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Biological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048962/chemical-ecology-of-wave-swept-shores-the-primacy-of-contact-cues-in-predation-by-whelks
#1
Graham A Ferrier, Cheryl Ann Zimmer, Richard K Zimmer
Wave-swept shores are valuable for developing and testing key ecological principles. A synthesis of research is nonetheless missing a critical component: the chemosensory basis for behavioral interactions that determine population- and community-wide attributes. Chemical signaling environments on wave-swept shores, given their intense, turbulent mixing and complex topographies, would be difficult or impossible to simulate in a laboratory setting. For this reason, appropriately scaled field studies are needed to advance understanding of chemical stimuli and their biotic effects...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048961/resource-availability-drives-mating-role-selection-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite-aplysia-californica
#2
Kyle T David, Phillip Tanabe, Lynne A Fieber
In simultaneous hermaphrodites, a clear conflict exists between sperm donor and sperm recipient roles, and how such conflict is mediated remains up for debate. This study observed and recorded mating role selection as a function of resource availability in the simultaneous hermaphrodite Aplysia californica. When food was plentiful, animals assumed both sperm donor and recipient roles at relatively even frequency. However, when half of the mating pairs were placed on restricted diets, food-limited animals assumed the sperm donor role at significantly (P < 0...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048960/impact-of-environment-and-ontogeny-on-relative-fecundity-and-egg-quality-of-female-oysters-crassostrea-virginica-from-four-sites-in-northern-chesapeake-bay
#3
Hillary Lane Glandon, Adriane K Michaelis, Vincent A Politano, Stephanie T Alexander, Emily A Vlahovich, Kimberly S Reece, Heather N Koopman, Donald W Meritt, Kennedy T Paynter
Resource allocation to reproduction is a primary physiological concern for individuals, and can vary with age, environment, or a combination of both factors. In this study we quantified the impact of environment and individual age on the reproductive output of female oysters Crassostrea virginica. We determined the relative fecundity, egg total lipid content, and overall and omega-3/omega-6 (ω3/ω6) fatty acid signatures (FAS) of eggs spawned by female oysters over a 2-year period (n = 32 and n = 64). Variation was quantified spatially and ontogenetically by sampling young and old oyster populations from two rivers in Chesapeake Bay, totaling four collection sites...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048959/expression-and-localization-of-carbonic-anhydrase-genes-in-the-serpulid-polychaete-hydroides-elegans
#4
Grant Batzel, Brian T Nedved, Michael G Hadfield
The metalloenzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and is responsible for biomineralization processes in animals. In the Annelida, the marine worms in the family Serpulidae are typified by the construction of calcium carbonate tubes. Hydroides elegans, a common member of warmwater biofouling communities around the world, provides an outstanding model for studies of calcification. To better understand the molecular process of biomineralization in H...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048958/new-editor-in-chief-of-the-biological-bulletin
#5
Louis E Burnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048957/the-way-forward
#6
J L Olds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048956/frontmatter
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048955/index-to-volume-231
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048954/a-preliminary-molecular-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-genome-of-a-novel-endogenous-retrovirus-in-the-sea-slug-elysia-chlorotica
#9
Sidney K Pierce, Padmanabhan Mahadevan, Steven E Massey, Michael L Middlebrooks
An endogenous retrovirus that is present in the sea slug Elysia chlorotica is expressed in all individuals at the end of the annual life cycle. But the precise role of the virus, if any, in slug senescence or death is unknown. We have determined the genomic sequence of the virus and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the data. The 6060-base pair genome of the virus possesses a reverse transcriptase-domain-containing protein that shows similarity to retrotransposon sequences found in Aplysia californica and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048953/a-multifunction-muscle-in-squid
#10
Joseph T Thompson, Scott M Lavalva, Matthew M Loiacono
Some striated muscles are multifunctional; they serve several different roles during locomotion and movement, including acting as motors, brakes, struts, or springs. The few multifunctional muscles that have been reported occur in the cross-striated muscles of animals with complex, jointed, skeletal support systems. In the comparatively simple muscular system of a cephalopod mollusc, we identified an obliquely striated muscle, the nuchal retractor muscle, which appears to be multifunctional. The nuchal retractor is composed of two different fiber types, mitochondria-rich (MR) and mitochondria-poor (MP) fibers; shortening of these fibers retracts the head toward the mantle...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048952/adherens-junctions-modulate-diffusion-between-epithelial-cells-in-trichoplax-adhaerens
