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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315357/therapeutic-potential-of-krait-venom
#1
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Shamik Bhattacharya, Sourav Ghosh, Aparna Gomes
Kraits belong to Elapideae and are widely distributed in East and South-East Asian countries. Krait venom possesses neurotoxins, membrane toxins, cardiotoxins, three finger toxins, metalloproteinases, cholinesterases, L-amino acid oxidases and serine proteases. The therapeutic potential of krait venom in pathophysiological conditions such as microbial and parasitic infections, cancer, arthritis, inflammation and blood coagulation disorder is discussed in this review. More intensive new research ventures are required to establish the therapeutic potential of krait venom in complex and emerging diseases...
March 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300579/ingestion-of-the-pods-of-enterolobium-contortisiliquum-causes-hepatogenous-photosensitization-in-cattle
#2
Paula V Leal, Rayane C Pupin, Stephanie C Lima, Gleice Kelli A Melo, Marcelo A Araújo, Danilo C Gomes, Claudio S L Barros, Ricardo A A Lemos
Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Leg. Mimosoidae) is reported as a poisonous plant related to photosensitization and photodermatitis, digestive disturbs and abortion. To date, the clinical and pathological features of photosensitization has not been reproduced or only reproduced associated with very mild presentations. The objective of this study was to reproduce in cattle the clinicopathological features of photosensitization associated with the ingestion of the pods of E. contortisiliquum. The pods were harvested from a property with a history of an ongoing outbreak of photosensitization and abortion in cattle...
March 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300580/feeding-on-toxic-prey-the-praying-mantis-mantodea-as-predator-of-poisonous-butterfly-and-moth-lepidoptera-caterpillars
#3
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively...
March 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288937/incidence-of-fatal-snake-bite-in-australia-a-coronial-based-retrospective-study-2000-2016
#4
Ronelle E Welton, Danny Liew, George Braitberg
INTRODUCTION: It has been over 20 years since a national review of recorded deaths from snake envenoming. The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of deaths from snake bites in Australia. METHODS: Deaths were identified from January 2000 to December 2016 from the National Coronial Information System. Cases identified due to snakes were extracted with data on coronial findings, autopsy and police records. RESULTS: Thirty five deaths (2...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288936/pathophysiological-significance-and-therapeutic-applications-of-snake-venom-protease-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Rupamoni Thakur, Ashis K Mukherjee
Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288935/evaluation-of-abrin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-using-novel-renal-injury-markers
#6
Bhavana Sant, P V Lakshmana Rao, D P Nagar, S C Pant, A S B Bhasker
Abrin is a potent plant toxin analogous to ricin that is derived from the seeds of Abrus precatorius plant. It belongs to the family of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins and causes cell death by irreversibly inactivating ribosomes through site-specific depurination. In this study we examined the in vivo nephrotoxicity potential of abrin toxin in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, histopathological changes and biomarkers of kidney injury. Animals were exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 LD50 dose of abrin by intraperitoneal route and observed for 1, 3, and 7 day post-toxin exposure...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284847/a-survey-on-some-biochemical-and-pharmacological-activities-of-venom-from-two-colombian-colubrid-snakes-erythrolamprus-bizona-double-banded-coral-snake-mimic-and-pseudoboa-neuwiedii-neuwied-s-false-boa
#7
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Rafael S Floriano, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E...
March 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284846/poor-sequestration-of-toxic-host-plant-cardenolides-and-their-rapid-loss-in-the-milkweed-butterfly-danaus-chrysippus-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-danainae-danaini
#8
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Stefan W Toennes
Butterflies of the genus Danaus are known to sequester toxic cardenolides from milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae). In particular, Danaus plexippus efficiently sequesters and stores these compounds, whereas D. chrysippus, is considered to poorly sequester cardenolides. To estimate its sequestration capability compared with that of D. plexippus, larvae of both species were jointly reared on Asclepias curassavica and the major cardenolides of the host plant, calotropin and calactin, were analyzed in adults sampled at different time intervals after eclosion...
