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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919458/anthrax-lethal-toxin-letx-neutralization-by-pa-domain-specific-antisera
#1
Monika Verma, Nagendra Suryanarayana, Urmil Tuteja, Kulanthaivel Thavachelvam, M K Rao, Rakesh Bhargawa, Sangeeta Shukla
Anthrax associated causalities in humans and animals are implicated mainly due to the action of two exotoxins that are secreted by the bacterium Bacillus antharcis during the infection. These exotoxins comprise of three protein components namely protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). The protective antigen is the common toxin component required to form both lethal toxin (LeTx) and edema toxin (EdTx). The LeTx is formed, when PA combines with LF and EdTx is formed when PA combines with EF...
September 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919457/patterns-of-botulinum-toxin-treatment-for-spasticity-and-bleeding-complications-in-patients-with-thrombotic-risk
#2
Chetan P Phadke, Vivekanand Thanikachalam, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of compartment syndrome or major bleeding episodes and compare compartment syndrome, patient and intervention characteristics in 110 patients with stroke (treated with Warfarin, new oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet, or no anticoagulants) treated for spasticity in deep leg compartment muscles with botulinum toxin injections [onabotulinumtoxinA (n = 77); incobotulinumtoxinA (n = 33)]. We reviewed 674 injection cycles (range 1-25 cycles per patient) and found no cases of compartment syndrome in any patient groups...
September 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918229/design-of-modified-botulinum-neurotoxin-a1-variants-with-a-shorter-persistence-of-paralysis-and-duration-of-action
#3
Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of low doses of botulinum neurotoxins cause localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the treatment of several medical disorders and aesthetic indications. Optimizing the therapeutic properties could offer new treatment opportunities. This report describes a rational design approach to modify the pharmacological properties by mutations in the C-terminus of BoNT/A1 light chain (LC)...
September 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918228/primary-photosensitization-and-contact-dermatitis-caused-by-malachra-fasciata-jacq-n-v-malvaceae-in-sheep
#4
Valber Onofre de Araújo, Temístocles Soares Oliveira Neto, Sara Vilar Dantas Simões, Thatyana Kelly Ferreira da Silva, Franklin Riet-Correa, Ricardo Barbosa Lucena
Farmers from Paraiba state, Northeast Brazil, claim that Malachra fasciata causes cutaneous lesions in sheep. To test its toxicity the plant was harvested daily and fed ad libitum for 21 days to 3 sheep as the sole food source (# 1-3). An additional sheep (# 4) was maintained as a control. Cutaneous lesions of photosensitization initiated after 7 days and increased continuously over the next 21 days. The dose ingested varied between 129 g/kg to 175 g/kg. Alopecia, hyperemia and crusting were observed in the animals...
September 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899665/toxin-composition-of-the-2016-microcystis-aeruginosa-bloom-in-the-st-lucie-estuary-florida
#5
Stuart Oehrle, Marliette Rodriguez-Matos, Michael Cartamil, Cristian Zavala, Kathleen S Rein
A bloom of the cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa occurred in the St. Lucie Estuary during the summer of 2016, stimulated by the release of waters from Lake Okeechobee. This cyanobacterium produces the microcystins, a suite of heptapeptide hepatotoxins. The toxin composition of the bloom was analyzed and was compared to an archived bloom sample from 2005. Microcystin-LR was the most abundant toxin with lesser amounts of microcystin variants. Nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a were not detected.
September 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890171/general-characterization-of-the-venoms-from-two-species-of-rattlesnakes-and-an-intergrade-population-c-lepidus-x-aquilus-from-aguascalientes-and-zacatecas-mexico
#6
Eric Rivas, Edgar Neri-Castro, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Arely I Hernánez-Dávila, F Zamudio, Alejandro Alagón
The venoms from two species of rock rattlesnakes and an intergrade population were studied. Differences were noted in SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC profiles and only the venom from the intergrade population showed low procoagulant activity. Also, a Crotoxin-like neurotoxic PLA2 was identified in the venom of C. l. klauberi, the most toxic of the analyzed venoms. This is the first report of such a toxin in C. l. klauberi from Aguascalientes, Mexico.
