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Journal of Insect Physiology

J A Carbonell, D T Bilton, P Calosi, A Millán, A Stewart, J Velasco
Ongoing climate change is driving dramatic range shifts in diverse taxa worldwide, and species responses to global change are likely to be determined largely by population responses at geographical range margins. Here we investigate the metabolic and reproductive plasticity in response to water temperature and salinity variation of two populations of the eurythermic saline water bug Sigara selecta: one population located close to the northern edge of its distribution, in a relatively cold, thermally stable region (SE England - 'marginal'), and one close to the range centre, in a warmer and more thermally variable Mediterranean climate (SE Spain - 'core')...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Tejinder Singh Chechi, Syed Zeeshan Ali, Nagaraj Guru Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Yuta Shimizu, Ayumu Mukai, Shin G Goto
Insects enter diapause to synchronise their life cycle with biotic and abiotic environmental conditions favourable for their development, reproduction, and survival. One of the most noticeable characteristics of diapause is the blockage of ontogeny. Although this blockage should occur with the cessation of cellular proliferation, i.e. cell cycle arrest, it was confirmed only in a few insect species and information on the molecular pathways involved in cell cycle arrest is limited. In the present study, we investigated developmental and cell cycle arrest in diapause larvae of the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Freddy Ibanez, Julien Levy, Cecilia Tamborindeguy
The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a phloem-feeding insect with preference for Solanaceae. This insect species is vector of the pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' the causative agent of zebra chip, an important disease of commercial potatoes in several countries worldwide. The recent classification of psyllids among the most dangerous vectors has promoted their study, but still many biological processes such as reproduction and vitellogenesis need to be investigated...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Carole Labrousse, Claudio R Lazzari, Nadine Fresquet
Triatominae are blood-sucking insects that localise their hosts using a range of sensory signals to find food, and among them, the heat emitted by the hosts. Heat is one of the main short-range cues in vertebrate hosts, able to trigger alone the Proboscis Extension Response (PER) that precedes the bite. Previous studies demonstrated that heat responsiveness of fifth-instar nymphs is maximum to moderate temperatures (30-35°C) compatible with those of their vertebrate host's body surface. This study investigated whether this thermal preference for biting is maintained along the life cycle of R...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
M Lukas Seehausen, Jacques Régnière, Véronique Martel, Sandy M Smith
The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Janna N Schultzhaus, Sehresh Saleem, Hina Iftikhar, Ginger E Carney
Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
P Azambuja, E S Garcia, P J Waniek, C S Vieira, M B Figueiredo, M S Gonzalez, C B Mello, D P Castro, N A Ratcliffe
This review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Vincent B. Wigglesworth (VW) in recognition of his many pioneering contributions to insect physiology which, even today, form the basis of modern-day research in this field. Insects not only make vital contributions to our everyday lives by their roles in pollination, balancing eco-systems and provision of honey and silk products, but they are also outstanding models for studying the pathogenicity of microorganisms and the functioning of innate immunity in humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sophie E F Evison, Joe D Gallagher, John J W Thompson, Michael T Siva-Jothy, Sophie A O Armitage
Central to the basis of ecological immunology are the ideas of costs and trade-offs between immunity and life history traits. As a physical barrier, the insect cuticle provides a key resistance trait, and Tenebrio molitor shows phenotypic variation in cuticular colour that correlates with resistance to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Here we first examined whether there is a relationship between cuticular colour variation and two aspects of cuticular architecture that we hypothesised may influence resistance to fungal invasion through the cuticle: its thickness and its porosity...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Welma Pieterse, John S Terblanche, Pia Addison
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sofía L Mengoni, Alicia N Lorenzo-Figueiras, Sebastián A Minoli
Triatoma infestans is the main vector of the Chagas disease in Latin America. These nocturnal bugs spend most of the daylight hours aggregated with conspecifics inside crevices in roofs and walls. Around the entrances of the shelters T. infestans deposits faeces that contain chemical cues that attract conspecifics. In this work we investigated whether attraction to faeces can be modulated by experience in this insect species. First, we analyzed if the attraction of nymphs to faeces is innate or acquired through previous sensory experiences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Esther E du Rand, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Zeno Apostolides
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are generalist pollinators that forage for nectar and pollen of a very large variety of plant species, exposing them to a diverse range of secondary metabolites produced as chemical defences against herbivory. Honey bees can tolerate high levels of many of these toxic compounds, including the alkaloid nicotine, in their diet without incurring apparent fitness costs. Very little is known about the underlying detoxification processes mediating this tolerance. We examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in newly emerged worker bees using radiolabeled nicotine and LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the kinetic distribution profile of nicotine as well as the absence or presence and identity of any nicotine-derived metabolites...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Romina B Barrozo, Carolina E Reisenman, Pablo Guerenstein, Claudio R Lazzari, Marcelo G Lorenzo
Although kissing bugs (Triatominae: Reduviidae) are perhaps best known as vectors of Chagas disease, they are important experimental models in studies of insect sensory physiology, pioneered by the seminal studies of Wigglesworth and Gillet more than eighty years ago. Since then, many investigations have revealed that the thermal, hygric, visual and olfactory senses play critical roles in the orientation of these blood-sucking insects towards hosts. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of these sensory systems, focussing on relevant stimuli, sensory structures, receptor physiology and the molecular players involved in the complex and cryptic behavioural repertoire of these nocturnal insects...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nathalie Roger, Denis Michez, Ruddy Wattiez, Christopher Sheridan, Maryse Vanderplanck
Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Michele Johnstone, Michele Schiffer, Ary A Hoffmann
While numerous insect studies have demonstrated the effects environmental conditions, genetic variation and other factors have on thermal resistance, often showing patterns consistent with adaptive plasticity and local adaptation, few experiments have considered the effects of multiple factors simultaneously. Here however, we have investigated the impact of sex, rearing conditions, hardening, population, and laboratory rearing period on adult heat resistance in stocks of Drosophila hydei, a cosmopolitan species that occurs across a range of climatic zones...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Tomasz Włodarczyk, Lech Szczepaniak
Slave-making ant species use the host workforce to ensure normal colony functioning. Slaves are robbed as pupae from their natal nest and after eclosion, assume the parasite colony as their own. A possible factor promoting the successful integration of slaves into a foreign colony is congruence with the slave-makers in terms of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are known to play the role of recognition cues in social insects. Such an adaptation is observed in the obligate slave-making ant species, which are chemically adjusted to their slaves...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Miguel G Ximénez-Embún, Pedro Castañera, Félix Ortego
The performance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on plants depends on the rate of adaptation of mite populations to each particular host and can be influenced by environmental conditions. We have tested the effects of drought stress, caused by water deficiency, in the interaction of tomato plants with tomato adapted (TA) and tomato non-adapted (TNA) strains of T. urticae. Our data revealed that mite performance was enhanced for the TA strain when reared on drought-stressed tomato plants, rising population growth and leaf damage...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
E H Richards, M P Dani, Y Lu, T Butt, R J Weaver
Although the utilisation of fungal biological control agents to kill insect pests is desirable, it is known that the outcome of infection may be influenced by a number of criteria, including whether or not the target insect is stressed. In the current work, topical treatment of larvae of the lepidopteran pest, Mamestra brassicae, with conidia of Beauveria bassiana, followed by a heat stress (HS; 37°C for 1h) 48h later, resulted in a similar level of larval survival to that occurring for no heat stress (No-HS), fungus-treated larvae...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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