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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193802/comparison-of-efficacy-and-toxicity-between-botulinum-toxin-subtypes-a1-and-a2-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#1
Yasushi Torii, Mikio Sasaki, Min-Chul Shin, Norio Akaike, Ryuji Kaji
Botulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) is used as therapeutic agent for some neurological disorders causing spasticity. The toxin products have an upper dosage limit, and their adverse events, such as side effects of diffusion following high-dose administration, have become serious issues. Therefore, a preparation with greater therapeutic efficacy at lower dosages and less diffusion in the body is desired. We have attempted to produce neurotoxin derived from subtype A2 (A2NTX), which has a different amino acid sequence from that of neurotoxin derived from subtype A1...
September 5, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189243/assessment-of-quality-safety-and-pre-clinical-toxicity-of-an-equine-polyvalent-anti-snake-venom-pan-africa-determination-of-immunological-cross-reactivity-of-antivenom-against-venom-samples-of-elapidae-and-viperidae-snakes-of-africa
#2
Aparup Patra, Bhargab Kalita, Ashis K Mukherjee
Snakebite causes a large amount of morbidities and mortalities in Africa. The safety, efficacy, and homogeneity of anti-snake venoms are crucial for snakebite treatments to be effective with minimal adverse effects. We assessed the homogeneity of preparations of three different batches of Combipack snake venom antiserums (Pan Africa) [CSVAPA] by quantitatively analysing F(ab')2 , IgG, and other contaminating proteins of plasma. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that approximately 92.4% of the proteins from the CSVAPA samples was IgG/F(ab')2 and the percent composition of contaminating proteins in CSVAPA varied from 0...
September 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189242/venom-gland-transcriptomics-and-microrna-profiling-of-juvenile-and-adult-yellow-bellied-sea-snake-hydrophis-platurus-from-playa-del-coco-guanacaste-costa-rica
#3
Jordi Durban, Mahmood Sasa, Juan J Calvete
With an extensive range in tropical and subtropical waters of Indo-Australian region and the Pacific coast of the American continent, the yellow-bellied sea snake, Hydrophis platurus, is the most broadly distributed snake species on our planet. We report a comparative analysis of the mRNA and microRNA transcriptional profiles of the venom glands of Costa Rican juvenile and adult yellow-bellied sea snakes, and correlate these datasets with the previously reported venom proteome gathered from an adult specimen of the same population of Playa del Coco...
September 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171930/myocardial-injury-induced-by-scorpion-sting-envenoming-and-evidence-of-oxidative-stress-in-egyptian-children
#4
Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Mohammed H Hassan, Nagwan I Rashwan, Mohammed M Sayed, Abdel-Raheim M A Meki
In the present study, 45 children in Upper Egypt (less than 16 years old) were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for scorpion envenomation (SE). They were compared with 30 apparently healthy children of matching age and sex as controls. Out of the studied victims, 35 children (78%) showed signs of severe envenomation, while 10 victims (22%) showed signs of mild envenomation. The case fatality was 33%. The serum levels of cardiac markers, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI), as well as the enzymatic activities of creatine kinase-MB (CPK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined for both victims and controls...
September 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179630/modeling-and-molecular-dynamics-indicate-that-snake-venom-phospholipase-b-like-enzymes-are-ntn-hydrolases
#5
REVIEW
Mônika Aparecida Coronado, Danilo da Silva Olivier, Raphael Josef Eberle, Marcos Serrou do Amaral, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy Arni
Phospholipase-B-like (SVPLB-like) enzymes are present in relatively small amounts in a number of venoms, however, their biological function and mechanisms of action are un-clear. A three-dimensional model of the SVPLB-like enzyme from Crotalus adamanteus was generated by homology modeling based on the crystal structures of bovine Ntn-hydrolyases and the modeled protein possesses conserved domains characteristic of Ntn-hydrolases. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that activation by autocatalytic cleavage results in the removal of 25 amino acids which increases accessibility to the active site...
September 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172791/toxicokinetic-profile-of-fusarenon-x-and-its-metabolite-nivalenol-in-the-goat-capra-hircus
#6
Wanchalerm Phruksawan, Saranya Poapolathep, Mario Giorgi, Kanjana Imsilp, Chainarong Sakulthaew, Helen Owen, Amnart Poapolathep
The main aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicokinetic characteristics of fusarenon-X (FX) and its metabolite, nivalenol (NIV), in goats. The amounts of FX and NIV in post-mitochondrial (S-9), microsomal and cytosolic fractions of diverse tissues of the goat were also investigated. FX was intravenously (iv) or orally (po) administered to goats at dosages of 0.25 and 1 mg/kg bw, respectively. The concentrations of FX and NIV in plasma, feces and urine were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)...
