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Bulletin of Entomological Research

A Wood, E B Haga, V A Costa, M N Rossi
Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
V Savino, M G Luna, N G Salas Gervassio, C E Coviella
Interspecific interactions between two larval parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) with partially overlapping host niches were studied: the idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae De Santis, and the koinobiont endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck). T. absoluta is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide, and its management could be improved by understanding the competitive interactions and potential coexistence between these two parasitoids. Firstly, a 15-min fixed time laboratory test evaluated the host-searching ability of adult D...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
T Tharmatha, K Gajapathy, R Ramasamy, S N Surendran
The correct identification of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is important for controlling the disease. Genetic, particularly DNA sequence data, has lately become an important adjunct to the use of morphological criteria for this purpose. A recent DNA sequencing study revealed the presence of two cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi species complex in India. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the presence of cryptic species in the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka using morphological characteristics and DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunits...
October 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A N Laws, A Joern
Species interactions are often context-dependent, where outcomes require an understanding of influences among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. However, it remains unclear how abiotic factors such as temperature combine with important biotic factors such as density-dependent food limitation and predation to influence species interactions. Using a native grassland - grasshopper - wolf spider model food chain in tallgrass prairie, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to examine how predator-prey interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food chain length...
October 5, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
P A Eliopoulos, A Kapranas, E G Givropoulou, I C W Hardy
The parasitoid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is commonly present in stored product facilities. While beneficial, it does not provide a high degree of biological pest control against its host, the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). A candidate explanation for poor host population suppression is that adult females interfere with each other's foraging and reproductive behavior. We used simple laboratory microcosms to evaluate such mutual interference in terms of its overall effects on offspring production...
October 3, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
J Rull, E Tadeo, R Lasa, M Aluja
Dormancy has been thoroughly studied for several species of economic importance in the genus Rhagoletis in temperate areas of North America and Europe. Much less is known on life history regulation for species inhabiting high-elevation areas in the subtropics at the southern extreme of their geographical range. Host plant phenology has been found to play a key role in generating allochronic isolation among sibling species and host races of Rhagoletis in the course of sympatric speciation, and has important implications for pest management...
September 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G Zhu, L Pan, Y Zhao, X Zhang, F Wang, Y Yu, W Fan, Q Liu, S Zhang, M Li
In tritrophic 'plants-herbivores-natural enemies' systems, there are relatively few reports concerning the role(s) of kairomones in pupal parasitism. Chouioia cunea Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an endoparasitic chalcid wasp, parasitizes pupae of the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury). The role of host-related kairomones was investigated using electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral techniques. Chemicals from some host stages (pupae) and host by-products (frass), induced arrestment behavior of female parasitoids, while chemicals from prepupae, were inactive...
September 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A Łukowski, M J Giertych, U Walczak, E Baraniak, P Karolewski
The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y...
September 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
L C Pérez-Cogollo, R I Rodríguez-Vivas, E Reyes-Novelo, H Delfín-González, D Muñoz-Rodríguez
Two bioassays were conducted in parallel to assess the effects of cattle treated with either 1% ivermectin (IVM) or 3.15% IVM (dosed at 0.2 and 0.63 mg kg-1, respectively) on reproduction and survival of Onthophagus landolti Harold. Adult beetles were exposed 10 days to faeces of treated cattle starting at: one day before treatment (controls), 3, 6, 14, 28 and 35 days post-treatment. Adult survival of O. landolti was not affected by either of the two treatments. Faecal residues of 1% IVM almost completely suppressed fecundity of beetles at 3, 6 and 14 days post-treatment (dPT), and reduced fecundity of O...
