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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890775/expanding-the-neutralization-scope-of-the-echitab-plus-icp-antivenom-to-include-venoms-of-elapids-from-southern-africa
#1
Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Ricardo Estrada, Francisco Wu, Thea Litschka, Michael Alfred Perry, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León
EchiTAb-plus-ICP is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), the puff adder (Bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis). Therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to Western Africa. In order to expand the neutralization scope of EchiTAb-plus-ICP, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of B. arietans, the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), the snouted cobra (N...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890774/inhibition-of-local-effects-induced-by-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venom-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-brazilian-polyvalent-bothropic-antivenom-and-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-jatropha-gossypiifolia
#2
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Jacinthia B Xavier-Santos, Júlia G R Passos, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Denise V Tambourgi, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Bothrops erythromelas is a snake of medical importance responsible for most of the venomous incidents in Northeastern Brazil. However, this species is not included in the pool of venoms that are used in the Brazilian polyvalent bothropic antivenom (BAv) production. Furthermore, it is well known that antivenom therapy has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects, making the search for complementary alternatives to treat snakebites an important task. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a medicinal plant widely indicated in folk medicine as an antidote for snakebites, whose effectiveness against Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) has been previously demonstrated in mice...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890773/primary-photosensitization-caused-by-ingestion-of-froelichia-humboldtiana-by-dairy-goats
#3
Danielle S Santos, Caio C B Silva, Valber O Araújo, Maria de Fátima Souza, Patrícia B Lacerda-Lucena, Sara V D Simões, Franklin Riet-Correa, Ricardo B Lucena
This study aimed to describe the first report of an outbreak of primary photosensitization in dairy goats caused by Froelichia humboldtiana. The disease occurred from March to May 2014, in a mixed flock of 15 Saanen, Alpine, and crossbred lactating goats. The entire flock was affected; however, the Saanen and cross-bred goats developed more severe lesions, and their milk production decreased by as much as 75%. Lesions were progressive and consisted of skin hyperemia, edema, and necrosis, especially in depigmented areas...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889603/two-symbiotic-bacteria-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-spp-against-galleria-mellonella
#4
Chunli Liao, Along Gao, Bingbing Li, Mengjun Wang, Linna Shan
The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis spp. is considered a promising agent in the biocontrol of injurious insects of agriculture. However, different symbiotic bacteria associated with the nematode usually have different specificity and virulence toward their own host. In this study, two symbiotic bacteria, LY2W and NK, were isolated from the intestinal canals of two entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis 90 (PDSj1 and PDSj2) from Galleria mellonela, separately. To determine their species classification, we carried out some investigations on morphology, culture, biochemistry, especially 16S rDNA sequence analyses...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889602/toxicity-evaluation-and-initial-characterization-of-the-venom-of-a-colombian-latrodectus-sp
#5
Alexandra Rueda, Emilio Realpe, Alfredo Uribe
The genus Latrodectus has not been studied in Colombia even though it is medically important worldwide; there are three species for the country, this study focused on a non-identified species found in the Tatacoa Desert in the Huila Department. This research is the first approximation to the extraction, composition analysis and toxicity evaluation of the venom of a species of the genus Latrodectus in Colombia; and aims to evaluate the toxicity by the initial characterization of its venom. The venom extraction was accomplished with electrostimulation and total protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method and BCA assays from crude venom; with these methods, high protein concentration of the samples was measured...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889601/microcystin-lr-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-and-in-primary-human-hepatocytes-is-caused-by-oncotic-necrosis
#6
Benjamin L Woolbright, C David Williams, Hongmin Ni, Sean Kumer, Timothy Schmitt, Bartholomew Kane, Hartmut Jaeschke
Microcystins are a group of toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Uptake of microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) by organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B2 in hepatocytes results in inhibition of protein phosphatase 1A and 2A, and subsequent cell death. Studies performed in primary rat hepatocytes demonstrate prototypical apoptosis after MC-LR exposure; however, no study has directly tested whether apoptosis is critically involved in vivo in the mouse, or in human hepatocytes. MC-LR (120 μg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6J mice and cell death was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release, caspase-3 activity in the liver, and histology...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889600/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-female-and-male-venoms-from-the-mexican-scorpion-centruroides-limpidus-novel-components-found
#7
Jimena Isaias Cid Uribe, Juana Maria Jiménez Vargas, Cesar Vicente Ferreira Batista, Fernando Zamudio Zuñiga, Lourival Domingos Possani
Venom from male and female scorpions of the species Centruroides limpidus were separated by HPLC and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of components eluting in equivalent retention times from the HPLC column shows some differences. A new peptide with 29 amino acids, cross-linked by three disulfide bonds was found in male scorpions and its structure determined. Another unknown peptide present in female venom, with sequence identity similar to K(+)-channel blocking peptide was isolated...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889226/editorial-toxins-2017
#8
EDITORIAL
Joseph Jankovic, Alberto Albanese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871786/ischemic-brain-infarcts-and-intracranial-haemorrhages-following-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-bite-in-sri-lanka
#9
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, Janaka Ranaweera, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
Snakebite is an important medical problem in Sri Lanka. Of the deadly venomous snakes, Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed and responsible for most of the fatalities of snakebite in the country. It is not uncommon to see atypical manifestations in Russell's viper bite. We report the events of intracranial haemorrhages and multiple ischemic brain infarcts following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite of a previously healthy 43-years-old male who succumbed to envenoming.
