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Bulletin of Entomological Research

D Roberts
Mosquito larvae have been shown to respond to water-borne kairomones from nearby predators by reducing their activity, and thus visibility. If they can identify the predator, they can then alter their response depending upon the associated predation risk. No studies have shown that mosquito larva may also detect water-borne vibrations from the predator. Final instar larvae of three mosquitoes: Culiseta longiareolata, Culex perexiguus and C. quinquefasciatus, were exposed to recorded vibrations from feeding dragonfly nymphs, to dragonfly kairomones and the combined effect of both...
January 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Salwa Abdo Rizk, Ragaa Sayed Abdalla, Rehab Mahmoud Sayed
Nowadays, the sterile insect technique is broadly used as a pest control measure. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the alteration occurred in testes and DNA pattern as an effect of inherited sterility. Full grown pupae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella were irradiated with 80 and 160 Gy of γ irradiation. The size of the testes was decreased by increasing of γ irradiation dose. Also, the size of the testes was decreased in F 1 males comparing with the size of the testes of both the parents and the untreated control...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
O O Uyi, C Zachariades, E Marais, M P Hill
Disentangling the responses of insects to variations in their thermal environment is central to our understanding of the evolution of temperature-dependent performance in these species. Here, we report results of experiments examining the effects of high (upper lethal temperature = ULT) and low (lower lethal temperature = LLT) temperature and exposure time on the survival of larvae and adults of a multivoltine, nocturnal moth species, Pareuchaetes insulata, a biological control agent whose impact on an invasive weed, Chromolaena odorata has been variable in South Africa...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
B M Carvalho, E F Rangel, M M Vale
Vector-borne diseases are exceptionally sensitive to climate change. Predicting vector occurrence in specific regions is a challenge that disease control programs must meet in order to plan and execute control interventions and climate change adaptation measures. Recently, an increasing number of scientific articles have applied ecological niche modelling (ENM) to study medically important insects and ticks. With a myriad of available methods, it is challenging to interpret their results. Here we review the future projections of disease vectors produced by ENM, and assess their trends and limitations...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
R Piovezan, J Paulo O Acorinthe, A Visockas, T S de Azevedo, C J Von Zuben
The control of dengue constitutes a great challenge for public health; however, the methods normally used have shown themselves to be insufficient to keep the indices of infestation of Aedes aegypti under control. Recently, beyond the large number of cases and deaths associated with dengue, new risks have arisen such as those represented by chikungunya fever and Zika. In the light of the great significance of these problems within the public health context, two areas in a municipality in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were selected in 2014...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G A Avila, T M Withers, G I Holwell
Cotesia urabae is a solitary larval endoparasitoid that was introduced into New Zealand in 2011 as a classical biological control agent against Uraba lugens. A detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology is required to optimize mass rearing efficiency. In this study, the courtship and mating behaviour of C. urabae is described and investigated from a series of experiments, conducted to understand the factors that influence male mating success. Cotesia urabae males exhibited a high attraction to virgin females but not mated females, whereas females showed no attraction to either virgin or mated males...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G Hu, M-H Lu, H A Tuan, W-C Liu, M-C Xie, C E McInerney, B-P Zhai
Rice planthopper (RPH) populations of Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera periodically have erupted across Asia. Predicting RPH population dynamics and identifying their source areas are crucial for the management of these migratory pests in China, but the origins of the migrants to temperate and subtropical regions in China remains unclear. In particular, their early migration to China in March and April have not yet been explored due to a lack of research data available from potential source areas, Central Vietnam and Laos...
