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Epilepsia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896804/antiepileptic-drugs-and-hyponatremia-in-older-adults-two-population-based-cohort-studies
#1
Sonja Gandhi, Eric McArthur, Muhammad M Mamdani, Daniel G Hackam, Richard S McLachlan, Matthew A Weir, Jorge G Burneo, Amit X Garg
OBJECTIVE: To examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine, valproic acid (V), phenytoin (P), or topiramate (T) use compared to nonuse in the outpatient setting among older adults. METHODS: We conducted two population-based, retrospective cohort studies in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2015 using administrative health care databases of older adults. The first study compared carbamazepine users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic drug nonusers, whereas the second compared V-P-T users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic nonusers...
November 29, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888520/identifying-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-interictal-resting-state-meg-source-space-networks
#2
Ida A Nissen, Cornelis J Stam, Jaap C Reijneveld, Ilse E C W van Straaten, Eef J Hendriks, Johannes C Baayen, Philip C De Witt Hamer, Sander Idema, Arjan Hillebrand
OBJECTIVE: In one third of patients, seizures remain after epilepsy surgery, meaning that improved preoperative evaluation methods are needed to identify the epileptogenic zone. A potential framework for such a method is network theory, as it can be applied to noninvasive recordings, even in the absence of epileptiform activity. Our aim was to identify the epileptogenic zone on the basis of hub status of local brain areas in interictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) networks. METHODS: Preoperative eyes-closed resting-state MEG recordings were retrospectively analyzed in 22 patients with refractory epilepsy, of whom 14 were seizure-free 1 year after surgery...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888514/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-of-epilepsy-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-from-the-mortality-task-force-of-the-international-league-against-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
David J Thurman, Giancarlo Logroscino, Ettore Beghi, W Allen Hauser, Dale C Hesdorffer, Charles R Newton, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Josemir W Sander, Torbjörn Tomson
Since previous reviews of epidemiologic studies of premature mortality among people with epilepsy were completed several years ago, a large body of new evidence about this subject has been published. We aim to update prior reviews of mortality in epilepsy and to reevaluate and quantify the risks, potential risk factors, and causes of these deaths. We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases to identify published reports describing mortality risks in cohorts and populations of people with epilepsy...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888513/decreased-allopregnanolone-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-obtained-during-status-epilepticus
#4
Stefano Meletti, Chiara Lucchi, Giulia Monti, Giada Giovannini, Roberta Bedin, Tommaso Trenti, Cecilia Rustichelli, Giuseppe Biagini
Neuroactive steroids are increasingly considered as relevant modulators of neuronal activity. Especially allopregnanolone (AP) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) have been shown to possess, respectively, anticonvulsant or proconvulsant properties. In view of the potential role of these steroids, we aimed at evaluating AP and PS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples obtained from patients with status epilepticus (SE). To this purpose, we enrolled 41 patients affected by SE and 41 subjects investigated for nonepileptic neurologic disorders...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888509/functional-properties-of-granule-cells-with-hilar-basal-dendrites-in-the-epileptic-dentate-gyrus
#5
Tony Kelly, Heinz Beck
OBJECTIVE: The maturation of adult-born granule cells and their functional integration into the network is thought to play a key role in the proper functioning of the dentate gyrus. In temporal lobe epilepsy, adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus develop abnormally and possess a hilar basal dendrite (HBD). Although morphological studies have shown that these HBDs have synapses, little is known about the functional properties of these HBDs or the intrinsic and network properties of the granule cells that possess these aberrant dendrites...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888506/rapid-and-safe-response-to-low-dose-carbamazepine-in-neonatal-epilepsy
#6
Tristan T Sands, Martina Balestri, Giulia Bellini, Sarah B Mulkey, Olivier Danhaive, Eliza Hayes Bakken, Maurizio Taglialatela, Michael S Oldham, Federico Vigevano, Gregory L Holmes, Maria Roberta Cilio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment responses in benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE). METHODS: We recruited patients with BFNE through a multicenter international collaboration and reviewed electroclinical and genetic details, and treatment response. All patients were tested at minimum for mutations/deletions in the KCNQ2, KCNQ3, and SCN2A genes. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in this study. A family history of neonatal seizures was positive in 16 patients, and one additional patient had a family history of infantile seizures...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888502/a-novel-c132-134del-mutation-in-unverricht-lundborg-disease-and-the-review-of-literature-of-heterozygous-compound-patients
#7
Giovanni Assenza, Antonella Benvenga, Elena Gennaro, Mario Tombini, Chiara Campana, Federica Assenza, Giovanni Di Pino, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
Unverricht-Lundborg disease or progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation of the cystatin B gene (CSTB), located on chromosome 21q22.3. The most common mutation is an expansion of unstable dodecamer repetition (CCCCGCCCCGCG), whereas other types of mutations are rare. Among these, heterozygous compound mutations are described to induce a more severe phenotype than that of homozygous dodecameric repetition. We report two siblings affected by heterozygous compound mutations carrying a novel mutation of the deletion of three nucleotides in exon 2 of the gene in position 132-134 of the coding sequence (c...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883181/workshop-on-neurobiology-of-epilepsy-appraisal-imaging-biomarkers-in-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Erwin A van Vliet, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Andrew J Cole, Alon Friedman, Matthias J Koepp, Heidrun Potschka, Riikka Immonen, Asla Pitkänen, Paolo Federico
Neuroimaging offers a wide range of opportunities to obtain information about neuronal activity, brain inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, and various molecular alterations during epileptogenesis or for the prediction of pharmacoresponsiveness as well as postoperative outcome. Imaging biomarkers were examined during the XIII Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (XIII WONOEP) organized in 2015 by the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Here we present an extended summary of the discussed issues and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the biomarker potential of different neuroimaging approaches for epilepsy...
