journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

American Naturalist

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035896/the-american-naturalist-persists-%C3%A2-and-evolves
#1
Judith L Bronstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035895/predator-prey-coevolution-drives-productivity-richness-relationships-in-planktonic-systems
#2
Zhichao Pu, Michael H Cortez, Lin Jiang
The relationship between environmental productivity and species richness often varies among empirical studies, and despite much research, simple explanations for this phenomenon remain elusive. We investigated how phytoplankton and zooplankton coevolution shapes productivity-richness relationships in both phytoplankton and zooplankton, using a simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model that incorporates size-dependent metabolic rates summarized from empirical studies. The model allowed comparisons of evolved species richness across productivity levels and at different evolutionary times...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035894/sweet-tetra-trophic-interactions-multiple-evolution-of-nectar-secretion-a-defensive-extended-phenotype-in-cynipid-gall-wasps
#3
James A Nicholls, George Melika, Graham N Stone
Many herbivores employ reward-based mutualisms with ants to gain protection from natural enemies. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of a tetra-trophic interaction in which gall wasp herbivores induce their host oaks to produce nectar-secreting galls, which attract ants that provide protection from parasitoids. We show that, consistent with other gall defensive traits, nectar secretion has evolved repeatedly across the oak gall wasp tribe and also within a single genus (Disholcaspis) that includes many nectar-inducing species...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035893/resist-globally-infect-locally-a-transcontinental-test-of-adaptation-by-stickleback-and-their-tapeworm-parasite
#4
Jesse N Weber, Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I Erin, Natalie C Steinel, Lei Ma, Daniel I Bolnick
Parasite infections are a product of both ecological processes affecting host-parasite encounter rates and evolutionary dynamics affecting host susceptibility. However, few studies examine natural infection variation from both ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Here, we describe the ecological and evolutionary factors generating variation in infection rates by a tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) in a vertebrate host, the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). To explore ecological aspects of infection, we measured tapeworm prevalence in Canadian stickleback inhabiting two distinct environments: marine and freshwater...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035892/regional-diversity-and-diversification-in-mammals
#5
Antonin Machac, Catherine H Graham
The effects of regional diversity on diversification remain controversial. The classic hypothesis that diversification decelerates as regional diversity increases has been recently revived. Yet, there is little geographic evidence for slower diversification across regions of high diversity, and diversity is often thought to promote diversification through its effects on ecological divergence and speciation. Here, we use the newest phylogeny for mammals (4,990 species) and two different methods to test the effects of regional diversity on diversification...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035891/frontispiece-1867-cover
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035890/phylogenetic-analysis-supports-the-aerobic-capacity-model-for-the-evolution-of-endothermy
#7
Roberto F Nespolo, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, Francisco Bozinovic
The evolution of endothermy is a controversial topic in evolutionary biology, although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it. To a great extent, the debate has centered on the aerobic-capacity model (AC model), an adaptive hypothesis involving maximum and resting rates of metabolism (MMR and RMR, respectively; hereafter "metabolic traits"). The AC model posits that MMR, a proxy of aerobic capacity and sustained activity, is the target of directional selection and that RMR is also influenced as a correlated response...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035889/naive-juveniles-are-more-likely-to-become-breeders-after-witnessing-predator-mobbing
#8
Michael Griesser, Toshitaka N Suzuki
Responding appropriately during the first predatory attack in life is often critical for survival. In many social species, naive juveniles acquire this skill from conspecifics, but its fitness consequences remain virtually unknown. Here we experimentally demonstrate how naive juvenile Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) derive a long-term fitness benefit from witnessing knowledgeable adults mobbing their principal predator, the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Siberian jays live in family groups of two to six individuals that also can include unrelated nonbreeders...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035888/2016-american-society-of-naturalists-awards
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035887/in-memoriam-robert-treat-paine-iii-1933-2016-an-outsized-american-naturalist
#10
Brian R Silliman, Peter Kareiva, Catherine A Pfister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035886/introductory-from-1867
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035885/differential-survival-between-visual-environments-supports-a-role-of-divergent-sensory-drive-in-cichlid-fish-speciation
#12
Martine E Maan, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis
Identifying the selective forces that initiate ecological speciation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes. Here, we present a reciprocal transplant experiment revealing species differences in performance in alternative visual environments, consistent with speciation by divergent sensory drive. The closely related cichlids Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei inhabit different visual environments in Lake Victoria and show associated differences in visual system properties...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035884/shaping-the-latitudinal-diversity-gradient-new-perspectives-from-a-synthesis-of-paleobiology-and-biogeography