November 18, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867095/identification-of-snake-venom-allergens-by-two-dimensional-electrophoresis-followed-by-immunoblotting
#10
Yujing Hu, Liming Yang, Haiwei Yang, Shaoheng He, Ji-Fu Wei
This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom...
November 17, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867094/differences-between-renal-effects-of-venom-from-two-bothrops-jararaca-populations-from-southeastern-and-southern-brazil
#11
Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge, Antônio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Danya Bandeira Lima, João Alison de Moraes Silveira, Natacha Teresa Queiroz Alves, Aline Diogo Marinho, Rafael Matos Ximenes, Carlos Corrêa Netto, Larissa Gonçalves Machado, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro
Components from animal venoms may vary according to the snake's age, gender and region of origin. Recently, we performed a proteomic analysis of Bothrops jararaca venom from southern (BjSv) and southeastern (BjSEv) Brazil, showing differences in the venom composition, as well as its biological activity. To continue the study, we report in this short communication the different effects induced by the BjSEv and BjSv on isolated kidney and MDCK renal cells. BjSEv decreased perfusion pressure (PP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) and increased urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), while BjSv did not alter PP and RVR and reduced UF and GFR...
November 17, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867093/relationship-between-food-and-venom-production-in-the-estuarine-stonefish-synanceia-horrida
#12
Silvia Luiza Saggiomo, Christine Zelenka, Jamie Seymour
BACKGROUND: The potential costs of venom production may be significant to many marine venomous taxa. In general, the parameters that influence the rate of venom production are poorly understood, but seem to be related to feeding frequency. METHODS: This study examines the effects of starvation on venom profile and venom yield on the estuarine stonefish (Synanceia horrida). In total, the venom of eight stonefishes was tested under two feeding regimes. Over a four week period, one of the two groups underwent an episode of suspended feeding, while the other was fed on a daily basis...
November 17, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867092/peptide-rich-venom-from-the-spider-heteropoda-venatoria-potently-inhibits-insect-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#13
Yazhou Huang, Xinzhou Wu, Peng Zhang, Zhigui Duan, Xi Zhou, Minzhi Chen, Athar Farooq, Songping Liang, Zhonghua Liu
Heteropoda venatoria is a venomous spider species distributed worldwide and has a characteristic habit of feeding on insects. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that H. venatoria venom contains hundreds of peptides with a predominant molecular weights of 3000-5000 Da. Intra-abdominal injection of the venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations. The LD50 was 28...
November 17, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845057/tetrodotoxin-and-tributyltin-binding-abilities-of-recombinant-pufferfish-saxitoxin-and-tetrodotoxin-binding-proteins-of-takifugu-rubripes
#14
Hina Satone, Shohei Nonaka, Jae Man Lee, Yohei Shimasaki, Takahiro Kusakabe, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Yuji Oshima
We investigated the ability of recombinant pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein types 1 and 2 of Takifugu rubripes (rTrub.PSTBP1 and rTrub.PSTBP2) to bind to tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tributyltin. Both rTrub.PSTBPs bound to tributyltin in an ultrafiltration binding assay but lost this ability on heat denaturation. In contrast, only rTrub.PSTBP2 bound to TTX even heat denaturation. This result suggests that the amino acid sequence of PSTBP2 may be contributed for its affinity for TTX.
