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American Naturalist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860514/epistasis-induced-evolutionary-plateaus-in-selection-responses
#1
Arnaud Le Rouzic, José M Álvarez-Castro
Understanding and predicting evolution is a central challenge in both population and quantitative genetics. The amount of genetic variance for quantitative traits available in a population conditions the particular way in which this population will (or will not) evolve under natural or artificial selection. Here, we explore the potential of gene-gene interactions (epistasis) to induce evolutionary plateaus at which evolutionary change virtually collapses for a number of generations, followed by the release of previously cryptic genetic variation...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860513/micro-and-macroevolutionary-trade-offs-in-plant-feeding-insects
#2
Daniel A Peterson, Nate B Hardy, Benjamin B Normark
A long-standing hypothesis asserts that plant-feeding insects specialize on particular host plants because of negative interactions (trade-offs) between adaptations to alternative hosts, yet empirical evidence for such trade-offs is scarce. Most studies have looked for microevolutionary performance trade-offs within insect species, but host use could also be constrained by macroevolutionary trade-offs caused by epistasis and historical contingency. Here we used a phylogenetic approach to estimate the micro- and macroevolutionary correlations between use of alternative host-plant taxa within two major orders of plant-feeding insects: Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Hemiptera (true bugs)...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860512/color-change-for-thermoregulation-versus-camouflage-in-free-ranging-lizards
#3
Kathleen R Smith, Viviana Cadena, John A Endler, Michael R Kearney, Warren P Porter, Devi Stuart-Fox
Animal coloration has multiple functions including thermoregulation, camouflage, and social signaling, and the requirements of each function may sometimes conflict. Many terrestrial ectotherms accommodate the multiple functions of color through color change. However, the relative importance of these functions and how color-changing species accommodate them when they do conflict are poorly understood because we lack data on color change in the wild. Here, we show that the color of individual radio-tracked bearded dragon lizards, Pogona vitticeps, correlates strongly with background color and less strongly, but significantly, with temperature...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860511/large-brains-small-guts-the-expensive-tissue-hypothesis-supported-within-anurans
#4
Wen Bo Liao, Shang Ling Lou, Yu Zeng, Alexander Kotrschal
Brain size differs substantially among species, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of brain size. Because the brain is among the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body, trade-offs have been hypothesized to exert constraints on brain size evolution. Prominently, the expensive tissue hypothesis (ETH) proposes that reducing the size of another expensive organ, such as the gut, should compensate for the cost of a large brain. But energetic constraints may also drive covariation between the brain and other costly traits-such as body maintenance, locomotion, or reproduction-as formulated in the energy trade-off hypothesis...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860510/the-case-of-the-missing-ancient-fungal-polyploids
#5
Matthew A Campbell, Austen R D Ganley, Toni Gabaldón, Murray P Cox
Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860509/the-natural-history-of-the-south-hills-crossbill-in-relation-to-its-impending-extinction
#6
Craig W Benkman
Increasingly, the species that we discover will be uncommon, area restricted, and vulnerable to extinction. I describe the natural history of a newly discovered seed-eating finch from the Rocky Mountain region, the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex). It relies on seeds in the closed cones of the fire-adapted Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) and is found only in the higher elevations of two small mountain ranges in southern Idaho. Here crossbills and pine are engaged in a coevolutionary arms race...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860508/developmental-and-ecological-benefits-of-the-maternally-transmitted-microbiota-in-a-dung-beetle
#7
Daniel B Schwab, Hailey E Riggs, Irene L G Newton, Armin P Moczek
To complete their development, diverse animal species rely on the presence of communities of symbiotic microbiota that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. In the dung beetle genus Onthophagus, newly hatched larvae acquire maternal gut symbionts by the consumption of a maternal fecal secretion known as the pedestal. Here, we investigate the role of pedestal symbionts in mediating the normal development of Onthophagus gazella. Through the stepwise removal of environmental and maternal sources of microbial inoculation, we find that pedestal microbiota can enhance both overall growth and developmental rate in O...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860507/secretary-s-report-2016-american-society-of-naturalists
#8
Jennifer Lau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860506/treasurer-s-report-2015-statement-of-activities-for-the-year-ending-december-31-2015
#9
Ellen Simms
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860505/evolution-of-inbreeding-avoidance-and-inbreeding-preference-through-mate-choice-among-interacting-relatives
#10
A Bradley Duthie, Jane M Reid
While extensive population genetic theory predicts conditions favoring evolution of self-fertilization versus outcrossing, there is no analogous theory that predicts conditions favoring evolution of inbreeding avoidance or inbreeding preference enacted through mate choice given obligate biparental reproduction. Multiple interacting processes complicate the dynamics of alleles underlying such inbreeding strategies, including sexual conflict, distributions of kinship, genetic drift, purging of mutation load, direct costs, and restricted kin discrimination...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860504/phylogenetic-ancova-estimating-changes-in-evolutionary-rates-as-well-as-relationships-between-traits
#11
Jesualdo A Fuentes-G, Elizabeth A Housworth, Ashley Weber, Emília P Martins
We present a new phylogenetic comparative method-phylogenetic analysis of covariance (PANCOVA)-that uses interspecific data and a phylogeny to estimate the effects of major events on both the rate of phenotypic evolution and the association between traits. It could be used, for example, to model the impact of a key innovation, colonization of a new habitat, or environmental change. The approach is optimized with maximum likelihood and is formulated under the familiar phylogenetic generalized least squares framework, which is flexible and easily extended to incorporate other factors and parameters...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860503/disentangling-genetic-and-prenatal-maternal-effects-on-offspring-size-and-survival
