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Epilepsia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453777/intramuscular-allopregnanolone-and-ganaxolone-in-a-mouse-model-of-treatment-resistant-status-epilepticus
#1
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450894/assessment-of-the-correlations-of-lacosamide-concentrations-in-saliva-and-serum-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
Christian Brandt, Christian G Bien, Renate Helmer, Theodor W May
Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs is based on patient serum samples. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between lacosamide (LCM) steady state concentrations in serum and saliva samples. Additionally, we investigated the relation with daily dose, and assessed the feasibility of saliva collection. This was an open-label, single center study including data from 25 patients at the Bethel Epilepsy Center treated with LCM (50-650 mg/d). Samples were collected in the morning (fasting values) and in selected cases at 50 minutes to 5 hours after the morning dose...
February 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450890/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-monotherapy-in-patients-converting-from-carbamazepine
#3
Ladislav Pazdera, Michael R Sperling, Jay H Harvey, Maria C Sam, Laura A Strom, David Blum, Todd Grinnell, Hailong Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of prior use of carbamazepine (CBZ) and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with a putatively similar mechanism of action (inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels; VGSCs) on seizure outcomes and tolerability when converting to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), using data pooled from 2 controlled conversion-to-ESL monotherapy trials (studies: 093-045, 093-046). METHODS: Adults with treatment-resistant focal (partial-onset) seizures were randomized 2:1 to ESL 1600 or 1200 mg once daily...
February 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446447/individualized-prediction-of-seizure-relapse-and-outcomes-following-antiepileptic-drug-withdrawal-after-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Herm J Lamberink, Kim Boshuisen, Willem M Otte, Karin Geleijns, Kees P J Braun
The objective of this study was to create a clinically useful tool for individualized prediction of seizure outcomes following antiepileptic drug withdrawal after pediatric epilepsy surgery. We used data from the European retrospective TimeToStop study, which included 766 children from 15 centers, to perform a proportional hazard regression analysis. The 2 outcome measures were seizure recurrence and seizure freedom in the last year of follow-up. Prognostic factors were identified through systematic review of the literature...
February 15, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442363/increased-neuronal-synchrony-prepares-mesial-temporal-networks-for-seizures-of-neocortical-origin
#5
Amrit Misra, Xianda Long, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Karen A Moxon
OBJECTIVE: To gain understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying regional seizure spread, the impact of regional synchrony between seizure focus and downstream networks on neuronal activity during the transition to seizure in those downstream networks was assessed. METHODS: Seven patients undergoing diagnostic intracranial electroencephalographic studies for surgical resection of epileptogenic regions were implanted with subdural clinical electrodes into the cortex (site of seizure initiation) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (downstream) as well as microwires into MTL...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417555/the-immediate-and-short-term-effects-of-bilateral-intrahippocampal-depth-electrodes-on-verbal-memory
#6
Christoph Helmstaedter, Gerrit H Gielen, Juri-Alexander Witt
In contrast to previous studies, Ljung et al. provide evidence of permanent cognitive consequences of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes for verbal memory in patients who were not operated or operated in the right temporal lobe. Stimulated by this, we provide historical confirmatory and supplementary evidence of the detrimental effect of bilateral depth electrodes implanted along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus on verbal learning and especially on delayed verbal memory and recognition performance...
February 7, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411348/risk-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-between-antiepileptic-and-other-drugs-in-older-persons-and-factors-associated-with-risk
#7
Edward Faught, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Joshua Richman, Ellen Funkhouser, Roy C Martin, Kendra Piper, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Maria Pisu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of older Americans with epilepsy receiving concomitant prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and non-epilepsy drugs (NEDs) which could result in significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction, and to assess the contributions of racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries ≥67 years old in 2009 augmented for minority representation...
February 7, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399791/proposed-consensus-definitions-for-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-and-related-conditions
#8
Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard, Andreas van Baalen, Rima Nabbout, Sophie Demeret, Tobias Loddenkemper, Vincent Navarro, Nicola Specchio, Lieven Lagae, Andrea O Rossetti, Sara Hocker, Teneille E Gofton, Nicholas S Abend, Emily J Gilmore, Cecil Hahn, Houman Khosravani, Felix Rosenow, Eugen Trinka
We convened an international group of experts to standardize definitions of New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE), Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES), and related conditions. This was done to enable improved communication for investigators, physicians, families, patients, and other caregivers. Consensus definitions were achieved via email messages, phone calls, an in-person consensus conference, and collaborative manuscript preparation. Panel members were from 8 countries and included adult and pediatric experts in epilepsy, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocritical care...
