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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823531/odor-taste-learning-in-drosophila-larvae
#1
REVIEW
Annekathrin Widmann, Katharina Eichler, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum, Dennis Pauls
The Drosophila larva is an attractive model system to study fundamental questions in the field of neuroscience. Like the adult fly, the larva offers a seemingly unlimited genetic toolbox, which allows one to visualize, silence or activate neurons down to the single cell level. This, combined with its simplicity in terms of cell numbers, offers a useful system to study the neuronal correlates of complex processes including associative odor-taste learning and memory formation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about odor-taste learning and memory at the behavioral level and integrate the recent progress on the larval connectome to shed light on the sub-circuits that allow Drosophila larvae to integrate present sensory input in the context of past experience and to elicit an appropriate behavioral response...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823530/within-gut-physicochemical-variation-does-not-correspond-to-distinct-resident-fungal-and-bacterial-communities-in-the-tree-killing-xylophage-anoplophora-glabripennis
#2
Charles J Mason, David C Long, Elizabeth M McCarthy, Nivedita Nagachar, Cristina Rosa, Erin D Scully, Ming Tien, Kelli Hoover
Insect guts harbor diverse microbial assemblages that can be influenced by multiple factors, including gut physiology and interactions by the host with its environment. The Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis; Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is an invasive tree-killing insect that harbors a diverse consortium of fungal and bacterial gut associates that provision nutrients and facilitate lignocellulose digestion. The physicochemical conditions of the A. glabripennis gut and how these conditions may influence the microbial composition across gut regions are unknown...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800885/methyl-farnesoate-epoxidase-mfe-gene-expression-and-juvenile-hormone-titers-in-the-life-cycle-of-a-highly-eusocial-stingless-bee-melipona-scutellaris
#3
Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso-Júnior, Renato Pereira Silva, Naiara Araújo Borges, Washington João de Carvalho, S Leal Walter, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti, Klaus Hartfelder
In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797656/plant-associated-odor-perception-and-processing-in-two-parasitoid-species-with-different-degrees-of-host-specificity-implications-for-host-location-strategies
#4
Prithwiraj Das, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778653/identification-of-an-intraspecific-alarm-pheromone-and-two-conserved-odorant-binding-proteins-associated-with-e-%C3%AE-farnesene-perception-in-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi
#5
Jia Fan, Wenxin Xue, Hongxia Duan, Xin Jiang, Yong Zhang, Wenjuan Yu, Shanshan Jiang, Jingrun Sun, Julian Chen
(E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the common active component of aphid alarm pheromone. Either or both of two orthologs of ordorant-binding proteins (OBPs), OBP3 and OBP7, recently reported in aphids, may be involved in EBF perception. The aim of this study was to investigate the respondence of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to its intraspecific alarm pheromone and which OBP is responsible for that response. We tested the olfactory response of the aphid R. padi to EBF and freshly crushed aphids. Then, we extracted the volatiles from crushed aphids using solid phase microextraction (SPME) for analysis with GC×GC-TOF/MS...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764953/effect-of-erythritol-formulation-on-the-mortality-fecundity-and-physiological-excretion-in-drosophila-suzukii
#6
Siew Bee Tang, Jana C Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Man-Yeon Choi
Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750999/pigmentary-analysis-of-eggs-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
Haiyan Zhang, Ying Lin, Guanwang Shen, Xue Tan, Chao Lei, Wei Long, Hongling Liu, Yandi Zhang, Yinying Xu, Jinxin Wu, Jianjian Gu, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
Ommochromes are major pigments involved in coloration of eggs, eyes, wings, and epidermis of insects. Bombyx mori (silkworm) eggs contain a mixture of ommochrome pigments and their precursors. Here, we analyzed the pigment composition of every egg color strain using egg color mutants (w-2, pe, and re) and wild-type strains (dazao and C108) by using full wavelength scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography. We identified ommochrome pigments and their precursors in pigment extracts from non-diapause eggs and diapause eggs, and found that the quantities of ommochrome precursor 3-hydroxy-kynurenine were much higher in the diapause eggs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750998/the-alternative-splicing-of-bdtai-and-its-involvement-in-the-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#8
Hong Liu, Hui-Min Li, Yong Yue, Zhong-Hao Song, Jin-Jun Wang, Wei Dou
Interest in insect metamorphosis has primarily focused on juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. Compared to ecdysone signaling, the molecular action of JH is less well established because Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the JH receptor has been identified until recently. In vitro studies have indicated that Met forms an active JH-dependent complex with one partner protein, Taiman (Tai). However, the related studies on Tai's role in insect metamorphosis are very limited. In this study, five Tai isoforms differing in C-terminal region are identified from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important worldwide pest infesting fruits and vegetables...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735010/maternal-age-affects-offspring-nutrient-dynamics
#9
Doriane Muller, David Giron, Emmanuel Desouhant, Benjamin Rey, Jérôme Casas, Nicolas Lefrique, Bertanne Visser
The internal physiological state of a mother can have major effects on her fitness and that of her offspring. We show that maternal effects in the parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti become apparent when old mothers provision their eggs with less protein, sugar and lipid. Feeding from a host after hatching allows the offspring of old mothers to overcome initial shortages in sugars and lipids, but adult offspring of old mothers still emerged with lower protein and glycogen quantities. Reduced egg provisioning by old mothers had adverse consequences for the nutrient composition of adult female offspring, despite larval feeding from a high-quality host...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735009/serotonergic-network-in-the-subesophageal-zone-modulates-the-motor-pattern-for-food-intake-in-drosophila
#10
Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Michael J Pankratz
