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American Naturalist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221836/mimicry-among-unequally-defended-prey-should-be-mutualistic-when-predators-sample-optimally
#1
Thomas G Aubier, Mathieu Joron, Thomas N Sherratt
Understanding the conditions under which moderately defended prey evolve to resemble better-defended prey and whether this mimicry is parasitic (quasi-Batesian) or mutualistic (Müllerian) is central to our understanding of warning signals. Models of predator learning generally predict quasi-Batesian relationships. However, predators' attack decisions are based not only on learning alone but also on the potential future rewards. We identify the optimal sampling strategy of predators capable of classifying prey into different profitability categories and contrast the implications of these rules for mimicry evolution with a classical Pavlovian model based on conditioning...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221835/social-information-on-fear-and-food-drives-animal-grouping-and-fitness
#2
Michael A Gil, Zachary Emberts, Harrison Jones, Colette M St Mary
Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221834/frontispiece-1876-cover
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221833/evolution-of-thermal-reaction-norms-in-seasonally-varying-environments
#4
Priyanga Amarasekare, Christopher Johnson
Thermal reaction norms of ectotherms exhibit a distinctive latitudinal pattern: the temperature at which performance is maximized coincides with the mean habitat temperature in tropical ectotherms but exceeds the mean temperature in temperate ectotherms. We hypothesize, on the basis of Jensen's inequality, that this pattern is driven by latitudinal variation in seasonal temperature fluctuations. We test this hypothesis with an eco-evolutionary model that integrates the quantitative genetics of reaction norm evolution with stage-structured population dynamics, which we parameterize with data from insects...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221832/what-explains-patterns-of-diversification-and-richness-among-animal-phyla
#5
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Animal phyla vary dramatically in species richness (from one species to >1.2 million), but the causes of this variation remain largely unknown. Animals have also evolved striking variation in morphology and ecology, including sessile marine taxa lacking heads, eyes, limbs, and complex organs (e.g., sponges), parasitic worms (e.g., nematodes, platyhelminths), and taxa with eyes, skeletons, limbs, and complex organs that dominate terrestrial ecosystems (arthropods, chordates). Relating this remarkable variation in traits to the diversification and richness of animal phyla is a fundamental yet unresolved problem in biology...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221831/behavioral-hypervolumes-of-predator-groups-and-predator-predator-interactions-shape-prey-survival-rates-and-selection-on-prey-behavior
#6
Jonathan N Pruitt, Kimberly A Howell, Shaniqua J Gladney, Yusan Yang, James L L Lichtenstein, Michelle Elise Spicer, Sebastian A Echeverri, Noa Pinter-Wollman
Predator-prey interactions often vary on the basis of the traits of the individual predators and prey involved. Here we examine whether the multidimensional behavioral diversity of predator groups shapes prey mortality rates and selection on prey behavior. We ran individual sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) through three behavioral assays to characterize individuals' behavioral phenotype along three axes. We then created groups that varied in the volume of behavioral space that they occupied. We further manipulated the ability of predators to interact with one another physically via the addition of barriers...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221830/from-individual-to-group-territoriality-competitive-environments-promote-the-evolution-of-sociality
#7
Markus Port, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221829/the-evolutionary-economics-of-embryonic-sac-fluids-in-squamate-reptiles
#8
Xavier Bonnet, Guy Naulleau, Richard Shine
The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies)...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221828/does-cohistory-constrain-information-use-evidence-for-generalized-risk-assessment-in-nonnative-prey
#9
Emily W Grason
Though prey use a variety of information sources to assess predation risk, evolutionary cohistory with a predator could constrain information use, and nonnative prey might fail to recognize risk from a novel predator. Nonnative prey might instead use generalized risk assessment, relying on general alarm signals from injured conspecifics rather than cues from predators. I tested the influence of shared predator-prey history on information use, comparing responses among three native and four nonnative prey species to chemical cues from a native predator and cues from injured conspecific prey...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221827/hormonally-mediated-increases-in-sex-biased-gene-expression-accompany-the-breakdown-of-between-sex-genetic-correlations-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-lizard
#10
Robert M Cox, Christian L Cox, Joel W McGlothlin, Daren C Card, Audra L Andrew, Todd A Castoe
The evolution of sexual dimorphism is predicted to occur through reductions in between-sex genetic correlations (rmf) for shared traits, but the physiological and genetic mechanisms that facilitate these reductions remain largely speculative. Here, we use a paternal half-sibling breeding design in captive brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to show that the development of sexual size dimorphism is mirrored by the ontogenetic breakdown of rmf for body size and growth rate. Using transcriptome data from the liver (which integrates growth and metabolism), we show that sex-biased gene expression also increases dramatically between ontogenetic stages bracketing this breakdown of rmf...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221826/the-behavioral-type-of-a-top-predator-drives-the-short-term-dynamic-of-intraguild-predation
#11
Radek Michalko, Stano Pekár
