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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193479/effects-of-substrate-ant-and-fungal-species-on-plant-fiber-degradation-in-a-fungus-gardening-ant-symbiosis
#1
Alexandria M DeMilto, Monte Rouquette, Ulrich G Mueller, Katrin Kellner, Jon N Seal
Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193478/metabolic-cold-adaptation-contributes-little-to-the-interspecific-variation-in-metabolic-rates-of-65-species-of-drosophilidae
#2
Branwen Messamah, Vanessa Kellermann, Hans Malte, Volker Loeschcke, Johannes Overgaard
Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) is a controversial hypothesis suggesting that cold adapted species display an elevated metabolic rate (MR) compared to their warm climate relatives. Here we test for the presence of MCA within 65 species of drosophilid flies reared under common garden conditions. MR was measured at both 10 and 20°C for both sexes and data was analyzed in relation to the natural thermal environment of these species. We found considerable interspecific variation in MR ranging from 1.34 to 8.99 µW mg(-1) at 10°C...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188726/the-roles-of-v-type-h-atpase-and-na-k-atpase-in-energizing-k-and-h-transport-in-larval-drosophila-gut-epithelia
#3
Natalie M D'Silva, Andrew Donini, Michael J O'Donnell
We analyzed V- type H(+)-ATPase (VA) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) along the caeca and midgut of third instar Drosophila larvae using immunohistochemistry and ATPase activity assays. Corresponding H(+) and K(+) fluxes were characterized using the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET), and the roles of transport ATPases in energizing ion transport across the larval gut were investigated by basal application of bafilomycin, a VA inhibitor, and ouabain, a NKA inhibitor. Addition of bafilomycin led to a decrease in H(+) absorption along the caeca and midgut except at the copper cells and large flat cell zone of the middle midgut...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188725/physiological-correlates-of-chill-susceptibility-in-lepidoptera
#4
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Signe Overgaard Jensen, Johannes Overgaard
The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not to severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167070/regulation-by-gut-bacteria-of-immune-response-bacillus-thuringiensis-susceptibility-and-hemolin-expression-in-plodia-interpunctella
#5
Alonso A Orozco-Flores, Jose A Valadez-Lira, Brenda Oppert, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Reyes Tamez-Guerra, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) is an important stored grain insect pest worldwide, and the first lepidopteran with reported resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Since gut bacteria may affect Bt insecticidal activity, we evaluated whether P. interpunctella lacking gut bacteria had differences in immune responses and susceptibility to the Bt formulation, Bactospeine. In order to clear gut bacteria, third instar larvae were reared on artificial diet containing antibiotics, or were obtained from sterilized eggs and reared under sterile conditions, and larvae were fed diets with or without Bt...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163098/caste-discrimination-in-the-ant-odontomachus-hastatus-what-role-for-behavioral-and-chemical-cues
#6
Kévin Berthelot, Felipe Ramon Portugal, Raphaël Jeanson
In social insects, the maintenance of genetic colony integrity requires resident workers to recognize any intruder with a reproductive potential and to behave appropriately to minimize fitness costs. In this study, our objective was to identify the relative contribution of the behavioral patterns and chemical cues of intruders with different fertility status on their likelihood of being accepted in monogynous colonies. Using the ponerine ant Odontomachus hastatus as a model organism, we introduced non-nestmate workers, founding queens and heterospecific workers on intact nests in the field...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161445/is-diapause-an-ancient-adaptation-in-drosophila
#7
Valeria Zonato, Lewis Collins, Mirko Pegoraro, Eran Tauber, Charalambos P Kyriacou
D. melanogaster enters a state of reproductive arrest when exposed to low temperatures (12°C) and shorter photoperiods. A number of studies have suggested that diapause has recently evolved in European D. melanogaster populations, that it is not present in the sibling species D. simulans, that it is non-photoperiodic in American D. melanogaster populations, and that it spontaneously terminates after 6-8weeks. We have studied the overwintering phenotype under different conditions and observe that American, European and, surprisingly, African D...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159616/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-stage-and-plant-age-on-the-performance-of-a-generalist-aphid
#8
Viktoria V Tomczak, Caroline Müller
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well-established AM), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131702/geographical-analysis-of-diapause-inducibility-in-european-drosophila-melanogaster-populations
#9
Mirko Pegoraro, Valeria Zonato, Elizabeth R Tyler, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Eran Tauber
Seasonal overwintering in insects represents an adaptation to stressful environments and in European Drosophila melanogaster females, low temperatures and short photoperiods can induce an ovarian diapause. Diapause may represent a recent (<15Ky) adaptation to the colonisation of temperate Europe by D. melanogaster from tropical sub-Saharan Africa, because African D. melanogaster and the sibling species D. simulans, have been reported to fail to undergo diapause. Over the past few centuries, D. melanogaster have also invaded North America and Australia, and eastern populations on both continents show a predictable latitudinal cline in diapause induction...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130146/first-finding-of-a-dual-meaning-x-wave-for-phloem-and-xylem-fluid-ingestion-characterization-of-scaphoideus-titanus-hemiptera-cicadellidae-epg-waveforms
#10
Julien Chuche, Elaine A Backus, Denis Thiery, Nicolas Sauvion
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), an invasive deltocephaline species introduced into Europe from North America, is the vector of the most important phytoplasma disease in European viticulture, flavescence dorée. In this first electropenetrography (EPG) study of S. titanus, we characterized its feeding waveforms and defined their biological meanings. Four typical waveform phases (pathway, X wave, sustained ingestion, and interruption) and four families within those phases (A, B, C, and N) were characterized using DC EPG technology...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126373/mixed-xylem-and-phloem-sap-ingestion-in-sheath-feeders-as-normal-dietary-behavior-evidence-from-the-leafhopper-scaphoideus-titanus
