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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533144/discovery-of-two-p-superfamily-conotoxins-lt9a-and-lt9b-with-different-modifications-on-voltage-sensitive-sodium-channels
#1
Lei Wang, Junliang Liu, Zhenghua Ren, Yu Chen, Anlong Xu
In this work, two P-superfamily conotoxins, lt9a and lt9b, were purified and characterized from the crude venom of Conus litteratus. The amino acid sequences of lt9a and lt9b were determined by the Edman degradation method. It has been suggested that both lt9a and lt9b are produced from the precursor encoded by the gene Lt9.1. During the conotoxin maturation process, different post-translational modifications occurred between lt9a and lt9b. Conotoxin lt9b was predicted to have two prolines that underwent hydroxylation and one glutamate that underwent carboxylation, while lt9a had no hydroxyproline and carboxyglutamate residue...
May 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528816/vertical-transmission-of-microcystins-to-nile-crocodile-crocodylus-niloticus-eggs
#2
Alukhethi Singo, Jan G Myburgh, Peter N Laver, Elizabeth A Venter, Gezina C H Ferreira, Gertruida M Rösemann, Christo J Botha
Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms in eutrophic, stagnant freshwater bodies. Climate change and global warming have also contributed to a rise in toxic cyanobacterial blooms. One of the most important cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa, which can synthesize various microcystins that can affect the health of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Commercial Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) farming in South Africa is based on keeping breeders (adult males and females) in big dams on farms (captive-bred approach)...
May 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528178/expanding-biological-activities-of-ts19-frag-ii-toxin-insights-into-il-17-production
#3
Felipe Augusto Cerni, Manuela Berto Pucca, Karina Furlani Zoccal, Fabiani Gai Frantz, Lucia Helena Faccioli, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Tityus serrulatus (Ts) venom is composed of a mixture of toxins presenting diverse biological functions. However, although this venom has been studied over the past three decades, omics analysis revealed that most of its toxins are not identified or their biological activities are unknown. Ts19 Frag-II is included is this group, which function is still uncertain. This study aimed to expand the biological activities of Ts19 Frag-II through in vivo investigation. Our results demonstrates that mice challenged with Ts19 Frag-II presented biochemical alterations, increasing serum levels of urea, ALT and β-globulin, besides decreasing γ-globulins...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528177/tetrodotoxin-in-asian-newts-salamandridae
#4
Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Stefan W Toennes, Dietrich Mebs
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues occur in a wide range of marine animals but also in terrestrial vertebrates such as frogs, toads and newts. Despite numerous studies on TTX in New World newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Taricha spp.), few data only exist for Asian newts. Methanolic extracts of newts from China (Cynops orientalis, Pachytriton labiatus, Paramesotriton chinensis), Vietnam (Paramesotriton deloustali, P. guangxiensis), and Laos (Laotriton laoensis) were analyzed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescent detection (LC-FLD) and mass-spectrometry (LC-MS)...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528176/production-and-preclinical-assessment-of-camelid-immunoglobulins-against-echis-sochureki-venom-from-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#5
P D Tanwar, S K Ghorui, S K Kochar, Raghvendar Singh, N V Patil
Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of rural India. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses. Because of complex fiscal reasons, the production, testing and delivery of antivenoms designed to treat envenoming by the most medically-important snakes in the region has been questioned time to time. In this study, we report successful immunisation of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) against the venom of Indian saw-scaled Viper- Echis carinatus sochureki...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528175/heterodimeric-v-%C3%A2-nikolskii-phospholipases-a2-induce-aggregation-of-the-lipid-bilayer
#6
A S Alekseeva, D S Tretiakova, V P Chernikov, Yu N Utkin, J G Molotkovsky, E L Vodovozova, I A Boldyrev
We report that the action of the heterodimeric phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from Vipera nikolskii, which comprises enzymatically active basic subunit and inactive acidic PLA2 homologue, on the lipid bilayer results in the aggregation and stacking of bilayers. These processes are demonstrated using two independent methods (fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy). Aggregation of bilayers is possible because both subunits of the V. nikolskii heterodimer contain a membrane-binding site (also known as IBS)...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526336/activation-of-na-h-exchanger-other-than-formation-of-transmembrane-pore-underlies-the-cytotoxicity-of-nematocyst-venom-from-chrysaora-helvola-brandt-jellyfish
#7
Lanlan Fan, Jun Luo, Xiaoyong Li, Ming Chen, Wei Shu, Xiaosheng Qu