Variation in behavior among individual top predators (i.e., the behavioral type) can strongly shape pest suppression in intraguild predation (IGP). However, the effect of a top predator's behavioral type-namely, foraging aggressiveness (number of killed divided by prey time) and prey choosiness (preference degree for certain prey type)-on the dynamic of IGP may interact with the relative abundances of top predator, mesopredator, and pest. We investigated the influence of the top predator's behavioral type on the dynamic of IGP in a three-species system with a top predator spider, a mesopredator spider, and a psyllid pest using a simulation model...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221825/ecological-and-social-factors-constrain-spatial-and-temporal-opportunities-for-mating-in-a-migratory-songbird
#12
Sara A Kaiser, Benjamin B Risk, T Scott Sillett, Michael S Webster
Many studies of sexual selection assume that individuals have equal mating opportunities and that differences in mating success result from variation in sexual traits. However, the inability of sexual traits to explain variation in male mating success suggests that other factors moderate the strength of sexual selection. Extrapair paternity is common in vertebrates and can contribute to variation in mating success and thus serves as a model for understanding the operation of sexual selection. We developed a spatially explicit, multifactor model of all possible female-male pairings to test the hypothesis that ecological (food availability) and social (breeding density, breeding distance, and the social mate's nest stage) factors influence an individual's opportunity for extrapair paternity in a socially monogamous bird, the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221824/surviving-in-a-cosexual-world-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-dioecy-in-tropical-trees
#13
Marjolein Bruijning, Marco D Visser, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Liza S Comita, Stephen P Hubbell, Hans de Kroon, Eelke Jongejans
Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds. Dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, and/or reproduction. We used a full life cycle approach to quantify the demographic costs and benefits associated with dioecy while controlling for demographic differences between dioecious and hermaphroditic species related to other functional traits. The advantage of this novel approach is that we can focus on the effect of breeding system across a diverse tree community...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107061/the-evolution-of-reproductive-phenology-in-broadcast-spawners-and-the-maintenance-of-sexually-antagonistic-polymorphism
#14
Colin Olito, Dustin J Marshall, Tim Connallon
Reproductive phenology is a crucial life-history trait that evolves in response to external environmental conditions and frequency- and density-dependent interactions within species. Broadcast spawners-which represent a large fraction of aquatic biodiversity-evolve phenologies that balance strong density-dependent fertilization success against abiotic environmental conditions that are required for successful reproduction. The overall balance between these processes may be particularly complex in dioecious species, where selection on reproductive timing potentially differs between the sexes...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107060/placing-the-time-of-leaf-emergence-in-an-evolutionary-context
#15
Susanne S Renner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107059/age-dependent-modulation-of-songbird-summer-feather-molt-by-temporal-and-functional-constraints
#16
Yosef Kiat, Nir Sapir
Time constraints influence various ecological, life-history, and demographic properties of individuals and populations of many species throughout the annual cycle. Feather molt is a timely undertaking that is considered among the three most energy-demanding processes in the life cycle of birds. To deal with time pressure, passerines may shorten their molt duration, using three non-mutually exclusive mechanisms: (1) replacing only part of the plumage, (2) increasing the speed of molt, and (3) postponing the renewal of some or all the plumage to a later season (i...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107058/rapid-changes-in-the-sex-linkage-of-male-coloration-in-introduced-guppy-populations
#17
Swanne P Gordon, Andrés López-Sepulcre, Diana Rumbo, David N Reznick
Theory predicts that the sex linkage of sexually selected traits can influence the direction and rate of evolution and should itself evolve in response to sex-specific selection. Some studies have found intraspecific differences in sex linkage associated with differences in selection pressures, but we know nothing about how fast these differences can evolve. Here we show that introduced guppy populations showing rapid evolution of male coloration also show rapid changes in sex-linkage patterns. A comparison, using hormonal manipulations in females, of introduced populations of different ages suggests a consistent increase of autosomal or X-linked coloration 2 years after introduction from high- to low-predation environments...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107057/living-on-the-edge-parasite-prevalence-changes-dramatically-across-a-range-edge-in-an-invasive-gecko
#18
Andrew Coates, Louise K Barnett, Conrad Hoskin, Ben L Phillips
Species interactions can determine range limits, and parasitism is the most intimate of such interactions. Intriguingly, the very conditions on range edges likely change host-parasite dynamics in nontrivial ways. Range edges are often associated with clines in host density and with environmental transitions, both of which may affect parasite transmission. On advancing range edges, founder events and fitness/dispersal costs of parasitism may also cause parasites to be lost on range edges. Here we examine the prevalence of three species of parasite across the range edge of an invasive gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in northeastern Australia...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#19
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107055/radiating-despite-a-lack-of-character-ecological-divergence-among-closely-related-morphologically-similar-honeyeaters-aves-meliphagidae-co-occurring-in-arid-australian-environments
#20
Eliot T Miller, Sarah K Wagner, Luke J Harmon, Robert E Ricklefs
Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent...
February 2017: American Naturalist
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