November 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869305/analysis-of-falls-in-patients-with-epilepsy-enrolled-in-the-perampanel-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-studies
#9
Ilo E Leppik, Haichen Yang, Betsy Williams, Sharon Zhou, Randi Fain, Anna Patten, Francesco Bibbiani, Antonio Laurenza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze occurrence of falls among patients with partial seizures, with/without secondarily generalized seizures (SGS), and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in the perampanel phase III clinical studies. METHODS: Studies 304, 305, and 306 randomized subjects (≥12 years) with drug-resistant partial seizures (with/without SGS) to perampanel 2, 4, 8, or 12 mg or placebo for double-blind treatment. The adverse event (AE) of falls was analyzed in the Safety Analysis Set (N = 1480)...
November 21, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869304/disclose-or-not-effect-of-impression-management-tactics-on-hireability-of-persons-with-epilepsy
#10
Connie Sung, Chien-Chun Lin, Annemarie Connor, Fong Chan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of assertive impression management (IM) tactics, such as personal storytelling and self-promotion, on job interview outcomes of people with epilepsy. Specifically, the effect of IM on interviewers' subjective impressions and evaluation of hireability of job candidates with epilepsy were examined. METHODS: Ninety-nine master's level graduate students majoring in business or human resources were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to view one of three 15-min video clips of a job applicant interviewing for a technical computer sales position...
November 21, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864845/activity-of-the-anticonvulsant-lacosamide-in-experimental-and-human-epilepsy-via-selective-effects-on-slow-na-channel-inactivation
#11
Dominik Holtkamp, Thoralf Opitz, Isabelle Niespodziany, Christian Wolff, Heinz Beck
OBJECTIVE: In human epilepsy, pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major problem affecting ~30% of patients with epilepsy. Many classical antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated sodium channels, and their potent activity in inhibiting high-frequency firing has been attributed to their strong use-dependent blocking action. In chronic epilepsy, a loss of use-dependent block has emerged as a potential cellular mechanism of pharmacoresistance for anticonvulsants acting on voltage-gated sodium channels...
November 19, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864833/structured-clinical-documentation-in-the-electronic-medical-record-to-improve-quality-and-to-support-practice-based-research-in-epilepsy
#12
Jaishree Narayanan, Sofia Dobrin, Janet Choi, Susan Rubin, Anna Pham, Vimal Patel, Roberta Frigerio, Darryck Maurer, Payal Gupta, Lourdes Link, Shaun Walters, Chi Wang, Yuan Ji, Demetrius M Maraganore
OBJECTIVE: Using the electronic medical record (EMR) to capture structured clinical data at the point of care would be a practical way to support quality improvement and practice-based research in epilepsy. METHODS: We describe our stepwise process for building structured clinical documentation support tools in the EMR that define best practices in epilepsy, and we describe how we incorporated these toolkits into our clinical workflow. RESULTS: These tools write notes and capture hundreds of fields of data including several score tests: Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items, Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-10 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment/Short Test of Mental Status, and Medical Research Council Prognostic Index...
