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Journal of Insect Physiology

Claudio R Lazzari, Aurélie Fauquet, Chloé Lahondère
Kissing bugs possess a highly developed thermal sense and when starved, they attempt to bite any object which temperature is close to that of a warm-blooded host. At each feeding event, these insects take massive meals in just a few minutes. One could then expect fed-bugs being heated-up by the ingested warm blood and so becoming attractive to starved conspecifics. This is not however the case, arising the question about why cannibalism is very rare among these insects. Recently, the ability of thermoregulating during feeding has been demonstrated in Rhodnius prolixus...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Yipeng Liu, Yang Liu, Xingchuan Jiang, Guirong Wang
The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Carl S Cloyed, Perri K Eason, Anthony I Dell
Stable isotopes are valuable tools in physiological and ecological research, as they can be used to estimate diet, habitat use, and resource allocation. However, in most cases a priori knowledge of two key properties of stable isotopes are required, namely their rate of incorporation into the body (incorporation rate) and the change of isotope values between consumers and resources that arises during incorporation of the isotope into the consumer's tissues (trophic discrimination). Previous studies have quantified these properties across species and tissue-types, but little is known about how they vary with temperature, a key driver of many biological rates and times...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Agnieszka Gudowska, Ulf Bauchinger
Habitats on land with low oxygen availability provide unique niches inhabited by numerous species. The occupation of such hypoxic niches by animals is hypothesized to come at a cost linked to the limitations of aerobic metabolism and thus energy budget but may also provide benefits through physical protection from predators and parasitoids or reduced competition for food. We investigated the effects of hypoxic conditions on standard metabolic rate (SMR) and specific dynamic action (SDA) in male Carabus nemoralis...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Rachael E Bonoan, Luke D O'Connor, Philip T Starks
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtain micronutrients from floral resources and "dirty", or turbid, water. Past research suggests that honey bees drink dirty water to supplement the micronutrients in their floral diet, however, there is no research that directly investigates how floral micronutrient content varies with water preferences, or how micronutrients in honey bees themselves vary seasonally. In this study, we used chemical analyses (ICP-OES) to investigate seasonal variation of micronutrients in honey bee workers and floral resources in the field...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Shinya Komata, Chung-Ping Lin, Teiji Sota
Female-limited Batesian mimicry may have evolved because of stronger predation pressure on females than on males, but some physiological costs of mimicry may also hinder the evolution of mimicry in males. In Papilio memnon, which possesses a female-limited Batesian mimicry polymorphism, two alleles at the doublesex (dsx) locus strictly control female phenotypes. To examine whether there are physiological costs associated with mimetic genotypes in the juvenile stage, we compered mortality, juvenile growth and development, and the resultant adult characteristics among three dsx genotypes (HH, Hh, hh) at a constant temperature (25°C) and two differing day lengths (LD 14:10 and LD 12:12; the latter might induce pupal diapause) by crossing individuals heterozygous (Hh) for the dsx allele...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ayako Gotoh, Koudai Furukawa
Ants show a unique reproductive system among insects. Males finish sperm production, and their testes degenerate at a young stage. After copulation, spermatozoa are transferred into the queens, who store the received sperm cells throughout their long lifespan without additional mating. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive biology of Crematogaster osakensis from male sexual maturation to sperm transfer, and storage in queens. The sperm production was completed by eclosion and all produced spermatozoa had migrated to the seminal vesicle and the testes shrank until 10 days after eclosion...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sean Conway, Christine L Sansone, Anika Benske, Kaitlin Kentala, Johan Billen, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Edward M Blumenthal
Normal gut function is vital for animal survival, and deviations from such function can contribute to malnutrition, inflammation, increased susceptibility to pathogens, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) results in defective gut function, as measured by enlargement of the crop and reduced food movement through the gut, and drd mutation also causes the unrelated phenotypes of neurodegeneration, early adult lethality and female sterility...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
James Hust, Mark D Lavine, Amy M Worthington, Robert Zinna, Hiroki Gotoh, T Niimi, Laura Lavine
Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
R B Srygley, S T Jaronski
Little is known about the effects of dietary macronutrients on the capacity of insects to ward off a fungal pathogen. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mormon crickets fed restricted protein diets have lower enzymatic assays of generalized immunity, slower rates of encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from infection by Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen. Beginning in the last nymphal instar, crickets were fed a high, intermediate, or low protein diet with correspondingly low, intermediate, or high carbohydrate proportions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ane Martin Anduaga, Dora Nagy, Rodolfo Costa, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Unlike many insects where photoperiod per se induces diapause, reproductive arrest in Drosophila melanogaster adult females is observed at colder temperatures and can be enhanced by shorter photoperiods. Traditional experimental protocols raise flies at 25°C from the larval stage and then the adults are placed at 12°C for between 12 and 28 days. After 12 days diapause levels are usually higher than at 28 days, suggesting that the flies are in a cold induced quiescence, rather than a true diapause. By raising flies at more realistic lower temperatures, we observe quite dramatic and counter-intuitive effects on diapause, whose levels nevertheless correlate with various indices of cryoprotectant metabolites as well as resistance to chill shock...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Frances D Duncan, Shirley A Hanrahan