We previously reported unexpected apoptosis-like cell death induced by nematocyst venom (NV) from Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish. To assess whether the pore formation mechanism underlay the action of NV, the change in cell membrane permeability was studied in both chicken erythrocytes and human CNE-2 cells. Initially, paradoxical results were derived from osmoprotectant protection assays. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)2000, which completely inhibited the NV induced hemolysis, failed to protect CNE-2 cells...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526335/the-spider-toxin-ph%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-recombinant-possesses-strong-analgesic-activity
#8
Flavia Karine Rigo, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Marta Nascimento Cordeiro, Marcia Helena Borges, Juliana Figueiredo Silva, Flavia Viana Santa Cecilia, Alessandra Hubner de Souza, Gabriela de Oliveira Adamante, Alessandra Marcon Milioli, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
The native Phα1β - a Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) blocker - and its Recombinant Version - were both tested in rodent pain models with an intraplantar injections of capsaicin or formalin, a chronic constriction injury, and melanoma cancer related pain. The formalin nociceptive behaviour in the neurogenic phase was not affected by the toxin pre-treatments, while in the inflammatory phase, Phα1β and the Recombinant form caused a significant reduction. The nociception that was triggered by capsaicin, an agonist of the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, was totally blocked by 100 pmol/site, i...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502745/pi5-and-pi6-two-undescribed-peptides-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-pandinus-imperator-and-their-effects-on-k-channels
#9
T Olamendi-Portugal, A Csoti, J M Jimenez-Vargas, F Gomez-Lagunas, G Panyi, L D Possani
This work reports the isolation, chemical and functional characterization of two previously unknown peptides purified from the venom of the scorpion Pandinus imperator, denominated Pi5 and Pi6. Pi5 is a classical K(+)-channel blocking peptide containing 33 amino acid residues with 4 disulfide bonds. It is the first member of a new subfamily, here defined by the systematic number α-KTx 24.1. Pi6 is a peptide of unknown real function, containing only two disulfide bonds and 28 amino acid residues, but showing sequence similarities to the κ-family of K-channel toxins...
May 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495477/quantification-of-saxitoxin-in-human-blood-by-elisa
#10
Rebekah E Wharton, Melanie C Feyereisen, Andrea L Gonzalez, Nicole L Abbott, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent marine toxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can result in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Low lethal doses, rapid onset of PSP symptoms, and brief STX half-life in vivo require sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques to monitor human exposures. Our laboratory has validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of STX from 0.020 to 0.80 ng/mL in human whole blood and from 0.06 to 2.0 ng/mL in dried human blood which is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective...
May 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487160/good-vibrations-assessing-the-stability-of-snake-venom-composition-after-researcher-induced-disturbance-in-the-laboratory
#11
Natalie M Claunch, Matthew L Holding, Camilo Escallón, Ben Vernasco, Ignacio T Moore, Emily N Taylor
Phenotypic plasticity contributes to intraspecific variation in traits of many animal species. Venom is an integral trait to the success and survival of many snake species, and potential plasticity in venom composition is important to account for in the context of basic research as well as in human medicine for treating the various symptoms of snakebite and producing effective anti-venoms. Researchers may unknowingly induce changes in venom variation by subjecting snakes to novel disturbances and potential stressors...
May 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479311/serum-toxicokinetics-after-intravenous-and-oral-dosing-of-larkspur-toxins-in-goats
#12
K D Welch, D R Gardner, C A Stonecipher, B T Green, J A Pfister
Poisoning of cattle by larkspur plants (Delphinium spp.) is a concern for cattle ranchers in western North America. Previous research studies have evaluated the toxicokinetic profile of multiple larkspur toxins in several livestock species. However, those studies were all performed by orally dosing plant material. Consequently some toxicokinetic parameters could not be definitively determined. In this study, we compared the serum toxicokinetic profile of the larkspur alkaloids methyllycaconitine (MLA) and deltaline in goats dosed both IV and via oral gavage...
May 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478056/identification-of-a-target-protein-of-hydra-actinoporin-like-toxin-1-halt-1-using-gst-affinity-purification-and-silac-based-quantitative-proteomics
#13
Ameirika, Hong Xi Sha, Jung Shan Hwang
Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1 (HALT-1) is a 20.8 kDa pore-forming toxin isolated from Hydra magnipapillata. HALT-1 shares structural similarity with actinoporins, a family that is well known for its haemolytic and cytolytic activity. However, the precise pore-forming mechanism of HALT-1 remains an open question since little is known about the specific target binding for HALT-1. For this reason, a comprehensive proteomic analysis was performed using affinity purification and SILAC-based mass spectrometry to identify potential protein-protein interactions between mammalian HeLa cell surface proteins and HALT-1...