March 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284848/angiotensin-converting-enzymes-in-fish-venom
#9
Dávida Maria Ribeiro Cardoso Dos Santos, Cledson Barros de Souza, Hugo Juarez Vieira Pereira
Animal venoms are multifaceted mixtures, including proteins, peptides and enzymes produced by animals in defense, predation and digestion. These molecules have been investigated concerning their molecular mechanisms associated and possible pharmacological applications. Thalassophryne nattereri is a small venomous fish inhabiting the northern and northeastern coast of Brazil, and represents a relatively frequent cause of injuries. Its venom causes severe inflammatory response followed frequently by the necrosis of the affected area...
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284065/corrigendum-to-toxicon-128-2017-5-14
#10
J M Jiménez-Vargas, V Quintero-Hernández, L Gonzalez-Morales, E Ortiz, L D Possani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283430/identification-of-a-small-pacifastin-protease-inhibitor-from-nasonia-vitripennis-venom-that-inhibits-humoral-immunity-of-host-musca-domestica
#11
Cen Qian, Dan Liang, Ya Liu, Pei Wang, Saima Kausar, Guoqing Wei, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Chaoliang Liu
Nasonia vitripennis is an important natural enemy of many flies. Pacifastin protease inhibitors (PPIs) play an important role in development and innate immunity of insects. In this study, cDNA sequences of a small pacifastin protease inhibitor in N. vitripennis (NvSPPI) was characterized and its open reading frame (ORF) contains 243bp. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed that NvSPPI mRNA were detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at low levels in other tissues tested...
March 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263757/profile-differences-in-tetrodotoxin-transfer-to-skin-and-liver-in-the-pufferfish-takifugu-rubripes
#12
Ryohei Tatsuno, Wei Gao, Kotaro Ibi, Tomoka Mine, Kogen Okita, Gregory Naoki Nishihara, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was intramuscularly administered to nontoxic cultured specimens of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes to investigate differences in the toxin transfer and accumulation profiles between the skin and liver. Test fish were administered TTX at doses of 30 (Low dose; LD), 100 (Medium dose; MD), and 300 (High dose; HD) μg/individual, respectively. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for TTX revealed that the TTX concentration in both the skin (0.48-1.7 μg/g) and liver (0.43-6.0 μg/g) at 24 h after the toxin administration increased with an increase in the dose...
March 2, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259756/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-human-scfv-against-the-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-alpha-toxin
#13
Dongdong Wang, Yuhuan Yue, Guangmou Wu, Yuan Tian, Yuling Liu, Jia Yu, Yuangang Ji, Jinpeng Wang, Jian Li, Rongrong Pan, Hongyuan Ma, Guoli Zhang
Alpha-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is an important virulence factor, causing food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. As such, it is considered a potential bioterrorism threat. To date, there is still no human effective therapeutic drug against alpha-toxin. In this study, a human single chain antibody against alpha-toxin was produced from synthetic (Tomlinson I + J) naive phage display libraries, and its preventive and therapeutic efficacy in mice was examined. To prove the neutralizing potential of the scFv, alpha-toxin was preincubated with scFv and subsequently tested for its lecithinase and hemolytic activity, as well as its lethal effect in mice following intravenous administration...