September 9, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
D B Silva, V H P Bueno, F J Calvo, J C van Lenteren
The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the type and effect of injury caused by nymphs and adults of these mirids on tomato seedlings and fruit in the absence of prey. For each mirid species, seedlings were exposed to groups of 20 nymphs or adults for 72 h, and fruits were exposed for 48 h to groups of four nymphs or adults...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
I Juric, W Salzburger, O Balmer
The diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) is one of the main pests of brassicaceous crops worldwide and shows resistance against a wide range of synthetic insecticides incurring millions of dollars in control costs every year. The DBM is a prime example of the introduction of an exotic species as a consequence of globalization. In this study we analyzed the genetic population structure of the DBM and two of its parasitic wasps, Diadegma semiclausum and Diadegma fenestrale, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
J Barrios-SanMartín, C C Figueroa, C C Ramírez
Asexual reproduction is very common in invasive insect pest. In the recent years, increasing evidences have shown that some invasive asexual lineages display an outstanding capacity to predominate in space and persist on time (superclones). However, little is known about the host-use behavior of these superclones. The English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of cereals worldwide. Chilean populations of the grain aphid are characterized by a high degree of heterozygosity and low genotypic variability across regions and years, with only four predominant superclone genotypes representing nearly 90% of populations...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
T T Zhang, G C Zhang, F F Zeng, C Y Liu, J J Mao
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) act through a conserved insulin signaling pathway and play crucial roles in insect metabolism, growth, reproduction, and aging. Application of bovine insulin is able to increase vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA and protein levels in female insects. Here, we first show that injection of bovine insulin into previtellogenic Chrysopa septempunctata female adults promoted ovarian growth, increased Vg protein abundance, elevated reproductive performance, and enhanced protease activity. These data suggested that ILPs play crucial roles in reproductive regulation of the green lacewing, C...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
K Kawazu, W Sugeno, A Mochizuki, S Nakamura
The costs and benefits of polyandry are still not well understood. We studied the effects of multiple mating on the reproductive performance of female Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), one of the most serious pests of the coconut palm, by using three experimental treatments: (1) singly-mated females (single treatment); (2) females that mated 10 times with the same male (repetition treatment); and (3) females that mated once with each of 10 different males (polyandry treatment). Both multiple mating treatments resulted in significantly greater total egg production and the proportion of eggs that successfully hatched (hatching success) than with the single mating treatment...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A Chroni, M Djan, D Obreht Vidaković, T Petanidou, A Vujić
Eumerus is one of the most diverse genera of hoverfly worldwide. Species delimitation within genus is considered to be difficult due to: (a) lack of an efficient key; (b) non-defined taxonomical status of a large number of species; and (c) blurred nomenclature. Here, we present the first molecular study to delimit species of the genus by using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene. We assessed 75 specimens assigned to 28 taxa originating from two biogeographic zones: 22 from the western Palaearctic and six from the Afrotropical region...
August 30, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
S Olivier-Espejel, B P Hurley, J Garnas
Traps designed to capture insects during normal movement/dispersal, or via attraction to non-specific (plant) volatile lures, yield by-catch that carries valuable information about patterns of community diversity and composition. In order to identify potential native/introduced pests and detect predictors of colonization of non-native pines, we examined beetle assemblages captured in intercept panel traps baited with kairomone lures used during a national monitoring of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Southern Africa...
August 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
J Zheng, K Tian, Y Yuan, M Li, X Qiu
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key hormone which regulates growth, development and reproduction in insects. Although cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) participating in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis of 20E have been characterized in a few model insects, no work has been published on the molecular entity of their orthologs in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, a major pest insect in agriculture worldwide. In this study, four cytochrome P450 homologs, namely HarmCYP302A1, HarmCYP306A1, HarmCYP314A1 and HarmCYP315A1 from H...
August 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G-H Zhang, Z-J Yuan, K-S Yin, J-Y Fu, M-J Tang, Q Xiao
Ectropis grisescens Warren and Ectropis obliqua (Prout) are two morphologically similar sibling species with overlapping ranges. In this study, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the possibility of reproductive interference in sympatric populations of E. grisescens and E. obliqua and the potential consequences of the mating interaction. Our results showed that the presence of males or females of different species could incur mating interference and significant reduction of F 1 offspring...
August 11, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Q Yang, Z-Y Song, X Feng, J Zhang, Y Zheng, X-H Wang, J-C Sui, Z-G Wang, Y Sun
There are six strains of the complete genomic sequences of black queen cell virus (BQCV) published in the GenBank, including South Africa (AF183905), South Korea (JX149531), Hungary 10 (EF517515), Poland 4 (EF517519), Poland 5 (EF517520) and Poland 6 (EF517521). Based on the six BQCV strains published in the GenBank, ten pairs of primers were designed in the present study using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to obtain the first complete genome sequence of a BQCV strain in China, called the BQCV China-JL1 strain (KP119603)...
October 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
N Fujiwara-Tsujii, H Yasui, S Wakamura, A Nagayama, N Arakaki
Females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release both (R)- and (S)-2-butanol as sex pheromones, but the males are only attracted to (R)-2-butanol. In laboratory-reared females, the proportion of the (R)-isomer decreased significantly as their calling opportunities increased and as they aged. We examined whether such qualitative changes also occur in field populations. We collected virgin females from the field and then trapped and analysed the volatiles emitted during their first and second callings...
October 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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