In this paper we report on the metabolic rates and respiratory patterns measured from gregarious brown locusts, Locustana pardalina, collected from the Nama Karoo region in South Africa. All five instar hopper stages and adults were collected over a three year period when significant numbers of locust swarms were seen. Flow-through respirometry was used to measure the CO2 emission from individual locusts from all the developmental stages and adults within a week of collection. Carbon dioxide emission scaled hypometrically with mass, 0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Subhashree Subramanyam, Jacob T Shreve, Jill A Nemacheck, Alisha J Johnson, Brandi Schemerhorn, Richard H Shukle, Christie E Williams
Compatible interactions between wheat (Triticum aestivum), and its dipteran pest Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor) result in successful establishment of larval feeding sites rendering the host plant susceptible. Virulent larvae employ an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host physiology resulting in formation of a protein- and sugar-rich nutritive tissue beneficial to developing larvae. Previous studies documented increased levels of nonessential amino acids (NAA; that need not be received through insect diet) in the susceptible wheat in response to larval feeding, suggesting importance of plant-derived NAA in larval nutrition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jimena Leyria, Leonardo L Fruttero, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Marina S Defferrari, Estela L Arrese, José L Soulages, Beatriz P Settembrini, Celia R Carlini, Lilián E Canavoso
DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase of the hematophagous insect Dipetalogaster maxima, is synthesized by the fat body and the ovary and functions as yolk protein precursor. Functionally, DmCatD is involved in vitellin proteolysis. In this work, we purified and sequenced DmCatD, performed bioinformatic analyses and investigated the events involved in its targeting and storage in developing oocytes. By ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, DmCatD was purified from egg homogenates and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Elaine A Backus, Felix A Cervantes, Larry Godfrey, Waseem Akbar, Thomas L Clark, Maria G Rojas
This study is the first to fully evaluate whether electrical signals applied to large insects during electropenetrography (EPG; also called electrical penetration graph) negatively affect insect behavior. During EPG, electrical signals are applied to plants, and thus to the gold-wire-tethered insects feeding on them. The insect completes an electrical circuit whose changes in voltage reflect the insect's stylet probing/penetration behaviors, recorded as waveform output. For nearly 50 years of EPG science, evidence has supported that there are no or negligible effects on tiny insects from applied electricity during EPG...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Chainarong Sinpoo, Robert J Paxton, Terd Disayathanoowat, Sasiprapa Krongdang, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sylwia Stączek, Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas, Paweł Mak, Aneta Sowa-Jasiłek, Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska, Piotr Suder, Jerzy Wydrych, Katarzyna Grygorczuk, Teresa Jakubowicz, Małgorzata Cytryńska
A lipid-binding protein apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), an exchangeable component of lipophorin particles, is involved in lipid transport and immune response in insects. In Galleria mellonella, apoLp-III binding to high-density lipophorins and formation of low-density lipophorin complexes upon immune challenge was reported. However, an unanswered question remains whether apoLp-III could form different complexes in a pathogen-dependent manner. Here we report on pathogen- and time-dependent alterations in the level of apoLp-III free and lipophorin-bound form that occur in the hemolymph and hemocytes shortly after immunization of G...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Motoki Nose, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Kenji Tomioka
The timeless2 (tim2) gene is an insect orthologue of the mammalian clock gene Timeless (mTim). Although its functional role has been extensively studied in mammals, little is known regarding its role in insects. In the present study, we obtained tim2 cDNA (Gb'tim2) from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and characterized its functional role in embryonic development, egg production, and circadian rhythms. Gb'tim2 gave rise to a 1432 amino acid protein, and showed approximately 65% homology to that of Drosophila melanogaster...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Susan W Nicolson, Susana Da Silva Das Neves, Hannelie Human, Christian W W Pirk
Pollen, the main protein source for honey bees, is mixed with regurgitated nectar or honey during collection and then stored as 'bee bread' before its consumption, mainly by young nurse workers. It has been suggested that storage of pollen improves its nutritional value and digestibility, but there is little evidence for such changes. We fed two fresh pollen types of different protein content (aloe and sunflower), and two stored pollen types (sunflower and a mixed pollen), to young caged worker bees. We measured daily consumption of pollen and sucrose solution, and survival after 14 days...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
W C E P Verberk, P Calosi, J I Spicer, S Kehl, D T Bilton
In the face of global warming, both the absolute thermal tolerance of an ectotherms, and its ability to shift its tolerance level via acclimation, are thought to be fundamentally important. Understanding the links between tolerance and its plasticity is therefore critical to accurately predict vulnerability to warming. Previous studies in a number of ectotherm taxa suggest trade-offs in the evolution of thermal tolerance and its plasticity, something which does not, however, apply to Deronectes diving beetles, where these traits are instead positively correlated...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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