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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735010/maternal-age-affects-offspring-nutrient-dynamics
#1
Doriane Muller, David Giron, Emmanuel Desouhant, Benjamin Rey, Jérôme Casas, Nicolas Lefrique, Bertanne Visser
The internal physiological state of a mother can have major effects on her fitness and that of her offspring. We show that maternal effects in the parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti become apparent when old mothers provision their eggs with less protein, sugar and lipid. Feeding from a host after hatching allows the offspring of old mothers to overcome initial shortages in sugars and lipids, but adult offspring of old mothers still emerged with lower protein and glycogen quantities. Reduced egg provisioning by old mothers had adverse consequences for the nutrient composition of adult female offspring, despite larval feeding from a high-quality host...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735009/serotonergic-network-in-the-subesophageal-zone-modulates-the-motor-pattern-for-food-intake-in-drosophila
#2
Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Michael J Pankratz
The functional organization of central motor circuits underlying feeding behaviors is not well understood. We have combined electrophysiological and genetic approaches to investigate the regulatory networks upstream of the motor program underlying food intake in the Drosophila larval central nervous system. We discovered that the serotonergic network of the CNS is able to set the motor rhythm frequency of pharyngeal pumping. Pharmacological experiments verified that modulation of the feeding motor pattern is based on the release of serotonin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#3
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733240/metabolomics-reveal-physiological-changes-in-mayfly-larvae-neocloeon-triangulifer-at-ecological-upper-thermal-limits
#4
Hsuan Chou, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jocelin Deese-Spruill, Susan Sumner, David B Buchwalter
Aquatic insects play critical roles in freshwater ecosystems and temperature is a fundamental driver of species performance and distributions. However, the physiological mechanisms that determine the thermal performance of species remain unclear. Here we used a metabolomics approach to gain insights into physiological changes associated with a short-term, sublethal thermal challenge in the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Larvae were subjected to a thermal ramp (from 22 to 30 °C at a rate of 1°C/h) and metabolomics analysis (both Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography coupled Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)) indicated that processes related to energetics (sugar metabolism) and membrane stabilization primarily differentiated heat treated larvae from controls...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#5
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733238/circadian-regulation-of-caterpillar-feeding-and-growth
#6
Agnieszka Suszczynska, Magdalena Maria Kaniewska, Piotr Bebas, Jadwiga Maria Giebultowicz, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska
Circadian clocks orchestrate many physiological processes in adult organisms. For example, rhythmic feeding behavior is regulated by the central clock in the nervous system in coordination with metabolic rhythms, which in turn depend mostly on peripheral clocks localized in many tissues. Disruption of the circadian clock leads to metabolic dysregulation both in mammals and in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Circadian coordination of feeding and metabolism has been studied mainly in adult insects and not in larval stages, which are dramatically different from adults in species with complete full metamorphosis...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733237/a-critical-test-of-drosophila-anaesthetics-isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-are-benign-alternatives-to-cold-and-co2
#7
Heath A MacMillan, Mikkel Nørgård, Heidi J MacLean, Johannes Overgaard, Catherine J A Williams
Anaesthesia is often a necessary step when studying insects like the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies of Drosophila and other insects that require anaesthesia use either cold exposure or carbon dioxide exposure to induce a narcotic state. These anaesthetic methods are known to disrupt physiology and behavior with increasing exposure, and thus ample recovery time is required prior to experimentation. Here, we examine whether two halogenated ethers commonly used in vertebrate anaesthesia, isoflurane and sevoflurane, may serve as alternative means of insect anaesthesia...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733236/novel-tryptophan-metabolic-pathways-in-auxin-biosynthesis-in-silkworm
#8
Chiaki Yokoyama, Mami Takei, Yoshiaki Kouzuma, Shinji Nagata, Yoshihito Suzuki
In the course of our study of the biosynthetic pathway of auxin, a class of phytohormones, in insects, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway tryptophan (Trp)→indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)→indole-3-acetadehyde (IAAld)→indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we identified two branches in the metabolic pathways in the silkworm, possibly affecting the efficiency of IAA production: Trp→indole-3-pyruvic acid→indole-3-lactic acid and IAAld→indole-3-ethanol. We also determined the apparent conversion activities (2...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716396/the-role-of-pilin-protein-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-against-immune-defense-reactions-of-insects
#9
Reyhaneh Darsouei, Javad Karimi, Gary B Dunphy
Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A2, and phenoloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694149/host-regulation-by-the-ectophagous-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-nigricans
#10
Andrea Becchimanzi, Maddalena Avolio, Ilaria Di Lelio, Adriana Marinelli, Paola Varricchio, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Francesco Pennacchio, Silvia Caccia
The host regulation process has been widely investigated in endophagous parasitoid wasps, which in most cases finely interact with living hosts (i.e. koinobiont parasitoids). In contrast, only very limited information is available for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and rapidly suppress their victims (i.e. idiobiont parasitoids). Here we try to fill this research gap by investigating the host regulation by Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous idiobiont wasp species. Parasitism, mainly by venom action, is able to redirect host metabolism in order to enhance its nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae and to provide the required metabolic support to host tissues...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688893/the-effects-of-temperature-activity-and-convection-on-the-plastron-po2-of-the-aquatic-bug-aphelocheirus-aestivalis-hemiptera-aphelocheiridae
