waters nanoLC instrument coupled to a Thermo Scientific Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer...
January 15, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624352/comparison-of-organ-and-effective-photon-dose-coefficients-for-reference-phantoms-in-articulated-and-upright-postures-in-cranial-and-caudal-irradiation-geometries
#2
Kathryn Bales, Shaheen Dewji
Traditionally, dose estimations have been performed predominantly using anthropomorphic phantoms in an upright posture. However, an exclusively upright posture could reduce accuracy when estimating organ absorbed and effective doses for exposures in realistic postures. In this work, effective dose coefficients were computed using International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 recommendations for monoenergetic photon plane sources (0.05-20 MeV) directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and downward from above the head (cranial) for articulated adult male and female stylized phantoms...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624351/a-dosimetry-study-of-portable-x-ray-fluorescence-in-vivo-metal-measurements
#3
Aaron J Specht, Xinxin Zhang, Benjamin D Goodman, Ed Maher, Marc G Weisskopf, Linda H Nie
Portable x-ray fluorescence devices have grown in popularity for possible metal exposure assessment using in vivo measurements of bone and toenail. These measurements are accompanied by a small radiation dose, which is typically assessed by radiation safety committees to be minimal. However, an understanding of precise dose under different instrument conditions is still needed. This study set out to do a thorough investigation of the exact dose measurements using optically stimulated dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and simulation with a Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code to assess the skin and total-body effective dose typical of portable x-ray fluorescence devices...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624350/the-time-course-of-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-minimal-bone-marrow-sparing-clinical-and-radiographic-evidence-and-the-effect-of-neupogen-administration
#4
Thomas J MacVittie, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, William Jackson
The primary objectives of two companion manuscripts were to assess the natural history of delayed radiation-induced lung injury in a nonhuman primate model of acute high-dose, partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing, to include the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological evidence and the effect of Neupogen administration on the morbidity and mortality. Nonhuman primates were exposed to 10.0 or 11.0 Gy with 6 MV linac-derived photons at approximately 0.80 Gy min. All nonhuman primates received subject-based, medical management...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624349/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-metabolomic-signatures-correlating-gastrointestinal-tissue-to-plasma-in-a-mouse-total-body-irradiation-model
#5
Jace W Jones, Zachary Clifford, Fei Li, Gregory L Tudor, Ann M Farese, Catherine Booth, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
High-throughput, targeted metabolomics was used to identify early time-point small intestine and plasma metabolite markers of gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. The small intestine metabolite markers were cross correlated to plasma metabolites in order to identify minimally invasive circulating markers. The radiation exposure covered lethal and sublethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. The small intestine and plasma metabolite profiles were generated at 1 and 3 d postexposure following total-body irradiation...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624348/radiation-nephropathy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-minimal-bone-marrow-sparing-part-2-histopathology-mediators-and-mechanisms
#6
George A Parker, Eric P Cohen, Na Li, Kyle Takayama, Ann M Farese, Thomas J Macvittie
Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of kidney were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. Histopathological alterations were centered on glomerular changes and fibrosis of glomeruli and the interstitial compartment...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624347/cardiac-remodeling-and-reversible-pulmonary-hypertension-during-pneumonitis-in-rats-after-13-gy-partial-body-irradiation-with-minimal-bone-marrow-sparing-effect-of-lisinopril
#7
Elizabeth R Jacobs, Jayashree Narayanan, Brian L Fish, Feng Gao, Leanne M Harmann, Carmen Bergom, Tracy Gasperetti, Jennifer L Strande, Meetha Medhora
Total-body irradiation causes acute and delayed toxicity to hematopoietic, pulmonary, cardiac, gastrointestinal, renal, and other organ systems. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors mitigate many of the delayed injuries to these systems. The purpose of this study was to define echocardiographic features in rats at two times after irradiation, the first before lethal radiation pneumonitis (50 d) and the second after recovery from pneumonitis but before lethal radiation nephropathy (100 d), and to determine the actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril...