September 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890170/characterization-of-a-novel-mosquitocidal-toxin-of-cry50ba-and-its-potential-synergism-with-other-mosquitocidal-toxins
#7
Wenfei Zhang, Silan Yu, Silun Peng, Jianru Gong, Jiangzhao Qian, Jianqiao He, Wenyu Dai, Ruiping Wang
A putative toxin gene of cry50Ba was successfully expressed in E. coli cells and confirmed that the purified Cry50Ba toxin had very high toxic activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the potential synergism of Cry50Ba toxin with Cry2Aa, Cry4Aa and Cry11Aa at a ratio of 1:1 was investigated. Although no significant synergism with other toxins was observed, the Cry50Ba as a novel toxin could be used to delay rapid onset of resistance in mosquito.
September 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888929/longitudinal-studies-of-botulinum-toxin-in-cervical-dystonia-why-do-patients-discontinue-therapy
#8
H A Jinnah, Cynthia L Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD patients discontinue therapy. The reasons for discontinuation are only partly understood. METHODS: This summary describes longitudinal studies that provided information regarding the proportions of patients discontinuing BoNT therapy, and the reasons for discontinuing therapy...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888928/an-update-on-new-and-unique-uses-of-botulinum-toxin-in-movement-disorders
#9
Joseph Jankovic
The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have established its safety in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and non-neurologic disorders. This review focuses on some novel and uncommon uses of BoNT in the treatment of movement disorders, such as oromandibular dystonia, including bruxism, anterocollis, camptocormia, tremor, tics, tardive and levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877511/severe-neurotoxicity-requiring-mechanical-ventilation-in-a-dog-envenomed-by-a-red-bellied-black-snake-pseudechis-porphyriacus-and-successful-treatment-with-an-experimental-bivalent-whole-equine-igg-antivenom
#10
A M Padula, E M Leister
Snakebite in dogs from Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake; RBBS) is a common envenomation treated by veterinarians in Australia where this snake occurs. This case report describes the successful treatment of a clinically severe RBBS envenomation in a dog with an experimental bivalent equine whole IgG antivenom and mechanical ventilation, following its presentation in a cyanotic state. The cause of the cyanosis and respiratory distress was considered due to paralysis from neurotoxins in RBBS venom...
September 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877510/heart-rate-variability-modifications-induced-by-high-doses-of-incobotulinumtoxina-and-onabotulinumtoxina-in-hemiplegic-chronic-stroke-patients-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-crossover-pilot-study
#11
Alessio Baricich, Elisa Grana, Stefano Carda, Andrea Santamato, Claudio Molinari, Carlo Cisari, Marco Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A is a valid and safe treatment for focal spasticity, with documented effects on both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Heart rate variability can provide detailed information about the control of the autonomic nervous system on cardiovascular activities. Previous studies in literature showed no significant changes in Heart Rate Variability with doses >600 U of incobotulinumtoxinA in chronic post stroke spastic patients; however, at present time, these results have not been confirmed with doses >600 U of onabotulinumtoxinA...
September 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877509/botulinum-toxin-for-chronic-migraine-clinical-trials-and-technical-aspects
#12
Cristina Tassorelli, Grazia Sances, Micol Avenali, Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Giuseppe Nappi, Giorgio Sandrini
OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic studies in the real-life setting have contributed important additional information that are extremely useful for the management of this group of extremely disabled and challenging patients. The main findings from these studies are presented and discussed.
September 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867663/high-density-peptide-microarray-exploration-of-the-antibody-response-in-a-rabbit-immunized-with-a-neurotoxic-venom-fraction
#13
Mikael Engmark, Martin C Jespersen, Bruno Lomonte, Ole Lund, Andreas H Laustsen
Polyvalent snakebite antivenoms derive their therapeutic success from the ability of their antibodies to neutralize venom toxins across multiple snake species. This ability results from a production process involving immunization of large mammals with a broad suite of toxins present in venoms. As a result of immunization with this wide range of toxins, many polyvalent antivenoms have a high degree of cross-reactivity to similar toxins in other snake venoms - a cross-reactivity which cannot easily be deconvoluted...
