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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399359/changes-in-the-mitochondrial-proteome-in-human-hepatocytes-in-response-to-alpha-amanitin-hepatotoxicity
#1
Mei Wang, Yu Chen, Zhen Guo, Changcheng Yang, Jiaomei Qi, Yujuan Fu, Zuohong Chen, Ping Chen, Ying Wang
Amanitin-induced apoptosis is proposed to have a significant effect on the pathogenesis of liver damage. However, few reports have focused on proteome changes induced by α-amanitin (α-AMA). Here, we evaluated changes in mitochondrial proteins of hepatocytes in response to 2 μM α-AMA, a concentration at which α-AMA-induced cell damage could be rescued at cellular level by common clinical drugs. We found 56 proteins were differentially expressed in an α-AMA-treated group. Among them, 38 proteins were downregulated and 18 were upregulated...
November 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399358/a-lateral-flow-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-deoxynivalenol-fumonisin-b-1-and-aflatoxin-b-1
#2
Songcheng Yu, Leiliang He, Fei Yu, Lie Liu, Chenling Qu, Lingbo Qu, Jie Liu, Yuming Wu, Yongjun Wu
Deoxynivalenol (DON), Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) have strong toxicity to humans and exist widely in grain and food. It is necessary to screen these mycotoxins to guarantee food safety. In order to develop a rapid, simple, low-cost and simultaneous-detection method, composites of antibody-nano-Au-particles, DON-BSA, FB1 -BSA, and AFB1 -BSA were prepared to establish a lateral flow assay based on competitive inhibition. The results suggested that the visual detection limits for DON, FB1 and AFB1 were 10, 30, and 10 ng mL-1 , respectively...
November 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399357/aptamer-as-capture-agent-in-enzyme-linked-apta-sorbent-assay-elasa-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-aflatoxin-b-1
#3
Monali Mukherjee, H K Manonmani, Praveena Bhatt
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), is one of the most toxic mycotoxins found to contaminate various food commodities like cereals, dried fruits, tree nuts, spices and crude vegetable oils. In spite of considerable progress in analytical techniques, there is still a need to develop rapid and highly sensitive detection platforms for AFB1 . In this study, AFB1 specific aptamer was used as a capture molecule to develop an enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA) for ultrasensitive detection of AFB1 . Under optimized conditions, the assay had a linear detection range from 1 μg to 1 pg with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 pg/mL in buffer...
November 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395843/crotoxin-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-venom-in-vitro-cytotoxic-activity-of-a-heterodimeric-phospholipase-a-2-on-human-cancer-derived-cell-lines
#4
Silvana Pinotti Muller, Viviane Aline Oliveira Silva, Ana Vitória Pupo Silvestrini, Luana Henrique de Macedo, Guilherme Ferreira Caetano, Rui Manuel Reis, Mauricio Ventura Mazzi
Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase present in venom of snakes of the genus Crotalus, has demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial, hemostatic, and antitumoral. However, the precise mechanism of its cytotoxicity and antitumoral properties remains to be determined. Therefore, in the present study, we isolated crotoxin (F1 CTX) through two steps DEAE-Sepharose and Heparin-Sepharose FF chromatography. The C-terminal sequence of the A- and B-chain protein fragment was determined by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, which showed 100% identity to crotoxin structure...
November 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391579/monoclonal-antibody-production-and-the-development-of-an-indirect-competitive-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-screening-t-2-toxin-in-milk
#5
Huijing Xu, Yuan Dong, Jian Guo, Xiaoming Jiang, Jing Liu, Song Xu, Huiyan Wang
To monitor T-2 toxin rapidly in milk, a highly specific against T-2 toxin monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced and a sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed. T-2 toxin was first converted to T-2-adipic anhydride (T-2HA), and then Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and virus-like particles (VLP) were synthesized and conjugated to T-2HA as coating and imunogen antigen, respectively. After the inoculation of female Balb/c mice and cell fusions, a high affinity mAb was produced...
November 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391580/probable-cutaneous-loxoscelism-with-mild-systemic-symptoms-a-case-report-from-spain
#6
Koen Jerusalem, Miguel Salavert Lletí
We present a case from Valencia, Spain, of a 25-year-old woman who presented with a painful erythematous skin lesion, initially diagnosed as cellulitis. The lesion was unresponsive to antibiotic treatments and progressed into a hemorrhagic blister with necrotic ulcer formation. Posterior collection of a spider from the patient´s home and expert identification of the spider as Loxosceles rufescens was achieved, establishing the diagnosis of probable cutaneous loxoscelism. Symptomatic treatment, general wound care and ultimately surgery, resulted in complete recovery with minor residual scarring...
