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Journal of Mammalogy

Derek E Lee, Monica L Bond
In Tanzania, community-based natural resource management of wildlife occurs through the creation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs). WMAs consist of multiple villages designating land for wildlife conservation, and sharing a portion of subsequent tourism revenues. Nineteen WMAs are currently operating, encompassing 7% of Tanzania's land area, with 19 more WMAs planned. The ecological success or failure of WMAs for wildlife conservation has yet to be quantified. We defined ecological success in this case as significantly greater densities of wildlife and significantly lower densities of livestock in the WMA relative to the control site, after the WMA was established...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Manuel Ruedi, Judith L Eger, Burton K Lim, Gábor Csorba
Bats belonging to the subfamily Vespertilioninae are diverse and cosmopolitan, but their systematic arrangement remains a challenge. Previous molecular surveys suggested new and unexpected relationships of some members compared to more traditional, morphology-based classifications, and revealed the existence of taxonomically undefined lineages. We describe here a new genus and species corresponding to an enigmatic lineage that was previously identified within the genus Eptesicus in the Indomalayan Region. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes relate the new taxon to Tylonycteris and Philetor , and show that specimens associated with this new genus represent 2 genetically distinct species...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Nyeema C Harris, Reuben A Garshong, Morgan Gray
Species reside in dynamic environments, simultaneously experiencing variations in climatic conditions, habitat availability and quality, interspecific interactions, and anthropogenic pressures. We investigated variation in foraging ecology of the small mammal community between land-use classifications (i.e., protected national parks and unprotected lands abutting them) in Mole National Park (MNP) and Digya National Park (DNP), representing distinct ecoregions of Ghana. In 5,064 trap nights, we sampled 153 individuals of 23 species within the 2 national parks and adjacent lands outside protected boundaries to describe variation in community composition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Adrian Treves, Kyle A Artelle, Chris T Darimont, David R Parsons
Measuring rates and causes of mortalities is important in animal ecology and management. Observing the fates of known individuals is a common method of estimating life history variables, including mortality patterns. It has long been assumed that data lost when known animals disappear were unbiased. We test and reject this assumption under conditions common to most, if not all, studies using marked animals. We illustrate the bias for 4 endangered wolf populations in the United States by reanalyzing data and assumptions about the known and unknown fates of marked wolves to calculate the degree to which risks of different causes of death were mismeasured...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Calvin A Porter, Nia E Beasley, Nicté Ordóñez-Garza, Laramie L Lindsey, Duke S Rogers, Nicole Lewis-Rogers, Jack W Sites, Robert D Bradley
An allopatric population of big-eared climbing rats ( Ototylomys ) from the Northern Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, is described as a new species. The new taxon is part of a unique montane rainforest community that includes several other endemic species in the limited geographic range between the Río Grijalva and the Central Depression of Chiapas. Several cranial, external, and molecular characters distinguish this new species of big-eared climbing rat from its more widely distributed congener, Ototylomys phyllotis ...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Calvin L Duncan, Julie L King, Paul Stapp
In late 2009, the Catalina Island Conservancy began using fertility control to replace periodic removals to manage an introduced population of American bison ( Bison bison ) on the island. Through the application of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP), population growth was slowed within 1 year, and halted over time. In response to lingering questions about the use of PZP to manage large, free-ranging wildlife populations, we sought to determine the reversibility of PZP by ceasing the annual application to a subset of 15 bison cows and monitoring for subsequent calf arrival, and to document changes in the timing and length of the breeding season in response to PZP by monitoring breeding behavior and assessing fecal progesterone (FP) levels for all 60 resident cows over a 13-month period...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Sybill K Amelon, Sarah E Hooper, Kathryn M Womack
The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Shaoying Liu, Wei Jin, Yang Liu, Robert W Murphy, Bin Lv, Haibang Hao, Rui Liao, Zhiyu Sun, Mingkun Tang, Weicai Chen, Jianrong Fu
China has 26 species in the tribe Arvicolini. The taxonomic status of these voles remains controversial despite much effort. Herein, we evaluate the taxonomic position of 22 species plus 2 unidentified taxa using mitochondrial DNA gene sequences ( cytb + CO1 ). We also evaluate 18 species and 2 unidentified taxa using morphological data. Phylogenetic analyses of cytb resolve monophyly for the genera Alexandromys , Lasiopodomys , Microtus , Neodon , Proedromys , and Volemys with strong support. Stenocranius clusters with Chionomys but with very weak support...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Adrian Treves, Julia A Langenberg, José V López-Bao, Mark F Rabenhorst
Starting in the 1970s, many populations of large-bodied mammalian carnivores began to recover from centuries of human-caused eradication and habitat destruction. The recovery of several such populations has since slowed or reversed due to mortality caused by humans. Illegal killing (poaching) is a primary cause of death in many carnivore populations. Law enforcement agencies face difficulties in preventing poaching and scientists face challenges in measuring it. Both challenges are exacerbated when evidence is concealed or ignored...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Leslie A Cornick, Lori T Quakenbush, Stephanie A Norman, Coral Pasi, Pamela Maslyk, Kathy A Burek, Caroline E C Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs
