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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435120/the-role-of-platelets-in-hemostasis-and-the-effects-of-snake-venom-toxins-on-platelet-function
#1
REVIEW
Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Nadia Cristina Gomes de Morais, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world...
April 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433521/determination-of-cyclopeptide-toxins-in-amanita-subpallidorosea-and-amanita-virosa-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#2
Jiahui Wei, Jianfeng Wu, Jia Chen, Bidong Wu, Zhengmi He, Ping Zhang, Haijiao Li, Chengye Sun, Chang Liu, Zuohong Chen, Jianwei Xie
Amanita subpallidorosea is a recently discovered lethal Amanita sect. Phalloideae species found in China that is clustered with A. virosa in the same clade based on molecular phylogenetic analysis. However, the cyclopeptide toxin contents of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly studied. In this study, the cyclopeptide toxins in A. subpallidorosea were reported for the first time and the cyclopeptide compositions of A. subpallidorosea and A. virosa species were systematically analyzed. Thirteen cyclopeptides and two unknown compounds were identified or observed from these two lethal mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry...
April 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428070/no-production-and-potassium-channels-activation-induced-by-crotalus-durissus-cascavella-underlie-mesenteric-artery-relaxation
#3
S S Santos, R L C Jesus, L O Simões, W P Vasconcelos, I A Medeiros, R C Veras, L L Casais-E-Silva, D F Silva
Animal toxins are natural resources for pharmacological studies. The venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (C.d. cascavella) may be a source in the bio-prospecting of new anti-hypertensive agents. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular effects of the venom of C.d. cascavella in normotensive rats. Studies were performed using isolated mesenteric artery segments and aortic endothelial cells. The cumulative administration of the venom of C.d. cascavella (0.001-30 μg/mL) on phenylephrine (Phe; 10 μM) pre-contracted rings induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in the presence of vascular endothelium (Emax = 47...
April 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428069/assessment-of-non-derivatized-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-neurotoxin-in-free-form-in-urine-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neurological-symptoms
#4
L Bláhová, J Kohoutek, E Kadlecová, L Kozáková, L Bláha
The beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid discussed to be produced by cyanobacteria forming harmful blooms. Since BMAA is suspected etiological agent in neurodegenerative diseases, there is a need to study and validate whether and in what concentrations can BMAA be present in human tissues. The aim of the present study was to validate analytical and extraction procedures for quantification of non-derivatized BMAA in the urine using liquid chromatography and commercial ELISA Kit...
April 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414035/bothrops-jararaca-venom-gland-secretory-cells-in-culture-effects-of-noradrenaline-on-toxin-production-and-secretion
#5
Luciana Godoy Viana, Richard Hemmi Valente, Cíntia Scucuglia Heluany, Andreia Souza-Imberg, Milene Schmidt Luna, Jonas Perales, Norma Yamanouye
Primary culture of snake venom gland secretory cells could be a good model to study the mechanism(s) of toxin(s) production. These cells can produce and secrete venom to the medium with a hemorrhagic activity comparable to that induced by venom collected from snakes. Production of new venom is triggered by the sympathetic outflow, through the release of noradrenaline, but the importance of this neurotransmitter on toxin synthesis has not been addressed. This work led to the identification and comparison of the toxin panel produced by cultured secretory cells, during a 12-day time-course analysis, as well as to the effects of noradrenaline on the process...
April 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412280/evaluation-of-sample-preparation-protocols-for-spider-venom-profiling-by-maldi-tof-ms
#6
Ondřej Bočánek, Ondrej Šedo, Stano Pekár, Zbyněk Zdráhal
Spider venoms are highly complex mixtures containing biologically active substances with potential for use in biotechnology or pharmacology. Fingerprinting of venoms by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a thriving technology, enabling the rapid detection of peptide/protein components that can provide comparative information. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sample preparation procedures on MALDI-TOF mass spectral quality to establish a protocol providing the most reliable analytical outputs...