March 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249803/venomics-analyses-of-the-skin-secretion-of-dermatonotus-muelleri-preliminary-proteomic-and-metabolomic-profiling
#14
Ingrid Duarte Cavalcante, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Carlos Jared, Osmindo R Pires, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
Dermatonotus muelleri is the sole species of the Dermatonotus genus and inhabits Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. This animal exhibits an explosive reproductive behavior during the Southern spring months, which lasts only for five days. Moreover, this animal displays specific adaptations to the habitat resulting in the energy conservation needed during either the intense reproduction period or times of estivation. During dry seasons and/or food shortages D. muelleri can survive because its food specialization and ability to dig an underground chamber for protection...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246023/evaluation-of-the-antichagasic-activity-of-batroxicidin-a-cathelicidin-related-antimicrobial-peptide-found-in-bothrops-atrox-venom-gland
#15
Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Danya Bandeira Lima, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Izabel Cristina Justino Bandeira, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Claudio Borges Falcão, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as they have a fast mode of action, a low likelihood of resistance development and can act in conjunction with existing drug regimens. We report in this study the effects of batroxicidin (BatxC), a cathelicidin-related AMP from Bothrops atrox venom gland, over Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan that causes Chagas' disease. BatxC inhibited all T. cruzi (Y strain: benznidazole-resistant) developmental forms, with selectivity index of 315...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246022/toxicity-of-the-venom-of-latrodectus-araneae-theridiidae-spiders-from-different-regions-of-argentina-and-neutralization-by-therapeutic-antivenoms
#16
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Lucia Elvira Irazu, Alda González, Luis Giambelluca, Néstor Nicolai, Javier Hugo Barragán, Leticia Ramallo, Raúl Alfredo López, Jorge Lopardo, Oscar Jensen, Edmundo Larrieu, Arnoldo Calabró, Miriam Guadalupe Vurcharchuc, Néstor Rubén Lago, Susana Isabel García, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damín
"Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246021/influence-of-phospholipasic-inhibition-on-neuromuscular-activity-of-bothrops-fonsecai-snake-venom
#17
Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Thalita Rocha, José Carlos Cogo, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
Bothrops fonsecai (B. fonsecai), a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, has a venom mainly composed by snake venom phospholipases (PLA2) and metalloproteases, compounds that could interfere with neuromuscular junction in vitro. In this work, we investigated the role of PLA2 in the myotoxicity and neuromuscular blockade caused by B. fonsecai venom using different procedures frequently associated with PLA2 activity inhibition: 24 °C bath temperature, Ca(2+) - Sr(2+) replacement and chemical modification with p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB)...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242227/insects-arachnids-and-centipedes-venom-a-powerful-weapon-against-bacteria-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Filippo Fratini, Giovanni Cilia, Barbara Turchi, Antonio Felicioli
Currently, new antimicrobial molecules extracted or obtained by natural sources, could be a valide alternative to traditional antibiotics. Most of these molecules are represented by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are essential compounds of insect, arachnids and centipedes venom. AMPs, due to their strong effectiveness, low resistance rates and peculiar mode of action, seem to have all the suitable features to be a powerful weapon against several bacteria, especially considering the increasing antibiotic-resistance phenomena...
February 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238804/challenges-in-diagnosing-and-treating-snakebites-in-a-rural-population-of-tamil-nadu-india-the-views-of-clinicians
#19
Harry F Williams, Rajendran Vaiyapuri, Prabu Gajjeraman, Gail Hutchinson, Jonathan M Gibbins, Andrew B Bicknell, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri
Snakebites cause death, disability and economic devastation to their victims, people who live almost exclusively in rural areas. Annually an estimated two million venomous bites cause as many as 100,000 deaths worldwide as well as hundreds of thousands of deformities and amputations. Recent studies suggest that India has the highest incidence of snakebite and associated deaths worldwide. In this study, we interviewed 25 hospital-based clinicians who regularly treat snakebites in Tamil Nadu, India, in order to gauge their opinions and views on the diagnostic tools and treatment methods available at that time, the difficulties encountered in treating snakebites and improvements to snakebite management protocols they deem necessary...
February 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238803/discovery-and-characterization-of-eiib-a-new-%C3%AE-conotoxin-from-conus-ermineus-venom-by-nachrs-affinity-capture-monitored-by-maldi-tof-tof-mass-spectrometry
#20
Julien Echterbille, Nicolas Gilles, Romulo Araóz, Gilles Mourier, Muriel Amar, Denis Servent, Edwin De Pauw, Loic Quinton
Animal toxins are peptides that often bind with remarkable affinity and selectivity to membrane receptors such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The latter are, for example, targeted by α-conotoxins, a family of peptide toxins produced by venomous cone snails. nAChRs are implicated in numerous physiological processes explaining why the design of new pharmacological tools and the discovery of potential innovative drugs targeting these receptor channels appear so important. This work describes a methodology developed to discover new ligands of nAChRs from complex mixtures of peptides...
February 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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