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Journal of Insect Physiology

Mit Balvantray Bhavsar, Andreas Stumpner, Ralf Heinrich
We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
I Iovinella, B Caputo, A Della Torre, F R Dani
The recently available genome of Aedes albopictus - the most worldwide-spread human arbovirus vector - has revealed a large genome repertory and a great plasticity which are believed to have contributed to the species success as an invasive species and opened the way to genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. We carried out the first wide-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of Ae. albopictus female head and thorax by means of a 'shotgun' approach based on nano liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry associated to protein Label Free Quantification (LFQ) which allows to assess differences in protein expression between tissues and different physiological stages...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
James N Kezos, Larry G Cabral, Brandon D Wong, Belinda K Khou, Angela Oh, Jerry F Harb, Danny Chiem, Timothy J Bradley, Laurence D Mueller, Michael R Rose
Insects and vertebrates have multiple major physiological systems, each species having a circulatory system, a metabolic system, and a respiratory system that enable locomotion and survival in stressful environments, among other functions. Broadening our understanding of the physiology of Drosophila melanogaster requires the parsing of interrelationships among such major component physiological systems. By combining electrical pacing and flight exhaustion assays with manipulative conditioning, we have started to unpack the interrelationships between cardiac function, locomotor performance, and other functional characters such as starvation and desiccation resistance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Fei Zhao, Ary A Hoffmann, Kun Xing, Chun-Sen Ma
Heat responses can vary ontogenetically in many insects with complex life cycles, reflecting differences in thermal environments they experience. Such variation has rarely been considered in insects that develop incrementally and experience common microclimates across stages. To test if there is a low level of ontogenetic variation for heat responses in one such species, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae, basal tolerance [upper lethal temperature (ULT50) and maximum critical temperature (CTmax)], hardening capacity (CTmax) and hardening costs (adult longevity and fecundity) were measured across five stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th-instar nymphs and newly moulted adults)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Victoria Bernhardt, Laura Hannig, Ronja Kinast, Marcel A Verhoff, Florian Rothweiler, Richard Zehner, Jens Amendt
Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Asieh Rasoolizadeh, Marie-Claire Goulet, Jean-Frédéric Guay, Conrad Cloutier, Dominique Michaud
Herbivorous insects use complex protease complements to process plant proteins, useful to adjust their digestive functions to the plant diet and to elude the antidigestive effects of dietary protease inhibitors. We here assessed whether basic profiles and diet-related adjustments of the midgut protease complement may vary among populations of the insect herbivore Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Two laboratory colonies of this insect were used as models, derived from insect samples collected in potato fields ∼1200km distant from each other in North America...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Emad Ibrahim, Markéta Hejníková, Haq Abdul Shaik, David Doležel, Dalibor Kodrík
The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus adults infected by the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema carpocapsae was examined in this study. It was found that co-application of EPN and AKH enhanced firebug mortality about 2.5 times within 24h (from 20 to 51% in EPN vs. EPN+AKH treatments), and resulted in metabolism intensification, as carbon dioxide production in firebugs increased about 2.1 and 1.6times compared to control- and EPN-treated insects, respectively. Accordingly, firebugs with reduced expression of AKH receptors showed a significantly lower mortality (by 1...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Paolo Solari, Roberto Crnjar
Papilio hospiton Géné is an oligophagous species, endemic of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, using various Apiaceae and Rutaceae as host plants, such as Ferula communis, Ferula arrigonii, Peucedanum paniculatum, Ruta lamarmorae and Pastinaca latifolia. We previously found that the lateral maxillary styloconic sensillum in the larva has two deterrent neurons, one phagostimulant and one salt specific, while the medial sensillum has two phagostimulant neurons, one deterrent and one salt specific. In this work we studied the sensitivity of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) to saps of F...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Kevin P Cross, Samantha Britton, Rebecca Mangulins, Tomas G A Money, R Meldrum Robertson
We compared how different metabolic stressors, anoxic coma and food deprivation, affected signaling in neural tissue. We used the locust's Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD) interneuron because its large axon, high firing frequencies, and rapid conduction velocity make it energetically expensive. We exposed locusts to a 30min anoxic coma or 1day of food deprivation and found contrasting effects on signaling within the axon. After a prior anoxic coma, the DCMD fired fewer high-frequency (>200Hz) action potentials (APs) (Control: 12...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Stav Brown, Victoria Soroker, Gal Ribak