August 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172790/detection-and-identification-of-antibacterial-proteins-in-snake-venoms-using-at-line-nanofractionation-coupled-to-lc-ms
#7
Marija Mladic, Julien Slagboom, Jeroen Kool, Freek J Vonk, Gilles P van Wezel, Michael K Richardson
This study describes the application of at-line nanofractionation to the screening of snake venoms for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the detection of proteins of interest, and their partial or full identification. A method was developed to identify bioactive peptides in crude snake venoms based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC), with parallel nanofractionation onto 384-well plates and mass spectrometry (MS). Bioactivity assays were based on a resazurin-reduction assay...
August 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171931/dietary-l-carnitine-and-vitamin-e-a-strategy-to-combat-ochratoxin-a-induced-immunosuppression
#8
Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zahoor Ul Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Aisha Khatoon, Zain Ul Abidin, Muhammad Raza Hameed
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin A (OA), in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (LC) and vitamin E (VE), on the humoral immune responses of White Leghorn cockerels (WLC). One-day old white male Leghorn chicks were divided into 12 groups, having 20 birds each and were offered ration contaminated with OA (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg feed) alone and concurrently with LC (1.0 g/kg) and/or VE (0.2 g/kg), for 42 days. The humoral immune responses were accessed by lymphoproliferative response to avian tuberculin, in-vivo phagosomes activity to carbon particles and antibody response to the sheep red blood cells (SRBCs)...
August 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171929/concentrations-of-microcystins-in-the-muscle-and-liver-tissues-of-fish-species-from-koka-reservoir-ethiopia-a-potential-threat-to-public-health
#9
Tigist W Zewde, Jostein A Johansen, Demeke Kifle, Taye B Demissie, Jørn H Hansen, Zenebe Tadesse
Herein, we report the presence and concentrations of three most common variants of microcystin (MC-LR, -RR and -YR) in the liver and muscle tissues of wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and African Sharp Tooth Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), which were collected from two study sites of the present study on Koka reservoir, Ethiopia. A total of 36 fish liver and 36 fish muscle samples were collected for six months. Microcystins (MCs) were quantified using LC-ESI-HRMS. The results show that MCs were found in most of the fish liver samples, while they were below the detection limit of the method of analysis used in the muscle samples...
August 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170168/genome-editing-of-pufferfish-saxitoxin-and-tetrodotoxin-binding-protein-type-2-in-takifugu-rubripes
#10
Yoko Kato-Unoki, Yuki Takai, Masato Kinoshita, Toshitaka Mochizuki, Ryohei Tatsuno, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji Oshima
The pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein 2 (PSTBP2), which is involved in toxin accumulation, was knocked out in Takifugu rubripes embryos by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 genome-editing technology. Treating the embryos with one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA) resulted in mutation rates of 57.1% and 62.5%, respectively, as estimated using a heteroduplex mobility assay at 3 days postfertilization. Both sgRNAs might induced frameshift mutations that knocked out the T...
August 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170167/multi-trichothecene-mycotoxin-exposure-activates-glutathione-redox-system-in-broiler-chicken
#11
Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Márta Erdélyi, Szabina Kulcsár, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
Co-occurrence of mycotoxin contamination of feeds is a frequent problem, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) on lipid peroxidation, parameters and regulation of the glutathione redox system in broiler chickens in a sub-chronic (7 day) study. The applied doses were: low mix: 0.23 mg T-2 toxin and 4.96 mg DON/kg feed; medium mix: 1.21 mg T-2 toxin and 12.38 mg DON/kg feed; and high mix: 2.42 T-2 toxin and 24.86 mg DON/kg feed...
August 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170166/high-activity-chimeric-snake-gamma-type-phospholipase-a-2-inhibitor-created-by-dna-shuffling
#12
Shimin Sun, Denghong Zhang, Jing Zhang, Chunhong Huang, Ying Xiong
The gamma-type inhibitor of snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLIγ) is expressed extensively in livers of both venomous and non-venomous snakes. It is not clear why PLIγs from different snake species possess diverse activities. To obtain high activity PLIγs and interpret the sequence-function relationships, we used DNA shuffling to hybridize the PLIγs of Sinonatrix annularis (saPLIγ) and Elaphe carinata (ecPLIγ). Chimera PLIγs (cPLIγ) of ∼550 bp were obtained by a series of gene manipulations including DNase I digestion, primer-free PCR, and PCR amplification with PLIγs primer pair...
August 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153434/new-insights-into-the-proteomic-characterization-of-the-coral-snake-micrurus-pyrrhocryptus-venom
#13
Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, César V F Batista, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Fernando Z Zamudio, Melisa Benard-Valle, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Lourival D Possani
A proteomic analysis of the soluble venom of the coral snake Micrurus pyrrhocryptus is reported in this work. The whole soluble venom was separated by RP-HPLC and the molecular weights of its components (over 100) were determined by mass spectrometry. Three main sets of components were identified, corresponding to peptides with molecular masses from 5 to 8 kDa, proteins from 12 to 16 kDa and proteins from 20 to 30 kDa. Two components were fully sequenced: one α-neurotoxic peptide of 7210 Da with slight blocking activity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and a phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) with molecular weight 13517 Da and no effect on the nAChR...
