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Biological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694804/shifting-balance-of-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-sets-a-threshold-for-larval-growth-under-environmental-stress
#1
Christina A Frieder, Scott L Applebaum, T-C Francis Pan, Donal T Manahan
Exogenous environmental factors alter growth rates, yet information remains scant on the biochemical mechanisms and energy trade-offs that underlie variability in the growth of marine invertebrates. Here we study the biochemical bases for differential growth and energy utilization (as adenosine triphosphate [ATP] equivalents) during larval growth of the bivalve Crassostrea gigas exposed to increasing levels of experimental ocean acidification (control, middle, and high pCO2 , corresponding to ∼400, ∼800, and ∼1100 µatm, respectively)...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694803/stolonial-movement-a-new-type-of-whole-organism-behavior-in-porifera
#2
Andrey I Lavrov, Igor A Kosevich
Sponges (phylum Porifera) traditionally are represented as inactive, sessile filter-feeding animals devoid of any behavior except filtering activity. However, different time-lapse techniques demonstrate that sponges are able to show a wide range of coordinated but slow whole-organism behavior. The present study concerns a peculiar type of such behavior in the psychrophilic demosponge Amphilectus lobatus: stolonial movement. During stolonial movement, sponges produce outgrowths (stolons) that crawl along a substrate with a speed of 4...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694802/symbiont-identity-influences-patterns-of-symbiosis-establishment-host-growth-and-asexual-reproduction-in-a-model-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#3
Yasmin Gabay, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
The genus Symbiodinium is physiologically diverse and so may differentially influence symbiosis establishment and function. To explore this, we inoculated aposymbiotic individuals of the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (commonly referred to as "Aiptasia"), a model for coral symbiosis, with one of five Symbiodinium species or types (S. microadriaticum, S. minutum, phylotype C3, S. trenchii, or S. voratum). The spatial pattern of colonization was monitored over time via confocal microscopy, and various physiological parameters were measured to assess symbiosis functionality...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694801/combining-factors-that-individually-enhance-memory-in-lymnaea
#4
Ryan Tan, Ken Lukowiak
When applied individually, thermal stress (1 hour at 30 °C) and (-)epicatechin (a flavonol found in green tea, e.g.) each enhance long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of Lymnaea aerial respiratory behavior. Snails demonstrate enhanced long-term memory formation when trained in epicatechin-treated pond water or when placed in 30 °C pond water for 1 hour, 1 hour prior to training in pond water. We ask here whether the combined application of epicatechin + thermal stress enhances long-term memory retention length beyond the maximal lengths of the individual factors alone...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694800/about-the-cover
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694799/differential-ros-generation-in-response-to-stress-in-symbiodinium-spp
#6
Anne Wietheger, Dorota E Starzak, Kevin S Gould, Simon K Davy
Oxidative stress inside cells occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is no longer efficiently counterbalanced by the generation of antioxidants. In this study, we measured the intracellular production of ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), superoxide (O2 - ), and singlet oxygen (1 O2 ), in cultured dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium under thermal and oxidative stress. ROS tagged with fluorescent probes were measured by flow cytometry. Dissimilar Symbiodinium internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) clades or phylotypes (A1, B2, E, F1) produced ROS in different quantities in response to stress...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694798/regeneration-of-the-rhopalium-and-the-rhopalial-nervous-system-in-the-box-jellyfish-tripedalia-cystophora
#7
Sebastian-Alexander Stamatis, Katrine Worsaae, Anders Garm
Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553821/about-the-cover
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553820/interspecific-variation-in-coral-settlement-and-fertilization-success-in-response-to-hydrogen-peroxide-exposure
#9
C Ross, N D Fogarty, R Ritson-Williams, V J Paul
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is involved in the regulation of numerous reproductive and morphogenic processes across an array of taxa. Extracellular H2 O2 can be widespread in oceanic waters, and elevated sea surface temperatures can cause increased levels of intracellular H2 O2 within cnidarian tissue, but it remains unclear how this compound affects early life-history processes in corals, such as fertilization, metamorphosis, and settlement. To evaluate the effects of H2 O2 on multiple stages of recruitment, experiments were conducted using Caribbean corals with various reproductive modes, including the brooders Porites astreoides and Favia fragum and the broadcast-spawning species Acropora palmata and Orbicella franksi...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553819/female-choice-leads-to-a-switch-in-oval-squid-male-mating-tactics
#10
