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Journal of Insect Physiology

Fanny Vogelweith, Susanne Foitzik, Joël Meunier
Immunity is a crucial but costly trait. Individuals should therefore adjust their investment into immunity to their condition and infection risks, which are often determined by their age, sex, mating status and social environment. However, whether and how these four key factors can interact to shape basal immunity remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the simultaneous effects of these factors on hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity in adults of the European earwig. We found that hemocyte concentration increased with age, and that this increase was stronger in males...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Lucy Alford, Hossein Kishani Farahani, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
For generalist parasitoids such as those belonging to the Genus Aphidius, the choice of host species can have profound implications for the emerging parasitoid. Host species is known to affect a variety of life history traits. However, the impact of the host on thermal tolerance has never been studied. Physiological thermal tolerance, enabling survival at unfavourable temperatures, is not a fixed trait and may be influenced by a number of external factors including characteristics of the stress, of the individual exposed to the stress, and of the biological and physical environment...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Didi Tarmadi, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura, Yuki Tobimatsu, Masaomi Yamamura, Toshiaki Umezawa
We investigated the effects of lignins as diet components on the physiological activities of a lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Artificial diets composed of polysaccharides with and without purified lignins (milled-wood lignins) from Japanese cedar (softwood), Japanese beech (hardwood), and rice (grass), were fed to C. formosanus workers. The survival and body mass of the workers as well as the presence of three symbiotic protists in the hindguts of the workers were then periodically examined...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Leigh Boardman, Katherine A Mitchell, John S Terblanche, Jesper G Sørensen
While single stress responses are fairly well researched, multiple, interactive stress responses are not -despite the obvious importance thereof. Here, using D. melanogaster, we investigated the effects of simultaneous exposures to low O2 (hypoxia) and varying thermal conditions on mortality rates, estimates of thermal tolerance and the transcriptome. We used combinations of 21 (normoxia), 10 or 5 kPa O2 with control (23°C), cold (4°C) or hot (31°C) temperature exposures before assaying chill coma recovery time (CCRT) and heat knock down time (HKDT) as measures of cold and heat tolerance respectively...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Bartosz W Schramm, Agnieszka Gudowska, Andrzej Antoł, Anna Maria Labecka, Ulf Bauchinger, Jan Kozłowski, Marcin Czarnoleski
The rate at which organisms metabolize resources and consume oxygen is tightly linked to body mass. Typically, there is a sub-linear allometric relationship between metabolic rates and body mass (mass-scaling exponent b<1). The origin of this pattern remains one of the most intriguing and hotly debated topics in evolutionary physiology. A decrease in mass-specific metabolic rates in larger organisms might reflect disproportionate increases in body components with low metabolic activity, such as storage and skeletal tissues...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Bao-Jian Zhu, Saima Kausar, Li-Shang Dai, Yu-Xuan Sun, Ji Wu Tian, Chao-Liang Liu
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a potent negative regulator of diverse cytokine-related responses to maintain various physiological processes in animals. Here, we obtained the SOCS2-12 gene sequence of Bombyx mori (Dazao) (BmSOCS2-12) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to study its expression profile in different tissues, as well as in the immune tissues following larval exposure to pathogens. Further, we investigated the role of BmSOCS2-12 in producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and as a regulator of ecdysteroid signaling transduction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nodoka Sato, Hisashi Shidara, Hiroto Ogawa
Arthropods including insects grow through several developmental stages by molting. The abrupt changes in their body size and morphology accompanying the molting are responsible for the developmental changes in behavior. While in holometabolous insects, larval behaviors are transformed into adult-specific behaviors with drastic changes in nervous system during the pupal stage, hemimetabolous insects preserve most innate behaviors whole life long, which allow us to trace the maturation process of preserved behaviors after the changes in body...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Weining Cheng, Zhiren Long, Yudong Zhang, Tingting Liang, Keyan Zhu-Salzman
Sitodiplosis mosellana, one of the most important wheat pests, goes through larval diapause in a cocooned form. It is univoltine, but some individuals exhibit prolonged diapause. In this study, we documented diapause termination rate of cocooned larvae at different diapausing periods and time required for adult emergence when they were brought to 25°C from the field in northern China. We found that field larvae all entered diapause by June, but none terminated diapause until late September when the daily average temperature dropped to below 20°C...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Arinder K Arora, Angela E Douglas
All insects, including pest species, are colonized by microorganisms, variously located in the gut and within insect tissues. Manipulation of these microbial partners can reduce the pest status of insects, either by modifying insect traits (e.g. altering the host range or tolerance of abiotic conditions, reducing insect competence to vector disease agents) or by reducing fitness. Strategies utilizing heterologous microorganisms (i.e. derived from different insect species) and genetically-modified microbial symbionts are under development, particularly in relation to insect vectors of human disease agents...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ramandeep Ubhi, Philip G D Matthews
