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Health Physics

Mirta Barbara Torres Berdeguez, Sylvia Thomas, Susie Medeiros, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Felix Mas Milian, Ademir Xavier da Silva
Although there are several radionuclides suitable for radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), not all of them can irradiate deeper synovium. Yttrium-90 (Y) is the beta radionuclide with more penetration range; therefore, it is predominantly used to treat knees. The aim of this paper is to highlight several dosimetry concepts to compare Y and Sm, also discussing the feasibility of implementing a dose planning methodology for both in RSO. The MCNPX Monte Carlo nuclear code version 2.6 was used for calculating S-values from which the activity to be injected into the joint was obtained...
October 5, 2017: Health Physics
Christopher Neil Passmore, Mirela Kirr
One of the main goals for Radiation Safety Professionals is to help maintain radiation worker doses below administrative control levels. In the radiation safety field there is an increasing recognition of the value of dosimetry-related data that can be used to enhance safety programs and regulatory compliance. Mining radiation dosimetry data and rendering results in the form of dashboards provides insights for the Radiation Safety Professionals that could help improve the radiological protection programs effectiveness, enhances quality, and reduces cost...
October 5, 2017: Health Physics
Lienard A Chang, Donald L Miller, Choonsik Lee, Dunstana R Melo, Daphnée Villoing, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Sarah J Winters, Michael Labrake, Charles F Myers, Hyeyeun Lim, Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Steven L Simon
This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy)...
September 29, 2017: Health Physics
Daphnée Villoing, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Steven L Simon, Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Dunstana R Melo
Ionizing radiation exposure to the general U.S. population nearly doubled between 1980 and 2006, due almost entirely to the significant increase in the number of radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures performed. Significant changes in the types of procedures and radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, as well as in detection technology, have led to notable changes over time in absorbed doses to specific organs. This study is the first to estimate per-procedure organ doses to nuclear medicine patients and trends in doses over five decades...
September 29, 2017: Health Physics
Tim G Adams, Louise E Sumner, Rocco Casagrande
Following a radiological terrorist attack or radiation accident, the general public may be exposed to radiation. Historically, modeling efforts have focused on radiation effects on a "reference man"-a 70-kg, 180-cm-tall, 20- to 30-y-old male-which does not adequately reflect radiation hazard to special populations, particularly children. This work examines the radiosensitivity of children with respect to reference man to develop a set of parameters for modeling hematopoetic acute radiation syndrome in children...
September 29, 2017: Health Physics
Sandra F Snyder, Keith F Eckerman
Radionuclide differences between ICRP Publication 38 and its succeeding work, ICPR Publication 107, are reviewed. The specific example of the isomer Nb is discussed, examining how dose reporting for this nuclide can be an issue.
September 15, 2017: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Health Physics
Jean Félix Beyala Ateba, Augustin Simo, Maurice Moyo Ndontchueng, Jean Faustin Sabouang
The use of x-ray generators for diagnostic radiology in the medical sector in Cameroon, Central Africa, is wide spread and on the increase in recent times. Regulatory control of x-ray machines used in medical sector has been achieved in the Littoral Region of Cameroon by means of notification and authorization systems, routine inspections, and enforcement programs. Quality control of x-ray equipment is performed to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily before issuance of the authorization with a validity of two years...
November 2017: Health Physics
Rene Hirtl, Gernot Schmid
According to European Directive 2013/35/EU, exposure limit values for protection against sensory and health effects are met if external electric or magnetic fields are below corresponding low and high action levels for head, trunk and limb exposure, respectively. In order to verify this assumption even for more realistic exposure situations deviating from strictly uniform fields, systematic numerical computations using anatomical body models exposed to worst-case magnetic field gradients in different body regions are conducted...
November 2017: Health Physics
Govert de With
In 2013, the European Commission published its basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom)-also known as EU-BSS. As a result, the use of raw materials with potentially elevated activity concentrations such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, and slags will now fall under EU-BSS scope when applied in building materials. In light of this new policy, a variety of tools are available to assess compliance with the 1-mSv y reference level for building materials...