Chun-Yen Lin, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Oval squids are polyandrous, with one female mating with multiple males during the spawning season. There are two alternative male mating tactics used by Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Larger males place spermatophores at the opening of the oviduct using a male-parallel mating posture, whereas smaller males attach spermatophores around the female buccal membrane using a male-upturned mating posture. If the route of egg transportation is taken into consideration, male-parallel mating would be expected to result in higher fertilization success than male-upturned mating...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553818/chemoattractant-mediated-preference-of-non-self-eggs-in-ciona-robusta-sperm
#11
Ellen T Kosman, Bryanna Hipp, Don R Levitan
Self-fertilization in hermaphroditic species might or might not be advantageous based on the level of inbreeding or outbreeding depression and the opportunity to outcross. This study examined whether chemoattractants can influence selfing rates through changes in sperm swimming behavior in the hermaphroditic tunicate Ciona robusta. The first set of experiments tested sperm preference in a dichotomous choice chamber by allowing the sperm to choose between wells with no eggs and wells with eggs, while the second experiment gave sperm a choice between self eggs and non-self eggs from another C...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553817/sphingolipid-metabolism-of-a-sea-anemone-is-altered-by-the-presence-of-dinoflagellate-symbionts
#12
Sheila A Kitchen, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis
In host-microbe interactions, signaling lipids function in interpartner communication during both the establishment and maintenance of associations. Previous evidence suggests that sphingolipids play a role in the mutualistic cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Exogenously applied sphingolipids have been shown to alter this partnership, though endogenous host regulation of sphingolipids by the sphingosine rheostat under different symbiotic conditions has not been characterized. The rheostat regulates levels of pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) through catalytic activities of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (SGPP)...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553816/life-history-traits-and-population-structure-of-pederson-cleaner-shrimps-ancylomenes-pedersoni
#13
Jessica A Gilpin, Nanette E Chadwick
Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553815/functional-morphology-of-eunicidan-polychaeta-jaws
#14
W Cyrus Clemo, Kelly M Dorgan
Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigid, articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, several characteristics of the jaws vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, have been used to infer evolutionary relationships...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553814/index-for-volume-233
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373067/role-of-trp-channels-in-dinoflagellate-mechanotransduction
#16
J B Lindström, N T Pierce, M I Latz
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are common components of mechanosensing pathways, mainly described in mammals and other multicellular organisms. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic mechanosensory proteins, we investigated the involvement of TRP channels in mechanosensing in a unicellular eukaryotic protist, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra. BLASTP analysis of the protein sequences predicted from the L. polyedra transcriptome revealed six sequences with high similarity to human TRPM2, TRPM8, TRPML2, TRPP1, and TRPP2; and characteristic TRP domains were identified in all sequences...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373066/about-the-cover
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373065/differences-in-larval-arm-movements-correlate-with-the-complexity-of-musculature-in-two-phylogenetically-distant-echinoids-eucidaris-tribuloides-cidaroidea-and-lytechinus-variegatus-euechinoidea
#18
Katelyn E A MacNeil, Alexia T Scaros, Roger P Croll, Cory D Bishop
Within a common body plan, echinoid planktotrophic larvae are morphologically diverse, with variations in overall size, the length, and number of arms and the presence or absence of epidermal structures. In this report, we are interested in variation in larval arm-flexing behavior and correlated differences in larval musculature. Larvae of the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides exhibit conspicuous and regular arm-flexing behavior. In contrast, Lytechinus variegatus, a representative of the euechinoid clade, does not exhibit this behavior...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373064/natural-variation-in-responses-to-acute-heat-and-cold-stress-in-a-sea-anemone-model-system-for-coral-bleaching
#19
Emily S Bellis, Dee R Denver
Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373063/growing-safe-acute-size-escape-from-desiccation-in-juvenile-crepipatella-peruviana-mollusca-gastropoda
#20
Samuel M Bashevkin, Oscar R Chaparro, Daniela A Mardones-Toledo, Victor M Cubillos, Jan A Pechenik
Desiccation is an important limiting factor in the intertidal zone. Generally decreasing seaward, desiccation stress can also be alleviated in wet microhabitats. Juvenile snails are generally more susceptible to desiccation than adults, and, for some species, juveniles must therefore hide in microhabitats to survive emersion. The transition from hiding in safe microhabitats to being able to survive fully exposed for the duration of low tide is not well documented. In this study, we investigated the influence of size on desiccation tolerance in juveniles of the calyptraeid gastropod Crepipatella peruviana to determine the size at which they can first survive exposure to air...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
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