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Journal of Insect Physiology

Clayre Grumiaux, Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Hervé Colinet, Johannes Overgaard
Drosophila suzukii, an invasive species recently introduced in Europe, lays eggs in thin-skinned fruits and causes huge financial losses to fruit growers. One potential way to control this pest is the sterile insect technique (SIT) which demands a large stock of reproductive females to produce millions of sterile males to be released on demand. Unfortunately, Drosophila stocks age quickly, show declining fecundity when maintained at warm temperatures and conversely, they die from chill injury if they are maintained at constant low temperature...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Magdalena Hodkova, Takashi Okuda
Three types of regulation of the corpus allatum (CA) activity were defined in females of the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus. First, short-term inhibition of the CA activity was found in starved or fed long-day females, or in short-day females. Inhibitory factor(s) are transmitted to the CA via nerves, but in vitro they might reach the CA via the incubation medium. Origin of the inhibition is the pars intercerebralis (PI). The inhibitory effect is reversible during short-term incubation in vitro. This short-term inhibition can be quickly restored by the presence of the brain-suboesophageal ganglion (BR-SG) with the PI or removed, by the presence of the BR-SG without the PI or by the absence of the BR-SG...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sandra Ehrenberg, Oleg Lewkowski, Silvio Erler
Several environmental factors (e.g. food source, pesticides, toxins, parasites and pathogens) influence development and maturation of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Therefore, controlled experimental conditions are mandatory when studying the impact of environmental factors: particularly food quality and nutrient consumption. In vitro larval rearing is a standard approach for monitoring food intake of larvae and the labelling of food is necessary to quantify intake in controlled feeding experiments. Here, we tested the suitability of two food dyes, Allura Red and Brilliant Blue, in an experimental set up using in vitro reared honey bee larvae and freshly hatched adult workers...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jantina Toxopeus, Alexander H McKinnon, Tomáš Štětina, Kurtis F Turnbull, Brent J Sinclair
Many temperate insects encounter temperatures low enough to freeze their body fluids. Remarkably, some insects are freeze-tolerant, surviving this internal ice formation. However, the mechanisms underlying freeze tolerance are not well-understood, in part due to a lack of tractable model organisms. We describe a novel laboratory model to study insect freeze tolerance, the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthopera: Gryllidae). Following acclimation to six weeks of decreasing temperature and photoperiod, G...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Gyan Harwood, Gro Amdam, Dalial Freitak
Female insects that survive a pathogen attack can produce more pathogen-resistant offspring in a process called trans-generational immune priming. In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), the egg-yolk precursor protein Vitellogenin transports fragments of pathogen cells into the egg, thereby setting the stage for a recruitment of immunological defenses prior to hatching. Honey bees live in complex societies where reproduction and communal tasks are divided between a queen and her sterile female workers. Worker bees metabolize Vitellogenin to synthesize royal jelly, a protein-rich glandular secretion fed to the queen and young larvae...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Henry M Vu, James E Pennoyer, Kevin R Ruiz, Patricia Portmann, John G Duman
Paradoxically, some insects have an increased capacity to survive higher temperatures in winter than summer. Possible contributors to this increased heat tolerance in winter could be their sub-zero adaptations (high polyol concentrations, antifreeze proteins, antifreeze glycolipids, etc.). To investigate if a sub-zero adaptation can increase organismal high temperature survivorship, we tested transgenic fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, with antifreeze proteins from the fire-colored beetle, Dendroides canadensis (DAFPs)...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Dennis Kolosov, Cam Donly, Heath MacMillan, Michael J O'Donnell
Excretion of metabolic wastes and toxins in insect Malpighian tubules (MTs) is coupled to secretion of ions and fluid. Larval lepidopterans demonstrate a complex and regionalized MT morphology, and recent studies of larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, have revealed several unusual aspects of ion transport in the MTs Firstly, cations are reabsorbed via secondary cells (SCs) in T. ni, whereas in most insects SCs secrete ions. Secondly, SCs are coupled to neighbouring principal cells (PCs) via gap junctions to enable such ion reabsorption...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Aya Yanagawa, Antoine Couto, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Toshimitsu Hata, Aniruddha Mitra, Moutaz Ali Agha, Frédéric Marion-Poll
