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Journal of Medical Genetics

Royston Ong, Denise Howting, Alethea Rea, Hayley Christian, Pauline Charman, Caron Molster, Gianina Ravenscroft, Nigel George Laing
BACKGROUND: Preconception carrier screening (PCS) provides the potential to empower couples to make reproductive choices before having an affected child. An important question is what factors influence the decision to use or not use PCS. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in PCS using logistic regression in 832 participants in Western Australia. RESULTS: Two-thirds of participants said they would take the test, with 92% of these supporting screening for diseases reducing the lifespan of children and infants...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kathryn Isabel Adamson, Eamonn Sheridan, Andrew James Grierson
Rare diseases are collectively common and often extremely debilitating. Following the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the variants underpinning rare genetic disorders are being unearthed at an accelerating rate. However, many rare conditions lack effective treatments due to their poorly understood pathophysiology. There is therefore a growing demand for the development of novel experimental models of rare genetic diseases, so that potentially causative variants can be validated, pathogenic mechanisms can be investigated and therapeutic targets can be identified...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Bo Zhou, Steve S Ho, Xianglong Zhang, Reenal Pattni, Rajini R Haraksingh, Alexander E Urban
BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV) analysis is an integral component of the study of human genomes in both research and clinical settings. Array-based CNV analysis is the current first-tier approach in clinical cytogenetics. Decreasing costs in high-throughput sequencing and cloud computing have opened doors for the development of sequencing-based CNV analysis pipelines with fast turnaround times. We carry out a systematic and quantitative comparative analysis for several low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) strategies to detect CNV in the human genome...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Charlotte A Heinen, Emmely M de Vries, Mariëlle Alders, Hennie Bikker, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Erica L T van den Akker, Boudewijn Bakker, Gera Hoorweg-Nijman, Ferdinand Roelfsema, Raoul C Hennekam, Anita Boelen, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Eric Fliers
BACKGROUND: Four genetic causes of isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) have been identified, but many cases remain unexplained. We hypothesised the existence of other genetic causes of CeH with a Mendelian inheritance pattern. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in two families with unexplained isolated CeH and subsequently Sanger sequenced unrelated idiopathic CeH cases. We performed clinical and biochemical characterisation of the probands and carriers identified by family screening...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Lamia Mestek-Boukhibar, Emma Clement, Wendy D Jones, Suzanne Drury, Louise Ocaka, Andrey Gagunashvili, Polona Le Quesne Stabej, Chiara Bacchelli, Nital Jani, Shamima Rahman, Lucy Jenkins, Jane A Hurst, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Mark Peters, Philip L Beales, Hywel J Williams
BACKGROUND: Rare genetic conditions are frequent risk factors for, or direct causes of, paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. Such conditions are frequently suspected but unidentified at PICU admission. Compassionate and effective care is greatly assisted by definitive diagnostic information. There is therefore a need to provide a rapid genetic diagnosis to inform clinical management.To date, whole genome sequencing (WGS) approaches have proved successful in diagnosing a proportion of children with rare diseases, but results may take months to report...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Yongjia Yang, Jihong Guo, Lei Dai, Yimin Zhu, Hao Hu, Lihong Tan, Weijian Chen, Desheng Liang, Jingliang He, Ming Tu, Kewei Wang, Lingqian Wu
BACKGROUND: Meiotic homologous recombination (HR) plays an essential role in gametogenesis. In most eukaryotes, meiotic HR is mediated by two recombinase systems: ubiquitous RAD51 and meiosis-specific DMC1. In the RAD51-mediated HR system, RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogues are essential for normal RAD51 function, but the role of RAD51 in human meiosis is unclear. The knockout of Rad51 or any Rad51 paralogue in mice exhibits embryonic lethality. We investigated a family with meiotic arrest, azoospermia and infertility but without other abnormalities...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Jeanna M McCuaig, Tracy L Stockley, Patricia Shaw, Michael Fung-Kee-Fung, Alon D Altman, James Bentley, Marcus Q Bernardini, Beatrice Cormier, Hal Hirte, Katharina Kieser, Andree MacMillan, Wendy S Meschino, Karen Panabaker, Renee Perrier, Diane Provencher, Kasmintan A Schrader, Kimberly Serfas, Eva Tomiak, Nora Wong, Sean S Young, Walter Henri Gotlieb, Paul Hoskins, Raymond H Kim