The functional organization of central motor circuits underlying feeding behaviors is not well understood. We have combined electrophysiological and genetic approaches to investigate the regulatory networks upstream of the motor program underlying food intake in the Drosophila larval central nervous system. We discovered that the serotonergic network of the CNS is able to set the motor rhythm frequency of pharyngeal pumping. Pharmacological experiments verified that modulation of the feeding motor pattern is based on the release of serotonin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#11
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733240/metabolomics-reveal-physiological-changes-in-mayfly-larvae-neocloeon-triangulifer-at-ecological-upper-thermal-limits
#12
Hsuan Chou, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jocelin Deese-Spruill, Susan Sumner, David B Buchwalter
Aquatic insects play critical roles in freshwater ecosystems and temperature is a fundamental driver of species performance and distributions. However, the physiological mechanisms that determine the thermal performance of species remain unclear. Here we used a metabolomics approach to gain insights into physiological changes associated with a short-term, sublethal thermal challenge in the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Larvae were subjected to a thermal ramp (from 22 to 30°C at a rate of 1°C/h) and metabolomics analysis (both Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography coupled Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)) indicated that processes related to energetics (sugar metabolism) and membrane stabilization primarily differentiated heat treated larvae from controls...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#13
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733238/circadian-regulation-of-caterpillar-feeding-and-growth
#14
Agnieszka Suszczynska, Magdalena Maria Kaniewska, Piotr Bebas, Jadwiga Maria Giebultowicz, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska
Circadian clocks orchestrate many physiological processes in adult organisms. For example, rhythmic feeding behavior is regulated by the central clock in the nervous system in coordination with metabolic rhythms, which in turn depend mostly on peripheral clocks localized in many tissues. Disruption of the circadian clock leads to metabolic dysregulation both in mammals and in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Circadian coordination of feeding and metabolism has been studied mainly in adult insects and not in larval stages, which are dramatically different from adults in species with complete full metamorphosis...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733237/a-critical-test-of-drosophila-anaesthetics-isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-are-benign-alternatives-to-cold-and-co2
#15
Heath A MacMillan, Mikkel Nørgård, Heidi J MacLean, Johannes Overgaard, Catherine J A Williams
Anaesthesia is often a necessary step when studying insects like the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies of Drosophila and other insects that require anaesthesia use either cold exposure or carbon dioxide exposure to induce a narcotic state. These anaesthetic methods are known to disrupt physiology and behavior with increasing exposure, and thus ample recovery time is required prior to experimentation. Here, we examine whether two halogenated ethers commonly used in vertebrate anaesthesia, isoflurane and sevoflurane, may serve as alternative means of insect anaesthesia...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733236/novel-tryptophan-metabolic-pathways-in-auxin-biosynthesis-in-silkworm
#16
Chiaki Yokoyama, Mami Takei, Yoshiaki Kouzuma, Shinji Nagata, Yoshihito Suzuki
In the course of our study of the biosynthetic pathway of auxin, a class of phytohormones, in insects, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway tryptophan (Trp)→indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)→indole-3-acetadehyde (IAAld)→indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we identified two branches in the metabolic pathways in the silkworm, possibly affecting the efficiency of IAA production: Trp→indole-3-pyruvic acid→indole-3-lactic acid and IAAld→indole-3-ethanol. We also determined the apparent conversion activities (2...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716396/the-role-of-pilin-protein-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-against-immune-defense-reactions-of-insects
#17
Reyhaneh Darsouei, Javad Karimi, Gary B Dunphy
Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A2, and phenoloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694149/host-regulation-by-the-ectophagous-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-nigricans
#18
Andrea Becchimanzi, Maddalena Avolio, Ilaria Di Lelio, Adriana Marinelli, Paola Varricchio, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Francesco Pennacchio, Silvia Caccia
The host regulation process has been widely investigated in endophagous parasitoid wasps, which in most cases finely interact with living hosts (i.e. koinobiont parasitoids). In contrast, only very limited information is available for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and rapidly suppress their victims (i.e. idiobiont parasitoids). Here we try to fill this research gap by investigating the host regulation by Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous idiobiont wasp species. Parasitism, mainly by venom action, is able to redirect host metabolism in order to enhance its nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae and to provide the required metabolic support to host tissues...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688893/the-effects-of-temperature-activity-and-convection-on-the-plastron-po2-of-the-aquatic-bug-aphelocheirus-aestivalis-hemiptera-aphelocheiridae
#19
Karl K Jones, Stefan K Hetz, Roger S Seymour
The aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius 1794) utilises a plastron, a thin bubble layer on the surface of its body to extract O2 from the water. Millions of tiny hairs keep the bubble from collapsing, enabling the bug to remain submerged indefinitely. The development of fibre optic O2-probes has allowed measurements of O2 pressure (PO2) surrounding the plastron, and within the plastron although only for short periods. Here we developed methods to continuously measure plastron PO2, and investigate how it is affected by temperature (15, 20, 25°C), activity, and water circulation...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676323/visual-cues-of-oviposition-sites-and-spectral-sensitivity-of-cydia-strobilella-l
#20
Johan Jakobsson, Miriam J Henze, Glenn P Svensson, Olle Lind, Olle Anderbrant
We investigated whether the spruce seed moth (Cydia strobilella L., Tortricidae: Grapholitini), an important pest in seed orchards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), can make use of the spectral properties of its host when searching for flowers to oviposit on. Spectral measurements showed that the flowers, and the cones they develop into, differ from a background of P. abies needles by a higher reflectance of long wavelengths. These differences increase as the flowers develop into mature cones. Electroretinograms (ERGs) in combination with spectral adaptation suggest that C...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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