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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341897/toxicity-and-toxicokinetics-of-amanita-exitialis-in-beagle-dogs
#1
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339019/immuno-modulatory-functions-of-the-type-3-secretion-system-and-impacts-on-the-pulmonary-host-defense-a-role-for-exos-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Nawal Belmadi, Yongzheng Wu, Lhousseine Touqui
Number of previous reviews had described the structures and the various functions of the exotoxins produced by the type-3 secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their roles in the interactions of this bacterium with host cells. In this review, we summarize some relevant data of literature on ExoS, an exotoxin from the type-3 secretion system of P. aeruginosa, with a particular focus on the role of this toxin in the airways innate response of the host to infection by this bacterium, and its implication in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337221/venom-characterization-of-the-amazonian-scorpion-tityus-metuendus
#3
C V F Batista, J G Martins, R Restano-Cassulini, F I V Coronas, F Z Zamudio, R Procópio, L D Possani
The soluble venom from the scorpion Tityus metuendus was characterized by various methods. In vivo experiments with mice showed that it is lethal. Extended electrophysiological recordings using seven sub-types of human voltage gated sodium channels (hNav1.1 to 1.7) showed that it contains both α- and β-scorpion toxin types. Fingerprint analysis by mass spectrometry identified over 200 distinct molecular mass components. At least 60 sub-fractions were recovered from HPLC separation. Five purified peptides were sequenced by Edman degradation, and their complete primary structures were determined...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337220/botaf-a-new-buthus-occitanus-tunetanus-scorpion-toxin-produces-potent-analgesia-in-rodents
#4
Riadh Maatoug, Jed Jebali, Régis Guieu, Michel De Waard, Riadh Kharrat
This work reports the purification of new potent scorpion neuropeptide, named BotAF, by an activity-guided screening approach. BotAF is a 64-residue long-chain peptide that shares very high similarity with the original β-like scorpion toxin group, in which several peptides have been characterized to be anti-nociceptive in rodents. BotAF administration to rodents does not produce any toxicity or motor impairment, including at high doses. In all models investigated, BotAF turned out to be an efficient peptide in abolishing acute and inflammatory (both somatic and visceral) pain in rodents...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337219/citrus-bioflavonoid-hesperetin-as-inhibitor-of-two-thrombin-like-snake-venom-serine-proteases-isolated-from-crotalus-simus
#5
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337218/calcium-dependent-disorder-to-order-transitions-are-central-to-the-secretion-and-folding-of-the-cyaa-toxin-of-bordetella-pertussis-the-causative-agent-of-whooping-cough
#6
Darragh P O'Brien, Ana Cristina Sotomayor Perez, Johanna Karst, Sara E Cannella, Véronique Yvette Ntsogo Enguéné, Audrey Hessel, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Alexis Voegele, Orso Subrini, Marilyne Davi, J Inaki Guijarro, Bertrand Raynal, Bruno Baron, Patrick England, Belen Hernandez, Mahmoud Ghomi, Véronique Hourdel, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Patrice Vachette, Dominique Durand, Sébastien Brier, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) plays an essential role in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Once secreted, CyaA invades eukaryotic cells, leading to cell death. The cell intoxication process involves a unique mechanism of translocation of the CyaA catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane of the target cell. Herein, we review our recent results describing how calcium is involved in several steps of this intoxication process...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326037/experimental-uptake-and-depuration-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii
#7
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309744/differential-endopeptidase-activity-of-different-forms-of-type-a-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-unique-relationship-between-the-size-of-the-substrate-and-activity-of-the-enzyme
#8
Ghuncha Ambrin, Raj Kumar, Bal Ram Singh
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs; serotypes A-G) are metalloproteases, which cleave and inactivate cellular proteins essential for neurotransmitter release. In bacterial cultures, BoNTs are secreted as a complex of the neurotoxin and a group of neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs). Under physiological condition (pH 7.4), this complex is believed to be dissociated to separate the neurotoxin from NAPs. BoNT consists of a 50 kDa light (L) chain (LC or catalytic domain) and a 100 kDa heavy (H) chain (or HC) linked through a disulfide bond and other non-covalent interactions...