August 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149042/crotalus-durissus-sp-rattlesnake-venom-induces-toxic-injury-in-mouse-sperm
#14
Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Eduardo Bustos-Obregon, Rosemary Matias, Doroty Mesquita Dourado
Accidents involving snakebites constitute a serious public health problem in many regions around the world. However, there are no study about a possible action of snake venom on the reproductive system. Herein we show that Crotalus durissus sp. (Linnaeus) rattlesnake venom (25 μg/kg of body weight) affected chromatin condensation, and increased the number of sperm with abnormal morphology and the sperm count. In conclusion, besides the known hazards of the C. durissus sp. venom to animal health, this study was the first to show its effect also on male germ cells...
August 24, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145232/venomous-caterpillars-from-inoculation-apparatus-to-venom-composition-and-envenomation
#15
REVIEW
Isadora Maria Villas-Boas, Giuliano Bonfá, Denise V Tambourgi
Envenomation by the larval or pupal stages of moths occurs when the victim presses their hairs. They penetrate the subcutaneous tissue, releasing toxins such as proteolytic enzymes, histamine and other pro-inflammatory substances. Cutaneous reactions, including severe pain, oedema and erythema are frequent local manifestations of caterpillar envenomation, but, in some cases, the reactions can evolve into vesicles, bullae, erosions, petechiae, superficial skin necrosis and ulcerations. Alternatively, some individual can develop allergic reactions, renal failure, osteochondritis, deformity and immobilization of the affected joints and intracerebral bleeding...
August 24, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145231/mycotoxin-levels-in-the-digestive-tissues-of-immature-gilts-exposed-to-zearalenone-and-deoxynivalenol
#16
Magdalena Gajęcka, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Zielonka, Piotr Goliński, Anna Rykaczewska, Sylwia Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, Maciej T Gajęcki
Most plant materials are contaminated with small doses of Fusarium mycotoxins and its modified forms that exert subclinical toxic effects on humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carry-over of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (pure parent compounds) to intestinal and liver tissues during 6 weeks of exposure to mycotoxins administered per os to gilts. The experiment was performed on 36 gilts with average body weight of 25 ± 2 kg, divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (group E, administered zearalenone at 40 μg/kg BW and deoxynivalenol at 12 μg/kg BW daily with feed) and a control group administered placebo...
August 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144458/equistatin-and-equinatoxin-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-environmental-temperature-in-the-sea-anemone-actinia-equina
#17
Emily P O'Hara, Gary S Caldwell, John Bythell
We examined the gene expression levels of equinatoxin and equistatin in the sea anemone Actinia equina, when reared at varying environmental temperatures for five months. Both genes were significantly downregulated at 10 °C compared to 16 °C but showed no significant change at 22 °C. This provides the first evidence of an effect of temperature on gene expression, but with no effect of increasing temperatures such as those predicted due to climate change.
August 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144457/first-identification-of-a-c9-diol-ester-of-okadaic-acid-in-dinophysis-acuta-from-galician-r%C3%A3-as-baixas-nw-spain
#18
Manoella Sibat, María García-Portela, Philipp Hess
Dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis produce okadaic acid (OA) and analogues. Cultures of a strain of Dinophysis acuta isolated from the Galician Rías contained high levels of pectenotoxins but little OA. Isomeric forms of the latter were suspected as the concentration of OA increased after alkaline hydrolysis. High resolution mass spectra of candidate compounds suggest the presence of an OA-C9-diol ester, reported for the first time in Dinophysis acuta.
August 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055260/molecular-and-biochemical-evidence-on-the-role-of-zearalenone-in-rat-polycystic-ovary
#19
Nakisa Abbasian, Saeideh Momtaz, Maryam Baeeri, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Rohollah Hosseini, Mohammad Abdollahi
Globally, food and animal feed contamination with mycotoxins is one of the most important challenges affecting human health. Zearalenone is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with estrogen-like activity that has been reported to induce reproductive dysfunctions including polycystic ovary in women. The aim of this study was to assess the possible impact of prolonged low dose zearalenone (0.1 mg/kg b.w.) exposure to increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary in rats. We found that zearalenone increases the plasma insulin, glucose, testosterone, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels, while the plasma estradiol level was reduced...
July 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026171/ubiquity-of-the-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-and-its-isomers-confirmed-by-two-different-mass-spectrometric-methods-in-diverse-marine-mollusks
#20
Aifeng Li, Yang Hu, Jialiang Song, Shuqin Wang, Longji Deng
In recent years, the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been reported in some marine mollusk species. To further discover BMAA in marine animals, a total of 59 samples belonging to 3 phyla, 22 families, and 43 species, were collected from Dalian, Rongcheng, and Zhoushan cities, China, in April 2017. All samples were quantified by a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) analysis of underivatized extract, and ten samples were also analyzed by a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using a precolumn AQC (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate)-derivatization method...
July 6, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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