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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528233/sex-versus-parthenogenesis-immune-function-in-a-facultatively-parthenogenetic-phasmatid-extatosoma-tiaratum
#1
Yasaman Alavi, Mark Adrian Elgar, Therésa Melanie Jones
Facultative parthenogenetic species, in which females can alternate between sex and parthenogenesis, are useful models to investigate the costs and benefits of sex and parthenogenesis, an ongoing issue in biology. The necessary empirical studies comparing the outcomes of alternative reproductive modes on life history traits are rare and focus mainly on traits directly associated with reproductive fitness. Immune function determines the ability of individuals to defend themselves against injury and disease and is therefore likely to have a significant impact on fitness...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#2
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#3
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522415/behavioural-adaptation-of-the-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-to-short-term-heat-stress
#4
Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Ling-Ling Gu, Ye Tan, Xiang-Dong Liu
Under ongoing climate warming, both the degree and number of high-temperature events in summer may increase, and behavioural adaptation is an important ecological strategy employed by insects to cope with such events. The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée, is a serious insect pest of rice fields in summer. Population outbreaks have become more frequent in the last ten years. In addition to adult migration, rice leaf folders are thought to have other thermal adaptations. Therefore, the behaviours of larval and adult rice leaf folders, such as leaf folding (making shelter) and habitat selection for pupae and eggs, were observed on rice plants under heat stress...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512014/expressional-divergence-of-insect-gox-genes-from-specialist-to-generalist-glucose-oxidase
#5
Lihong Yang, Xiongya Wang, Sufen Bai, Xin Li, Shaohua Gu, Chen-Zhu Wang, Xianchun Li
Insect herbivores often secrete glucose oxidase (GOX) onto plants to counteract plant defenses and potential pathogens. Whether generalist herbivores always have significantly higher GOX activities than their specialist counterparts at any comparable stage or conditions and how this is realized remain unknown. To address these two general questions, we subjected larvae of a pair of sister species differed mainly in host range, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and its specialist counterpart Helicoverpa assulta, to the same sets of stage, protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio, allelochemical or host plant treatments for simultaneous analyses of GOX transcripts and activities in their labial glands...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479122/what-does-heat-tell-a-mosquito-characterization-of-the-orientation-behaviour-of-aedes-aegypti-towards-heat-sources
#7
Paula F Zermoglio, Eddy Robuchon, María Soledad Leonardi, Fabrice Chandre, Claudio R Lazzari
The use of heat as a cue for the orientation of haematophagous insects towards hot-blooded hosts has been acknowledged for many decades. In mosquitoes, thermoreception has been studied at the molecular, physiological and behavioural levels, and the response to heat has been evaluated in multimodal contexts. However, a direct characterization of how these insects evaluate thermal sources is still lacking. In this study we characterize Aedes aegypti thermal orientation using a simple dual choice paradigm, providing direct evidence on how different attributes of heat sources affect their choice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477982/post-mating-shift-towards-longer-chain-cuticular-hydrocarbons-drastically-reduces-female-attractiveness-to-males-in-a-digger-wasp
#8
Carlo Polidori, Irene Giordani, Mareike Wurdack, José Tormos, Josep D Asís, Thomas Schmitt
Females of most aculeate Hymenoptera mate only once and males are therefore under a strong competitive pressure which is expected to favour the evolution of rapid detection of virgin females. In several bee species, the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile exhibited by virgin females elicits male copulation attempts. However, it is still unknown how widespread this type of sexual communication is within Aculeata. Here, we investigated the use of CHCs as mating cues in the digger wasp Stizus continuus, which belongs to the family (Crabronidae) from within bees arose...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457724/effects-of-pre-overwintering-conditions-on-eupyrene-and-apyrene-spermatogenesis-after-overwintering-in-polygonia-c-aureum-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#9
Satoshi Hiroyoshi, Jin Yoshimura, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Gadi V P Reddy, Jun Mitsuhashi
Sperm polymorphism is widely known in invertebrates. In insects, Lepidoptera has two types of sperm: nucleated eupyrene (fertile) sperm and anucleated apyrene (unfertile) sperm. These sperm types are produced during post-embryogenesis, and eupyrene spermatogenesis precedes apyrene spermatogenesis. During overwintering, spermatogenesis stops and a portion of undifferentiated-stage spermatocytes degenerate. After overwintering, spermatogenesis restarts with unaffected spermatogonia. However, how new spermatozoa arise in the adult testes after overwintering is not known in Lepidoptera...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#10
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#11
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414060/dietary-protein-content-alters-both-male-and-female-contributions-to-drosophila-melanogaster-female-post-mating-response-traits
#12
Janna N Schultzhaus, Ginger E Carney