Diving mammals use blubber for a variety of structural and physiological functions, including buoyancy, streamlining, thermoregulation, and energy storage. Estimating blubber stores provides proxies for body condition, nutritional status, and health. Blubber stores may vary topographically within individuals, across seasons, and with age, sex, and reproductive status; therefore, a single full-depth blubber biopsy does not provide an accurate measure of blubber depth, and additional biopsies are limited because they result in open wounds...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Michael R Buchalski, Benjamin N Sacks, Daphne A Gille, Maria Cecilia T Penedo, Holly B Ernest, Scott A Morrison, Walter M Boyce
Fossil data are ambiguous regarding the evolutionary origin of contemporary desert bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis subspecies). To address this uncertainty, we conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses on bighorn sheep subspecies found in southwestern North America. We analyzed 515 base pairs of mtDNA control region sequence and 39 microsatellites in 804 individuals from 58 locations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 highly divergent clades concordant with Sierra Nevada ( O. c. sierrae ) and Rocky Mountain ( O...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Frazer Coomber, Aurelie Moulins, Paola Tepsich, Massimiliano Rosso
Sex identification of adult cetaceans is an important ecological parameter that should be incorporated into studies such as population dynamics and animal behavior. In Cuvier's beaked whale ( Ziphius cavirostris ), sex determination may be achieved through genetics, observation of genitals, the presence/absence of erupted teeth, and calf association. However, these features are difficult to ascertain due to the shy behavior of this species. Therefore, this study aimed to create a robust sex identification method using only external characteristics...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Hayato Iijima, Mayumi Ueno
Carrying capacity is 1 driver of wildlife population dynamics. Although in previous studies carrying capacity was considered to be a fixed entity, it may differ among locations due to environmental variation. The factors underlying variability in carrying capacity, however, have rarely been examined. Here, we investigated spatial heterogeneity in the carrying capacity of Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) from 2005 to 2014 in Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan (mesh with grid cells of 5.5×4.6 km) by state-space modeling...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Robert S Sikes
Guidelines for use of wild mammal species in research are updated from Sikes et al. (2011) . These guidelines cover current professional techniques and regulations involving the use of mammals in research and teaching; they also incorporate new resources, procedural summaries, and reporting requirements. Included are details on capturing, marking, housing, and humanely killing wild mammals. It is recommended that Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), regulatory agencies, and investigators use these guidelines as a resource for protocols involving wild mammals, whether studied in the field or in captivity...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw078.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw078.].
June 9, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Bryan S McLean, Kayce C Bell, Jonathan L Dunnum, Bethany Abrahamson, Jocelyn P Colella, Eleanor R Deardorff, Jessica A Weber, Amanda K Jones, Fernando Salazar-Miralles, Joseph A Cook
Specimens and associated data in natural history collections (NHCs) foster substantial scientific progress. In this paper, we explore recent contributions of NHCs to the study of systematics and biogeography, genomics, morphology, stable isotope ecology, and parasites and pathogens of mammals. To begin to assess the magnitude and scope of these contributions, we analyzed publications in the Journal of Mammalogy over the last decade, as well as recent research supported by a single university mammal collection (Museum of Southwestern Biology, Division of Mammals)...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
John O Kellam, Deborah K Jansen, Annette T Johnson, Ralph W Arwood, Melissa J Merrick, John L Koprowski
Forested wetlands are in decline, as are many species that are obligate residents. Big Cypress fox squirrels (BCFS; Sciurus niger avicennia) are a threatened endemic to wet pine and cypress forests in southwestern Florida. The region is characterized by development resulting in habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hydrological change that influence the quality of these wet forests. Through radiotelemetry and field observations, we examined the ecology and habitat use of BCFS in a natural cypress dome-pine forest mosaic...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Mammalogy
Brian Keane, Shavonne Ross, Thomas O Crist, Nancy G Solomon
Characterizing the spatial arrangement of related individuals within populations can convey information about opportunities for the evolution of kin-selected social behaviors, the potential for inbreeding, and the geographic distribution of genetic variation. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that sometimes breed cooperatively. Individuals of both sexes are highly philopatric, and among natal dispersers, the average dispersal distance is about 30 m. Such limited natal dispersal can result in the spatial clustering of kin and we used microsatellite data to estimate genetic relatedness among resident adult prairie voles in 2 natural populations to test the hypothesis that limited natal dispersal of male and female prairie voles results in the spatial clustering of kin...
November 24, 2015: Journal of Mammalogy
Naysa E Balcazar, Joy S Tripovich, Holger Klinck, Sharon L Nieukirk, David K Mellinger, Robert P Dziak, Tracey L Rogers
For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale ( Balaenoptera musculus ) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified "acoustic populations" of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012...
November 24, 2015: Journal of Mammalogy
Catherine Teresa Sahley, Klauss Cervantes, Victor Pacheco, Edith Salas, Diego Paredes, Alfonso Alonso
Knowledge of feeding habits of small rodents is necessary for understanding food webs, trophic structure, and plant-animal interactions in Neotropical forests. Despite several studies that have investigated community structure and feeding behavior of rodents, large gaps remain in our understanding of their guild occupancy. Our objective was to investigate the diets of 7 species of small (< 100g) sympatric sigmodontine rodents in a high (3,500 m) Andean montane rainforest in Peru. We qualitatively and quantitatively assessed diet items in fecal samples from livetrapped rodents from 2009 to 2012...
September 29, 2015: Journal of Mammalogy
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