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Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542005/standardization-of-tumor-markers-priorities-identified-through-external-quality-assessment
#1
Catharine Sturgeon
Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from <5% for the structurally relatively simple α-fetoprotein (AFP) to >25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542004/next-generation-sequencing-in-cancer-opportunities-and-challenges-for-precision-cancer-medicine
#2
Carmela Paolillo, Eric Londin, Paolo Fortina
Over the past decade, testing the genes of patients and their specific cancer types has become standardized practice in medical oncology since somatic mutations, changes in gene expression and epigenetic modifications are all hallmarks of cancer. However, while cancer genetic assessment has been limited to single biomarkers to guide the use of therapies, improvements in nucleic acid sequencing technologies and implementation of different genome analysis tools have enabled clinicians to detect these genomic alterations and identify functional and disease-associated genomic variants...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542003/micrornas-as-cancer-biomarkers
#3
Kjersti Flatmark, Eirik Høye, Bastian Fromm
Since their discovery in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important gene regulators in many biological processes and as key molecular players in human disease, including cancer where they show specific pathogenic deregulation. Their remarkable chemical stability, the availability of very sensitive miRNA detection methods and the fact that miRNAs can be extracted from and detected in various kinds of clinically relevant samples, such as solid tissues, body fluids and secretions make them excellent candidate biomarkers...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542002/biomarkers-along-the-continuum-of-care-in-lung-cancer
#4
Stefan Holdenrieder
Blood-based biomarkers are valuable diagnostic tools for the management of lung cancer patients. They support not only differential diagnosis and histological subtyping, but are also applied for estimation of prognosis, stratification for specific therapies, monitoring of therapy response, surveillance monitoring and early detection of residual or progressive disease. Early diagnosis of lung cancer in high risk populations (screening) is a promising future indication but poses high medical and economic challenges to marker performance...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542001/precision-medicine-what-s-all-the-fuss-about
#5
Richard Barker
Precision medicine is now recognized globally as a major new era in medicine. It is being driven by advances in genomics and other 'omics' but also by the desire on the part of both health systems and governments to offer more targeted and cost-effective care. However, it faces a number of challenges, from the economics of developing more expensive companion diagnostics to the need to educate patients and the public on the advantages for them. New models of both R&D and care delivery are needed to capture the scientific, clinical and economic benefits of precision medicine...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542000/serum-thyroglobulin-in-the-monitoring-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#6
Carol Evans, Sarah Tennant, Petros Perros
Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533326/risk-stratification-of-prostate-cancer-2016
#7
Robert E Reiter
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, but its management is fraught with controversy owing to its variable biologic and clinical behavior. Despite evidence that PSA screening reduces prostate cancer specific metastasis and death, it has not gained acceptance by various health authorities. Nevertheless, recent advances in biomarker development potentially address many of the shortcomings of routine PSA testing alone, including improved specificity for the detection of clinically significant cancer, optimized risk stratification to aid clinical management decisions, and discovery of genetic variants that may guide optimized therapy of advanced disease...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467897/serum-free-light-chain-analysis-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-multiple-myeloma-and-related-conditions
#8
Paolo Milani, Giovanni Palladini, Giampaolo Merlini
The introduction of the serum-free light-chain (S-FLC) assay has been a breakthrough in the diagnosis and management of plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly monoclonal light-chain diseases. The first method, proposed in 2001, quantifies serum-free light-chains using polyclonal antibodies. More recently, assays based on monoclonal antibodies have entered into clinical practice. S-FLC measurement plays a central role in the screening for multiple myeloma and related conditions, in association with electrophoretic techniques...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467728/biomarkers-in-melanoma
#9
Klaus G Griewank
Malignant melanoma remains the skin cancer with the highest number of mortalities worldwide. While early diagnosis and complete surgical excision remain the best possibility for curing disease, prognosis at the stage of metastasis is still poor. Recent years have brought about considerable advances in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of melanoma and treating advanced disease. The discovery of activating BRAF mutations in around 50% of tumors has led to the introduction of targeted therapies downregulating BRAF signaling output...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467504/risk-prediction-in-barrett-s-esophagus-aspects-of-a-combination-of-molecular-and-epidemiologic-biomarkers-reflecting-alterations-of-the-microenvironment
