journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biochemical Journal

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108640/bonds-broken-and-formed-during-the-mixed-linkage-glucan-xyloglucan-endotransglucosylase-reaction-catalysed-by-equisetum-hetero-trans-%C3%AE-glucanase
#1
Thomas J Simmons, Stephen C Fry
Mixed-linkage glucan : xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (MXE) is one of the three activities of the recently characterised hetero-trans-β-glucanase (HTG), which among land-plants is known only from Equisetum species. The biochemical details of the MXE reaction were incompletely understood - details that would promote understanding of MXE's role in vivo and enable its full technological exploitation. We investigated HTG's site of attack on one of its donor substrates, mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan (MLG), with radioactive oligosaccharides of xyloglucan as acceptor substrate...
January 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104757/analysis-and-identification-of-the-grem2-heparin-heparan-sulfate-binding-motif
#2
Chandramohan Kattamuri, Kristof Nolan, Thomas B Thompson
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) are regulated by extracellular antagonists of the DAN (differential screening selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma) family. Similar to the BMP ligands, certain DAN family members have been shown to interact with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). Structural studies of DAN family members Gremlin-1 and Gremlin-2 have revealed a dimeric growth-factor like fold where a series of lysine residues cluster along one face of the protein. In this study, we used mutagenesis, heparin binding measurements, and cell surface binding analysis to identify lysine residues that are important for heparin/HS binding in Gremlin-2...
January 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104756/sugar-nucleotide-quantification-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-reveals-a-distinct-profile-in-plasmodium-falciparum-sexual-stage-parasites
#3
Borja López-Gutiérrez, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Luis Izquierdo
The obligate intracellular lifestyle of Plasmodium falciparum and the difficulties to obtain sufficient amounts of biological material has hampered the study of specific metabolic pathways in the malaria parasite. Thus, for example, the pools of sugar nucleotides required to fuel glycosylation reactions have never been studied in-depth in well-synchronized asexual parasites or in other stages of its life cycle. These metabolites are of critical importance, especially considering the renewed interest in the presence of N -, O - and other glycans in key parasite proteins...
January 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104755/n-glycosylation-of-human-sphingomyelin-phosphodiesterase-acid-like-3a-smpdl3a-is-essential-for-stability-secretion-and-activity
#4
Mathew Traini, Raani Kumaran, Morten Thaysen-Andersen, Maaike Kockx, Wendy Jessup, Leonard Kritharides
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) is a recently identified phosphodiesterase, which is a secreted N -linked glycoprotein. SMPDL3A is highly homologous to acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase), but unlike aSMase can not cleave sphingomyelin. Rather, SMPDL3A hydrolyzes nucleotide tri- and diphosphates and their derivatives. While recent structural studies have shed light on these unexpected substrate preferences, many other aspects of SMPDL3A biology which may give insight into its function in vivo remain obscure...
January 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100650/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-suppresses-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression-via-both-smad-binding-and-novel-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibitory-elements
#5
Sowmya P Lakshmi, Aravind T Reddy, Raju C Reddy
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) contributes to wound healing and, when dysregulated, to pathological fibrosis. TGF-β and the anti-fibrotic nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) repress each other's expression, and such PPARγ downregulation is prominent in fibrosis and mediated, via previously unknown mechanisms, by SMAD signaling. Here we show that TGF-β induces association of SMAD3 with both SMAD4, needed for translocation of the complex into the nucleus, and the essential context-sensitive corepressors E2F4 and p107...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096202/hasf-c3orf58-is-a-novel-ligand-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor
