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Journal of the American Statistical Association

Zihuai He, Min Zhang, Seunggeun Lee, Jennifer A Smith, Sharon L R Kardia, Ana V Diez Roux, Bhramar Mukherjee
We propose a generalized score type test for set-based inference for gene-environment interaction with longitudinally measured quantitative traits. The test is robust to misspecification of within subject correlation structure and has enhanced power compared to existing alternatives. Unlike tests for marginal genetic association, set-based tests for gene-environment interaction face the challenges of a potentially misspecified and high-dimensional main effect model under the null hypothesis. We show that our proposed test is robust to main effect misspecification of environmental exposure and genetic factors under the gene-environment independence condition...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Yifei Sun, Chiung-Yu Huang, Mei-Cheng Wang
Benefit-risk assessment is a crucial step in medical decision process. In many biomedical studies, both longitudinal marker measurements and time to a terminal event serve as important endpoints for benefit-risk assessment. The effect of an intervention or a treatment on the longitudinal marker process, however, can be in conflict with its effect on the time to the terminal event. Thus, questions arise on how to evaluate treatment effects based on the two endpoints, for the purpose of deciding on which treatment is most likely to benefit the patients...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Kyle R White, Leonard A Stefanski, Yichao Wu
This paper develops a nonparametric shrinkage and selection estimator via the measurement error selection likelihood approach recently proposed by Stefanski, Wu, and White. The Measurement Error Kernel Regression Operator (MEKRO) has the same form as the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator, but optimizes a measurement error model selection likelihood to estimate the kernel bandwidths. Much like LASSO or COSSO solution paths, MEKRO results in solution paths depending on a tuning parameter that controls shrinkage and selection via a bound on the harmonic mean of the pseudo-measurement error standard deviations...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Shizhe Chen, Ali Shojaie, Daniela M Witten
We consider the task of learning a dynamical system from high-dimensional time-course data. For instance, we might wish to estimate a gene regulatory network from gene expression data measured at discrete time points. We model the dynamical system nonparametrically as a system of additive ordinary differential equations. Most existing methods for parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations estimate the derivatives from noisy observations. This is known to be challenging and inefficient. We propose a novel approach that does not involve derivative estimation...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Yacine Aït-Sahalia, Jianqing Fan, Roger J A Laeven, Christina Dan Wang, Xiye Yang
This paper examines the leverage effect, or the generally negative covariation between asset returns and their changes in volatility, under a general setup that allows the log-price and volatility processes to be Itô semimartingales. We decompose the leverage effect into continuous and discontinuous parts and develop statistical methods to estimate them. We establish the asymptotic properties of these estimators. We also extend our methods and results (for the continuous leverage) to the situation where there is market microstructure noise in the observed returns...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Shujie Ma, Yanyuan Ma, Yanqing Wang, Eli S Kravitz, Raymond J Carroll
We consider a problem motivated by issues in nutritional epidemiology, across diseases and populations. In this area, it is becoming increasingly common for diseases to be modeled by a single diet score, such as the Healthy Eating Index, the Mediterranean Diet Score, etc. For each disease and for each population, a partially linear single-index model is fit. The partially linear aspect of the problem is allowed to differ in each population and disease. However, and crucially, the single-index itself, having to do with the diet score, is common to all diseases and populations, and the nonparametrically estimated functions of the single-index are the same up to a scale parameter...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Ran Tao, Donglin Zeng, Dan-Yu Lin
In modern epidemiological and clinical studies, the covariates of interest may involve genome sequencing, biomarker assay, or medical imaging and thus are prohibitively expensive to measure on a large number of subjects. A cost-effective solution is the two-phase design, under which the outcome and inexpensive covariates are observed for all subjects during the first phase and that information is used to select subjects for measurements of expensive covariates during the second phase. For example, subjects with extreme values of quantitative traits were selected for whole-exome sequencing in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP)...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Philip T Reiss, Jeff Goldsmith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Michalis K Titsias, Christopher Yau
We introduce the Hamming ball sampler, a novel Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, for efficient inference in statistical models involving high-dimensional discrete state spaces. The sampling scheme uses an auxiliary variable construction that adaptively truncates the model space allowing iterative exploration of the full model space. The approach generalizes conventional Gibbs sampling schemes for discrete spaces and provides an intuitive means for user-controlled balance between statistical efficiency and computational tractability...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Boyu Ren, Sergio Bacallado, Stefano Favaro, Susan Holmes, Lorenzo Trippa
Human microbiome studies use sequencing technologies to measure the abundance of bacterial species or Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in samples of biological material. Typically the data are organized in contingency tables with OTU counts across heterogeneous biological samples. In the microbial ecology community, ordination methods are frequently used to investigate latent factors or clusters that capture and describe variations of OTU counts across biological samples. It remains important to evaluate how uncertainty in estimates of each biological sample's microbial distribution propagates to ordination analyses, including visualization of clusters and projections of biological samples on low dimensional spaces...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Robert T Krafty, Ori Rosen, David S Stoffer, Daniel J Buysse, Martica H Hall
