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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128544/experimental-poisoning-by-vernonia-rubricaulis-in-sheep
#1
Kelly C S Godoy, Paula V Leal, Marcelo A Araújo, Alda I Souza, Arnildo Pott, Stephen T Lee, Claudio S L Barros, Ricardo A A de Lemos
In order to evaluate the susceptibility of sheep to V. rubricaulis and to establish the clinical signs, serum biochemistry, and pathological findings, eight sheep were fed varying doses of V. rubricaulis. The onset of clinical signs occurred 6-48 h after the ingestion of V. rubricaulis. Clinical courses lasted 6-56 h after the ingestion of the plant. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase were highly elevated and glucose blood levels were low in affected sheep...
November 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109054/assessing-the-presence-of-marine-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-southwest-india
#2
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097245/lung-and-liver-responses-to-1-and-7-day-treatments-with-lassbio-596-in-mice-subchronically-intoxicated-by-microcystin-lr
#3
Vinícius Rosa Oliveira, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho, Natália Vasconcelos Casquilho, Maria Diana Moreira-Gomes, Raquel Moraes Soares, Sandra Maria F O Azevedo, Lidia Moreira Lima, Eliezer Jesus Barreiro, Christina Maeda Takiya, Walter Araujo Zin
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can cause serious injuries upon short- and long-term exposures that can be prevented by LASSBio-596 (LB-596), an anti-inflammatory compound. We aimed to test LB-596 following subchronic exposure to MC-LR. Swiss mice received 10 intraperitoneal injections of distilled water (DW) or MC-LR (20 μg/kg bw) every 2 days. On the 10th injection animals receiving DW were gavaged with DW or 50 mg/kg bw of LB-596 for 1 or 7 days (C1D, C7D, CL1D and CL7D groups), whereas those exposed to MC-LR received either DW or 50 mg/kg of LB-596 for 1 or 7 days (T1D, T7D, TL1D and TL7D groups)...
October 31, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107670/new-findings-from-the-first-transcriptome-of-the-bothrops-moojeni-snake-venom-gland
#4
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Romualdo Morandi-Filho, Patricia Tieme Fujimura, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Suely Vilela Sampaio
Snakebites are a serious health problem in tropical countries. In Brazil, the genus Bothrops (Viperidae family) causes most of the ophidic accidents, characterized by proteolysis and haemorrhage. Snake venoms are rich sources of toxins with great therapeutic and biotechnological potential and omics approaches is a valuable tool for identification of new bioactive components in the venom. In this study, we described the first transcriptome of the venom gland of Bothrops moojeni snake, using the next-generation sequencing with the Illumina platform...
October 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111119/direct-central-nervous-system-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin
#5
Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani
Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic benefit may exceed the duration of the peripheral neuroparalysis induced by the neurotoxin. In cellular and animal models, evidence demonstrates retrograde transport of catalytically active BoNT/A in projection neurons. This process of long-range trafficking is followed by transcytosis and action at second-order synapses...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#6
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#7
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111116/coevolution-takes-the-sting-out-of-it-evolutionary-biology-and-mechanisms-of-toxin-resistance-in-animals
#8
REVIEW
Kevin Arbuckle, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Nicholas R Casewell
Understanding how biotic interactions shape the genomes of the interacting species is a long-sought goal of evolutionary biology that has been hampered by the scarcity of tractable systems in which specific genomic features can be linked to complex phenotypes involved in interspecific interactions. In this review we present the compelling case of evolved resistance to the toxic challenge of venomous or poisonous animals as one such system. Animal venoms and poisons can be comprised of few or of many individual toxins...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107082/purification-and-characterization-of-an-anti-hemorrhagic-protein-from-naja-naja-indian-cobra-venom
#9
K N Suvilesh, M Yariswamy, M N Savitha, Vikram Joshi, A N Nanjaraj Urs, Amog P Urs, M Choudhury, D Velmurugan, B S Vishwanath
Snake venom Kunitz-type proteins are well known to inhibit serine proteases but a few studies have also shown matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) inhibition. In view of the fact that MMPs and snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) have similar catalytic site, inhibition of SVMP activity by Kunitz-type proteins remains to be studied. Recent proteomic studies of Naja naja (N. naja) venom revealed the abundance of Kunitz-type proteins. In this regard, present study aimed at purification of a protease inhibitor from N...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107081/nodularin-from-benthic-freshwater-periphyton-and-implications-for-trophic-transfer
#10
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Sarah Fuller, Kamil Cieslik, Mark T Aubel, Tim Wertz
In 2013 and 2015, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a survey of lotic habitats within the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Ohio River basins in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) in algae communities and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Periphyton (68 from 41 sites), juvenile whole fish (153 from 19 sites) and adult fish liver (115 from 16 sites) samples were collected and screened using an Adda enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples that were positive for MCs/NODs were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS, including 14 variants of microcystin and NOD-R and the MMPB technique...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107080/genotoxicity-evaluation-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-in-mice
#11
Nathalia Coral Galvani, Thais Ceresér Vilela, Angelino Chitoma Domingos, Mírian Ívens Fagundes, Luiza Macarini Bosa, Indiani Conti Della Vechia, Rahisa Scussel, Márcia Pereira, Bethina Trevisol Steiner, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vanessa Moraes De Andrade, Ricardo Andrez Machado de Ávila
Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion associated with the most severe cases of scorpion envenoming in Brazil. However, there are no studies reporting the genotoxic effects of this venom in natural or experimental envenomations. It is well known that DNA-damage responses are providing opportunities for improving disease detection and management. In this study was evaluating the genotoxicity of the T. serrulatus venom in different organs (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, blood, heart, lung, liver and kidney) and periods in mice experimentally envenomed...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079028/modulating-effect-of-mgo-sio2-nanoparticles-on-immunological-and-histopathological-alterations-induced-by-aflatoxicosis-in-rats
#12
Sara S Essa, Eiman M El-Saied, Osama S El-Tawil, Manal B Mahmoud, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) is well-known as a feed borne-hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive mycotoxin. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nanocomposite magnesium oxide and silicon oxide (MgO-SiO2) in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1on the immunity and histological alterations in liver, spleen and intestine of adult male rats. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Animals were divided into a control (Gp1) and three experimental groups (Gps); Gp2 received feed contained 200 ppb AFB1, Gp3 received feed contained 200 ppb AFB1 and 0...