The landscape of genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients has changed dramatically in recent years. The therapeutic benefits of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in treatment of BRCA1/2 -related ovarian cancers has resulted in an increased demand and urgency for genetic testing results, while technological developments have led to widespread use of multi-gene cancer panels and development of tumour testing protocols. Traditional genetic counselling models are no longer sustainable and must evolve to match the rapid evolution of genetic testing technologies and developments in personalized medicine...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Chen Cheng, Na Tang, Jiaxin Li, Shiwei Cao, Tongtong Zhang, Xiaofei Wei, Haoyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells engineered with lentiviral and retroviral vectors have been successfully applied to treat patients with B cell malignancy. However, viral integration in T cells has the potential risk of mutagenesis, and viral vector production demands effort and is costly. Using non-integrative episomal vector such as minicircle vector to generate integration-free CAR-T cells is an attractive option. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established a novel method to generate minicircle vector within a few hours using simple molecular biology techniques...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Kit San Yeung, Matthew Sai Pong Ho, So Lun Lee, Anita Sik Yau Kan, Kelvin Yuen Kwong Chan, Mary Hoi Yin Tang, Christopher Chun Yu Mak, Gordon Ka Chun Leung, Po Lam So, Rolph Pfundt, Christian R Marshall, Stephen W Scherer, Sanaa Choufani, Rosanna Weksberg, Brian Hon-Yin Chung
BACKGROUND: We report here clinical, cytogenetic and molecular data for a pair of monochorionic diamniotic twins with paternal isodisomy for chromosome 19. Both twins presented with dysmorphic features and global developmental delay. This represents, to our knowledge, the first individual human case of paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 19 (UPD19). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing, together with conventional karyotype and SNP array analysis were performed along with genome-wide DNA methylation array for delineation of the underlying molecular defects...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Xiaochen Wang, Haiyuan Shen, Qifeng He, Wenfang Tian, Anliang Xia, Xiao-Jie Lu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that diverse cells in cancer microenvironment can interact with CD8+ T cells via exosomes. We designed this study to explore the potential interaction between exhausted CD8+ T cells and normal CD8+ T cells via exosome. METHODS: Fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to get PD1+TIM3+/PD1-TIM3-CD8+ T cells. Exosomes from the cell culture medium were collected by ultracentrifugation. Microarrays were performed to analyse the lncRNA expression profile in exosomes...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Xun Chu, Minjun Yang, Zhen-Ju Song, Yan Dong, Chong Li, Min Shen, Yong-Qiang Zhu, Huai-Dong Song, Sai-Juan Chen, Zhu Chen, Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: The classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes were the most important genetic determinant for Graves' disease (GD). The aim of the study was to fine map causal variants of the HLA genes. METHODS: We applied imputation with a Pan-Asian HLA reference panel to thoroughly investigate themajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) associations with GD down to the amino acid level of classical HLA genes in 1468 patients with GD and 1490 controls of Han Chinese...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Lotte Kleinendorst, Maarten P G Massink, Mellody I Cooiman, Mesut Savas, Olga H van der Baan-Slootweg, Roosje J Roelants, Ignace C M Janssen, Hanne J Meijers-Heijboer, Nine V A M Knoers, Hans Kristian Ploos van Amstel, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Erica L T van den Akker, Gijs van Haaften, Bert van der Zwaag, Mieke M van Haelst
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global and severe health problem. Due to genetic heterogeneity, the identification of genetic defects in patients with obesity can be time consuming and costly. Therefore, we developed a custom diagnostic targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis to simultaneously identify mutations in 52 obesity-related genes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of this approach in patients with suspected genetic obesity. METHODS: DNA of 1230 patients with obesity (median BMI adults 43...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Yitian Zhou, Volker M Lauschke
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions are a major concern in drug development and clinical therapy. Genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolism and transport are major determinants of treatment efficacy and adverse reactions, and constitute important biomarkers for drug dosing, efficacy and safety. Importantly, human populations and subgroups differ substantially in their pharmacogenetic variability profiles, with important consequences for personalised medicine strategies and precision public health approaches...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
An-Liang Xia, Qi-Feng He, Jin-Cheng Wang, Jing Zhu, Ye-Qin Sha, Beicheng Sun, Xiao-Jie Lu
