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Biochemical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743721/mind-directly-interacts-with-ftsz-at-h10-helix-suggests-a-model-for-robust-activation-of-minc-to-destabilize-ftsz-polymers
#1
Ashoka Chary Taviti, Tushar Kant Beuria
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen of proteins to it. The min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739602/loss-of-prion-protein-is-associated-with-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-and-obesity
#2
Giovanna Brito, Fernada C S Lupinacci, Flávio H Beraldo, Tiago G Santos, Martin Roffé, Marilene H Lopes, Vladmir C C de Lima, Vilma R Martins, Glaucia N M Hajj
Prion protein (PrP(C)) was initially described due to its involvement in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. It was subsequently demonstrated to be a cell surface molecule involved in many physiological processes, such as vesicle trafficking. Herein, we investigated the roles of PrP(C) in the response to insulin and obesity development.  Two independent PrP(C) knockout (KO) and one PrP(C) overexpressing (TG20) mouse models were fed high-fat diets, and the development of insulin resistance and obesity was monitored...
July 24, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739601/buddleja-thyrsoides-lam-crude-extract-presents-antinociceptive-effect-on-an-arthritic-pain-model-in-mice
#3
Maria Fernanda Fialho, Indiara Brusco, Evelyne Silva Brum, Mariana Piana, Aline Augusti Boligon, Gabriela Trevisan, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
The arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease which reduces the life quality of affected individuals. Therapeutic tools used to treat inflammatory pain are associated with several undesirable effects.  Buddleja thyrsoides Lam, known as 'Barbasco' or 'Cambara', is popularly used in several disorders and possess antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the oral and topical treatment from the B.thyrsoides crude extract in acute pain models and an arthritic pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant paw injection in male mice (25-30g)...
July 23, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733331/n-glycosylation-is-required-for-fdnc5-stabilization-and-irisin-secretion
#4
Yong Wei Nie, Dong Jun Liu
Irisin, a myokine derived from extracellular domain of FNDC5, has been shown to mediate thermogenesis of white adipose tissue. Biochemical data has shown that N-glycosylation of FNDC5 was unlikely to affect ligand or receptor activation of irisin. The N-glycosylation of FNDC5 remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze N-glycosylation sites of FNDC5 and find that two potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn36 and Asn81) could indeed be occupied by N-glycan. We further show that the lack of N-glycosylation decreases the secretion of irisin, which is relevant to the instability of FNDC5 and the deficiency of cleavage of signal peptide...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733330/ddx3x-interacts-with-pabp1-and-caprin-1-at-the-leading-edge-of-migrating-fibroblasts-and-is-required-for-efficient-cell-spreading
#5
Alice C Copsey, Simon Cooper, Robert Parker, Ella Lineham, Cusack Lapworth, Deema Jallad, Steve Sweet, Simon J Morley
DDX3X, a helicase, can interact directly with mRNA and translation initiation factors,  regulating the selective translation of mRNAs that contain a structured 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). This activity modulates the expression of mRNAs controlling cell cycle progression and mRNAs regulating actin dynamics, contributing to cell adhesion and motility.    Previously, we have shown that ribosomes and translation initiation factors localise to the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts in loci enriched with actively translating ribosomes, thereby promoting steady-state levels of ArpC2 and Rac1 proteins at the leading edge of cells during spreading...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733329/the-antifungal-activity-of-the-peptide-periplanetasin-2-derived-from-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#6
JiEun Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
The cockroach, which is a household insect, is an established model organism in research. Periplanetasin-2, derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, exerted potent antifungal effect against pathogenic fungi without causing hemolysis. Periplanetasin-2 induced oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Periplanetasin-2 also caused apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, exerted in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, we investigated the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism of periplanetasin-2 in Candida albicans After treatment with periplanetasin-2, we observed mitochondrial depolarization and calcium accumulation...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729427/sialylated-glycosylphosphatidylinositols-suppress-the-production-of-toxic-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers
#7
William Nolan, Harriet McHale-Owen, Clive Bate
The production of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a key factor driving pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing concentrations of soluble Aβ oligomers within the brain lead to synapse degeneration and the progressive dementia characteristic of AD. Since Aβ exists in both disease-relevant (toxic) and non-toxic forms, the factors that affected the release of toxic Aβ were studied in a cell model. 7PA2 cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein released Aβ oligomers that caused synapse damage when incubated with cultured neurons...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729426/glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-2-is-essential-for-normal-spermatogenesis