April 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400261/involvement-of-astrocytic-cyp1a1-isoform-in-the-metabolism-and-toxicity-of-the-alkaloid-pyrrolizidine-monocrotaline
#7
Ravena P Nascimento, Joana L Oliveira, José Leilton C Carvalho, William A Santos, Thyago Rubens C Pires, Maria José M Batatinha, Ramon S El-Bachá, Victor Diógenes A Silva, Silvia L Costa
Monocrotaline (MCT) and its pyrrole derivative, dehydromonocrotaline (DHMC), interact with molecular targets in cells of the central nervous system. DHMC presents higher toxicity than MCT indicating that its metabolism of MCT is a critical step of this alkaloid toxicity. This study sought to elucidate the metabolism and the toxicity of MCT in C6 astrocyte cell line and primary cultures of rat astrocytes by investigating metabolic enzymatic mechanisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system and conjugation with glutathione...
April 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359755/a-novel-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-subunit-vaccine-candidate-elicits-protective-immune-response-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Jun Young Choi, Sungho Shin, Na Young Kim, Woo Sung Son, Tae Jin Kang, Dong Hyun Song, Chi Ho Yu, Gyeung Haeng Hur, Seong Tae Jeong, Young Kee Shin
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), produced by the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, is responsible for food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome, and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. Unfortunately, still now no approved vaccines are available against SEB. In this study, we constructed a series of nontoxic SEB mutants (mSEBs) and examined whether these mSEBs provide protective immunity against SEB challenge. These mSEB vaccine candidates did not demonstrate superantigen activity in mouse splenocyte cultures...
March 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315357/therapeutic-potential-of-krait-venom
#9
Antony Gomes, Partha Pratim Saha, Shamik Bhattacharya, Sourav Ghosh, Aparna Gomes
Kraits belong to Elapideae and are widely distributed in East and South-East Asian countries. Krait venom possesses neurotoxins, membrane toxins, cardiotoxins, three finger toxins, metalloproteinases, cholinesterases, L-amino acid oxidases and serine proteases. The therapeutic potential of krait venom in pathophysiological conditions such as microbial and parasitic infections, cancer, arthritis, inflammation and blood coagulation disorder is discussed in this review. More intensive new research ventures are required to establish the therapeutic potential of krait venom in complex and emerging diseases...
March 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300579/ingestion-of-the-pods-of-enterolobium-contortisiliquum-causes-hepatogenous-photosensitization-in-cattle
#10
Paula V Leal, Rayane C Pupin, Stephanie C Lima, Gleice Kelli A Melo, Marcelo A Araújo, Danilo C Gomes, Claudio S L Barros, Ricardo A A Lemos
Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Leg. Mimosoidae) is reported as a poisonous plant related to photosensitization and photodermatitis, digestive disturbs and abortion. To date, the clinical and pathological features of photosensitization has not been reproduced or only reproduced associated with very mild presentations. The objective of this study was to reproduce in cattle the clinicopathological features of photosensitization associated with the ingestion of the pods of E. contortisiliquum. The pods were harvested from a property with a history of an ongoing outbreak of photosensitization and abortion in cattle...
March 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300580/feeding-on-toxic-prey-the-praying-mantis-mantodea-as-predator-of-poisonous-butterfly-and-moth-lepidoptera-caterpillars
#11
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively...