May 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478060/systemic-cytokine-and-chemokine-responses-in-immunized-mice-challenged-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b
#14
Laura C Hudson Reichenberg, Renu Garg, Raymond Fernalld, Kenneth L Bost, Kenneth J Piller
The cytokine storm induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) describes the rapid and dramatic induction of mediators which are likely responsible for the toxin's deleterious effects. However despite the use of numerous animal models for investigating SEB related illness in humans, mechanisms of toxicity and correlates of protection remain unclear. In the present study, we used an LPS-potentiated model of SEB lethality to investigate the toxin-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in untreated and immunized mice...
May 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478059/botulinum-toxin-type-a-reduces-trpv1-expression-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-in-rats-with-adjuvant-arthritis-pain
#15
Chenglei Fan, Xiao Chu, Lin Wang, Hao Shi, Tieshan Li
Arthritis pain affects people's long-term health, and recent studies have demonstrated that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) plays a crucial role in arthritis pain. In addition, Pre-clinical evidence indicated that botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) has antinociceptive effect. The present study investigated the causality between the antinociceptive effects of BoNT/A and the expression of TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats with adjuvant-arthritis pain. The results showed that BoNT/A significantly reduced adjuvant-arthritis nociceptive behaviors in a dose-dependent manner...
May 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478058/venom-gland-transcriptomic-and-venom-proteomic-analyses-of-the-scorpion-megacormus-gertschi-d%C3%A3-az-najera-1966-scorpiones-euscorpiidae-megacorminae
#16
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Jimena I Cid-Uribe, Fernando Z Zamudio, Cesar V F Batista, Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
The soluble venom from the Mexican scorpion Megacormus gertschi of the family Euscorpiidae was obtained and its biological effects were tested in several animal models. This venom is not toxic to mice at doses of 100 μg per 20 g of mouse weight, while being lethal to arthropods (insects and crustaceans), at doses of 20 μg (for crickets) and 100 μg (for shrimps) per animal. Samples of the venom were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and circa 80 distinct chromatographic fractions were obtained from which 67 components have had their molecular weights determined by mass spectrometry analysis...
May 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478057/freeze-dried-echitab-icp-antivenom-formulated-with-sucrose-is-more-resistant-to-thermal-stress-than-the-liquid-formulation-stabilized-with-sorbitol
#17
María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Adriana Sánchez, Andrés Sánchez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Robert A Harrison, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
EchiTAb + ICP is a pan-African antivenom used for the treatment of snakebite envenomation in rural sub-Saharan African communities, where the cold chain can be difficult to maintain. To develop a formulation of EchiTAb + ICP that can be distributed and stored without refrigeration, we submitted three different formulations of EchiTAb + ICP: control (i.e. liquid antivenom formulated without stabilizer), liquid antivenom stabilized with sorbitol, and freeze-dried antivenom formulated with sucrose, to an accelerated stability study (i...
May 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478055/senecio-grisebachii-baker-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-and-experimental-poisoning-in-calves
#18
Marcela Preliasco, Dale Gardner, Jorge Moraes, Ana Celina González, Gonzalo Uriarte, Rodolfo Rivero
The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants were collected in Paysandú, Uruguay. The concentration and identification of DHPA and associated N-oxides were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three calves weighing 85-89 kg received doses of 15, 24 or 45 g of dry S...
May 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476539/exposure-of-okadaic-acid-alters-the-angiogenesis-in-developing-chick-embryos
#19
Yu-Hu Jiao, Min Dou, Guang Wang, Hong-Ye Li, Jie-Sheng Liu, Xuesong Yang, Wei-Dong Yang
Okadaic acid (OA) is a common phycotoxin, which concerns diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in human being. It has been known that OA can induce disorganization in cytoskeletal architecture and cell-cell contact, cause chromosome loss, apoptosis, DNA damage and inhibit phosphatases, suggesting its potential embryotoxicity. In this paper, we found that low concentration of OA (50 nM, 100 nM and 200 nM) significantly reduced the density of vascular plexus in yolk-sac membrane (YSM) of chick embryo, while high concentration of OA (500 nM) distinctly depressed the blood vessel density in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)...
May 2, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456535/-dry-bite-in-venomous-snakes-a-review
#20
REVIEW
B Sadananda Naik
It is quite interesting that when a venomous snake bites a person and the victim does not suffer from any signs or symptoms of envenomation. A good percentage of venomous snake bites in humans do occur without venom injection. This phenomenon is termed as "Dry" bite in clinical medicine. Though this was not very uncommon in toxicological practice but, our awareness of this problem has increased. In this article an effort has been made to provide an insight into the incidence, pathophysiology and patho-mechanics of this unique medical enigma...
April 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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