#8
Maria Belen Garcia-Fabiani, Mauro A Montanaro, Pablo Stringa, Ezequiel Lacunza, Elizabeth R Cattaneo, Marianela Santana, Magali Pellon-Maison, Maria R Gonzalez-Baro
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo glycerolipid synthesis. The GPAT2 isoform differs from the other isoforms because its expression is restricted to male germ cells and cancer cells. It has been recently reported that GPAT2 expression in mouse testis fluctuates during sexual maturation and that it is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in combination with vitamin A derivatives. Despite progress made in this field, information about GPAT2 role in the developing male germ cells remains unclear...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729425/a-strictly-monofunctional-bacterial-hydroxymethylpyrimidine-phosphate-kinase-precludes-damaging-errors-in-thiamin-biosynthesis
#9
Antje M Thamm, Gengnan Li, Marlene Taja-Moreno, Svetlana Y Gerdes, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Steven D Bruner, Andrew D Hanson
The canonical kinase (ThiD) that converts the thiamin biosynthesis intermediate hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) monophosphate to the diphosphate can also very efficiently convert free HMP to the monophosphate in prokaryotes, plants, and fungi. This HMP kinase activity enables salvage of HMP, but it is not substrate-specific and so allows toxic HMP analogs and damage products to infiltrate the thiamin biosynthesis pathway. Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes uncovered a gene, thiD2 , that is often fused to the thiamin synthesis gene thiE and could potentially encode a replacement for ThiD...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726635/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-anti-microbial-immune-responses
#10
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of crocodilian immune system has remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1~6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese Alligator ( Alligator sinensis )...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718449/the-dual-function-chaperone-hych-improves-assembly-of-the-formate-hydrogenlyase-complex
#11
Ute Lindenstrauß, Philipp Skorupa, Jennifer S McDowall, Frank Sargent, Constanze Pinske
The assembly of multi-protein complexes requires the concerted synthesis and maturation of its components and subsequently their co-ordinated interaction. The membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex is the primary hydrogen-producing enzyme in Escherichia coli and is composed of seven subunits mostly encoded within the hycA-I operon for [NiFe]-hydrogenase-3 (Hyd-3). The HycH protein is predicted to have an accessory function and is not part of the final structural FHL complex. In this work, a mutant strain devoid of HycH was characterized and found to have significantly reduced FHL activity due to instability of the electron transfer subunits...
July 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706006/integration-of-flux-measurements-to-resolve-changes-in-anabolic-and-catabolic-metabolism-in-cardiac-myocytes
#12
Andrew A Gibb, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Yu-Ting Zheng, Xiang Zhang, Aruni Bhatnagar, Steven P Jones, Bradford G Hill
Although ancillary pathways of glucose metabolism are critical for synthesizing cellular building blocks and modulating stress responses, how they are regulated remains unclear.  In this study, we used radiometric glycolysis assays, [(13)C6]-glucose isotope tracing, and extracellular flux analysis to understand how phosphofructokinase (PFK)-mediated changes in glycolysis regulate glucose carbon partitioning into catabolic and anabolic pathways. Expression of kinase-deficient or phosphatase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes coordinately regulated glycolytic rate and lactate production...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701415/structure-of-psd-95-map1a-complex-reveals-unique-target-recognition-mode-of-maguk-gk-domain
#13
Yitan Xia, Yuan Shang, Rongguang Zhang, Jinwei Zhu
The PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are major synaptic scaffold proteins and play crucial roles in the dynamic regulation of dendritic remodeling which is understood to be the foundation of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The guanylate kinase (GK) domain of MAGUK family proteins functions as a phosphor-peptide binding module. However, the GK domain of PSD-95 has been found to directly bind to a peptide sequence within the C-terminal region of neuronal-specific microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A), though the detailed molecular mechanism governing this phosphorylation-independent interaction at the atomic level is missing...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698248/ganglioside-glycosyltransferases-are-s-acylated-at-conserved-cysteine-residues-involved-in-homodimerization
#14
Sabrina Chumpen Ramirez, Fernando M Ruggiero, Jose Luis Daniotti, Javier Valdez Taubas
Ganglioside glycosyltransferases (GGTs) are type-II membrane proteins bearing a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a transmembrane domain (TMD), and a lumenal catalytic domain. The expression and activity of these enzymes largely determine the quality of the glycolipids that decorate mammalian cells membranes. Many glycosyltransferases are themselves glycosylated and this is important for their proper localisation, but few if any other post-translational modifications of these proteins have been reported. Here we show that the GGTs, ST3Gal-V, ST8Sia-I, and β4GalNAcT-I are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues located close the cytoplasmic border of their TMDs...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698247/carbohydrate-binding-architecture-of-the-multi-modular-%C3%AE-1-6-glucosyltransferase-from%C3%A2-paenibacillus-sp-598k-which-produces-%C3%AE-1-6-glucosyl-%C3%AE-glucosaccharides-from-starch