This article considers the problem of analyzing associations between power spectra of multiple time series and cross-sectional outcomes when data are observed from multiple subjects. The motivating application comes from sleep medicine, where researchers are able to non-invasively record physiological time series signals during sleep. The frequency patterns of these signals, which can be quantified through the power spectrum, contain interpretable information about biological processes. An important problem in sleep research is drawing connections between power spectra of time series signals and clinical characteristics; these connections are key to understanding biological pathways through which sleep affects, and can be treated to improve, health...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Yijian Huang
Dynamic regression models, including the quantile regression model and Aalen's additive hazards model, are widely adopted to investigate evolving covariate effects. Yet lack of monotonicity respecting with standard estimation procedures remains an outstanding issue. Advances have recently been made, but none provides a complete resolution. In this article, we propose a novel adaptive interpolation method to restore monotonicity respecting, by successively identifying and then interpolating nearest monotonicity-respecting points of an original estimator...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Xinyu Zhang, Haiying Wang, Yanyuan Ma, Raymond J Carroll
Prediction precision is arguably the most relevant criterion of a model in practice and is often a sought after property. A common difficulty with covariates measured with errors is the impossibility of performing prediction evaluation on the data even if a model is completely given without any unknown parameters. We bypass this inherent difficulty by using special properties on moment relations in linear regression models with measurement errors. The end product is a model selection procedure that achieves the same optimality properties that are achieved in classical linear regression models without covariate measurement error...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Chuan Hong, Yong Chen, Yang Ning, Shuang Wang, Hao Wu, Raymond J Carroll
Motivated by analyses of DNA methylation data, we propose a semiparametric mixture model, namely the generalized exponential tilt mixture model, to account for heterogeneity between differentially methylated and non-differentially methylated subjects in the cancer group, and capture the differences in higher order moments (e.g. mean and variance) between subjects in cancer and normal groups. A pairwise pseudolikelihood is constructed to eliminate the unknown nuisance function. To circumvent boundary and non-identifiability problems as in parametric mixture models, we modify the pseudolikelihood by adding a penalty function...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Sihai Dave Zhao, T Tony Cai, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Hongzhe Li
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and differential expression analyses have had limited success in finding genes that cause complex diseases such as heart failure (HF), a leading cause of death in the United States. This paper proposes a new statistical approach that integrates GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to identify important HF genes. For such genes, genetic variations that perturb its expression are also likely to influence disease risk. The proposed method thus tests for the presence of simultaneous signals: SNPs that are associated with the gene's expression as well as with disease...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Eric B Laber, Kerby Shedden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
David B Dahl, Ryan Day, Jerry W Tsai
We propose a random partition distribution indexed by pairwise similarity information such that partitions compatible with the similarities are given more probability. The use of pairwise similarities, in the form of distances, is common in some clustering algorithms (e.g., hierarchical clustering), but we show how to use this type of information to define a prior partition distribution for flexible Bayesian modeling. A defining feature of the distribution is that it allocates probability among partitions within a given number of subsets, but it does not shift probability among sets of partitions with different numbers of subsets...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Lizhen Lin, Brian St Thomas, Hongtu Zhu, David B Dunson
We propose an extrinsic regression framework for modeling data with manifold valued responses and Euclidean predictors. Regression with manifold responses has wide applications in shape analysis, neuroscience, medical imaging and many other areas. Our approach embeds the manifold where the responses lie onto a higher dimensional Euclidean space, obtains a local regression estimate in that space, and then projects this estimate back onto the image of the manifold. Outside the regression setting both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches have been proposed for modeling i...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Jialiang Li, Chao Huang, Hongtu Zhu
Motivated by the analysis of imaging data, we propose a novel functional varying-coefficient single index model (FVCSIM) to carry out the regression analysis of functional response data on a set of covariates of interest. FVCSIM represents a new extension of varying-coefficient single index models for scalar responses collected from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An efficient estimation procedure is developed to iteratively estimate varying coefficient functions, link functions, index parameter vectors, and the covariance function of individual functions...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Xiao Wang, Hongtu Zhu
The use of imaging markers to predict clinical outcomes can have a great impact in public health. The aim of this paper is to develop a class of generalized scalar-on-image regression models via total variation (GSIRM-TV), in the sense of generalized linear models, for scalar response and imaging predictor with the presence of scalar covariates. A key novelty of GSIRM-TV is that it is assumed that the slope function (or image) of GSIRM-TV belongs to the space of bounded total variation in order to explicitly account for the piecewise smooth nature of most imaging data...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
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