November 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347196/liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-qtof-ms-assay-for-quantification-of-protodioscin-in-brachiaria-grasses
#7
Gabriella M L Diamantino, Gabriela L Biscoto, Heloísa P Pedroza, Raimundo Neilson L Amorim, Kelly M Keller, Marília M Melo, Benito Soto-Blanco
This work aimed to develop and validate a method to detect and quantify protodioscin in Brachiaria grasses using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted by acetonitrile-water 50:50 v/v mixture and ultrasonication. The mobile phase consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate in water-methanol and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The parameters used to validate the method for determining protodioscin comprised determination of the selectivity, ionization suppression/enhancement (matrix effect), linearity of the calibration curve, the limit of detection (LOD), the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), and the precision and accuracy of the method...
October 19, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321574/development-of-a-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-goniodomins-a-and-b-and-its-application-to-alexandrium-pseudogonyaulax-strains-and-plankton-field-samples-of-danish-coastal-waters
#8
Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Yingying Wen, Per Juel Hansen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Aaron J C Andersen
An external standard of goniodomin A (GDA) was prepared from a strain of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax originating from New Zealand and its chemical structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using the GDA standard, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was developed for separation and quantification of GDA. This method was successfully applied to planktonic field samples collected during an oceanographic expedition conducted with R/V Uthörn along the Danish west coast, Limfjord and Kattegat in June 2016...
October 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316979/cycad-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-methylazoxymethanol-genotoxicity-and-neurodegeneration
#9
LETTER
Peter S Spencer, Valerie S Palmer, Glen E Kisby
Cycad-associated neurodegenerative disease is more strongly correlated with the gymnosperm's major neurotoxin cycasin (methylazoxymethanol glucoside) than with the minor neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA).
October 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315836/use-of-irradiated-elapid-and-viperid-venoms-for-antivenom-production-in-small-and-large-animals
#10
Guillermo de la Rosa, Felipe Olvera, Epifanio Cruz, Dayanira Paniagua, Gerardo Corzo
This work evaluated the feasibility of using toxoids obtained by gamma radiation in the production of antivenoms in small and large animals. Mixtures of African snake venoms from viperids or elapids were used. The viperid mixture contained the crude venom of five species of the genera Echis and Bitis, while the elapid mixture contained the crude venom of six species of the genera Naja and Dendroaspis. The viperid mixture had an LD50 of 1.25 mg/kg in mice, and the elapid mixture had an LD50 of 0.46 mg/kg...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315835/onabotulinumtoxina-for-adductor-spasmodic-dysphonia-adsd-functional-results-and-the-role-of-dosage
#11
M R Marchese, L D'Alatri, A R Bentivoglio, G Paludetti
OBJECTIVE: To report the results of functional outcome, dose trend and relationship between onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) dosage and the severity of disease or time between therapy sessions in patients affected by adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients underwent 193 EMG-guided intracordal injections of a starting dose of 2 MU of onabotA. At enrollment, each subject was administered the VHI. The response was evaluated using a subjective rating scale (0-100% of normal phonation)...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312694/evaluation-of-intracellular-and-extracellular-domoic-acid-content-in-pseudo-nitzschia-multiseries-cell-cultures-under-different-light-regimes
#12
Lia Godinho, Alexandra Silva, Maria Ana Castelo Branco, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries is a diatom species associated with the production of domoic acid (DA), a water soluble neurotoxin that is easily transferred up in the food web, causing devastating effects on top marine organisms and humans. Despite studies on Pseudo-nitzschia are relevant to human health safety, partitioning of marine toxins between intracellular and extracellular fractions are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the growth rates and DA content, both intracellular and extracellular, of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries cultures at three different light settings (15, 120 and 560 μmol m-2 s-1 )...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312693/intermolecular-ionic-interactions-serve-as-a-possible-switch-for-stem-release-in-the-staphylococcal-bi-component-toxin-for-%C3%AE-barrel-pore-assembly
#13
Kein Takeda, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Naoki Abe, Jun Kaneko
The β-strand stem release system of staphylococcal β-barrel pore-forming toxin γ-hemolysin was investigated. Mutations at K15 and R16 in the cap domain of Hlg2 decreased hemolytic activity more markedly than their effect on erythrocyte binding. In addition, D122N mutation of LukF prestem lost the activity with Hlg2 R16A, indicating that electrostatic interactions between residues in the Hlg2 cap and prestem of adjacent LukF in the ring-shaped complex might serve as a switch for stem release.
