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Journal of Insect Physiology

Katerina Economou, Elena Kotsiliti, Anastassios C Mintzas
The cell-specific expression and intracellular distribution of the small heat protein Hsp27 was investigated in the ovaries and testes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), under both normal and heat shock conditions. For this study, a gfp-hsp27 strain was used to detect the chimeric protein by confocal microscopy. In unstressed ovaries, the protein was expressed throughout egg development in a stage and cell-specific pattern. In germarium, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells in both unstressed and heat-shocked ovaries...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Viktor P Khodyrev, Bahytzhan A Duisembecov, Vadim Yu Kryukov, Viktor V Glupov
The synergistic effect between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and a sublethal dose of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni var. tenebrionis was studied in terms of immune defense reactions and detoxification system activity of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, fourth instar larvae. Bacterial infection led to more rapid germination of fungal conidia on integuments. We found a significant decrease of cellular immunity parameters, including total hemocyte count and encapsulation response, under the influence of bacteria...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Maartje Liefting, Jarno Cosijn, Jacintha Ellers
Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Shi-Hong Gu, Yun-Chih Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
Our previous studies showed that adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in Bombyx mori prothoracic glands (PGs). In the present study, we further investigated the signaling involved in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP. We found that 4E-BP phosphorylation stimulated by PTTH was partially reduced in Ca(2+)-free medium, indicating the involvement of Ca(2+). In addition, we found that a potent and specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), U73122, greatly inhibited 4E-BP phosphorylation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Keiji Matsumoto, Yoshitaka Suetsugu, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Toyomi Kotaki, Shin G Goto, Tetsuro Shinoda, Sakiko Shiga
Juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis is inhibited under short-day conditions in the brown-winged green bug Plautia stali. We investigated allatostatic molecules in the brain of P. stali. Methanol brain extracts strongly inhibited JH biosynthesis. The allatostatic activities of the brain extracts were heat stable but gently suppressed by trypsin treatment, indicating that the allatostatic molecules were peptides. Grybi-MIP1, found in Gryllus bimaculatus as an allatostatic molecule, inhibited JH biosynthesis in P...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
James D Woodman
The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest that oviposits into soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions. This study aimed to determine whether gravid female locusts can discriminate among substrates of increasing salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 ppt NaCl) when attempting oviposition, and quantify the effects of saline substrate on direct developing egg viability, and subsequent hatchling nymph body weight and survival. Gravid female locusts increasingly excavated and withdrew prior to completing oviposition in substrates of increasing salinity, but similar numbers of completed egg pods were observed across treatments...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Anthony J Zera, Rebecca Clark, Spence Behmer
The influence of variable nutritional input on life history adaptation is a central, but incompletely understood aspect of life history physiology. The wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, has been extensively studied with respect to the biochemical basis of life history adaptation, in particular, modification of lipid metabolism that underlies the enhanced accumulation of lipid flight fuel in the dispersing morph [LW(f)=long wings with functional flight muscles] relative to the flightless (SW=short-winged) morph...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Letian Xu, Min Lu, Dandan Xu, Li Chen, Jianghua Sun
Gut microbiota are widely involved in insect biology, and many factors can influence the microbiota in guts and frass. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and the mass-attacking behavior is regulated by several semiochemicals, including verbenone, a multifunctional pheromone. The beetle harbors a variety of bacteria in its guts and frass and some of them are capable of verbenone production. D. valens is characterized by monogamy and female-initiated attacking behavior. Whether the bacterial communities fluctuate according to sex, and whether the variation influences the verbenone production, remains to be determined...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jelle Caers, Matthias B Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Sven Zels, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
Neuropeptides related to mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) and insect neuropeptide F (NPF) are conserved throughout Metazoa and intimately involved in a wide range of biological processes. In insects NPF is involved in regulating feeding, learning, stress and reproductive behavior. Here we identified and characterized an NPF receptor of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma parasites causing sleeping sickness. We isolated cDNA sequences encoding tsetse NPF (Glomo-NPF) and its receptor (Glomo-NPFR), and examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns using quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Junki Saito, Ryota Kimura, Yuya Kaieda, Ritsuo Nishida, Hajime Ono
Early steps of the biosynthetic pathway of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone remains the "Black Box" wherein the characteristic ecdysteroid skeleton is built. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7dC) is the precursor of uncharacterized intermediates in the Black Box. The oxidation step at C-3 has been hypothesized during conversion from 7dC to 3-oxo-2,22,25-trideoxyecdysone, yet 3-dehydroecdysone is undetectable in some insect species. Therefore, we first confirmed that the oxidation at C-3 occurs in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster using deuterium-labeled cholesterol...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
