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Journal of Insect Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636880/behavioral-evidence-of-oxidative-stress-by-hematophagy-in-the-ocellar-system-of-rhodnius-prolixus-st%C3%A3-l-1859-red-eyed-mutants
#1
Carlos Alberto Vija Suarez, Mario Iván Ortiz, Jorge Molina
The photonegative response to light stimulation in Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae, Triatominae) is modulated by compound eyes and ocelli. Screening pigments in the visual system have been shown to protect the cellular structures from the oxidative stress damage produced by blood ingestion and light stimulation. Red-eyed mutants of Rhodnius prolixus lack screening pigments in their compound eyes and ocelli and are exposed to more oxidative stress. Experiments with Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans red-eyed mutants reared from the first nymphal stage show damage in the retinas of the compound eyes and a decrease in photonegative responses due to light stimulation...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#2
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623148/male-sexual-enhancement-after-methoprene-treatment-in-anastrepha-fraterculus-diptera-tephritidae-a-sustained-response-that-does-not-fade-away-after-sexual-maturation
#3
G E Bachmann, F Devescovi, A L Nussenbaum, J L Cladera, P C Fernández, M T Vera, P E A Teal, D F Segura
The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619466/drosophila-mitotypes-determine-developmental-time-in-a-diet-and-temperature-dependent-manner
#4
Samuel G Towarnicki, J William O Ballard
It is well known that specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutations can reduce organismal fitness and influence mitochondrial-nuclear interactions. However, determining specific mtDNA mutations that are beneficial has been elusive. In this study, we vary the diet and environmental temperature to study larval development time of two Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (Alstonville and Dahomey), in two nuclear genetic backgrounds, and investigate developmental differences through weight, feeding rate, and movement...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614727/micronutrient-consumption-by-female-argiope-bruennichi-affects-offspring-survival
#5
Shawn M Wilder, Jutta M Schneider
Sexual cannibalism has long been hypothesized to be a foraging decision in which females consume males for the nutrients in their bodies. While few studies have documented fecundity benefits of sexual cannibalism, several recent studies have documented benefits of cannibalism to egg hatching success or offspring survival. We tested if small supplements of dietary essential nutrients fed to female spiders, Argiope bruennichi, would result in increases in offspring survival similar to those seen following sexual cannibalism...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610748/transgenerational-seasonal-timer-for-suppression-of-sexual-morph-production-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#6
Naoki Matsuda, Takashi Kanbe, Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Hideharu Numata
Many aphid species switch reproductive modes seasonally, with the sexual generations appearing in autumn. Sexual generations are induced by short days. It has been reported that the appearance of sexual morphs is suppressed by a transgenerational factor (a seasonal timer) over several generations after hatching from overwintered eggs. The present study examined whether the seasonal timer measures the number of days from hatching or the number of generations from hatching using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera: Aphididae)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606855/variation-in-the-web-based-chemical-cues-of-argiope-keyserlingi
#7
Jessica Henneken, Jason Q D Goodger, Therèsa M Jones, Mark A Elgar
Pheromones are chemical compounds used to transmit information between individuals of the same species. Pheromone composition is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Numerous studies, predominately of insects, have demonstrated a role for diet in pheromone expression. The chemical composition of spider web-silk varies with diet and in many species these chemicals are crucial to mate choice processes. Here, we investigated individual variation in the chemical compounds found on the surface of web-silk of female Argiope keyserlingi, and further explored the degree to which they are influenced by diet, investment in egg sac production and site of collection...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606854/divergent-roles-of-the-drosophila-melanogaster-globins
#8
Thorsten Burmester, Agnes Wawrowski, Ines Diepenbruck, Katharina Schrick, Nina Seiwert, Fabian Ripp, Andreas Prothmann, Thomas Hankeln
In contrast to long-held assumptions, the gene repertoire of most insects includes hemoglobins. Analyses of the genome of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster identified three distinct hemoglobin genes (glob1, glob2, and glob3). While glob1 is predominantly associated with the tracheal system and fat body, glob2 and glob3 are almost exclusively expressed in the testis. The physiological role of globins in Drosophila is uncertain. Here, we studied the functions of the three globins in a cell culture system. Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells were stably transfected with each of the three globins and the empty vector as control...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#9
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583832/yorkie-ca-overexpression-in-the-posterior-silk-gland-improves-silk-yield-in-bombyx-mori
#10
Panli Zhang, Shumin Liu, Hong-Sheng Song, Guozheng Zhang, Qiangqiang Jia, Sheng Li