In flies, grooming serves several purposes, including protection against pathogens and parasites. Previously, we found Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce grooming behavior via activation of contact chemoreceptors on Drosophila wing. This suggested that specific taste receptors may contribute to this detection. In this study, we examined the perception of commercially available LPS on Drosophila wing chemoreceptors in grooming reflex. Behavioral tests conducted with bitter, sweet and salty gustation such as caffeine, sucrose and salt, using flies carrying a defect in one of their taste receptors related to the detection of bitter molecules (Gr66a, Gr33a), sugars (Gr5a, Gr64f), or salt (IR76b)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Liang Zhu, Lin Wang, Chun-Sen Ma
Climate warming is characterized by increase in extreme heat events (EHEs). EHEs and mild temperature periods alternate with each other and form complex climate scenarios. Among these scenarios, low-frequency and short-duration extreme heat events during long mild periods (sporadic short EHEs) and low-frequency and short-duration mild periods during long extreme heat events (sporadic short mild periods) commonly occur in nature. The biological effects of these two types of temperature events have not been thoroughly elucidated to date...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Manuela Rebora, Gianandrea Salerno, Silvana Piersanti, Jan Michels, Stanislav Gorb
Insects devote a high amount of time to self-groom to remove foreign material, especially from their sensory appendages. Using various microscopy techniques and behavioural experiments on intact and ablated insects, the present study investigates the antennal grooming of the green stinkbug Nezara viridula, which represents a serious pest of different crops in most areas of the world. The antennal grooming behaviour encompass an action of scraping involving the tibial comb complex (tibial comb + fossula) of both forelegs, generally followed by the tibial comb complex grooming of one leg using the tarsal hairy pad of the opposite leg (rubbing)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Abbie J Reade, Michael Dillon, Dhruba Naug
A central benefit of group living is the cooperative acquisition and sharing of resources but the costs associated with these processes can set up a potential conflict between individual and group level fitness. Within a honeybee colony, the task of resource acquisition is relegated to the foragers and any interindividual differences in their metabolic rate and the consequent carbohydrate demand may pose a constraint on the amount of resources they can contribute to the colony. We investigated whether the carbohydrate demand of a forager is a function of her metabolic rate and if this impacts the amount of food she shares with the nestmates...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Wenjing Wu, Daifei Gu, Shanchun Yan, Zhiqiang Li
Termites obtain energy and nutrition from wood and wood-related materials by utilizing endogenous and symbiotic cellulases. Endoglucanase is one of the key cellulases in cellulose digestion. Previous studies have shown that the inhibition of the cellulase enzyme system would be a plausible approach for termite control. In the present study, we studied the effect of RNAi on termites by targeting a conserved region of five endoglucanase genes from Coptotermes formosanus (CfEGs). Both dsRNA injection and oral delivery resulted in significant gene silencing of CfEGs and consequently led to mortality, reduced enzyme activity, and reduced weight compared to control worker termites...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Keisuke Matsushima, Tomohiro Watanabe, Ken Sasaki
Dopamine is a potential integrator between the central nervous system and reproductive system in insects. To test for a possible action of dopamine on the male reproductive organ via hemolymph in honey bees, relative expression levels of dopamine receptor genes and second messenger levels responding to dopamine in the reproductive organ were quantified. Protein content of the three parts of the reproductive organ (testes, seminal vesicles, and mucus glands) differed depending on the age of bees: the protein content of the testes decreased, whereas that of the seminal vesicles and mucus glands increased as males aged...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Keisuke Naniwa, Yasuhiro Sugimoto, Koichi Osuka, Hitoshi Aonuma