October 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074396/translocation-and-dissemination-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-from-the-intestinal-tract
#13
Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease degradation. BoNT trafficking from the digestive tract to the target neurons is still a matter of debate. BoNTs use different strategies to pass through the intestinal barrier including passage of BoNT complexes containing hemagglutinins (HAs) via M cells, HA-dependent perturbation of E-cadherin intercellular junctions between enterocytes and paracellular passage of BoNT complexes, and transcytosis of BoNT free of NAPs through certain intestinal epithelial cells...
October 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056305/exotoxins-and-endotoxins-inducers-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Endotoxins and exotoxins are among the most potent bacterial inducers of cytokines. During infectious processes, the production of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFNγ) and chemokines orchestrates the anti-infectious innate immune response. However, an overzealous production, leading up to a cytokine storm, can be deleterious and contributes to mortality consecutive to sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are particularly inflammatory because they generate auto-amplificatory loops after activation of monocytes/macrophages...
October 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055787/occurrence-of-a-stonefish-toxin-like-toxin-in-the-venom-of-the-rabbitfish-siganus-fuscescens
#15
Aya Kiriake, Shoichiro Ishizaki, Yuji Nagashima, Kazuo Shiomi
Rabbitfish belonging to the order Perciformes are well-known venomous fish that are frequently involved in human accidents. However little research has been done into either the whole venom toxicities or the structures and properties of their venom toxins. In this study, we first examined biological activities of the crude venom extract prepared from dorsal spines of Siganus fuscescens, a rabbitfish most commonly found along the coasts of Japan. As a result, the crude venom extract was shown to have mouse-lethal activity, hemolytic activity against rabbit erythrocytes, edema-forming activity and nociceptive activity, similar to the known scorpaeniform fish toxins (stonefish toxins and their analogues)...
October 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#16
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051104/cross-reactivity-and-lethality-neutralization-of-venoms-of-indonesian-trimeresurus-complex-species-by-thai-green-pit-viper-antivenom
#17
Choo Hock Tan, Jia Lee Liew, Nget Hong Tan, Ahmad Khaldun Ismail, Tri Maharani, Sumana Khomvilai, Visith Sitprija
Arboreal pit vipers of the Trimeresurus complex group are medically important species in Indonesia (west of Wallace's line), but there is no specific antivenom produced in the country for treating related envenomation. Instead, the exiting trivalent Indonesian antivenom, Biosave(®) Serum Anti Bisa Ular (SABU, indicated for envenoming by Malayan pit viper, Javan spitting cobra and banded krait) is often misused to treat Trimeresus envenoming resulting in poor therapeutic outcome. Here, we investigated the cross-reactivity and neutralization capability of Thai Green Pit Viper Antivenom (GPVAV) against the venoms of four Indonesian Trimeresurus species...
October 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042313/the-hypothetical-protein-p47-of-clostridium-botulinum-e1-strain-beluga-has-a-structural-topology-similar-to-bactericidal-permeability-increasing-protein
#18
Kwok-Ho Lam, Ruifeng Qi, Shun Liu, Amelie Kroh, Guorui Yao, Kay Perry, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are causative agents of the life-threatening disease botulism. They are naturally produced by species of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum as stable and non-covalent complexes, in which the BoNT molecule is assembled with several auxiliary non-toxic proteins. Some BoNT serotypes, represented by the well-studied BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), are produced by Clostridium strains that carry the ha gene cluster, which encodes four neurotoxin-associated proteins (NTNHA, HA17, HA33, and HA70) that play an important role to deliver and protect BoNTs in the gastrointestinal tract during oral intoxication...
October 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042312/extracellular-expression-of-the-ht1-neurotoxin-from-the-australian-paralysis-tick-in-two-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#19
Thomas Karbanowicz, Eric Dover, Xinyi Mu, Ala Tabor, Manuel Rodriguez-Valle
Surface display libraries (SDL) have predominantly been utilized for the screening of peptides, and single-chain variable IgG fragments, however, the use of SDL for the expression and purification of proteins is gaining interest. Prokaryote SDL express proteins within the periplasm, limiting the application of common screening techniques, such as ELISA and FACS, to assess the viability of recombinant toxin before purification. A previous attempt to express a functional holocyclotoxin-1 (HT1) from the Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) using a prokaryotic system was unsuccessful...
October 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042310/antivenom-against-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-venom-immunochemical-reactivity-and-experimental-neutralizing-capacity
#20
Federico Gastón Baudou, Silvana Litwin, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Carlos Fabián Damin, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt
The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus produces a neurotoxic and myotoxic syndrome that can lead to the death. Specific antivenom is the only treatment to neutralize the toxicity of the venom and the precocity in applying the antivenom is crucial for the efficiency of the treatment. We studied the variation of the immunochemical reactivity and neutralizing capacity of the specific antivenom on this venom in pre-incubation and rescue experiments, at different times. ELISA titers increased with longer venom-antivenom incubation times (p < 0...
October 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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