#15
Zui Fujimoto, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Naomi Kishine, Hitomi Ichinose, Mitsuru Momma, Atsuo Kimura, Kazumi Funane
Paenibacillus sp. 598K α-1,6-glucosyltransferase (Ps6TG31A), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 31, catalyzes exo-α-glucohydrolysis and transglucosylation and produces α-1,6-glucosyl-α-glucosaccharides from α-glucan via its disproportionation activity. The crystal structure of Ps6TG31A was determined by an anomalous dispersion method using a terbium derivative. The monomeric Ps6TG31A consisted of one catalytic (β/α)8-barrel domain and six small domains, one on the N-terminal, and five on the C-terminal side...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694353/a-centrosomal-protein-for20-regulates-microtubule-assembly-dynamics-and-plays-a-role-in-cell-migration
#16
Shalini Srivastava, Dulal Panda
Here, we report that a centrosomal protein FOR20 (also named as C16orf63, FLJ31153 or PHSECRG2) can regulate the assembly and stability of microtubules. Both FOR20 IgG antibody and GST-tagged FOR20 could precipitate tubulin from HeLa cell extract indicating a possible interaction between FOR20 and tubulin. FOR20 was also detected in goat brain tissue extract and it cycled with microtubule-associated proteins. Further, FOR20 bound to purified tubulin and inhibited the assembly of tubulin in vitro. The over-expression of FOR20 depolymerized interphase microtubules and the depletion of FOR20 prevented nocodazole-induced depolymerization of microtubules in HeLa cells...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694352/protease-activated-receptor-2-promotes-kidney-tubular-epithelial-inflammation-by-inhibiting-autophagy-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signalling-pathway
#17
Chunyang Du, Tao Zhang, Xia Xiao, Yonghong Shi, Huijun Duan, Yunzhuo Ren
Protease activated receptors 2 (PAR2), which belongs to a specific class of the G-protein-coupled receptors, are central to several inflammation processes. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved remains undefined. Autophagy has been previously shown to affect inflammation. In this study, we examine the effect of PAR2 on kidney tubular epithelial autophagy and on autophagy-related inflammation and reveal the underlying mechanism involved. Autophagic activity and levels of autophagic marker LC3 were examined in human kidney tubular epithelial cells with PAR2 knockdown or overexpression...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694351/phosphorylation-of-ampk-by-upstream-kinases-is-required-for-activity-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Robin Willows, Matthew J Sanders, Bing Xiao, Bhakti R Patel, Stephen R Martin, Jon Read, Jon R Wilson, Julia Hubbard, Steven J Gamblin, David Carling
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating metabolism and has attracted significant attention as a therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders. AMPK activity is stimulated more than one hundred fold by phosphorylation of threonine 172 (Thr(172)). Binding of AMP to the γ subunit allosterically activates the kinase. Additionally, a number of small molecules e.g. 991, have been identified that bind between the kinase domain and the carbohydrate binding module of the β subunit, stabilising their interaction and leading to activation...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687594/reduced-threshold-for-store-overload-induced-ca-2-release-is-a-common-defect-of-ryr1-mutations-associated-with-malignant-hyperthermia-and-central-core-disease
#19
Wenqian Chen, Andrea Koop, Yingjie Liu, Wenting Guo, Jinhong Wei, Ruiwu Wang, David H MacLennan, Robert T Dirksen, S R Wayne Chen
Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) cause malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD), while mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) lead to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Most disease-associated RyR1 and RyR2 mutations are located in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the corresponding RyR isoform. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations enhance the propensity for spontaneous Ca(2+) release during store Ca(2+) overload, a process known as store-overload induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR)...
July 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679629/evaluation-of-ethyl-gallate-for-its-antioxidant-and-anticancer-property-against-chemical-induced-tongue-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#20
Shalini Mohan, Kalaivani Thiagarajan, Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran
Cancer raised in the oral cavity is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and demand immediate attention. Regardless of the use of advanced treatment for oral cancer, successful treatment with cancer survival is less. Currently available drugs are though effective against cancer, treatment without toxic effects remains essential. This is quiet challenging leading to the identification of natural bioactive compounds for oral cancer treatment. Thus, a plant extract rich in phenolics was preferred to study the cellular, biochemical and molecular changes associated with oral carcinogenesis...
July 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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