#13
David Jablonski, Shan Huang, Kaustuv Roy, James W Valentine
An impediment to understanding the origin and dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG)-the most pervasive large-scale biotic pattern on Earth-has been the tendency to focus narrowly on a single causal factor when a more synthetic, integrative approach is needed. Using marine bivalves as a model system and drawing on other systems where possible, we review paleobiologic and biogeographic support for two supposedly opposing views, that the LDG is shaped primarily by (a) local environmental factors that determine the number of species and higher taxa at a given latitude (in situ hypotheses) or (b) the entry of lineages arising elsewhere into a focal region (spatial dynamics hypotheses)...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860514/epistasis-induced-evolutionary-plateaus-in-selection-responses
#14
Arnaud Le Rouzic, José M Álvarez-Castro
Understanding and predicting evolution is a central challenge in both population and quantitative genetics. The amount of genetic variance for quantitative traits available in a population conditions the particular way in which this population will (or will not) evolve under natural or artificial selection. Here, we explore the potential of gene-gene interactions (epistasis) to induce evolutionary plateaus at which evolutionary change virtually collapses for a number of generations, followed by the release of previously cryptic genetic variation...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860513/micro-and-macroevolutionary-trade-offs-in-plant-feeding-insects
#15
Daniel A Peterson, Nate B Hardy, Benjamin B Normark
A long-standing hypothesis asserts that plant-feeding insects specialize on particular host plants because of negative interactions (trade-offs) between adaptations to alternative hosts, yet empirical evidence for such trade-offs is scarce. Most studies have looked for microevolutionary performance trade-offs within insect species, but host use could also be constrained by macroevolutionary trade-offs caused by epistasis and historical contingency. Here we used a phylogenetic approach to estimate the micro- and macroevolutionary correlations between use of alternative host-plant taxa within two major orders of plant-feeding insects: Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Hemiptera (true bugs)...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860512/color-change-for-thermoregulation-versus-camouflage-in-free-ranging-lizards
#16
Kathleen R Smith, Viviana Cadena, John A Endler, Michael R Kearney, Warren P Porter, Devi Stuart-Fox
Animal coloration has multiple functions including thermoregulation, camouflage, and social signaling, and the requirements of each function may sometimes conflict. Many terrestrial ectotherms accommodate the multiple functions of color through color change. However, the relative importance of these functions and how color-changing species accommodate them when they do conflict are poorly understood because we lack data on color change in the wild. Here, we show that the color of individual radio-tracked bearded dragon lizards, Pogona vitticeps, correlates strongly with background color and less strongly, but significantly, with temperature...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860511/large-brains-small-guts-the-expensive-tissue-hypothesis-supported-within-anurans
#17
Wen Bo Liao, Shang Ling Lou, Yu Zeng, Alexander Kotrschal
Brain size differs substantially among species, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of brain size. Because the brain is among the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body, trade-offs have been hypothesized to exert constraints on brain size evolution. Prominently, the expensive tissue hypothesis (ETH) proposes that reducing the size of another expensive organ, such as the gut, should compensate for the cost of a large brain. But energetic constraints may also drive covariation between the brain and other costly traits-such as body maintenance, locomotion, or reproduction-as formulated in the energy trade-off hypothesis...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860510/the-case-of-the-missing-ancient-fungal-polyploids
#18
Matthew A Campbell, Austen R D Ganley, Toni Gabaldón, Murray P Cox
Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860509/the-natural-history-of-the-south-hills-crossbill-in-relation-to-its-impending-extinction
#19
Craig W Benkman
Increasingly, the species that we discover will be uncommon, area restricted, and vulnerable to extinction. I describe the natural history of a newly discovered seed-eating finch from the Rocky Mountain region, the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex). It relies on seeds in the closed cones of the fire-adapted Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) and is found only in the higher elevations of two small mountain ranges in southern Idaho. Here crossbills and pine are engaged in a coevolutionary arms race...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860508/developmental-and-ecological-benefits-of-the-maternally-transmitted-microbiota-in-a-dung-beetle
#20
Daniel B Schwab, Hailey E Riggs, Irene L G Newton, Armin P Moczek
To complete their development, diverse animal species rely on the presence of communities of symbiotic microbiota that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. In the dung beetle genus Onthophagus, newly hatched larvae acquire maternal gut symbionts by the consumption of a maternal fecal secretion known as the pedestal. Here, we investigate the role of pedestal symbionts in mediating the normal development of Onthophagus gazella. Through the stepwise removal of environmental and maternal sources of microbial inoculation, we find that pedestal microbiota can enhance both overall growth and developmental rate in O...
December 2016: American Naturalist
journal
journal
25484
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"