January 5, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305081/extending-knowledge-of-the-clinical-picture-of-balkan-adder-vipera-berus-bosniensis-envenoming-the-first-photographically-documented-neurotoxic-case-from-south-western-hungary
#9
Csaba Varga, Tamás Malina, Viktória Alföldi, Gergely Bilics, Ferenc Nagy, Tibor Oláh
We report a severe envenoming associated with minimal local symptoms following a Balkan adder (Vipera berus bosniensis) bite in South-Western Hungary. A 63-year-old male with a history of hypertension and sinus bradycardia (45/min) was bitten by a sub-adult specimen of V. b. bosniensis in Somogy County on 04 May 2017. The patient was transported to and treated at the Emergency Department of Somogy County "Moritz Kaposi" General Hospital, Kaposvár. Locally only pain and minimal swelling with a small haematoma developed on the bitten finger...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305080/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-venomous-glands-from-the-scorpion-heterometrus-spinifer-revealed-unique-and-extremely-high-diversity-of-the-venom-peptides
#10
Yuchen Deng, Jiawei Gu, Zhenpeng Yan, Mengdi Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Jiafeng Zhang, Guixian Jiang, Mengxiao Ge, Shuogui Xu, Zheng Xu, Liang Xiao
Scorpion, as an ancient species, has been widely used on dozens of human diseases in traditional Chinese Medicine. Although the scorpion venom from the Buthidae family with the potent toxicity attracts more interests, toxins from the non-Buthidae family draw great attention as well because of its abundance and complexity even without harm to mammals. Moreover, several toxic components of scorpion venom have been identified as valuable scaffolds for the drug design and development. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique, here we reported the transcriptome of the venomous glands of Heterometrus spinifer, a non-Buthidae scorpion that only a few toxic and complete components have been identified known-to-date...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305079/combinatorial-effect-of-photorhabdus-luminescens-tt01-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa16-toxin-against-agrotis-segetum
#11
Wafa Jallouli, Hanen Boukadi, Sameh Sellami, Fakher Frikha, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
The entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 is a promoting bacterium that controls effectively many insect pests. Indeed, it exhibited a mortality rate of 32.36% against the first instar larvae of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, when it was used at a concentration of 5 × 107 cells/ml but no toxicity against the second instar larvae in the same condition. P. luminescens TT01 oral toxicity is associated to septicaemia since cells fraction exhibited the highest mortality rate of 34%. In order to enhance P...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294314/biochemical-and-histopathological-effects-of-the-stonefish-synanceia-verrucosa-venom-in-rats
#12
Ahmad M Khalil, Mohammad A Wahsha, Khalid M Abu Khadra, Maroof A Khalaf, Tariq H Al-Najjar
The Reef Stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) is one of the most dangerous venomous fish known, and has caused occasional human fatalities. The present study was designed to examine some of the pathological effects of the venom from this fish in Sprague Dawley rats. Crude venom was extracted from venom glands of the dorsal spines of stonefish specimens collected from coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba (in the northeastern branch of the Red Sea). The rats were given intramuscular injections of the venom and acute toxicity and effect on selected serum marker enzymes as well as normal architecture of vital organs were evaluated...
December 30, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288682/sources-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-accumulation-variability-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#13
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287978/algal-blooms-of-the-18th-and-19th-centuries
#14
Gerald J Smith, Vincent Daniels
Algal blooms, including those containing cyanobacteria, are of environmental concern due to the toxicities of some of the constituent microorganisms. This compromises the safety of freshwater causing illness in livestock and humans. We present historical accounts of algal blooms occurring during the 18th and 19th centuries indicating that the advent of intensive farming in the 17th century provided nutrients for promoting harmful algal blooms.
December 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273248/substrate-cleavage-and-duration-of-action-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-fa-h-ha
#15
Sabine Pellett, William H Tepp, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type FA is the only known naturally occurring chimeric BoNT of domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F. BoNT/FA consists of an F5-like light chain (LC), a unique heavy chain (HC) translocation domain, and a HC receptor binding domain similar to BoNT/A1. Previous analyses of purified BoNT/FA have indicated a 5-10-fold greater potency in cultured human or rat neurons as compared to BoNT/A1 and a 400-500-fold greater potency compared to BoNT/B1. However, in vivo potency in mice was about 5-fold lower than BoNT/A1 or/B1...