Dragonflies are amphibiotic, spending most of their lives as aquatic nymphs before metamorphosing into terrestrial, winged imagoes. Both the nymph and the adult use rhythmic abdominal pumping movements to ventilate their gas exchange systems: the nymph tidally ventilates its rectal gill with water, while the imago pumps air into its tracheal system through its abdominal spiracles. The transition from water to air is known to be associated with changes in both respiratory chemosensitivity and ventilatory control in vertebrates and crustaceans, but the changes experienced by amphibiotic insects have been poorly explored...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sumiharu Nagaoka, Saori Kawasaki, Hideki Kawasaki, Kaeko Kamei
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (also known as peptidyl dicarboxypeptidase A, ACE, and EC, which is found in a wide range of organisms, cleaves C-terminal dipeptides from relatively short oligopeptides. Mammalian ACE plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. However, the precise physiological functions of insect ACE homologs have not been understood. As part of our effort to elucidate new physiological roles of insect ACE, we herein report a soluble ACE protein in male reproductive secretions from the silkmoth, Bombyx mori...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Laura Değirmenci, Markus Thamm, Ricarda Scheiner
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are well-known for their sophisticated division of labor with each bee performing sequentially a series of social tasks. Colony organization is largely based on age-dependent division of labor. While bees perform several tasks inside the hive such as caring for brood ("nursing"), cleaning or sealing brood cells or producing honey, older bees leave to colony to collect pollen (proteins) and nectar (carbohydrates) as foragers. The most pronounced behavioral transition occurs when nurse bees become foragers...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Guan-Heng Zhu, Ying-Chuan Peng, Mei-Yan Zheng, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Jia-Bin Sun, Yongping Huang, Shuang-Lin Dong
The custom-design bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system has been recently used in some insects, indicating a powerful technique for studies on gene function and transgenic insects. However, its use in lepidopteran pests is scarce. Here, we reported a CRISPR/Cas9 system mediated mutagenesis of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex1, subunit 2 (BLOS2) gene in a noctuid pest Spodoptera litura. A fragment of SlitBLOS2 was identified by analyzing a S. litura transcriptome database by local basic BLAST, and the full length cDNA was acquired by RACE strategy...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jon F Harrison, James S Waters, Taylor A Biddulph, Aleksandra Kovacevic, C Jaco Klok, John J Socha
While it is clear that the insect tracheal system can respond in a compensatory manner to both hypoxia and hyperoxia, there is substantial variation in how different parts of the system respond. However, the response of tracheal structures, from the tracheoles to the largest tracheal trunks, have not been studied within one species. In this study, we examined the effect of larval/pupal rearing in hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (10, 21 or 40kPa oxygen) on body size and the tracheal supply to the flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster, using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT) to assess flight muscle volumes and the major tracheal trunks, and confocal microscopy to assess the tracheoles...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mélisandre A Téfit, Benjamin Gillet, Pauline Joncour, Sandrine Hughes, François Leulier
In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jincheng Zheng, Xiongbin Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, Bo Zhang, Chun-Sen Ma
Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sarah E Berry, Joshua Gilchrist, David J Merritt
Glowworms, members of the keroplatid fly genus, Arachnocampa, glow to attract prey. Here we describe substantial differences in the bioluminescence regulatory systems of two species; one is a troglophile with populations both in caves and outside of caves in wet forest (Arachnocampa tasmaniensis) and the other has no known cave populations (Arachnocampa flava). We find that A. tasmaniensis is ready to initiate bioluminescence at any time darkness is encountered. In contrast, A. flava shows a homeostatic control of bioluminescence; it is unlikely to initiate bioluminescence when exposed to dark pulses during the photophase and it does so with a long latency...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Shi-Hong Gu, Hsiao-Yen Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
Regulation of protein phosphorylation requires coordinated interactions between protein kinases and protein phosphatases. In the present study, we investigated regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) during the embryonic diapause process of B. mori. An immunobloting analysis showed that Bombyx eggs contained a catalytic C subunit, a major 55-kDa regulatory B subunit (B55/PR55 subunit), and a structural A subunit, with the A and B subunits undergoing differential changes between diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryonic process...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Olabimpe O Okosun, Christian W W Pirk, Robin M Crewe, Abdullahi A Yusuf
Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jing Zhao, Yunlong Zhou, Xiang Li, Wanlun Cai, Hongxia Hua
The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is an important migratory pest in many rice planting areas of Asia. The typical wing dimorphism of N. lugens gives them flexibility to adapt to different environmental cues. As an important hormone in the insect's endocrine regulation, juvenile hormone (JH) has previously been shown to participate in the wing morph determination of N. lugens. In this paper, we investigated the possible wing morph determination roles of two JH metabolic enzymes, JH esterase (JHE) and JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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