#6
Akshay Bareja, Conrad Hodgkinson, Alan Payne, Richard Pratt, Victor Dzau
We have recently shown that Hypoxia and Akt induced Stem cell Factor (HASF) protects the heart from ischemia-induced damage and promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation. While we have identified certain signaling pathways responsible for these protective effects, the receptor mediating these effects was unknown. Here, we undertook studies to identify the HASF receptor. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a partial fragment of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) as a binding partner of HASF. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that HASF bound to full-length IGF1R...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093471/interactions-studies-between-periplasmic-cytochromes-provide-insights-on-extracellular-electron-transfer-pathways-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens
#7
Ana P Fernandes, Tiago C Nunes, Catarina M Paquete, Carlos A Salgueiro
Geobacter bacteria usually prevail among other microorganisms in soils and sediments where Fe(III) reduction has a central role. This reduction is achieved by extracellular electron transfer, where the electrons are exported from the interior of the cell to the surrounding environment. Periplasmic cytochromes play an important role in establishing an interface between inner and outer membrane electron transfer components. In addition, periplasmic cytochromes, in particular nanowire cytochromes that contain at least 12 haem groups, have been proposed to play a role in electron storage in conditions of environmental lack of electron acceptors...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093470/active-site-maturation-and-activity-of-the-copper-radical-oxidase-glxa-is-governed-by-a-tryptophan-residue
#8
Amanda K Chaplin, Dimitri A Svistunenko, Michael Hough, Michael T Wilson, Erik Vijgenboom, Jonathan Ar Worrall
GlxA from Streptomyces lividans is a mononuclear copper-radical oxidase and a member of the auxiliary activity family 5 (AA5). Its domain organisation and low sequence homology make it a distinct member of the AA5 family in which the fungal galactose 6-oxidase (Gox) is the best-characterized. GlxA is a key cuproenzyme in the copper-dependent morphological development of S. lividans with a function that is linked to the processing of an extracytoplasmic glycan. The catalytic site in GlxA and Gox contain two distinct one-electron acceptors comprising the copper ion and a 3'-(S-cysteinyl) tyrosine...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093469/assembly-of-the%C3%A2-elongated-collagen-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2-heterotetramer%C3%A2-around-a-central-%C3%AE-2-dimer
#9
Kristian Koski, Jothi Anantharajan, Petri Kursula, Prathusha Dhavala, Abhinandan Venkatesha Murthy, Ulrich Bergmann, Johanna Myllyharju, Rik K Wierenga
COLLAGEN PROLYL 4-HYDROXYLASE C-P4H, AN Α2Β2 HETEROTETRAMER, IS A CRUCIAL ENZYME FOR COLLAGEN SYNTHESIS THE Α SUBUNIT CONSISTS OF AN N TERMINAL DIMERIZATION DOMAIN, A CENTRAL PEPTIDE-SUBSTRATE-BINDING PSB DOMAIN, AND A C TERMINAL CATALYTIC CAT DOMAIN THE Β SUBUNIT ALSO KNOWN AS PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE PDI ACTS AS A CHAPERONE, STABILIZING THE FUNCTIONAL CONFORMATION OF C-P4H C-P4H HAS BEEN STUDIED FOR DECADES, BUT ITS STRUCTURE HAS REMAINED ELUSIVE HERE, WE PRESENT : A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING SAXS MODEL OF THE ENTIRE HUMAN C-P4H-I HETEROTETRAMER C-P4H IS AN ELONGATED, BILOBAL, SYMMETRIC MOLECULE WITH A LENGTH OF 290 Å THE DIMERIZATION DOMAINS FROM THE TWO A SUBUNITS FORM A PROTEIN-PROTEIN DIMER INTERFACE, ASSEMBLED AROUND THE CENTRAL ANTIPARALLEL COILED-COIL INTERFACE OF THEIR N TERMINAL Α HELICES THIS REGION FORMS A THIN WAIST IN THE BILOBAL TETRAMER THE TWO PSB/CAT UNITS, EACH COMPLEXED WITH A PDI/Β SUBUNIT, FORM TWO BULKY LOBES POINTING OUTWARD FROM THIS WAIST REGION, SUCH THAT THE PDI/Β SUBUNITS LOCATE AT THE FAR ENDS OF THE ΒΑΑΒ COMPLEX THE PDI/Β SUBUNIT INTERACTS EXTENSIVELY WITH THE CAT DOMAIN THE ASYMMETRIC SHAPE OF TWO TRUNCATED C-P4H-I VARIANTS, ALSO CHARACTERIZED IN THIS STUDY, AGREES WITH THIS ASSEMBLY FURTHERMORE, DATA FROM THESE TRUNCATED VARIANTS SHOW THAT DIMERIZATION BETWEEN THE A SUBUNITS HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ACHIEVING THE CORRECT PSB-CAT ASSEMBLY COMPETENT FOR CATALYTIC ACTIVITY KINETIC ASSAYS WITH VARIOUS PROLINE-RICH PEPTIDE SUBSTRATES AND INHIBITORS SUGGEST THAT IN THE COMPETENT ASSEMBLY, THE PSB DOMAIN BINDS TO THE PROCOLLAGEN SUBSTRATE DOWNSTREAM FROM THE CAT DOMAIN...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087685/bst-2-restricts-iav-release-and-is-countered-by-the-viral-m2-protein