The traditional hybrid breeding techniques can no longer meet the increasing demands for silk production by the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and further improvement of the silk yield will depend on modern molecular breeding techniques. Here, we report improved silk yield in transgenic silkworms overexpressing the oncogene Yorkie(CA) specifically in the posterior silk gland (PSG). The Yorkie(CA) cDNA was ligated downstream of the hr3 enhancer and the fibroin L-chain (Fil) promoter, then inserted into a piggyBac vector for transgene...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576457/sugar-and-amino-acid-preference-in-the-black-garden-ant-lasius-niger-l
#11
Natalia E L Madsen, Peter B Sørensen, Joachim Offenberg
The mutualistic relationship that the garden ant Lasius niger (L.) establishes with trophobiotic homopterans makes this ant an unwelcome host in commercial crops, as ants improve the survival of homopteran pests from which they collect honeydew as a source of carbohydrates. Because the offering of alternative sugar sources can be used to disrupt this relationship, the present study explored L. niger's preference towards sugar and amino acid components that may be used in sugar solutions to increase their attractiveness...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571710/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-carpomya-vesuviana-and-their-binding-affinity-to-the-male-borne-semiochemicals-and-host-plant-volatiles
#12
Yawei Li, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Ding Yang, Zhihong Li, Xianglin Zhang, Shuifang Zhu, Yanxue Yu, Naizhong Chen
Carpomya vesuviana (Costa; Diptera: Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest that causes serious damage to jujube fruits. However, the mechanism of olfaction, which is critical for host identification, is not well understood in this pest. In this study, we have identified for the first time five protein types involved in the olfactory signal transduction of C. vesuviana by using transcriptome sequencing. These include 6 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 odorant receptors (ORs), 22 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559110/protein-restriction-affects-sperm-number-but-not-sperm-viability-in-male-ants
#13
Francisco Dávila, Serge Aron
Sperm cells are costly to produce; diet should therefore affect sperm number and/or viability. In non-social insects and vertebrates, there is compelling evidence that diet influences sperm production. Less is known about this relationship in eusocial hymenopterans (all ants and some bees and wasps), whose mating systems impose unique selective pressures on sperm production. Males face physiological constraints: they acquire all of the resources they will use in future reproductive efforts as larvae and emerge from the pupal stage with a fixed, non-renewable amount of sperm...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549655/experimental-winter-warming-modifies-thermal-performance-and-primes-acorn-ants-for-warm-weather
#14
Heidi J MacLean, Clint A Penick, Robert R Dunn, Sarah E Diamond
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545993/the-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungal-culture-filtrate-on-the-immune-response-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#15
Louise Mc Namara, James C Carolan, Christine T Griffin, David Fitzpatrick, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529156/transgenerational-effects-of-maternal-and-grandmaternal-age-on-offspring-viability-and-performance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Margaret C Bloch Qazi, Paige B Miller, Penny M Poeschel, Mai H Phan, Joseph L Thayer, Christian L Medrano
In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529155/metabolic-insights-into-the-cold-survival-strategy-and-overwintering-of-the-common-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#17
Wei Zhu, Huan Zhang, Qian Meng, Menglong Wang, Guiling Zhou, Xuan Li, Hongtuo Wang, Lin Miao, Qilian Qin, Jihong Zhang
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12h) plus 13°C (12h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528233/sex-versus-parthenogenesis-immune-function-in-a-facultatively-parthenogenetic-phasmatid-extatosoma-tiaratum
#18
Yasaman Alavi, Mark Adrian Elgar, Therésa Melanie Jones
Facultative parthenogenetic species, in which females can alternate between sex and parthenogenesis, are useful models to investigate the costs and benefits of sex and parthenogenesis, an ongoing issue in biology. The necessary empirical studies comparing the outcomes of alternative reproductive modes on life history traits are rare and focus mainly on traits directly associated with reproductive fitness. Immune function determines the ability of individuals to defend themselves against injury and disease and is therefore likely to have a significant impact on fitness...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#19
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522416/implantation-assays-using-the-integument-of-early-stage-bombyx-larvae-insights-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-acquisition-of-competence-for-metamorphosis
#20
Tomohiro Inui, Takaaki Daimon
It is widely accepted that the anti-metamorphic action of insect juvenile hormones (JHs) is required to inhibit larval-pupal metamorphosis. However, recent studies using RNAi or knockout techniques reveal that larval status may be maintained independently of JHs during the early larval stages. To investigate why larvae of very early instars do not have competence to metamorphose and how they acquire this competence through larval development, we revisited the classic experiments of Piepho (ca. 1930s) and performed implantation assays using the integument of very young larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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