#10
Anna K Brandtner, Michael Quante
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a chronic, metaplastic lesion of the esophagus and the only known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The identification of risk factors to assess the risk for BE and their correspondence with hallmarks of malignant progression for early stratification purposes is critically needed. Data legitimate the assumption that aside of reflux symptoms and related conditions, also demographic and environmental factors are thought to be associated with the risk for BE and its progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459333/question-and-answers
#11
Leslie C Lai, Joseph Lopez, Anders Kallner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454808/quality-assurance-for-multiplexed-assays-how-can-it-be-achieved
#12
Larry J Kricka
Multiplexed assays are now a common form of analysis in routine clinical and research laboratories. Assuring the quality of this type of complex, massively-parallel testing poses challenges not encountered in the traditional single-plex assay. A range of quality assurance measures is implemented at different stages in a multiplex assay, beginning in the manufacturing process, and the ensuing analytical and data interpretation stages. This article explores quality issues and the quality assurance measures that have been devised for multiplex assays ranging from simple two-plex assays to the types of assays that involve simultaneous testing on millions of test sites on a single analytical device...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454667/question-and-answers
#13
Leslie C Lai, Joseph Lopez, Anders Kallner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454530/highlight-on-dpyd-gene-polymorphisms-and-treatment-by-capecitabine
#14
Gérard Milano
BACKGROUND: Sequencing of DPYD exome was conducted in a prospective cohort of advanced breast cancer patients receiving capecitabine. METHODS: A total of 243 patients were analyzed. Digestive, neurologic and hematotoxicity over cycles 1-2 showed 10.3% G3 and 2.1% G4, including one toxic death. DPYD exome, flanking intronic regions (20 bp), 3'UTR and part of 5'UTR (500 bp) were sequenced on MiSeq Illumina (Integragen, 97% coverage, HWE checked). RESULTS: In total, 48 SNPs were identified: three in 3'UTR, 19 in coding regions (four synonymous including E412E; 15 missenses including D949V, V732I, R592W, I560S, I543V, S534N, S492L, M406I, D342G, M166V, T65M, C29R), 19 in flanking intronic regions (including *2A) and seven in 5'UTR...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438525/questions-and-answers
#15
Leslie C Lai, Joseph Lopez, Anders Kallner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438343/biomarkers-evaluation-of-clinical-utility-in-surveillance-and-early-diagnosis-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Peipei Song, Qi Tang, Xiaobin Feng, Wei Tang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Strategies to surveil and diagnose HCC in an earlier stage are urgently needed since this is when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival. Over the past few decades, research has suggested measuring alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration and performing abdominal ultrasound (US) as part of routine surveillance of HCC every 6 months for high-risk patients, and many HCC guidelines worldwide have also recommended these examinations...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438125/questions-and-answers
#17
Joseph Lopez, Leslie C Lai, Anders Kallner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435502/the-potential-of-mirnas-for-diagnosis-treatment-and-monitoring-of-breast-cancer
#18
Gloria Bertoli, Claudia Cava, Isabella Castiglioni
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has a fundamental role in the initiation, development and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), since strong evidence has shown that miRNAs can regulate the expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. A possible role of miRNAs in the diagnosis in BC has been demonstrated. As miRNAs has been found stable in biofluids, extracellular multiple miRNA profiles have been proposed as diagnostic tools, showing better diagnostic performance than individual miRNAs in BC...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435369/approaches-to-the-detection-of-ovarian-cancer
#19
Estrid Høgdall
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the eighth most common cancer among women and the second most frequently diagnosed gynecological malignancy in the United States and Europe. Correct and fast referral of patients with OC is mandatory to ensure optimal treatment and to improve the prognosis of patients with OC. Approaches to detect OC may be based on a gynecological examination, an elevated serum CA125 level, a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) higher than 200, an elevated serum HE4 level, or other modalities such as Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA), or Copenhagen Index (CPH-I)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435244/questions-and-answers
#20
Leslie C Lai, Joseph Lopez, Anders Kallner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum
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