November 19, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864825/individual-hippocampal-subfield-assessment-indicates-that-matrix-macromolecules-and-gliosis-are-key-elements-for-the-increased-t2-relaxation-time-seen-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Joao Pereira Leite
OBJECTIVE: Increased T2 relaxation time is often seen in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. Water content directly affects the effective T2 in a voxel. Our aim was to evaluate the relation between T2 values and two molecules associated with brain water homeostasis aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), as well as cellular populations in the hippocampal region of patients with TLE. METHODS: Hippocampal T2 imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained from 42 drug-resistant patients with TLE and 20 healthy volunteers (radiologic controls, RCs)...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859038/duration-of-use-of-oral-cannabis-extract-in-a-cohort-of-pediatric-epilepsy-patients
#14
Lauren Treat, Kevin E Chapman, Kathryn L Colborn, Kelly G Knupp
OBJECTIVE: Oral cannabis extracts (OCEs) are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy. RESULTS: Of the 119 patients included in the analysis, 71% terminated use of their OCE product during the study period...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859029/reactivation-of-seizure-related-changes-to-interictal-spike-shape-and-synchrony-during-postseizure-sleep-in-patients
#15
Mark R Bower, Michal T Kucewicz, Erik K St Louis, Fredric B Meyer, W Richard Marsh, Matt Stead, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Local field potentials (LFPs) arise from synchronous activation of millions of neurons, producing seemingly consistent waveform shapes and relative synchrony across electrodes. Interictal spikes (IISs) are LFPs associated with epilepsy that are commonly used to guide surgical resection. Recently, changes in neuronal firing patterns observed in the minutes preceding seizure onset were found to be reactivated during postseizure sleep, a process called seizure-related consolidation (SRC), due to similarities with learning-related consolidation...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864929/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-focal-cortical-dysplasia-in-children-a-tip-to-find-the-abnormality
#16
Luca Bartolini, Matthew T Whitehead, Cheng-Ying Ho, Leigh N Sepeta, Chima O Oluigbo, Kathryn Havens, Emily R Freilich, John M Schreiber, William D Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and pathologic characteristics in children who had surgery for medically refractory epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 110 children who had epilepsy surgery. Twenty-seven patients with FCD were included. Thirteen had temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 14 had extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). Three patients had associated mesial temporal sclerosis...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864903/long-term-monitoring-of-cardiorespiratory-patterns-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#17
Daniel M Goldenholz, Amanda Kuhn, Alison Austermuehle, Martin Bachler, Christopher Mayer, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Sara K Inati, William H Theodore
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) during inpatient electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring has been a rare but potentially preventable event, with associated cardiopulmonary markers. To date, no systematic evaluation of alarm settings for a continuous pulse oximeter (SpO2 ) has been performed. In addition, evaluation of the interrelationship between the ictal and interictal states for cardiopulmonary measures has not been reported. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy were monitored using video-EEG, SpO2 , and electrocardiography (ECG)...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861775/prevalence-of-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-in-people-30-years-of-age-a-population-based-study-in-norway
#18
Marte Syvertsen, Morten Kristoffer Hellum, Gunnar Hansen, Astrid Edland, Karl Otto Nakken, Kaja Kristine Selmer, Jeanette Koht
OBJECTIVE: Despite juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) being considered one of the most common epilepsies, population-based prevalence studies of JME are lacking. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of JME in a Norwegian county, using updated diagnostic criteria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, based on reviews of the medical records of all patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at Drammen Hospital in the period 1999-2013. The study population consisted of 98,152 people <30 years of age...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859033/stereo-electroencephalography-guided-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-seeg-guided-rf-tc-in-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-results-from-a-10-year-experience
#19
Pierre Bourdillon, Jean Isnard, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Sylvain Rheims, Philippe Ryvlin, Karine Ostrowsky-Coste, François Mauguiere, Marc Guénot
OBJECTIVE: Stereo electroencephalography (SEEG)-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RF-TC) has been proposed since 2004 as a possible treatment of some focal drug-resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study is to provide extensive data about efficacy and safety of SEEG-guided RF-TC. METHODS: Over a 10-year period, 162 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy were eligible for SEEG-guided RF-TG during phase II invasive investigation by SEEG. All follow-up and safety data were collected prospectively...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861786/infantile-spasms-and-encephalopathy-without-preceding-neonatal-seizures-caused-by-kcnq2-r198q-a-gain-of-function-variant
#20
John J Millichap, Francesco Miceli, Michela De Maria, Cynthia Keator, Nishtha Joshi, Baouyen Tran, Maria Virginia Soldovieri, Paolo Ambrosino, Vandana Shashi, Mohamad A Mikati, Edward C Cooper, Maurizio Taglialatela
Variants in KCNQ2 encoding for Kv 7.2 neuronal K(+) channel subunits lead to a spectrum of neonatal-onset epilepsies, ranging from self-limiting forms to severe epileptic encephalopathy. Most KCNQ2 pathogenic variants cause loss-of-function, whereas few increase channel activity (gain-of-function). We herein provide evidence for a new phenotypic and functional profile in KCNQ2-related epilepsy: infantile spasms without prior neonatal seizures associated with a gain-of-function gene variant. With use of an international registry, we identified four unrelated patients with the same de novo heterozygous KCNQ2 c...
November 9, 2016: Epilepsia
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