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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414970/abdominal-pumping-involvement-in-the-liquid-feeding-of-honeybee
#1
Jieliang Zhao, Fanyue Meng, Shaoze Yan, Jianing Wu, Youjian Liang, Yuling Zhang
Honeybee drinking is facilitated by a "mop-like" tongue, which helps honeybees suck in the sucrose solution from the environment. However, the liquid-transport mechanism from the pharynx to the crop, especially the natural link between abdominal pumping and dipping behavior on the sucrose solution intake, remains obscure. A significant increase in abdominal pumping frequency is observed when honeybees drink the sucrose solution. Abdominal pumping exhibits a function other than respiration. This second function assists in driving the sucrose solution from the pharynx to the crop...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399366/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-strategies-of-ghost-moth-thitarodes-armoricanus-in-response-to-hypoxia-and-anoxia
#2
Zhongchen Rao, Li Cao, Xuehong Qiu, Richou Han
Hypoxia or anoxia greatly impact the survival of many animal species. The ghost moth Thitarodes armoricanus is distributed in the Tibetan Plateau at an average elevation of approximate 4 km above sea level and has probably evolved a superior capacity to tolerate low oxygen levels. In this study, transcriptome analysis using high-throughput RNA-seq revealed common and different adaptation strategies of T. armoricanus in response to hypoxia (11% O2 ) or anoxia. T. armoricanus adopted three common strategies for adaptation to hypoxia or anoxia: Up-regulated signal transduction pathways essential for cellular survival, strengthened cell and organelle structure and activity, and activated immune system...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391512/the-flightin-gene-is-necessary-for-the-emission-of-vibrational-signals-in-the-rice-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A7-l
#3
Xuan Chen, Meng-Qiu Zhang, Xin-Qiu Wang, Jian-Sheng Guo, Dan-Ting Li, Jian Xue, Wei-Dong Pan, Chuan-Xi Zhang
In duet-based courtship, species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable animals to identify the species and sex of the singer and also provide the necessary information with which to locate a partner. Substrate-borne communication has been described in a wide variety of insects. Here, we focus on the gene necessary for the emission of male vibrational signals and whether the male song fulfills such a functional role in the mating system of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). We generated mute BPH adult males via RNA interference (RNAi) of the flightin gene, which encodes a myosin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the dorsal longitudinal muscle (DLM) in the basal two abdominal segments used for driving the vibration of the male-specific tymbal structure in short-winged (brachypterous) BPH adults...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392850/two-isoforms-of-pepck-in-sarcophaga-bullata-and-their-distinct-expression-profiles-through-development-diapause-and-in-response-to-stresses-of-cold-and-starvation
#4
Drew E Spacht, Nicholas M Teets, David L Denlinger
Pepck is a metabolic enzyme that participates in gluconeogenesis through the conversion of oxaloacetate into phosphoenol pyruvate. Numerous transcriptomic studies have identified Pepck as a potential key player during diapause and various stresses responses. Here, we describe expression patterns of both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of Pepck throughout development, during diapause, and in response to starvation and cold shock in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. We cloned full-length transcripts for both Pepck isoforms and observed that expression of both genes varied throughout development...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393142/the-imbalance-of-serotonergic-circuitry-impairing-the-crop-supercontractile-muscle-activity-and-the-mitochondrial-morphology-of-pd-pink1-b9-drosophila-melanogaster-are-rescued-by-mucuna-pruriens
#5
Paolo Solari, Riccardo Maccioni, Roberto Marotta, Tiziano Catelani, Doriana Debellis, Biancamaria Baroli, Stefania Peddio, Patrizia Muroni, Sanjay Kasture, Paolo Solla, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
Despite its great potentiality, little attention has been paid to modelling gastrointestinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm). Our previous studies on standardized Mucuna pruriens extract (Mpe) have shown usefulness in the Drosophila model of PD. In this communication, we provide new information on the effect of Mpe on basal and serotonin treated contractions in the crop (i.e., an important and essential part of the gut) in Drosophila PD mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9 ) gene...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393171/supercooling-and-freezing-as-eco-physiological-alternatives-rather-than-mutually-exclusive-strategies-a-case-study-in-pyrrhocoris-apterus
#6
Jan Rozsypal, Vladimír Košťál
Overwintering insects are categorized either as freeze tolerant or freeze avoiding (supercooling) based on their ability or inability, respectively, to tolerate the formation of ice in their body. The freeze tolerant insects set their supercooling point (SCP) higher for winter to stimulate freezing at higher temperatures, while freeze avoiding insects survive winter in a supercooled state by depressing their SCP. Some supercooling insects, however, were found to survive in frozen state when freezing occurred through inoculation by external ice at mild subzero temperatures...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393170/comparison-of-rnai-knockdown-effect-of-tyramine-receptor-1-induced-by-dsrna-and-sirna-in-brains-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#7
Xiaojiao Guo, Ying Wang, Irina Sinakevitch, Hong Lei, Brian H Smith