November 2017: Health Physics
Chenyang Tian, Huiping Guo, Ning Lv, Peng Xu, Wenhui Lv
Effective determination for enrichment of the uranium materials in heavy shielding is technically difficult to solve. Various technical methods so far have been proposed to deal with this problem. With the time-correlated coincidence measurement method, 14 MeV neutrons and fission spectrum neutrons are chosen to interrogate the uranium samples with different masses and enrichments. The fission spectrum neutrons are obtained by slowing down the 14 MeV neutrons. Results have shown that a good linear relationship exists between masses of the uranium materials (≤10% enriched U) that possess the same enrichment...
November 2017: Health Physics
Fotios Gkonis, Achilles Boursianis, Theodoros Samaras
In the present work, the changes in the exposure to electromagnetic fields due to television signals incurred by the digital switchover in Thessaloniki, Greece, are investigated. It is shown that the measured electric fields comply with ICNIRP guidelines but are higher than those in the reported literature for other countries. However, this may be attributed to the selection of measurement points. Moreover, it is shown that the median value of the power density dropped from 60 μW m during analog broadcasting to 13...
November 2017: Health Physics
Wlodzimierz Strzelecki, Robert H James, Ilko K Ilev
A novel test methodology was developed for quantitative evaluation of critical radiant power characteristics as a function of time for diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser pointers. It is based on a simultaneous measurement of time-dependent radiant power characteristics of multi-wavelength spectral components emitted by DPSS laser pointers. The authors tested green DPSS laser pointers, which emit three spectral components at the fundamental near-infrared (1064-nm), pumping near-infrared (808-nm), and second-harmonic green (532-nm) wavelengths...
November 2017: Health Physics
M A Misdaq, B Elouardi, J Ouguidi
In order to assess radiation doses to the eyes of individuals, concentrations of Rn, Rn and their decay products were measured in different dwelling rooms, café rooms and vehicle repair shops by using two different types of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of building materials, pollution and ventilation rate on radon and thoron alpha-activities inside the studied locations has been investigated. A new dosimetric model was developed for evaluating radiation doses to the eyes of individuals due to alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron series in the air of the studied dwelling rooms, café rooms, and vehicle repair shops...
November 2017: Health Physics
Chunyu Liu, Xiao Liang
Based on the hybrid Chinese reference adult female phantom, the Chinese reference female boundary representation (BREP) phantoms involving sitting, walking, and squatting postures were established. The photon effective dose conversion coefficient (ECCK) and some organ absorbed dose conversion coefficients (DCCK) were calculated under six standard irradiation geometries, and the irradiation source included 20 monoenergetic photon energies ranging from 0.01 MeV to 10 MeV. The results indicate that the postures, location of the organs, and irradiation geometries have an impact on the dose conversion coefficients...
November 2017: Health Physics
David A Schauer
Neutron metrology in the United States must be based on traceability to standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This article reviews the history of NIST's neutron-metrology efforts, the loss of those capabilities, and attempts to restore them. Recommendations are made to ensure that neutron dosimetry performed in the United States meets the requirements set forth by the International Standards Organization and other international and national authorities.
November 2017: Health Physics
Stefan Bauer, Marco Janßen, Martin Schmitz, Günter Ott
Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements...
November 2017: Health Physics
Wei Lu, Zhen Wu, Rui Qiu, Chunyan Li, Bo Yang, Shenshen Gao, Li Ren, Junli Li
A severe radiological accident involving an industrial radiography source containing Ir occurred in China. A worker was seriously exposed, which resulted in acute radiation syndrome. Initial whole-body dose was estimated at 1.51 Gy (95% Confidence Interval: 1.40-1.61 Gy) using biological dosimetry. This work performed a physical dosimetric reconstruction to provide more detailed exposure information for clinical treatment, using sitting and standing posture phantoms constructed by adjusting the Chinese reference adult male polygon surface phantoms to the worker body...
November 2017: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Health Physics
John Klumpp, Tom Waters, Luiz Bertelli
Complying with regulations for bioassay monitoring of radionuclide intakes is significantly more complex for mixtures than it is for pure radionuclides. Different constituents will naturally have different dose coefficients, be detectable at significantly different levels, and may require very different amounts of effort to bioassay. The ability to use certain constituents as surrogates for others will depend on how well characterized the mixture is, as well as whether the employee is also working with other radionuclides...
October 2017: Health Physics
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