#11
Carolyn L Smith, Thomas S Reese
Trichoplax adhaerens is the sole named member of Placozoa, an ancient metazoan phylum. This coin-shaped animal glides on ventral cilia to find and digest algae on the substrate. It has only six cell types, all but two of which are incorporated into the epithelium that encloses it. The upper epithelium is thin, composed of a pavement of relatively large polygonal disks, each bearing a cilium. The lower epithelium is thick and composed primarily of narrow ciliated cells that power locomotion. Interspersed among these cells are two different secretory cells: one containing large lipophilic granules that, when released, lyse algae under the animal; the other, less abundant, is replete with smaller secretory granules containing neuropeptides...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820909/novel-structures-associated-with-presumed-photoreceptors-in-the-aboral-sense-organ-of-ctenophores
#12
Sidney L Tamm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820908/frontmatter
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820907/box-jellyfish-alatina-alata-has-a-circumtropical-distribution
#14
Jonathan W Lawley, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Bastian Bentlage, Angel Yanagihara, Roger Goodwill, Ehsan Kayal, Kikiana Hurwitz, Allen G Collins
Species of the box jellyfish (Cubozoa) genus Alatina are notorious for their sting along the beaches of several localities of the Atlantic and Pacific. These species include Alatina alata on the Caribbean Island of Bonaire (the Netherlands), A. moseri in Hawaii, and A. mordens in Australia. Most cubozoans inhabit coastal waters, but Alatina is unusual in that specimens have also been collected in the open ocean at great depths. Alatina is notable in that populations form monthly aggregations for spermcast mating in conjunction with the lunar cycle...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820906/sea-hare-aplysia-punctata-mollusca-gastropoda-can-maintain-shell-calcification-under-extreme-ocean-acidification
#15
Nicholas Carey, Sam Dupont, Julia D Sigwart
Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO2), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO2). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820905/covering-ground-movement-patterns-and-random-walk-behavior-in-aquilonastra-anomala-sea-stars
#16
Amanda C Lohmann, Dennis Evangelista, Lindsay D Waldrop, Christopher L Mah, Tyson L Hedrick
The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820904/morphology-of-cyprid-attachment-organs-compared-across-disparate-barnacle-taxa-does-it-relate-to-habitat
#17
Hamad Al-Yahya, Hsi-Nien Chen, Benny K K Chan, Ryusuke Kado, Jens T Høeg
This study used morphometric analyses to compare the structure of the third antennular segment, also called the attachment organ, in cyprid larvae from cirripede species representing a diverse set of taxonomic groups. The aim was to investigate the degree of morphological variation in view of the diversity of habitats, settlement substrata, and modes of life found in the Cirripedia. In all cyprids the third segment features a flat surface (the attachment disc) covered with small cuticular villi thought to function in adhesion...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820903/low-oxygen-levels-slow-embryonic-development-of-limulus-polyphemus
#18
Peter Funch, Tobias Wang, Cino Pertoldi, Ane Bruun Middelbo
The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus typically spawns in the upper intertidal zone, where the developing embryos are exposed to large variations in abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity, salinity, and oxygen, which affect the rate of development. It has been shown that embryonic development is slowed at both high and low salinities and temperatures, and that late embryos close to hatching tolerate periodic hypoxia. In this study we investigated the influence of hypoxia on both early and late embryonic development in L...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820902/effects-of-embryonic-exposure-to-salinity-stress-or-hypoxia-on-post-metamorphic-growth-and-survival-of-the-polychaete-capitella-teleta
#19
Jan A Pechenik, Oscar R Chaparro, Aaron Pilnick, Melissa Karp, Michael Acquafredda, Robert Burns
Although a good number of studies have investigated the impact of larval experience on aspects of post-metamorphic performance, only a few have considered the potential impact of stresses experienced by brooded embryos. In this study we separately investigated the impact of salinity stress (as low as 10) and hypoxia (1 ml O2 l(-1)) experienced by brooded embryos of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta on hatching success, metamorphosis, post-metamorphic survival, and post-metamorphic growth. Salinity reduction from 30 to 10 or 15 reduced relative hatching success, presumably by reducing embryonic survival, but generally had no negative latent effects on juvenile survival or growth...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682180/frontmatter
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Biological Bulletin
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