December 6, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
C F Farder-Gomes, M A Oliveira, P L Gonçalves, L M Gontijo, J C Zanuncio, M A L Bragança, E M Pires
The leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the Neotropics. Management strategies predominantly rely on the use of general insecticides. What is needed are more species-specific and environmentally friendly options. Parasitioids such as phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) may be one such option, but a greater understanding of the ecology of the flies and their ant hosts is essential to devise biological control strategies. Here we report parasitism rates, ant host size, parasitoid abundance per host and resultant sex ratios of two phorid species Apocephalus attophilus Borgmeier and Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai Brown parasitizing A...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
S Fischer, M S De Majo, L Quiroga, M Paez, N Schweigmann
Buenos Aires city is located near the southern limit of the distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). This study aimed to assess long-term variations in the abundance of Ae. aegypti in Buenos Aires in relation to changes in climatic conditions. Ae. aegypti weekly oviposition activity was analyzed and compared through nine warm seasons from 1998 to 2014, with 200 ovitraps placed across the whole extension of the city. The temporal and spatial dynamics of abundances were compared among seasons, and their relation with climatic variables were analyzed...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G H Baker, C R Tann
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
N P Havill, J Elkinton, J C Andersen, S B Hagen, Hannah J Broadley, G J Boettner, A Caccone
The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid generations beyond F1. To study winter moth population genetics and hybridization with Bruce spanworm, we developed two sets of genetic markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites, using genomic approaches...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Z Shi, H Liang, Y Hou
Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A Nardelli, V Peona, A Toschi, M Mandrioli, G C Manicardi
A careful measure of fitness represents a crucial target in crop pest management and becomes fundamental considering extremely prolific insects. In the present paper, we describe a standardized rearing protocol and a bioinformatics tool to calculate aphid fitness indices and invasiveness starting from life table data. We tested the protocol and the bioinformatic tool using six Myzus persicae (Sulzer) asexual lineages in order to investigate if karyotype rearrangements and ecotype could influence their reproductive performances...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A Menkis, J Lynikienė, A Marčiulynas, A Gedminas, A Povilaitienė
We studied the occurrence, morphology and phenology of Dendroctonus micans in Lithuania and the fungi associated with the beetle at different developmental stages. The occurrence of D. micans was assessed in 19 seed orchards (at least 40 years old) of Picea abies (L. Karst.) situated in different parts of the country. Bark beetle phenology was studied in two sites: a seed orchard of P. abies and a plantation of Picea pungens (Engelm.). D. micans morphology was assessed under the dissection microscope using individuals at different developmental stages that were sampled during phenology observations...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G H Baker, C R Tann
Two noctuid moths, Helicoverpa punctigera and Helicoverpa armigera, are pests of several agricultural crops in Australia, most notably cotton. Cotton is a summer crop, grown predominantly in eastern Australia. The use of transgenic (Bt) cotton has reduced the damage caused by Helicoverpa spp., but the development of Bt resistance in these insects remains a threat. In the past, large populations of H. punctigera have built up in inland Australia, following autumn-winter rains. Moths have then migrated to the cropping regions in spring, when their inland host plants dried off...
November 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
M K Dhillon, F Hasan, A K Tanwar, A S Bhadauriya
Determination of critical threshold for induction and termination of diapause (hibernation) are important for better understanding the bio-ecology and population dynamics of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under varying climatic conditions. We studied initiation and termination of hibernation under five temperature and photoperiod regimes viz., 27°C + 12L:12D, 22°C + 11.5L:12.5D, 18°C + 11L:13D, 14°C + 10.5L:13.5D and 10°C + 10L:14D under fixed and ramping treatments, and the observations were recorded on various phenological and developmental characteristics at weekly intervals...
November 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
W Song, L-J Cao, Y-Z Wang, B-Y Li, S-J Wei
The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A M Cárdenas, P Gallardo, L Moyano, J J Presa
Chorthippus vagans is a common species of Gomphocerinae (Orthoptera) on the Iberian Peninsula. It is endangered in Central Europe where information about its ecological requirements is available; however, aspects of its biology are almost unknown in Mediterranean ecosystems, where it is widespread and common. The focus of this study was to determine how C. vagans adjusts its biology to environmental features of this ecosystem and to interpret how it may be affected by the ecological changes related to the re-vegetation programme linked to the construction of the Breña dam (SW Spain)...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Y Tan, X-R Zhou, B-P Pang
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to analyze gene expression and decipher gene function. To obtain the optimal and stable normalization factors for qRT-PCR, selection and validation of reference genes should be conducted in diverse conditions. In insects, more and more studies confirmed the necessity and importance of reference gene selection. In this study, eight traditionally used reference genes in Galeruca daurica (Joannis) were assessed, using qRT-PCR, for suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using four statistical programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔC t method...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
D B Lima, H K V Oliveira, J W S Melo, M G C Gondim, M Sabelis, A Pallini, A Janssen
The simultaneous infestation of a plant by several species of herbivores may affect the attractiveness of plants to the natural enemies of one of the herbivores. We studied the effect of coconut fruits infested by the pests Aceria guerreronis and Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum, which are generally found together under the coconut perianth. The predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki produced lower numbers of offspring on fruits infested with S. concavuscutum and on fruits infested with both prey than on fruits with A...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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