March 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288937/incidence-of-fatal-snake-bite-in-australia-a-coronial-based-retrospective-study-2000-2016
#12
Ronelle E Welton, Danny Liew, George Braitberg
INTRODUCTION: It has been over 20 years since a national review of recorded deaths from snake envenoming. The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of deaths from snake bites in Australia. METHODS: Deaths were identified from January 2000 to December 2016 from the National Coronial Information System. Cases identified due to snakes were extracted with data on coronial findings, autopsy and police records. RESULTS: Thirty five deaths (2...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288936/pathophysiological-significance-and-therapeutic-applications-of-snake-venom-protease-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Rupamoni Thakur, Ashis K Mukherjee
Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288935/evaluation-of-abrin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-using-novel-renal-injury-markers
#14
Bhavana Sant, P V Lakshmana Rao, D P Nagar, S C Pant, A S B Bhasker
Abrin is a potent plant toxin analogous to ricin that is derived from the seeds of Abrus precatorius plant. It belongs to the family of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins and causes cell death by irreversibly inactivating ribosomes through site-specific depurination. In this study we examined the in vivo nephrotoxicity potential of abrin toxin in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, histopathological changes and biomarkers of kidney injury. Animals were exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 LD50 dose of abrin by intraperitoneal route and observed for 1, 3, and 7 day post-toxin exposure...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284847/a-survey-on-some-biochemical-and-pharmacological-activities-of-venom-from-two-colombian-colubrid-snakes-erythrolamprus-bizona-double-banded-coral-snake-mimic-and-pseudoboa-neuwiedii-neuwied-s-false-boa
#15
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Rafael S Floriano, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E...
March 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284846/poor-sequestration-of-toxic-host-plant-cardenolides-and-their-rapid-loss-in-the-milkweed-butterfly-danaus-chrysippus-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-danainae-danaini
#16
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Stefan W Toennes
Butterflies of the genus Danaus are known to sequester toxic cardenolides from milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae). In particular, Danaus plexippus efficiently sequesters and stores these compounds, whereas D. chrysippus, is considered to poorly sequester cardenolides. To estimate its sequestration capability compared with that of D. plexippus, larvae of both species were jointly reared on Asclepias curassavica and the major cardenolides of the host plant, calotropin and calactin, were analyzed in adults sampled at different time intervals after eclosion...
March 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284848/angiotensin-converting-enzymes-in-fish-venom
#17
Dávida Maria Ribeiro Cardoso Dos Santos, Cledson Barros de Souza, Hugo Juarez Vieira Pereira
Animal venoms are multifaceted mixtures, including proteins, peptides and enzymes produced by animals in defense, predation and digestion. These molecules have been investigated concerning their molecular mechanisms associated and possible pharmacological applications. Thalassophryne nattereri is a small venomous fish inhabiting the northern and northeastern coast of Brazil, and represents a relatively frequent cause of injuries. Its venom causes severe inflammatory response followed frequently by the necrosis of the affected area...
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284065/corrigendum-to-toxicon-128-2017-5-14
#18
J M Jiménez-Vargas, V Quintero-Hernández, L Gonzalez-Morales, E Ortiz, L D Possani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283430/identification-of-a-small-pacifastin-protease-inhibitor-from-nasonia-vitripennis-venom-that-inhibits-humoral-immunity-of-host-musca-domestica
#19
Cen Qian, Dan Liang, Ya Liu, Pei Wang, Saima Kausar, Guoqing Wei, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Chaoliang Liu
Nasonia vitripennis is an important natural enemy of many flies. Pacifastin protease inhibitors (PPIs) play an important role in development and innate immunity of insects. In this study, cDNA sequences of a small pacifastin protease inhibitor in N. vitripennis (NvSPPI) was characterized and its open reading frame (ORF) contains 243bp. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed that NvSPPI mRNA were detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at low levels in other tissues tested...
March 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263757/profile-differences-in-tetrodotoxin-transfer-to-skin-and-liver-in-the-pufferfish-takifugu-rubripes
#20
Ryohei Tatsuno, Wei Gao, Kotaro Ibi, Tomoka Mine, Kogen Okita, Gregory Naoki Nishihara, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was intramuscularly administered to nontoxic cultured specimens of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes to investigate differences in the toxin transfer and accumulation profiles between the skin and liver. Test fish were administered TTX at doses of 30 (Low dose; LD), 100 (Medium dose; MD), and 300 (High dose; HD) μg/individual, respectively. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for TTX revealed that the TTX concentration in both the skin (0.48-1.7 μg/g) and liver (0.43-6.0 μg/g) at 24 h after the toxin administration increased with an increase in the dose...
March 2, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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