January 8, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624357/proteomic-evaluation-of-the-acute-radiation-syndrome-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-a-murine-total-body-irradiation-model
#8
Weiliang Huang, Jianshi Yu, Jace W Jones, Claire L Carter, Keely Pierzchalski, Gregory Tudor, Catherine Booth, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation exposure to the gastrointestinal system contributes to the acute radiation syndrome in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Molecular mechanisms that lead to the gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome remain incompletely understood. Using a murine model of total-body irradiation, C57BL/6J male mice were irradiated at 8, 10, 12, and 14 Gy and assayed at day 1, 3, and 6 after exposure and compared to nonirradiated (sham) controls. Tryptic digests of gastrointestinal tissues (upper ileum) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a Waters nanoLC coupled to a Thermo Scientific Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624356/effects-of-diet-on-late-radiation-injuries-in-rats
#9
John E Moulder, Brian L Fish, Eric P Cohen, Jessica B Flowers, Meetha Medhora
It has been speculated that the addition of antioxidants to diet could act as either radioprotectors or as mitigators of radiation injury. In preparation for studies of the mitigation efficacy of antioxidants, rats were placed on a modified version of AIN-76A, the diet typically used in such studies. This AIN-76A diet is refined and has no synthetic antioxidants or isoflavones. Compared to the natural-ingredient Teklad 8904 diet used in previous studies, use of the AIN-76A diet from 1-18 wk after irradiation significantly reduced injury in a radiation nephropathy model...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624355/histopathological-features-of-the-development-of-intestine-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-injury-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-minimal-bone-marrow-sparing
#10
George A Parker, Na Li, Kyle Takayama, Cath Booth, Gregory L Tudor, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie
Male rhesus macaques were subjected to partial-body irradiation at 10, 11, or 12 Gy with 5% bone marrow protection. Animals were euthanized when dictated by prospectively determined clinical parameters or at approximately 180 d following irradiation. Histological sections of jejunum, colon, and mesenteric lymph node were stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as a battery of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. The immediate postirradiation histopathological alterations in the jejunum and colon were based primarily on injury to rapidly proliferating crypt epithelial cells, though there was evidence of additional radiation-induced fibrogenic responses...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624354/delayed-effects-of-acute-radiation-exposure-deare-in-juvenile-and-old-rats-mitigation-by-lisinopril
#11
Meetha Medhora, Feng Gao, Tracy Gasperetti, Jayashree Narayanan, Abdul Hye Khan, Elizabeth R Jacobs, Brian L Fish
Our goal is to develop lisinopril as a mitigator of delayed effects of acute radiation exposure in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases program for radiation countermeasures. Published studies demonstrated mitigation of delayed effects of acute radiation exposure by lisinopril in adult rats. However, juvenile or old rats beyond their reproductive lifespans have never been tested. Since no preclinical models of delayed effects of acute radiation exposure were available in these special populations, appropriate rat models were developed to test lisinopril after irradiation...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30624353/the-gastrointestinal-subsyndrome-of-the-acute-radiation-syndrome-in-rhesus-macaques-a-systematic-review-of-the-lethal-dose-response-relationship-with-and-without-medical-management
#12
Thomas J MacVittie, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, William Jackson, Catherine Booth, Gregory L Tudor, Kim G Hankey, Christopher S Potten
Well-characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule. Development of a model for the gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome requires knowledge of the radiation dose-response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the acute and prolonged gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that has been used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality relative to the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome, gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome, and lung injury...
January 7, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30608247/dosimetric-comparison-of-four-different-techniques-for-supraclavicular-irradiation-in-3d-conformal-radiotherapy-of-breast-cancer
#13
Razzagh Abedi Firouzjah, Amin Banaei, Bagher Farhood, Mohsen Bakhshandeh
This study aimed to compare and evaluated the dosimetric characteristics of esophagus, spinal cord, carotid artery, lungs, and brachial plexus in patients with breast cancer undergoing four various techniques of supraclavicular irradiation. By keeping unchanged the breast tangential radiotherapy fields, four different treatment field arrangements were created to irradiate the supraclavicular region as follows: (1) four field (4F; 1 anterior-posterior and 1 posterior-anterior), (2) six field (6F; 2 anterior-posterior and 2 posterior-anterior), (3) five field-1 (5F-1; 2 anterior-posterior and 1 posterior-anterior), and (4) five field-2 (5F-2; 1 anterior-posterior and 2 posterior-anterior)...