#11
Julien Chuche, Nicolas Sauvion, Denis Thiery
In phytophagous piercing-sucking insects, salivary sheath-feeding species are often described as xylem- or phloem-sap feeding specialists. Because these two food sources have very different characteristics, two feeding tactics are often associated with this supposed specialization. Studying the feeding behavior of insects provides substantial information on their biology, ecology, and evolution. Furthermore, study of feeding behavior is of primary importance to elucidate the transmission ability of insects that act as vectors of plant pathogens...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118991/morphology-and-physiology-of-antennal-lobe-projection-neurons-in-the-hawkmoth-agrius-convolvuli
#12
Takuya Nirazawa, Takeshi Fujii, Yoichi Seki, Shigehiro Namiki, Tomoki Kazawa, Ryohei Kanzaki, Yukio Ishikawa
The neuronal pathways involved in the processing of sex pheromone information were investigated in the hawkmoth Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), which uses (E,E)-11,13-hexadecadienal (E11,E13-16:Ald) as the single sex pheromone component. We first clarified the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe of A. convolvuli. Subsequently, central neurons in the antennal lobe that responded to E11,E13-16:Ald were identified. The dendritic processes of these neurons were confined within a specific glomerulus (cumulus) in the antennal lobe...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115118/antennal-responses-to-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-stonefly
#13
Manuela Rebora, Silvana Piersanti, Francesca Frati, Gianandrea Salerno
Notwithstanding their long antennae, especially in the adult stage, Plecoptera represent a poorly studied group as regards their sensory structures and their ability to perceive olfactory stimuli is so far totally unknown. A recent investigation on the antenna of Dinocras cephalotes revealed two kinds of putative olfactory sensilla (multiporous single walled sensilla and digitated double walled sensilla). The present electrophysiological study (electroantennography, EAG), in which male and female antennae of D...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115117/mucin-like-protein-a-saliva-component-involved-in-brown-planthopper-virulence-and-host-adaptation
#14
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Hai-Jun Xu, Yan-Yuan Bao, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, can rapidly adapt to new resistant rice varieties within several generations, rendering its management burdensome. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its adaptability remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the potential role of mucin-like protein (NlMul) in N. lugens virulence and adaptation to host resistance. NlMul is an important glycoprotein that constitutes both gelling and watery saliva, and specifically expressed in the salivary glands at all developmental stages except the egg period...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109904/immune-function-trade-offs-in-response-to-parasite-threats
#15
Lucas J Kirschman, Adam H Quade, Anthony J Zera, Robin W Warne
Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109905/cloning-genetic-engineering-and-characterization-of-tmof-expressed-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-control-larval-mosquitoes
#16
Borovsky Dov, Sabine Nauewelaers, Charles A Powell, Robert G Shatters
Trypsin modulating oostatic factor, a decapaptide isolated from the ovaries of A. aegypti, is the physiological factor that terminates the trypsin biosynthesis after the blood meal. Earlier results obtained from feeding mosquito larvae and injecting female mosquitoes with TMOF show that trypsin biosynthesis and egg development are inhibited, indicating that TMOF traverses the gut epithelial cells and modulates trypsin biosynthesis, making it a potential larvacidal peptide hormone. Therefore, TMOF and TMOF green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein with a trypsin cleavage site, allowing TMOF release in the larval gut, were expressed in S...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109903/an-apposition-compound-eye-adapted-for-nocturnal-vision-in-the-moth-midge-clogmia-albipunctata-williston-diptera-psychodidae
#17
Lei-Po Jia, Ai-Ping Liang
Morphology and anatomy, dark/light adaptational changes and optics of the compound eyes of the nocturnal moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Williston) are studied. Its apposition type of eye consists of approximately 260 well-separated ommatidia. Each ommatidium features a biconvex corneal lens covered by corneal nipples measuring around 17nm in height; a crystalline cone of the acone type; and an open (laterally fused) rhabdom formed by eight retinular cells (R1-R8). The corneal lens, whose biological significance is addressed, is composed of a thick yellow-coloured inner lens unit (ILU) surrounded by a thin, colourless outer lens unit (OLU)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108316/crispr-cas9-in-insects-applications-best-practices-and-biosafety-concerns
#18
REVIEW
Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Benigna Van Eynde, Na Yu, Sanyuan Ma, Guy Smagghe
Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088352/mutations-at-the-darkener-of-apricot-locus-modulate-pheromone-production-and-sex-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Julien Fumey, Claude Wicker-Thomas
Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot (Doa) locus of Drosophila melanogaster alter sexual differentiation by disrupting sex-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, a key regulator of sex determination. Here, we study the effect of seven Doa alleles and several trans-heterozygous combinations on pheromones and courtship behavior. The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile was slightly masculinized in females, with an accumulation of shorter compounds (C23 and C25) and a reduction in longer compounds (C27 and C29)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082084/the-effects-of-fungal-infection-and-physiological-condition-on-the-locomotory-behaviour-of-the-ant-myrmica-scabrinodis
#20
Enikő Csata, Abel Bernadou, Elena Rákosy-Tican, Jürgen Heinze, Bálint Markó
Parasite infection often results in alterations in host behaviour. These changes vary greatly in their magnitude, from slight shifts in the time spent by the host performing a given activity to the appearance of novel behaviours. The effects of parasites can differ with the age and the physiological condition of the host. Rickia wasmannii is an ectoparasitic fungal symbiont in Myrmica ants that covers the whole body surface of the host and reduces its lifespan. The fungus is present in both young and old individuals, making it an optimal subject for the study of age-related parasitic effects...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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