#10
Siqi Hu, Lijuan Yin, Shan Mei, Jian Li, Fengwen Xu, Hong Sun, Xiaoman Liu, Shan Cen, Chen Liang, Ailing Li, Fei Guo
BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24) is induced by interferon and restricts virus release by tethering the enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The effect of BST-2 on influenza A virus (IAV) infection has been inconclusive. In this study, we report that BST-2 diminishes the production of IAV virus-like particles, that are generated by viral NA and HA proteins, to a much greater degree than inhibits the production of wild type IAV particles. This relatively weaker inhibition of IAV is associated with reduction of BST-2 levels, which is caused by the M2 protein that interacts with BST-2 and leads to downregulation of cell surface BST-2 via the proteasomal pathway...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082425/cullin-neddylation-may-allosterically-tune-polyubiquitin-chain-length-and-topology
#11
Melis Onel, Fidan Sumbul, Jin Liu, Ruth Nussinov, Turkan Haliloglu
Conjugation of Nedd8 (neddylation) to Cullins in Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRL) stimulates ubiquitination and polyubiquitination of protein substrates. CRL is made up of two Cullin-flanked arms: one consists of the substrate-binding and adaptor proteins; the other of E2 and Ring-box protein (Rbx). Polyubiquitin chain length and topology determines the substrate fate. Here we ask how polyubiquitin chains are accommodated in the limited space available between the two arms and what determines the polyubiquitin linkage topology...
January 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057719/structure-and-inhibitor-specificity-of-the-pctaire-family-kinase-cdk16
#12
Sarah E Dixon-Clarke, Saifeldin N Shehata, Tobias Krojer, Timothy D Sharpe, Frank von Delft, Kei Sakamoto, Alex N Bullock
CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has an unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared to conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor binding properties of this atypical CDK we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057718/calcium-mediated-oxidative-stress-a-common-mechanism-in-tight-junction-disruption-by-different-types-of-cellular-stress
#13
Ruchika Gangwar, Avtar Meena, Pradeep Shukla, Archana Nagaraja, Piotr Dorniak, Sandeep Pallikuth, Christopher Waters, Anil Sood, Radhakrishna Rao
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro , and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA. Knockdown of CaV1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049758/identification-of-mouse-cathepsin-k-structural-elements-that-regulate-the-potency-of-odanacatib
#14
Simon Law, Pierre-Marie Andrault, Adeleke Aguda, Nham Nguyen, Natasha Kruglyak, Gary Brayer, Dieter Bromme
Cathepsin K (CatK) is the predominant mammalian bone-degrading protease and thus an ideal target for anti-osteoporotic drug development. Rodent models of osteoporosis are preferred due to their close reflection of the human disease and their ease of handling, genetic manipulation, and economic affordability.  However, large differences in the potency of CatK inhibitors for the mouse/rat versus the human protease orthologues have made it impossible to use rodent models. This is even more of a problem considering that the most advanced CatK inhibitors including odanacatib and balicatib failed in human clinical trials due to side effects and rodent models are not available to investigate the mechanism of these failures...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049757/smug2-dna-glycosylase-from-pedobacter-heparinus-as-a-new-subfamily-in-udg-superfamily
#15
Panjiao Pang, Ye Yang, Jing Li, Zhong Wang, Weiguo Cao, Wei Xie
Base deamination is a common type of DNA damage that occurs in all organisms. DNA repair mechanisms are essential to maintain genome integrity, in which the base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a major role in the removal of base damage. In the BER pathway, the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily is responsible for excising the deaminated bases from DNA and generates apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a family 3 SMUG1-like DNA glycoyslase from Pedobacter heparinus (named as Phe SMUG2), which display catalytic activities towards DNA containing uracil or hypoxanthine/xanthine...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049756/a-role-for-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-phosphorylation-dependent-modulation-of-prrxl1-function