February 5, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399794/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-bone-health-in-adults-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#9
Haya Fernandez, Heba Tallah Mohammed, Tejal Patel
OBJECTIVE: Several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with a detrimental effect on bone health through a reduction in serum vitamin D. Subsequently, several studies have investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation in persons with epilepsy being treated with AEDs. The present systematic review of published literature was conducted to determine the effect of vitamin D intervention on bone health in adults with epilepsy. METHODS: The following databases were searched using keywords including but not limited to epilepsy, bone, and vitamin D: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Clinical Trials, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Health Canada Clinical Trials Database, ClinicalTrials...
February 4, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392715/laser-ablation-is-effective-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-and-without-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-if-hippocampal-seizure-onsets-are-localized-by-stereoelectroencephalography
#10
Brett E Youngerman, Justin Y Oh, Deepti Anbarasan, Santoshi Billakota, Camilla H Casadei, Emily K Corrigan, Garret P Banks, Alison M Pack, Hyunmi Choi, Carl W Bazil, Shraddha Srinivasan, Lisa M Bateman, Catherine A Schevon, Neil A Feldstein, Sameer A Sheth, Guy M McKhann
OBJECTIVE: Selective laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) using magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is emerging as a treatment option for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). SLAH is less invasive than open resection, but there are limited series reporting its safety and efficacy, particularly in patients without clear evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We report seizure outcomes and complications in our first 30 patients who underwent SLAH for drug-resistant MTLE between January 2013 and December 2016...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392713/insulo-opercular-cortex-generates-oroalimentary-automatisms-in-temporal-seizures
#11
Jerome Aupy, Ika Noviawaty, Balu Krishnan, Piradee Suwankpakdee, Juan Bulacio, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Imad Najm, Patrick Chauvel
OBJECTIVE: Oroalimentary automatisms (OAAs) resembling normal alimentary behavior are stereotyped complex movements that may occur during epileptic seizures. They are considered common clinical signs in temporal lobe seizures, but their anatomofunctional mechanisms are not established. We took the opportunity of presurgical intracerebral recordings to study the relations between the occurrence of OAAs and temporal/spatial features of ictal activities. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with medically intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) at Cleveland Clinic between 2009 and 2016...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388192/frontal-lobe-epileptic-seizures-are-accompanied-by-elevated-pitch-during-verbal-communication
#12
Iva Speck, Matthias Echternach, Daniela Sammler, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances was significantly higher than ƒo in interictal recordings (p = 0.016). Ictal ƒo increases occurred in both FLE of right and left seizure origin...
January 31, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383717/topographic-principles-of-cortical-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-signal-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Sophie Adler, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Torsten Baldeweg, J Helen Cross, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
OBJECTIVE: In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), relative to the large number of whole-brain morphological studies, neocortical T2 changes have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical principles that govern the distribution of neocortical T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and uncover its topographic principles. METHODS: Using a surface-based sampling scheme, we mapped neocortical FLAIR intensity of 61 TLE patients relative to 38 healthy controls imaged at 3 T...
January 31, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377098/pcdh19-related-epilepsy-is-associated-with-a-broad-neurodevelopmental-spectrum
#14
Lacey Smith, Nilika Singhal, Christelle M El Achkar, Gessica Truglio, Beth Rosen Sheidley, Joseph Sullivan, Annapurna Poduri
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the features associated with PCDH19-related epilepsy, also known as "female-limited epilepsy." METHODS: We analyzed data from participants enrolled in the PCDH19 Registry, focusing on the seizure-related, developmental, neurobehavioral, and sleep-related features. We evaluated variants for pathogenicity based on previous reports, population databases, and in silico predictions, and included individuals with pathogenic or potentially pathogenic variants...