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312692/ozone-detoxification-of-patulin-in-aqueous-solution-and-cytotoxic-evaluation-using-human-hepatic-carcinoma-cells
#14
Enjie Diao, Dongliang Ren, Tingwu Liu, Jianmei Zhang, Weicheng Hu, Hanxue Hou
Patulin often contaminates fruits and fruit-base products, which seriously threats the health of consumers. In this study, ozone was used to degrade patulin in aqueous solution, and investigated the cytotoxicity of patulin after ozone detoxification on human hepatic carcinoma cells (HepG2) using MTT assay and apoptosis assay. Patulin was rapidly degraded from 24.59 mg/L to 9.85 mg/L within 180 s by 10.60 mg/L of ozone at a flow rate of 90 mL/min, and reduced by 59.94%. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of patulin on HepG2 cells was 9...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290166/deoxynivalenol-induces-toxicity-and-apoptosis-in-piglet-hippocampal-nerve-cells-via-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#15
Xichun Wang, Mengxue Fan, Xiaoyan Chu, Yafei Zhang, Sajid Ur Rahman, Yunjing Jiang, Xiaofang Chen, Dianfeng Zhu, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Jinjie Wu
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin capable of producing a variety of toxic effects in human and animals. In this study, the effect of DON treatment on cytotoxicity and apoptotic pathways in piglet hippocampal nerve cells (PHNCs) was determined. The effects of DON on cellular morphology, cell activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, the protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and the relative expression of key genes related to apoptosis were evaluated. The results indicated that DON significantly inhibited cellular viability and promoted the release of LDH by damaging the membrane integrity of PHNCs, however, the cellular viability was increased and LDH leakage rate were decreased after adding MAPK inhibitors...
October 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278182/a-37-kda-txp40-protein-characterized-from-photorhabdus-luminescens-sub-sp-akhurstii-conferred-injectable-and-oral-toxicity-to-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#16
Chetna Mathur, Jyoti Kushwah, Vishal S Somvanshi, Tushar K Dutta
Photorhabdus luminescens is a gram-negative bacterium that symbiotically associates with insect-parasitic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica. Herein, we have characterized an insecticidal gene, Txp40 (1008 bp) from the indigenous isolates of P. luminescens, and tested its bioefficacy against Galleria mellonella via injectable and oral bioassay. The recombinant protein characterized from P. luminescens strain H3 exhibited comparatively greater insect toxicity than strain H1 in terms of LD50 and LT50 values. Txp40 holds great potential to replace Bt toxins in global agriculture...
September 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273703/centipede-envenomation-clinical-importance-and-the-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#17
Rose Ombati, Lei Luo, Shilong Yang, Ren Lai
Centipede bites are usually characterized by mildly to moderately painful encounters with humans, however, they are relatively infrequent. The vast majority of centipede envenomations do not cause severe symptoms and only in very rare cases more serious symptoms such as myocardial ischemia and infarction, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis, hemorrhage, pruritus, eosinophilic cellulitis, as well as anaphylaxis are observed. More prevalent are symptoms including pain, paresthesia, lethargy, localized necrosis, headache, dizziness and nausea...
September 29, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273705/gelsemium-poisoning-mediated-by-the-non-toxic-plant-cassytha-filiformis-parasitizing-gelsemium-elegans
#18
Wing Lan Cheung, Chun Yiu Law, Han Chih Hencher Lee, Chi On Tang, Ying Hoo Lam, Sau Wah Ng, Suk San Chan, Tat Chong Chow, Kuen Shum Pang, Tony Wing Lai Mak
INTRODUCTION: Gelsemium poisoning is caused by consumption of the deadly Gelsemium species such as Gelsemium elegans, leading to significant gastrointestinal, neurological and cardio-respiratory toxicities. In 2011 (Cluster 1) and 2012 (Cluster 2), the authors encountered two clusters of gelsemium poisoning after consumption of the non-toxic parasitic plant Cassytha filiformis. The current study aims to examine the mechanism of gelsemium poisoning mediated by a benign parasitic plant...
September 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273704/genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-three-microcystin-lr-containing-cyanobacterial-samples-from-antioquia-colombia
#19
Natalia Herrera, Carolina Herrera, Isabel Ortíz, Luz Orozco, Sara Robledo, Diana Agudelo, Fernando Echeverri
The presence of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins in water presents a global problem due to the deterioration of ecosystems and the possibility of poisoning in human and animals. Microcystin LR is the most widely distributed cyanotoxin and liver cells are its main target. In the present study, HepG2 cells were used to determine DNA damage of three crude extracts of cyanobacterial blooms containing MC-LR, through comet assay. The results show that all extracts at a concentration of 500 μg mL-1 caused low damage in hepatocytes exposed for 24 h, but produced total mortality even at low concentrations at 48 h...
September 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273702/peroxisomicine-a1-toxin-t-514-induces-cell-death-of-hepatocytes-in-vivo-by-triggering-the-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway
#20
Adolfo Soto-Domínguez, Raquel G Ballesteros-Elizondo, Martha E Santoyo-Pérez, Humberto Rodríguez-Rocha, Rubén García-Garza, Martha P Nava-Hernández, Sheila A Villa-Cedillo, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas
Karwinskia parvifolia possesses the highest concentration levels of the anthracenone T-514 (PA1). Studies have demonstrated the induction of apoptosis by PA1 in cancer cell lines. The aim was to investigate the effects of PA1 on the apoptosis of the mouse liver in vivo and its underlying pathway. Sixty CD-1 mice were divided into three groups: untreated, vehicle, and treated with PA1. The animals were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-treatment. To confirm the toxic effect of PA1 we determined the activity of catalase...
September 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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