Immunotherapy has emerged as one of the most promising therapeutic strategies in cancer. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system, as an RNA-guided genome editing technology, is triggering a revolutionary change in cancer immunotherapy. With its versatility and ease of use, CRISPR-Cas9 can be implemented to fuel the production of therapeutic immune cells, such as construction of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and programmed cell death protein 1 knockout...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Dongming Chen, Wei Chen, Yong Xu, Meng Zhu, Yi Xiao, Yanhao Shen, Shuai Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xianlin Xu
BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a malignant urogenital cancer with high mortality; however, current progress in understanding its molecular mechanism and predicting clinical treatment outcome is limited. Therefore, this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of immune inhibitory molecular human endogenous retrovirus-H long terminal repeat-associating protein 2 (HHLA2) in ccRCC prognosis and transcriptional regulatory network. METHODS: Expression of HHLA2 in ccRCC was examined by an online database platform ONCOMINE...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Elyssa Cannaerts, Marlies Kempers, Alessandra Maugeri, Carlo Marcelis, Thatjana Gardeitchik, Julie Richer, Dimitra Micha, Luc Beauchesne, Janneke Timmermans, Paul Vermeersch, Nathalie Meyten, Sébastien Chénier, Gerarda van de Beek, Nils Peeters, Maaike Alaerts, Dorien Schepers, Lut Van Laer, Aline Verstraeten, Bart Loeys
BACKGROUND: Missense variants in SMAD2 , encoding a key transcriptional regulator of transforming growth factor beta signalling, were recently reported to cause arterial aneurysmal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify the genetic disease cause in families with aortic/arterial aneurysmal disease and to further define SMAD2 genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using gene panel sequencing, we identified a SMAD2 nonsense variant and four SMAD2 missense variants, all affecting highly conserved amino acids in the MH2 domain...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Alina Kurolap, Orly Eshach-Adiv, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Katya Dolnikov, Adi Mory, Tamar Paperna, Tova Hershkovitz, John D Overton, Marielle Kaplan, Fabian Glaser, Yaniv Zohar, Alan R Shuldiner, Gidon Berger, Hagit N Baris
BACKGROUND: Intestinal integrity is essential for proper nutrient absorption and tissue homeostasis, with damage leading to enteric protein loss, that is, protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Recently, homozygous nonsense variants in the plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein gene ( PLVAP ) were reported in two patients with severe congenital PLE. PLVAP is the building block of endothelial cell (EC) fenestral diaphragms; its importance in barrier function is supported by mouse models of Plvap deficiency...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Laura Addis, William Sproviero, Sanjeev V Thomas, Roberto H Caraballo, Stephen J Newhouse, Kumudini Gomez, Elaine Hughes, Maria Kinali, David McCormick, Siobhan Hannan, Silvia Cossu, Jacqueline Taylor, Cigdem I Akman, Steven M Wolf, David E Mandelbaum, Rajesh Gupta, Rick A van der Spek, Dario Pruna, Deb K Pal
BACKGROUND: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common genetic childhood epilepsy, consisting of focal, nocturnal seizures and frequent neurodevelopmental impairments in speech, language, literacy and attention. A complex genetic aetiology is presumed in most, with monogenic mutations in GRIN2A accounting for >5% of cases. OBJECTIVE: To identify rare, causal CNV in patients with RE. METHODS: We used high-density SNP arrays to analyse the presence of rare CNVs in 186 patients with RE from the UK, the USA, Sardinia, Argentina and Kerala, India...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Sarah Jane Beecroft, Marcus Lombard, David Mowat, Catriona McLean, Anita Cairns, Mark Davis, Nigel G Laing, Gianina Ravenscroft
Fetal hypokinesia or akinesia encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, united by impaired movement in utero. Often, the underlying aetiology is genetic in origin, affecting part of the neuromuscular system. The affordable and high-throughput nature of next-generation DNA sequencing has led to an explosion in disease gene discovery across rare diseases, including fetal akinesias. A genetic diagnosis has clinical utility as it may affect management and prognosis and informs recurrence risk, facilitating family planning decisions...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Xin Yang, Goska Leslie, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Andy Ryan, Maria Intermaggio, Andrew Lee, Jatinderpal K Kalsi, Jonathan Tyrer, Faiza Gaba, Ranjit Manchanda, Paul D P Pharoah, Simon A Gayther, Susan J Ramus, Ian Jacobs, Usha Menon, Antonis C Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified >30 common SNPs associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We evaluated the combined effects of EOC susceptibility SNPs on predicting EOC risk in an independent prospective cohort study. METHODS: We genotyped ovarian cancer susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a nested case-control study (750 cases and 1428 controls) from the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening trial...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
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