Males transfer sperm, proteins and other molecules to females during mating. In Drosophila melanogaster, these molecules contribute to the induction of egg maturation, ovulation, oviposition, sperm storage and changes in female receptivity. This suite of physiological and behavioral changes is referred to as the female post-mating response (PMR). Protein is a necessary macronutrient for both male and female reproduction, but imbalances in protein content can decrease reproductive potential. Dietary protein affects the production of proteins in the male ejaculate that are important for induction of the PMR, and female fecundity increases with dietary protein while lifetime mating rate decreases...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412203/atp-sensitive-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-modulators-alter-cardiac-function-in-honey-bees
#13
Scott T O'Neal, Daniel R Swale, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Troy D Anderson
ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels couple cellular metabolism to the membrane potential of the cell and play an important role in a variety of tissue types, including the insect dorsal vessel, making them a subject of interest not only for understanding invertebrate physiology, but also as a potential target for novel insecticides. Most of what is known about these ion channels is the result of work performed in mammalian systems, with insect studies being limited to only a few species and physiological systems...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396211/cold-tolerance-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-and-its-response-to-epigenetic-alterations
#14
Aljoscha Kreß, Ann-Marie Oppold, Ulrich Kuch, Jörg Oehlmann, Ruth Müller
Phenotypic plasticity is considered as one of the key traits responsible for the establishment of populations of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, an important vector of viral and parasitic pathogens. The successful spread of this species to higher altitudes and latitudes may be explained by its ability to rapidly induce a heritable low-temperature phenotype (cold hardiness in eggs). As a result of the low genetic diversity of founder populations, an epigenetic short-term mechanism has been suggested as the driver of this diversification...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392206/nitrogen-nutrition-of-tomato-plant-alters-leafminer-dietary-intake-dynamics
#15
Victoire Coqueret, Jacques Le Bot, Romain Larbat, Nicolas Desneux, Christophe Robin, Stéphane Adamowicz
The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T. absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#16
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377097/the-short-neuropeptide-f-modulates-olfactory-sensitivity-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-upon-starvation
#17
Hong-Bo Jiang, Shun-Hua Gui, Li Xu, Yu-Xia Pei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
The insect short neuropeptide F (sNPF) family has been shown to modulate diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, appetitive olfactory behavior, locomotion, sleep homeostasis and hormone release. In this study, we identified the sNPF (BdsNPF) and its receptor (BdsNPFR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Afterwards, the receptor cDNA was functionally expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Activation of BdsNPFR by sNPF peptides caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, with a 50% effective concentration values at the nanomolar level...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365384/adaptive-significance-of-precocious-pupation-in-the-bean-blister-beetle-epicauta-gorhami-coleoptera-meloidae-a-hypermetamorphic-insect
#18
Yoshinori Shintani, Misato Terao, Seiji Tanaka
Larvae of the bean blister beetle, Epicauta gorhami Marseul (Coleoptera: Meloidae), feed on grasshopper eggs in soil and undergo hypermetamorphosis. They normally enter diapause as a pseudopupa at the fifth instar, a form characteristic of hypermetamorphosis for meloid beetles. However, fourth-instar larvae exposed to long days and high temperature avoid pseudopupal diapause and pupate directly from the fourth instar. Fourth-instar larvae also tend to pupate precociously with a smaller body size if they are deprived of food...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359776/cross-species-comparison-of-the-gut-differential-gene-expression-sheds-light-on-biological-differences-in-closely-related-tenebrionids
#19
Brenda Oppert, Lindsey Perkin, Alexander G Martynov, Elena N Elpidina
The gut is one of the primary interfaces between an insect and its environment. Understanding gene expression profiles in the insect gut can provide insight into interactions with the environment as well as identify potential control methods for pests. We compared the expression profiles of transcripts from the gut of larval stages of two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. These tenebrionids have different life cycles, varying in the duration and number of larval instars. T. castaneum has a sequenced genome and has been a model for coleopterans, and we recently obtained a draft genome for T...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342762/male-accessory-gland-proteins-affect-differentially-female-sexual-receptivity-and-remating-in-closely-related-drosophila-species
#20
Béatrice Denis, Gaëlle Claisse, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Claude Wicker-Thomas, Gildas Lepennetier, Dominique Joly
In sexual species, mating success depends on the male's capacity to find sexual partners and on female receptivity to mating. Mating is under evolutionary constraints to prevent interspecific mating and to maximize the reproductive success of both sexes. In Drosophila melanogaster, female receptivity to mating is mainly controlled by Sex peptide (SP, i.e. Acp70A) produced by the male accessory glands with other proteins (Acps). The transfer of SP during copulation dramatically reduces female receptivity to mating and prevents remating with other males...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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