December 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269114/local-morbidity-from-red-bellied-black-snake-pseudechis-porphyriacus-elapidae-envenoming-two-cases-and-a-brief-review-of-management
#16
Scott A Weinstein, Peter J Mirtschin, Hamish Tristram, Luke Lawton, Julian White
The red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus, Elapidae) is one of several species of venomous snakes most commonly implicated in human and domestic animal envenoming in Australia. Human systemic envenoming can present with myotoxicity that may include myoglobinuria; hemoglobinuria and intravascular hemolysis; thrombocytopenia, anticoagulant coagulopathy, and, rarely, mild cranial nerve palsies. Pseudechis porphyriacus envenoming can also feature significant local morbidity such as ecchymoses, bleeding, pain and necrosis...
December 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258848/exoy-an-actin-activated-nucleotidyl-cyclase-toxin-from-p-aeruginosa-a-minireview
#17
Alexander Belyy, Undine Mechold, Louis Renault, Daniel Ladant
ExoY is one of four well-characterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effectors. It is a nucleotidyl cyclase toxin that is inactive inside the bacteria, but becomes potently activated once it is delivered into the eukaryotic target cells. Recently, filamentous actin was identified as the eukaryotic cofactor that stimulates specifically ExoY enzymatic activity by several orders of magnitude. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the biochemistry of nucleotidyl cyclase activity of ExoY and its regulation by interaction with filamentous actin...
December 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248469/venom-gland-transcriptomics-and-venom-proteomics-of-the-hentz-striped-scorpion-centruroides-hentzi-buthidae-reveal-high-toxin-diversity-in-a-harmless-member-of-a-lethal-family
#18
Micaiah J Ward, Schyler A Ellsworth, Darin R Rokyta
Of the 14 extant scorpion families, Buthidae has the most thoroughly characterized venoms. Most of this characterization, however, has been limited to species with medically significant stings, including members of the Centruroides genus, which have caused human deaths (e.g., Centruroides sculpturatus). To understand the origin and evolution of highly toxic venoms, we should also characterize the more harmless venoms of close relatives. We used Illumina sequencing to separately characterize the venom-gland transcriptomes of a male and female Hentz striped scorpion (Centruroides hentzi) and performed independent quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the venom from each individual, providing the first full venom characterization of a Centruroides species that poses no serious threat to humans...
December 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248468/suspected-anaphylaxis-and-lack-of-clinical-protection-associated-with-envenomation-in-two-dogs-previously-vaccinated-with-crotalus-atrox-toxoid
#19
Kaelyn E Petras, Raegan J Wells, Jocelyn Pronko
OBJECTIVE: to describe the clinical presentation of two canines present in anaphylactic shock secondary to rattlesnake envenomation. In both cases, there was no previous documented previous envenomation event and the initial sensitization required for anaphylactic response is believed to be secondary to Crotalus atrox toxoid vaccine. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first case, a 12-year-old golden retriever present for collapse, severe hematochezia, and vomiting after first time envenomation from a suspected western diamondback rattlesnake...
December 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248467/protective-capabilities-of-silymarin-and-inulin-nanoparticles-against-hepatic-oxidative-stress-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-deoxynivalenol-in-rats
#20
Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab, Aziza A El-Nekeety, Asmaa S Salman, Sekena H Abdel-Aziem, Fathy M Mehaya, Nabila S Hassan
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin that frequently contaminates cereal and cereal-based food and induces liver injury. This study evaluated the protective role of silymarin nanoparticles (SILNPs) and inulin nanoparticles (INNPs) against DON-induced liver injury in rats. Eleven groups of rats were treated orally for 3 weeks as follows: the control group, DON-treated group (5 mg/kg b.w.); INNPs-treated groups at low (LD) or high (HD) dose (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w.); SILPNs-treated group (50 mg/kg b...
December 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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