The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Seydou Keita, Ambra Masuzzo, Julien Royet, C Leopold Kurz
When exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. On one hand, as elegantly exemplified in Drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. On the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. However, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been rarely defined at the molecular level...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Alexandria M DeMilto, Monte Rouquette, Ulrich G Mueller, Katrin Kellner, Jon N Seal
Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Branwen Messamah, Vanessa Kellermann, Hans Malte, Volker Loeschcke, Johannes Overgaard
Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) is a controversial hypothesis suggesting that cold adapted species display an elevated metabolic rate (MR) compared to their warm climate relatives. Here we test for the presence of MCA in 65 species of drosophilid flies reared under common garden conditions. MR was measured at both 10 and 20°C for both sexes and data were analyzed in relation to the natural thermal environment of these species. We found considerable interspecific variation in MR ranging from 1.34 to 8.99µWmg(-1) at 10°C...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Signe Overgaard Jensen, Johannes Overgaard
The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not too severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Natalie M D'Silva, Andrew Donini, Michael J O'Donnell
We analyzed V-type H(+)-ATPase (VA) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) along the caeca and midgut of third instar Drosophila larvae using immunohistochemistry and ATPase activity assays. Corresponding H(+) and K(+) fluxes were characterized using the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET), and the roles of transport ATPases in energizing ion transport across the larval gut were investigated by basal application of bafilomycin, a VA inhibitor, and ouabain, a NKA inhibitor. Addition of bafilomycin led to a decrease in H(+) absorption along the caeca and midgut except at the copper cells and large flat cell zone of the middle midgut...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Alonso A Orozco-Flores, Jose A Valadez-Lira, Brenda Oppert, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Reyes Tamez-Guerra, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) is an important stored grain insect pest worldwide, and the first lepidopteran with reported resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Since gut bacteria may affect Bt insecticidal activity, we evaluated whether P. interpunctella lacking gut bacteria had differences in immune responses and susceptibility to the Bt formulation, Bactospeine. In order to clear gut bacteria, third instar larvae were reared on artificial diet containing antibiotics, or were obtained from sterilized eggs and reared under sterile conditions, and larvae were fed diets with or without Bt...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Kévin Berthelot, Felipe Ramon Portugal, Raphaël Jeanson
In social insects, the maintenance of genetic colony integrity requires resident workers to recognize any intruder with a reproductive potential and to behave appropriately to minimize fitness costs. In this study, our objective was to identify the relative contribution of the behavioral patterns and chemical cues of intruders with different fertility status on their likelihood of being accepted in monogynous colonies. Using the ponerine ant Odontomachus hastatus as a model organism, we introduced non-nestmate workers, founding queens and heterospecific workers on intact nests in the field...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Valeria Zonato, Lewis Collins, Mirko Pegoraro, Eran Tauber, Charalambos P Kyriacou
D. melanogaster enters a state of reproductive arrest when exposed to low temperatures (12°C) and shorter photoperiods. A number of studies have suggested that diapause has recently evolved in European D. melanogaster populations, that it is not present in the sibling species D. simulans, that it is non-photoperiodic in American D. melanogaster populations, and that it spontaneously terminates after 6-8weeks. We have studied the overwintering phenotype under different conditions and observe that American, European and, surprisingly, African D...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Viktoria V Tomczak, Caroline Müller
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well-established AM), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mirko Pegoraro, Valeria Zonato, Elizabeth R Tyler, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Eran Tauber
Seasonal overwintering in insects represents an adaptation to stressful environments and in European Drosophila melanogaster females, low temperatures and short photoperiods can induce an ovarian diapause. Diapause may represent a recent (<15Ky) adaptation to the colonisation of temperate Europe by D. melanogaster from tropical sub-Saharan Africa, because African D. melanogaster and the sibling species D. simulans, have been reported to fail to undergo diapause. Over the past few centuries, D. melanogaster have also invaded North America and Australia, and eastern populations on both continents show a predictable latitudinal cline in diapause induction...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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