September 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866287/dangerous-arachnids-fake-news-or-reality
#14
REVIEW
Tobias J Hauke, Volker Herzig
The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans...
September 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860036/effect-of-chlorination-by-products-on-the-quantitation-of-microcystins-in-finished-drinking-water
#15
Laura Rosenblum, Alan Zaffiro, William A Adams, Steven C Wendelken
Microcystins are toxic peptides that can be produced by cyanobacteria in harmful algal blooms (HABs). Various analytical techniques have been developed to quantify microcystins in drinking water, including liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and oxidative cleavage to produce 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) with detection by LC/MS/MS, the "MMPB method". Both the ELISA and MMPB methods quantify microcystins by detecting a portion of the molecule common to most microcystins...
August 30, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847707/updating-knowledge-on-new-medically-important-scorpion-species-in-mexico
#16
Lidia Riaño-Umbarila, Everardo R Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E Santibañez-López, Leopoldo Güereca, Selene J Uribe-Romero, Ilse V Gómez-Ramírez, Edson N Cárcamo-Noriega, Lourival D Possani, Baltazar Becerril
The increment in the number of scorpion envenoming cases in Mexico is mainly associated to the rapid growth of the urban areas, and consequently, to the invasion of natural habitats of these arachnids. On the other hand, there is a great diversity of scorpion species, so it is indispensable to identify those of medical importance, which we now know are many more than the 7-8 previously reported as dangerous to humans. Because different LD50 values have been reported for the venom of the same species, probably due to variations in the experimental conditions used, in this work we determined the LD50 values for the venoms of 13 different species of scorpions using simple but systematic procedures...
August 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847706/botulinum-toxin-to-treat-pelvic-pain
#17
Yingchun Zhang, Christopher P Smith
Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. This article summarizes results presented at the recent Neurotoxins Meeting in Madrid, Spain, in January 2017. It does not include BoNT use for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome, which was the topic of a separate lecture. It includes studies documenting the beneficial effects of OnaBoNTA for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in men using both transrectal and transurethral injection techniques...
August 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843661/reproductive-losses-caused-by-the-ingestion-of-poincianella-pyramidalis-in-sheep
#18
José Radmácyo G Lopes, José Rômulo S Santos, Márcia A Medeiros, Édipo Moreira Campos, Franklin Riet-Correa, Rosane Maria T Medeiros
Malformations have been observed in sheep and goats in the Brazilian semiarid region in areas where Poincianella pyramidalis is dominant. The objective of this trial was to determine whether Poincianella pyramidalis causes reproductive changes in pregnant sheep. Sixteen non-pregnant sheep were mated with two rams. After confirmation of the pregnancy by ultrasonography on the 18th day after mating, pregnant sheep were randomly divided into four groups (#1, 2, 3, and 4), with four animals each. Sheep received roughage in an amount equivalent to 2% of their body weight, mixed with 0%, 10%, 20% and 40% of dried leaves of P...
August 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842354/fatal-stroke-after-bothrops-snakebite-in-the-amazonas-state-brazil-a-case-report
#19
Sâmella Silva de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Eliane Campos Alves, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Iran Mendonça da Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Hui Wen Fan, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Bothrops atrox is the snake responsible for the majority of snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon. Patients generally evolve to local manifestations such as edema, pain and ecchymoses. Systemic effects of B. atrox venom are usually restricted to blood incoagulability and spontaneous bleeding. However, in a few cases, bleeding in the central nervous system may occur, which can lead to sequels and deaths. Here, we report a case of a 59 year-old woman who presented edema, pain and ecchymoses on the right foot, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hypertension and blood incoagulability after the bite by Bothrops snake in the Brazilian Amazon...
August 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837826/botulinum-toxin-in-parkinsonism-the-when-how-and-which-for-botulinum-toxin-injections
#20
Francisco Cardoso
The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There is a high level of evidence for the treatment of sialorrhea in parkinsonism with injections of different forms of botulinum toxin type A as well as botulinum toxin type B. Tremor can be improved by the use of botulinum toxin injections but improved tremor control often leads to concomitant motor weakness, limiting its use...
August 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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