#16
Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Sofia Pessoa, Ana Filipa Dias, Miguel Falcão, Mariana Raimundo Matos, Rui Vitorino, Filipe Almeida Monteiro, Deolinda Lima, Carlos Reguenga
Prrxl1 encodes for a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor essential for the correct establishment of the dorsal root ganglion - spinal cord nociceptive circuitry during development. Prrxl1 -null mice display gross anatomical disruption of this circuitry, which translates to a markedly diminished sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Here, by the use of an Immunoprecipitation-Mass Spectrometry approach, we identify 5 highly conserved phosphorylation sites (T110, S119, S231, S233, S251) in PRRXL1 primary structure...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008134/interacting-post-muscarinic-receptor-signaling-pathways-potentiate-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-expression-and-invasion-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#17
Anan Said, Shien Hu, Ameer Abutaleb, Tonya Watkins, Kunrong Cheng, Ahmed Chahdi, Panjamurthy Kuppusamy, Neeraj Saxena, Guofeng Xie, Jean-Pierre Raufman
M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) expression is increased in colon cancer; M3R activation stimulates colon cancer cell invasion via cross-talk with epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), post-EGFR activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2, and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 ( MMP1 ) expression. MMP1 expression is strongly associated with tumor metastasis and adverse outcomes. Here, we asked whether other MAPKs regulate M3R agonist-induced MMP1 expression. In addition to activating ERK1/2, we found that treating colon cancer cells with acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated robust time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of p38 MAPK...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008133/scolopendin-an-antimicrobial-peptide-from-centipede-attenuates-mitochondrial-functions-and-triggers-apoptosis-in-candida-albicans
#18
Heejeong Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
Centipedes, a type of arthropod, reportedly produce antimicrobial peptides as part of an innate immune response. Scolopendin (SPSEKAGLQPVGRIGRMLKK) is a novel antimicrobial peptide derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Many antifungal agents have more than one type of cell death mechanism. Although scolopendin is involved in membrane perturbation, the corresponding intracellular changes require further investigation. Therefore, we assessed the cell morphology and calcium ion concentration of the cytosol and mitochondria of scolopendin-treated cells...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008132/conserved-residues-in-ycf54-are-required-for-protochlorophyllide-formation-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#19
Sarah Hollingshead, Sophie Bliss, Patrick J Baker, C Neil Hunter
Chlorophylls are modified tetrapyrrole molecules, essential for photosynthesis. These pigments possess an isocyclic E ring formed by the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethylester cyclase (MgPME-cyclase). We assessed the in vivo effects of altering seven highly conserved residues within Ycf54, which is required for MgPME-cyclase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis Synechocystis strains harbouring the Ycf54 alterations D39A, F40A and R82A were blocked to varying degrees at the MgPME-cyclase step, whereas the A9G mutation reduced Ycf54 levels by ~75%...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993971/the-cd9-cd81-and-cd151-ec2-domains-bind-to-the-classical-rgd-binding-site-of-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3
#20
Jessica Yu, Chia-Ying Lee, Chun Austin Changou, Dora M Cedano-Prieto, Yoko K Takada, Yoshikazu Takada
Tetraspanins play important roles in normal (e.g., cell adhesion, motility, activation, and proliferation), and pathological conditions (e.g., metastasis and viral infection). Tetraspanins interact with integrins and regulate integrin functions, but the specifics of tetraspanin-integrin interaction are unclear. Using co-immunoprecipitation with integrins as a sole method to detect interaction between integrins and full-length tetraspanins, it has been proposed that the variable region (helices D and E) of the extracellular-2 (EC2) of tetraspanins laterally associate with non-ligand-binding site of integrins...
December 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
journal
journal
25492
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"