Feces provides information about the donor and potentially attracts both conspecifics and predators and also parasites. The excretory system must be coordinated with other behaviors in insects. We found that crickets started walking forward following defecation. Most intact crickets walked around the experimental arena, stopped at a particular site and raised their bodies up with a slight backward drift to defecate. After the feces dropped to the floor, a cricket started walking with a non-coordinated gait pattern away from the defecation site, and then changed to a tripod gait...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zinan Wang, Yan Chen, Rodrigo Diaz, Roger A Laine
Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the adaptation and diversification of insects. Diverse and complex physiological mechanisms have evolved to help insects adapt to seasonal changes in temperature and prevent cold injury. Although the mechanisms of seasonal adaptation to low temperatures have been studied for insects in different taxa, none of these mechanisms have been investigated in scale insects in the superfamily Coccoidea. The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a newly introduced scale pest of crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jieliang Zhao, Fanyue Meng, Shaoze Yan, Jianing Wu, Youjian Liang, Yuling Zhang
Honeybee drinking is facilitated by a "mop-like" tongue, which helps honeybees suck in the sucrose solution from the environment. However, the liquid-transport mechanism from the pharynx to the crop, especially the natural link between abdominal pumping and dipping behavior on the sucrose solution intake, remains obscure. A significant increase in abdominal pumping frequency is observed when honeybees drink the sucrose solution. Abdominal pumping exhibits a function other than respiration. This second function assists in driving the sucrose solution from the pharynx to the crop...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zhongchen Rao, Li Cao, Xuehong Qiu, Richou Han
Hypoxia or anoxia greatly impact the survival of many animal species. The ghost moth Thitarodes armoricanus is distributed in the Tibetan Plateau at an average elevation of approximate 4 km above sea level and has probably evolved a superior capacity to tolerate low oxygen levels. In this study, transcriptome analysis using high-throughput RNA-seq revealed common and different adaptation strategies of T. armoricanus in response to hypoxia (11% O2 ) or anoxia. T. armoricanus adopted three common strategies for adaptation to hypoxia or anoxia: Up-regulated signal transduction pathways essential for cellular survival, strengthened cell and organelle structure and activity, and activated immune system...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xuan Chen, Meng-Qiu Zhang, Xin-Qiu Wang, Jian-Sheng Guo, Dan-Ting Li, Jian Xue, Wei-Dong Pan, Chuan-Xi Zhang
In duet-based courtship, species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable animals to identify the species and sex of the singer and also provide the necessary information with which to locate a partner. Substrate-borne communication has been described in a wide variety of insects. Here, we focus on the gene necessary for the emission of male vibrational signals and whether the male song fulfills such a functional role in the mating system of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). We generated mute BPH adult males via RNA interference (RNAi) of the flightin gene, which encodes a myosin-binding protein expressed exclusively in the dorsal longitudinal muscle (DLM) in the basal two abdominal segments used for driving the vibration of the male-specific tymbal structure in short-winged (brachypterous) BPH adults...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jan Rozsypal, Vladimír Košťál
Overwintering insects are categorized either as freeze tolerant or freeze avoiding (supercooling) based on their ability or inability, respectively, to tolerate the formation of ice in their body. The freeze tolerant insects set their supercooling point (SCP) higher for winter to stimulate freezing at higher temperatures, while freeze avoiding insects survive winter in a supercooled state by depressing their SCP. Some supercooling insects, however, were found to survive in frozen state when freezing occurred through inoculation by external ice at mild subzero temperatures...
November 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xiaojiao Guo, Ying Wang, Irina Sinakevitch, Hong Lei, Brian H Smith
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for artificially manipulating gene expression in diverse organisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, both long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) and small interference RNA (siRNA) have been successfully used to reduce targeted gene expression and induce specific phenotypes. However, whether dsRNA and siRNA have different effects and efficiencies in gene silencing has never been investigated in honey bees. Thus, we tested the effect of dsRNA and siRNA on the tyramine receptor 1 (tyr1), which encodes a receptor of neurotransmitter tyramine, in honey bee brains at mRNA and protein levels over time...
November 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
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