January 2, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30608246/ars-deare-and-multiple-organ-injury-a-strategic-and-tactical-approach-to-link-radiation-effects-animal-models-medical-countermeasures-and-biomarker-development-to-predict-clinical-outcome
#14
Thomas J MacVittie, Ann M Farese, Maureen A Kane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30608245/radiation-nephropathy-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-minimal-bone-marrow-sparing-part-1-acute-and-chronic-kidney-injury-and-the-influence-of-neupogen
#15
Eric P Cohen, Kim G Hankey, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, Jace W Jones, Maureen A Kane, Alexander Bennett, Thomas J MacVittie
Acute and chronic kidney injury may occur after accidental prompt radiation exposures. We have modeled their occurrence in a nonhuman primate model. Subjects who are exposed to more than 5-Gy prompt irradiation are apt to show blood cell cytopenias and be treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as Neupogen® or Neulasta® to mitigate the hematologic injury of the acute radiation syndrome. Neupogen or Neulasta are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for this indication.This will significantly increase the number of survivors of acute radiation exposures who will be at risk for delayed effects of radiation exposure, which includes acute and chronic kidney injury...
January 2, 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489383/ustur-case-0846-modeling-americium-biokinetics-after-intensive-decorporation-therapy
#16
Bastian Breustedt, Maia Avtandilashvili, Stacey L McComish, Sergei Y Tolmachev
Decorporation therapy with salts of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid binds actinides, thereby limiting uptake to organs and enhancing the rate at which actinides are excreted in urine. International Commission on Radiological Protection reference biokinetic models cannot be used to fit this enhanced exertion simultaneously with the baseline actinide excretion rate that is observed prior to the start of therapy and/or after the effects of therapy have ceased. In this study, the Coordinated Network on Radiation Dosimetry approach, which was initially developed for modeling decorporation of plutonium, was applied to model decorporation of americium using data from a former radiation worker who agreed to donate his body to the US Transuranium and Uranium Registries for research...
November 27, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585979/health-physics-society-%C3%A2-2019-affiliate-members
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585978/the-health-physics-society-an-affiliate-of-the-international-radiation-protection-association-irpa
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585977/ncrp-vision-for-the-future-and-program-area-committee-activities-in-2018
#19
John D Boice
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements' (NCRP) congressional charter aligns with our vision for the future: to improve radiation protection for the public and workers. This vision is embodied within NCRP's ongoing initiatives: preparedness for nuclear terrorism, increasing the number of radiation professionals critically needed for the nation, providing new guidance for comprehensive radiation protection in the United States, addressing the protection issues surrounding the ever-increasing use of ionizing radiation in medicine (the focus of this year's annual meeting), assessing radiation doses to aircrew related to higher altitude and longer flights, providing guidance on emerging radiation issues such as the radioactive waste from hydraulic fracturing, focusing on difficult issues such as high-level waste management, and providing better estimates of radiation risks at low doses within the framework of the Million Person Study of Low-Dose Radiation Health Effects...
February 2019: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585976/radiation-protection-responsibility-in-medicine-a-wrap-up
#20
Donald P Frush, Lawrence T Dauer
The 54th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements was held at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda, Maryland, on 5-6 March 2018. This annual meeting, entitled "Radiation Protection Responsibility in Medicine," was the first to deal entirely with radiation protection in medical imaging since the 43rd annual meeting in 2007 ("Advances in Radiation Protection in Medicine"). The 2018 meeting addressed updates for various modalities and included discussion on radiation dose metrics and benefit/risk dialogue...
February 2019: Health Physics
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