#12
Joel L Pick, Christina Ebneter, Pascale Hutter, Barbara Tschirren
Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788349/seasonally-varying-predation-behavior-and-climate-shifts-are-predicted-to-affect-predator-prey-cycles
#13
Rebecca Tyson, Frithjof Lutscher
The functional response of some predator species changes from a pattern characteristic for a generalist to that for a specialist according to seasonally varying prey availability. Current theory does not address the dynamic consequences of this phenomenon. Since season length correlates strongly with altitude and latitude and is predicted to change under future climate scenarios, including this phenomenon in theoretical models seems essential for correct prediction of future ecosystem dynamics. We develop and analyze a two-season model for the great horned owl (Bubo virginialis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus)...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788348/ant-mutualism-increases-long-term-growth-and-survival-of-a-common-amazonian-tree
#14
Selene Báez, David A Donoso, Simon A Queenborough, Liliana Jaramillo, Renato Valencia, Olivier Dangles
How ecological context shapes mutualistic relationships remains poorly understood. We combined long-term tree census data with ant censuses in a permanent 25-ha Amazonian forest dynamics plot to evaluate the effect of the mutualistic ant Myrmelachista schumanni (Formicinae) on the growth and survival of the common Amazonian tree Duroia hirsuta (Rubiaceae), considering its interactions with tree growth, population structure, and habitat. We found that the mutualist ant more than doubled tree relative growth rates and increased odds of survival...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788347/busy-nights-high-seed-dispersal-by-crickets-in-a-neotropical-forest
#15
Flávia Delgado Santana, Fabricio Beggiato Baccaro, Flávia Regina Capellotto Costa
Among invertebrates, ants are the most abundant and probably most important seed dispersers in both temperate and tropical environments. Crickets, also abundant in tropical forests, are omnivores and commonly attracted to fruits on the forest floor. However, their capability to remove seeds has been reported only once. We compared Marantaceae seed removal by crickets and ants to assess the role of crickets as secondary seed dispersers in Amazonia. Compared with ants, crickets dispersed an equivalent number of seeds and tended to disperse larger seeds farther...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788346/spatial-selection-and-local-adaptation-jointly-shape-life-history-evolution-during-range-expansion
#16
Katrien H P Van Petegem, Jeroen Boeye, Robby Stoks, Dries Bonte
In the context of climate change and species invasions, range shifts increasingly gain attention because the rates at which they occur in the Anthropocene induce rapid changes in biological assemblages. During range shifts, species experience multiple selection pressures. For poleward expansions in particular, it is difficult to interpret observed evolutionary dynamics because of the joint action of evolutionary processes related to spatial selection and to adaptation toward local climatic conditions. To disentangle the effects of these two processes, we integrated stochastic modeling and data from a common garden experiment, using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model species...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788345/population-density-not-host-competence-drives-patterns-of-disease-in-an-invaded-community
#17
Catherine L Searle, Michael H Cortez, Katherine K Hunsberger, Dylan C Grippi, Isabella A Oleksy, Clara L Shaw, Solanus B de la Serna, Chloe L Lash, Kailash L Dhir, Meghan A Duffy
Generalist parasites can strongly influence interactions between native and invasive species. Host competence can be used to predict how an invasive species will affect community disease dynamics; the addition of a highly competent, invasive host is predicted to increase disease. However, densities of invasive and native species can also influence the impacts of invasive species on community disease dynamics. We examined whether information on host competence alone could be used to accurately predict the effects of an invasive host on disease in native hosts...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788344/synergism-and-antagonism-of-proximate-mechanisms-enable-and-constrain-the-response-to-simultaneous-selection-on-body-size-and-development-time-an-empirical-test-using-experimental-evolution
#18
Goggy Davidowitz, Derek Roff, H Frederik Nijhout
Natural selection acts on multiple traits simultaneously. How mechanisms underlying such traits enable or constrain their response to simultaneous selection is poorly understood. We show how antagonism and synergism among three traits at the developmental level enable or constrain evolutionary change in response to simultaneous selection on two focal traits at the phenotypic level. After 10 generations of 25% simultaneous directional selection on all four combinations of body size and development time in Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), the changes in the three developmental traits predict 93% of the response of development time and 100% of the response of body size...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788343/mutualism-persistence-and-abandonment-during-the-evolution-of-the-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#19
Hafiz Maherali, Brad Oberle, Peter F Stevens, William K Cornwell, Daniel J McGlinn
Mutualistic symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi are widespread in plants. The majority of plant species associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. By contrast, the minority associate with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, have abandoned the symbiosis and are nonmycorrhizal (NM), or engage in an intermediate, weakly AM symbiosis (AMNM). To understand the processes that maintain the mycorrhizal symbiosis or cause its loss, we reconstructed its evolution using a ∼3,000-species seed plant phylogeny integrated with mycorrhizal state information...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788342/from-lichens-to-the-law-cooperation-as-a-theme-in-the-diverse-career-of-roscoe-pound
#20
Megan E Frederickson, Judith L Bronstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Naturalist
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