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for artificially manipulating gene expression in diverse organisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, both long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) and small interference RNA (siRNA) have been successfully used to reduce targeted gene expression and induce specific phenotypes. However, whether dsRNA and siRNA have different effects and efficiencies in gene silencing has never been investigated in honey bees. Thus, we tested the effect of dsRNA and siRNA on the tyramine receptor 1 (tyr1), which encodes a receptor of neurotransmitter tyramine, in honey bee brains at mRNA and protein levels over time...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336148/distinct-binding-affinities-of-odorant-binding-proteins-from-the-natural-predator-chrysoperla-sinica-suggest-different-strategies-to-hunt-prey
#8
Zhao-Qun Li, Shuai Zhang, Xiao-Ming Cai, Jun-Yu Luo, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jin-Jie Cui, Zong-Mao Chen
Chrysoperla sinica is an important natural predator of many notorious agricultural pests. Understanding its olfactory mechanism can help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in biological control. In the present study, we investigated the tissue expression patterns of 12 odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes from C. sinica (CsinOBPs). The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that CsinOBP1, CsinOBP2, CsinOBP3, CsinOBP4, CsinOBP6, CsinOBP7, CsinOBP9, CsinOBP10, and CsinOBP12 were predominantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, indicating their roles in olfaction...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312587/the-effect-of-mating-history-on-male-reproductive-ageing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Mareike Koppik, Hanna Ruhmann, Claudia Fricke
Mating bears costs, but how these costs affect the senescence of reproductive traits in males has received relatively little attention. Males of many species show reduced benefits from pre- and post-copulatory reproductive traits during ageing. Senescence of post-copulatory reproductive traits is often linked to a reduction in sperm quantity and quality, but can also be a consequence of changes in seminal fluid proteins that are transferred alongside sperm during mating. Here we investigated how mating history affects male reproductive ageing, especially at the post-copulatory level, using Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which links between seminal fluid proteins and male reproductive traits are well established...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300619/matrix-metalloproteinases-promote-fat-body-cell-dissociation-and-ovary-development-in-bombyx-mori
#10
Qiangqiang Jia, Xiaoxi Chen, Lixian Wu, Zifeng Ruan, Kang Li, Sheng Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) are pivotal extracellular proteinases participating in tissue remodeling. Three Mmps genes have been identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and their expression levels and enzyme activity are consistent with progressive fat body cell dissociation during the early pupal stages. Using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, we have demonstrated that Mmps are functionally required for fat body cell dissociation and ovary development in female pupae. Moderate inhibition of Mmps activity via inhibitor treatments delayed fat body cell dissociation and ovary development, while severe inhibition blocked these developmental processes and eventually led to pupal lethality...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291858/metabolic-responses-of-brown-planthoppers-to-ir56-resistant-rice-cultivar-containing-multiple-resistance-genes
#11
Lei Yue, Kui Kang, Wenqing Zhang
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) is one of the most destructive pests in rice production, and rice resistance is thought to be an economical and environmentally friendly strategy against BPH. Although resistant rice cultivars have been widely applied to control BPH, little is known regarding the impact of the ingestion of resistant plant phloem on the BPH physiological metabolism. In this study, the differences in the metabolic responses of BPH nymphs during the first 72 h after ingesting susceptible TN1 and resistant IR56 plant phloem were compared...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273554/how-much-starvation-desiccation-and-oxygen-depletion-can-drosophila-melanogaster-tolerate-before-its-upper-thermal-limits-are-affected
#12
Tommaso Manenti, Tomás Rocha Cunha, Jesper Givskov Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke
Heat tolerance is commonly assessed as the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) using the dynamic method exposing organisms to a gradually increasing (ramping) temperature until organisms fall into a coma. The CTmax estimate is dependent on the ramping rate, with decreased rates leading to longer treatments and ultimately lower CTmax estimates. There is a current discussion surrounding the physiological dynamics of the effect of the time of exposure by temperature interaction on these estimates. Besides temperature the time of exposure to limited food (starvation), desiccation, and reduced levels of oxygen or increased levels of CO2 may, in interaction with ramping rate, act as confounding factors when assessing upper thermal limits using the dynamic method...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193842/functional-characterization-of-four-sex-pheromone-receptors-in-the-newly-discovered-maize-pest-athetis-lepigone
#13
Ya-Nan Zhang, Li-Xiao Du, Ji-Wei Xu, Bing Wang, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Qi Yan, Guirong Wang
Chemoreception systems play a crucial role in regulating key behavioral activities of insects, such as mating, oviposition, and foraging. Odorant receptors (ORs) trigger the transduction of chemical signals into electric signals, and are involved in the corresponding responses associated with odorant guidance behaviors. Pheromone receptors (PRs) of male adult insects are generally thought to function in the recognition of female sex pheromones, and are also important molecular targets for the development of behavioral inhibitors and insecticides...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196125/inward-rectifier-potassium-kir-channels-in-the-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines-functional-characterization-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#14