#11
Karl K Jones, Stefan K Hetz, Roger S Seymour
The aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius 1794) utilises a plastron, a thin bubble layer on the surface of its body to extract O2 from the water. Millions of tiny hairs keep the bubble from collapsing, enabling the bug to remain submerged indefinitely. The development of fibre optic O2-probes has allowed measurements of O2 pressure (PO2) surrounding the plastron, and within the plastron although only for short periods. Here we developed methods to continuously measure plastron PO2, and investigate how it is affected by temperature (15, 20, 25°C), activity, and water circulation...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676323/visual-cues-of-oviposition-sites-and-spectral-sensitivity-of-cydia-strobilella-l
#12
Johan Jakobsson, Miriam J Henze, Glenn P Svensson, Olle Lind, Olle Anderbrant
We investigated whether the spruce seed moth (Cydia strobilella L., Tortricidae: Grapholitini), an important pest in seed orchards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), can make use of the spectral properties of its host when searching for flowers to oviposit on. Spectral measurements showed that the flowers, and the cones they develop into, differ from a background of P. abies needles by a higher reflectance of long wavelengths. These differences increase as the flowers develop into mature cones. Electroretinograms (ERGs) in combination with spectral adaptation suggest that C...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676322/cleavage-of-the-drosophila-seminal-protein-acp36de-in-mated-females-enhances-its-sperm-storage-activity
#13
Frank W Avila, Mariana F Wolfner
Sperm storage in the mated female reproductive tract (RT) is required for optimal fertility in numerous species with internal fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm storage is dependent on female receipt of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) during mating. The seminal fluid protein Acp36DE is necessary for the accumulation of sperm into storage. In the female RT, Acp36DE localizes to the anterior mating plug and also to a site in the common oviduct, potentially "corralling" sperm near the entry sites into the storage organs...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666863/evaluating-the-molecular-physiological-and-behavioral-impacts-of-co2-narcosis-in-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens
#14
Etya Amsalem, Christina M Grozinger
Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) has pleiotropic effects in many insect species, ranging from eliciting rapid behavioral responses such as attraction, to dramatic physiological changes, including ovary activation. In bumble bees, CO2 narcosis causes queens to bypass diapause and initiate egg laying, but its mode of action is not well-understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of CO2 narcosis on the behavior, physiology and immune function of virgin bumble bee queens (Bombus impatiens). We tested the hypothesis that CO2 induces these changes by stimulating oxidative stress response pathways...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655496/mosquito-aging-modulates-the-heart-rate-and-the-proportional-directionality-of-heart-contractions
#15
Charlotte R Doran, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Julián F Hillyer
Mosquito aging impacts a myriad of physiological processes, including digestion, flight, mating, reproductive success, and immunity. In the present study, we conducted intravital video imaging in 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20-day-old Anopheles gambiae female adults to assess whether aging impacts mosquito heart physiology. We found that the heart contraction rate increases over the first 15days of adulthood and then decreases. These changes occur for both contraction directions, although aging results in a relative change in the anterograde versus retrograde contraction rates...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648807/dehydration-and-starvation-yield-energetic-consequences-that-affect-survival-of-the-american-dog-tick
#16
Andrew J Rosendale, Megan E Dunlevy, Alicia M Fieler, David W Farrow, Benjamin Davies, Joshua B Benoit
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods, but may have to endure extended time (1-2years) between feedings. During these off-host periods, ticks must contend with a multitude of environmental stresses including prolonged or repeated exposure to desiccating conditions. In this study, we measured the energetic consequences of single and repeated bouts of dehydration of American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, and examined the impact of energy reserves on tick survival during dehydration. Recently molted ticks exposed to a single period at 0% relative humidity (RH) for 5d lost ∼26% of their body water and showed 1...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636880/behavioral-evidence-of-oxidative-stress-by-hematophagy-in-the-ocellar-system-of-rhodnius-prolixus-st%C3%A3-l-1859-red-eyed-mutants
#17
Carlos Alberto Vija-Suarez, Mario Iván Ortiz, Jorge Molina
The photonegative response to light stimulation in Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae, Triatominae) is modulated by compound eyes and ocelli. Screening pigments in the visual system have been shown to protect the cellular structures from the oxidative stress damage produced by blood ingestion and light stimulation. Red-eyed mutants of Rhodnius prolixus lack screening pigments in their compound eyes and ocelli and are exposed to more oxidative stress. Experiments with Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans red-eyed mutants reared from the first nymphal stage show damage in the retinas of the compound eyes and a decrease in photonegative responses due to light stimulation...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#18
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623148/male-sexual-enhancement-after-methoprene-treatment-in-anastrepha-fraterculus-diptera-tephritidae-a-sustained-response-that-does-not-fade-away-after-sexual-maturation
#19
G E Bachmann, F Devescovi, A L Nussenbaum, J L Cladera, P C Fernández, M T Vera, P E A Teal, D F Segura
The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619466/drosophila-mitotypes-determine-developmental-time-in-a-diet-and-temperature-dependent-manner
#20
Samuel G Towarnicki, J William O Ballard
It is well known that specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutations can reduce organismal fitness and influence mitochondrial-nuclear interactions. However, determining specific mtDNA mutations that are beneficial has been elusive. In this study, we vary the diet and environmental temperature to study larval development time of two Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (Alstonville and Dahomey), in two nuclear genetic backgrounds, and investigate developmental differences through weight, feeding rate, and movement...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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