November 11, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840141/changes-in-the-metabolic-profile-and-body-weight-of-pre-pubertal-gilts-during-prolonged-monotonic-exposure-to-low-doses-of-zearalenone-and-deoxynivalenol
#15
Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Tarasiuk, Łukasz Zielonka, Michał Dąbrowski, Jakub Nicpoń, Mirosław Baranowski, Maciej Tadeusz Gajęcki
The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to low doses of ZEN + DON induces changes in serum biochemical and hematological parameters in pre-pubertal gilts. In the evaluated groups, minor but statistically significant changes were noted in selected serum biochemical parameters, including glucose, total cholesterol, ALT, AST, AP, total bilirubin, Pin, Fe, K and Cl, and in hematological parameters, including WBC, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, Ht, Hb, MCHC, HDW and PLT. A statistical analysis of the results revealed significant differences between groups in the values of WBC, eosinophils, basophils, Hb, Ht, PLT, glucose, ALT, AP, total bilirubin, Fe and K...
November 10, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840140/lethality-and-histopathological-alterations-caused-by-phoneutrianigriventer-spider-venom-from-argentina-neutralization-of-lethality-by-experimental-and-therapeutic-antivenoms
#16
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Néstor Rubén Lago, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Vanessa Costa de Oliveira, Estela Neder de Román, Ernesto Horacio de Titto, Carlos Fabián Damin
Although the spiders of the genus Phoneutria cause envenomation and their presence has been described in several provinces of the north of Argentina, they are not as common as other spiders of sanitary importance. In the present work, we studied the toxicity of samples of venom of Phoneutria spiders from the provinces of Misiones (where severe envenomation and deaths by Phoneutria have been recorded) and Jujuy (where no deaths have been recorded and severe envenomations are not frequent). To this end, we assessed the lethal potency in mice and guinea pigs and the histopathological alterations caused by both venoms, as well as the neutralization by the commonly used therapeutic antivenom produced by the Butantan Institute in Brazil and by an experimental antivenom developed with venom of P...
November 10, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838288/intra-articular-injection-of-botulinum-toxin-a-reduces-neurogenic-inflammation-in-cfa-induced-arthritic-rat-model
#17
Tieshan Li, Lin Wang, Kaile Wang, Xiao Chu, Nana Shen, Chenglei Fan, Zhenyuan Niu, Xiaochen Zhang, Luoman Hu
Currently, administration of Botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT/A) to treat arthritic pain has promising efficacy in clinical research. However, the mechanisms underlying anti-neurogenic inflammation mediated by BoNT/A remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness in macro and micro levels and to explore the causal mechanism of BoNT/A. Wistar rats (n = 60) were injected with 50ul complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left ankle joint capsule to establish a model of chronic monoarthritis...
November 9, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826020/biochemical-and-kinetic-evaluation-of-the-enzymatic-toxins-from-two-stinging-scyphozoans-nemopilema-nomurai-and-cyanea-nozakii
#18
Yang Yue, Huahua Yu, Rongfeng Li, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Kecheng Li, Xueqin Wang, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Jellyfish envenomations are emerging as an important public health concern occurred worldwide. In China, the situation is getting worse with numerous people stung by jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (N. nomurai) and Cyanea nozakii (C. nozakii) in the summer. However, the proteinaceous mixtures in nematocysts responsible for the symptoms of jellyfish stings were scarcely characterized and understood in view of enzymatic constituents and toxicity. In the present study, enzymatic properties of jellyfish N. nomurai and C...
November 4, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793656/isolation-of-two-insecticidal-toxins-from-venom-of-the-australian-theraphosid-spider-coremiocnemis-tropix
#19
Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Jennifer J Smith, Volker Herzig, Sandy S Pineda, Sławomir Dziemborowicz, Sing-Yan Er, Thomas Durek, John Gilchrist, Paul F Alewood, Graham M Nicholson, Frank Bosmans, Glenn F King
Sheep flystrike is caused by parasitic flies laying eggs on soiled wool or open wounds, after which the hatched maggots feed on the sheep flesh and often cause large lesions. It is a significant economic problem for the livestock industry as infestations are difficult to control due to ongoing cycles of larval development into flies followed by further egg laying. We therefore screened venom fractions from the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix to identify toxins active against the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, which is the primary cause of flystrike in Australia...
October 25, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777069/insulin-as-a-weapon
#20
Samuel D Robinson, Helena Safavi-Hemami
The discovery of insulin and its use for the treatment of diabetes is undoubtedly one of the true successes of modern medicine. Injectable insulin would prove the first effective treatment for a previously incurable and usually fatal disease. Soon after however, the powerful effects of insulin overdose would be reported, and subsequently exploited for dubious medical and sometimes nefarious purposes. In this article we describe the discovery that certain venomous marine snails of the genus Conus also exploit the powerful effects of insulin overdose, employing it as a weapon for prey capture...
October 21, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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