Peter M Piermarini, Edna Alfaro Inocente, Nuris Acosta, Corey R Hopkins, Jerod S Denton, Andrew P Michel
Inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels contribute to a variety of physiological processes in insects and are emerging targets for insecticide development. Previous studies on insect Kir channels have primarily focused on dipteran species (e.g., mosquitoes, fruit flies). Here we identify and functionally characterize Kir channel subunits in a hemipteran insect, the soybean aphid Aphis glycines, which is an economically important insect pest and vector of soybeans. From the transcriptome and genome of Ap. glycines we identified two cDNAs, ApKir1 and ApKir2, encoding Kir subunits that were orthologs of insect Kir1 and Kir2, respectively...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176246/loaded-flight-in-male-ischnura-elegans-and-its-relationship-to-copulatory-flight
#15
Hilla Davidovich, Gal Ribak
Copulation in the blue-tailed damselfly (Ischnura elegans) can last several hours, during which the pair may fly together in the 'wheel position' with both insects flapping their wings. Previous studies have suggested that during flight in copula, the male increases its power output while the female decreases it. Consequently, the male must support some of the female's body weight in the air. We tested the hypothesis that female body mass places a biomechanical constraint on the ability of smaller males to mate with larger females by attaching weights to male damselflies and analyzing their wing motion and force exerted using high-speed cameras...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142313/olfactory-sensitivity-to-major-intermediate-and-trace-components-of-sex-pheromone-in-ceratitis-capitata-is-related-to-mating-and-circadian-rhythm
#16
Giorgia Sollai, Paolo Solari, Roberto Crnjar
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., is a worldwide pest of several fruits given its extremely wide host range which includes more than 250 different species of fruits and vegetables. Its high biological potential is mainly due both to its ability to readily adapt to new environments and its high reproductive capacity as it completes multiple generations each year. Since sexually mature males emit a sex pheromone to call both other males for "lekking" and receptive females for mating, many studies have been directed to characterize the chemical composition of the sex pheromone...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130492/cuticular-hydrocarbon-chemistry-an-important-factor-shaping-the-current-distribution-pattern-of-the-imported-fire-ants-in-the-usa
#17
Meng Xu, ZeKuan Lu, Yong-Yue Lu, Rammohan R Balusu, Olufemi S Ajayi, Henry Y Fadamiro, Arthur G Appel, Li Chen
Two sibling species, Solenopsis richteri and S. invicta, were both introduced into the southern USA from South America in the early 20th century. Today, S. richteri occupies higher latitudes and colder areas, while S. invicta occupies lower latitudes. Between the distributions of the two species, there is a large area of viable hybrid (S. richteri × S. invicta) populations. This study aimed to characterize the forces driving this distribution pattern and the underlying mechanisms. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of freshly killed workers of S...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118747/a-host-feeding-wasp-shares-several-features-of-nitrogen-management-with-blood-feeding-mosquitoes
#18
Romain Richard, Stephen Foster, David Giron, Jérôme Casas
Adult feeding on hosts is common among parasitic wasps. The ingested host fluid is rich in nutrients, especially proteins. A study on Eupelmus vuilleti (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a host-feeding parasitoid of larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), showed that the carbohydrates (maybe lipids) but not proteins, gained from host feeding accounted for the increased egg production. Thus, host protein is probably utilized for general adult metabolism, allowing conservation of carbohydrate and/or lipid resources for direct allocation to oocytes...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107159/evolution-of-coeloconic-sensilla-in-the-peripheral-olfactory-system-of-drosophila-mojavensis
#19
Daniel C Nemeth, Byrappa Ammagarahalli, John E Layne, Stephanie M Rollmann
Populations inhabiting habitats with different environmental conditions, such as climate, resource availability, predation, competition, can undergo selection for traits that are adaptive in one habitat and not the other, leading to divergence between populations. Changes in the olfactory systems of insects that rely on different host plants, for example, can occur in response to differences in sensory stimuli between habitats. In this study, we investigate the evolution of host preference by characterizing the coeloconic sensilla in Drosophila mojavensis, a species that breeds on different necrotic cacti across its geographic range...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099070/context-dependent-effects-of-temperature-on-starvation-resistance-in-drosophila-melanogaster-mechanisms-and-ecological-implications
#20
Taehwan Jang, Kwang Pum Lee
Temperature can modulate the responses of ectotherms to environmental stressors, such as food shortage. Temperature-mediated plasticity in starvation resistance can arise by changes in the amount of energy stored, the speed of energy expenditure, or the threshold energy reserves required for survival. However, few studies have investigated how temperature affects these physiological mechanisms underlying starvation resistance. In this study, we first examined the mechanistic basis of the temperature dependence of starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster...
October 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
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