January 28, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377096/delayed-myelination-and-neurodevelopment-in-male-seizure-prone-versus-seizure-resistant-rats
#15
Pragati Sharma, Kim L Powell, Mary E Wlodek, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant myelination and developmental delay have been reported in epilepsy. However, it is unclear whether these are linked to intrinsic mechanisms that support a predisposition toward seizures and the development of epilepsy. Thus, we compared rates of myelination and neurodevelopment in male rats selectively bred for enhanced susceptibility to kindling epileptogenesis (FAST) with male rats bred for resistance (SLOW). METHODS: Myelin-specific gene expression was compared in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral hemisphere of FAST and SLOW rats on postnatal days (PNDs) 5, 11, 17, 23, and 90 to determine strain-specific myelination rates...
January 28, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377095/development-and-assessment-of-the-quality-of-life-in-childhood-epilepsy-questionnaire-qolce-16
#16
Shane W Goodwin, Mark A Ferro, Kathy N Speechley
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a brief version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare the results described in previously published studies using the QOLCE-55 with those obtained using the new brief version. METHODS: Data come from 373 children involved in the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study. Item response theory (IRT) methods were used to assess dimensionality and item properties and to guide the selection of items...
January 28, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369348/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-versus-controlled-release-carbamazepine-monotherapy-in-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy-a-phase-iii-double-blind-randomized-parallel-group-multicenter-study
#17
Eugen Trinka, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Pedro A Kowacs, Christian Elger, Birgit Keller, Kurt Löffler, José Francisco Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy and safety of once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate in comparison with twice-daily (BID) controlled-release carbamazepine (carbamazepine-CR) monotherapy in newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patients. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial (NCT01162460) utilized a stepwise design with 3 dose levels. Patients who remained seizure-free for the 26-week evaluation period (level A: eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg/carbamazepine-CR 200 mg BID) entered a 6-month maintenance period...
January 25, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364511/-18-f-ge180-positron-emission-tomographic-imaging-indicates-a-potential-double-hit-insult-in-the-intrahippocampal-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Mirjam Brackhan, Pablo Bascuñana, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Jens P Bankstahl, Marion Bankstahl
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that brain inflammation, elicited by epileptogenic insults, is involved in epilepsy development. Noninvasive nuclear imaging of brain inflammation in animal models of epileptogenesis represents a diagnostic in vivo approach with potential for direct translation into the clinic. Here, we investigated up-regulation of the translocator protein (TSPO) indicative of microglial activation by serial [18 F]GE180 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 24, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360159/potent-and-selective-pharmacodynamic-synergy-between-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-2-positive-allosteric-modulator-jnj-46356479-and-levetiracetam-in-the-mouse-6-hz-44-ma-model
#19
Cameron S Metcalf, Brian D Klein, Misty D Smith, Marc Ceusters, Hilde Lavreysen, Stefan Pype, Nancy Van Osselaer, Roy Twyman, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 (mGlu2 ) receptors have potential synergistic interactions with the antiseizure drug levetiracetam (LEV). The present study utilizes isobolographic analysis to evaluate the combined administration of JNJ-46356479, a selective and potent mGlu2 PAM, with LEV as well as sodium valproate (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG). METHODS: The anticonvulsant efficacy of JNJ-46356479 was evaluated in the 6-Hz model of psychomotor seizures in mice...
January 23, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341109/the-prescribable-drugs-with-efficacy-in-experimental-epilepsies-pde3-database-for-drug-repurposing-research-in-epilepsy
#20
Shayeeshan Sivapalarajah, Mathangi Krishnakumar, Harry Bickerstaffe, YikYing Chan, Joseph Clarkson, Alistair Hampden-Martin, Ahmad Mirza, Matthew Tanti, Anthony Marson, Munir Pirmohamed, Nasir Mirza
OBJECTIVE: Current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have several shortcomings. For example, they fail to control seizures in 30% of patients. Hence, there is a need to identify new AEDs. Drug repurposing is the discovery of new indications for approved drugs. This drug "recycling" offers the potential of significant savings in the time and cost of drug development. Many drugs licensed for other indications exhibit antiepileptic efficacy in animal models. Our aim was to create a database of "prescribable" drugs, approved for other conditions, with published evidence of efficacy in animal models of epilepsy, and to collate data that would assist in choosing the most promising candidates for drug repurposing...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
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