James H Cane
Reproduction is a nutritionally costly activity for many insects, as their eggs are rich in lipids and proteins. That cost seems especially acute for non-social bees, which for their size, lay enormous eggs. All adult female bees visit flowers, most of them to collect pollen and nectar, or sometimes oils, to feed their progeny. For adult bees, the need for pollen feeding has only been detailed for the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To experimentally test for the reproductive value of adult pollen feeding by a non-social bee, Osmia californica (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae), young female bees plus males were released into large glasshouse cages provided with either a male-fertile sunflower cultivar or a pollen-less one...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
David Nestel, Nikos T Papadopoulos, Carlos Pascacio-Villafán, Nicoletta Righini, Alma R Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
We provide an extensive review on current knowledge and future research paths on the topic of resource allocation and compensation during development in holometabolous insects, emphasizing the role of resource management during development, and how compensatory mechanisms may be acting to remediate nutritional deficiencies carried over from earlier stages of development. We first review resource allocation in "open" and "closed" developmental stages and then move on to the topic of modelling resource allocation and its trade-offs...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zanthé Kotzé, Martin H Villet, Christopher W Weldon
Blowfly larvae aggregate on exposed carcasses and corpses and pass through three instars before wandering from the carcass and pupating. The developmental landmarks in this process can be used by forensic entomologists to estimate the time since the insects colonised the carcass, which sets a minimum post mortem interval. Large aggregations of feeding larvae generate a microclimate with temperatures up to 15°C above ambient conditions, which may accelerate larval development and affect forensic estimates of post-mortem intervals...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini, Heath A MacMillan
Chill susceptible insects like Drosophila lose the ability to regulate water and ion homeostasis at low temperatures. This loss of hemolymph ion and water balance drives a hyperkalemic state that depolarizes cells, causing cellular injury and death. The ability to maintain ion homeostasis at low temperatures and/or recover ion homeostasis upon rewarming is closely related to insect cold tolerance. We thus hypothesized that changes to organismal ion balance, which can be achieved in Drosophila through dietary salt loading, could alter whole animal cold tolerance phenotypes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Weining Cheng, Dan Li, Yue Wang, Yang Liu, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin, one of the most important pests of wheat, undergoes obligatory diapause as a larva to survive unfavorable temperature extremes during hot summers and cold winters. To explore the potential roles of heat shock proteins (hsp) in this process, we cloned full-length cDNAs of hsp70, hsc70 and hsp90 from S. mosellana larvae, and examined their expression in response to diapause and short-term temperature stresses. Three hsps included all signature sequences of corresponding protein family and EEVD motifs...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nathália F Brito, Monica F Moreira, Ana C A Melo
Detection of chemical signals from the environment through olfaction is an indispensable mechanism for maintaining an insect's life, evoking critical behavioral responses. Among several proteins involved in the olfactory perception process, the odorant binding protein (OBP) has been shown to be essential for a normally functioning olfactory system. This paper discusses the role of OBPs in insect chemoreception. Here, structural aspects, mechanisms of action and binding affinity of such proteins are reviewed, as well as their promising application as molecular targets for the development of new strategies for insect population management and other technological purposes...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Fanny Ruhland, Julien Pétillon, Marie Trabalon
Many arachnids like other terrestrial arthropods, provide extensive maternal care. Few studies have quantified the underlying physiological costs of maternal care. We investigated how maternal care affects the free-moving wolf spider's (Pardosa saltans) energy requirements. We described in detail their basic reproduction biology (i.e. carrying cocoon and young) and we evaluated the variation in the females' energy reserves during maternal care. Our results show that mothers guard eggs until hatching and then guard their spiderlings for 27-30 more days...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Abbie J Reade, Dhruba Naug
The Geometric Framework approach in nutritional ecology postulates that animals attempt to balance the consumption of different nutrients rather than simply maximizing energetic gain. The intake target with respect to each nutrient maximizes fitness in a specific dimension and any difference between individuals in intake target therefore represents alternative behavioral and fitness maximization strategies. Nutritional interactions are a central component of all social groups and any inter-individual variation in intake target should therefore have a significant influence on social dynamics...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Fernando Martin, Esther Alcorta
Olfactory responses at the receptor level have been thoroughly described in Drosophila melanogaster by electrophysiological methods. Single sensilla recordings (SSRs) measure neuronal activity in intact individuals in response to odors. For sensilla that contain more than one olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), their different spontaneous spike amplitudes can distinguish each signal under resting conditions. However, activity is mainly described by spike frequency. Some reports on ORN response dynamics studied two components in the olfactory responses of ORNs: a fast component that is reflected by the spike frequency and a slow component that is observed in the LFP (local field potential, the single sensillum counterpart of the electroantennogram, EAG)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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