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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30639658/okadaic-acid-oa-toxicity-detection-and-detoxification
#1
REVIEW
Ling-Ling Fu, Xiao-Yu Zhao, Lin-Dan Ji, Jin Xu
Okadaic acid (OA), a potent polyether marine toxin, accumulates in the digestive glands of marine mollusks and therefore can severely threaten the health of humans after ingestion of contaminated shellfish. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that exposure of various cells, including human embryonic amniotic cells, hepatocytes, neuroblastoma cells, to OA induces morphological and functional modifications as well as the death of cells. As the number of reports on OA poisoning has increased, this toxin has gradually attracted the public's attention, and researchers are trying to study it...
January 10, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30629997/subcellular-localization-of-microcystin-in-the-liver-and-the-gonads-of-medaka-fish-acutely-exposed-to-microcystin-lr
#2
Qin Qiao, Chakib Djediat, Hélène Huet, Charlotte Duval, Séverine Le Manach, Cécile Bernard, Marc Edery, Benjamin Marie
Among the diverse toxic components produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins (MCs) are one of the most toxic and notorious cyanotoxin groups. Besides their potent hepatotoxicity, MCs have been revealed to induce potential reproductive toxicity in various animal studies. However, little is still known regarding the distribution of MCs in the reproductive organ, which could directly affect reproductive cells. In order to respond to this question, an acute study was conducted in adult medaka fish (model animal) gavaged with 10 μg...
January 7, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30611825/leucurogin-and-melanoma-therapy
#3
Meire C Almeida, Ivan C Santos, Thaysa Paschoalin, Luiz R Travassos, Cornelia Mauch, Paola Zigrino, João B Pesquero, Jorge L Pesquero, Debora A Higuchi
Leucurogin is an ECD disintegrin-like protein, cloned from Bothrops leucurus venom gland. This new protein, encompassing the disintegrin region of a PIII metalloproteinase, is produced by recombinant technology and its biological and functional activity was partially characterized in this study. Biological activity was characterized in vitro using human fibroblasts. Functional activity of leucurogin was analyzed in vitro and in vivo with murine B16F10 Nex-2 and human melanoma BLM cells. The results show that leucurogin inhibits cellular processes dependent on collagen type I...
January 3, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30611824/study-on-the-obtaining-of-tityus-trivittatus-venom-in-argentina
#4
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Lanari Laura Cecilia, Laskowicz Rodrigo Daniel, Costa de Oliveira Vanessa, Litwin Silvana, Calderon Leandro, Damin Carlos Fabián, Dokmetjian José Christian, Dolab Jorge Adrián, Lago Néstor Rubén, Lértora Emiliano
Envenomation by scorpions of the genus Tityus is an important public health problem in Argentina, involving near 8000 stings and 2 deaths each year. Treatment for envenomation is the use of specific antivenom and intensive hospital care. Antivenom is produced by the Ministry of Health and freely distributed throughout the country. For antivenom production it is necessary to collect scorpion venom, which is a difficult task because although scorpions can be found in Argentina, they are less abundant than in warmer latitudes...
January 3, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30594637/snakebite-burden-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Sadiq Halilu, Garba Iliyasu, Muhammad Hamza, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Andreas Kuznik, Abdulrazaq G Habib
There is no reliable estimate of burden of snakebite-envenoming (SBE) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We derived from a meta-analysis the burden of SBE related deaths, amputations and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 41 countries in SSA. The annual burden was estimated at 1.03 million DALYs (95% Confidence Interval: 0.80-1.28 million DALYs). This is similar to or higher than the burden of many Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and the finding advocates for a commensurate resources allocation towards control of SBE...
December 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550741/induced-lesion-and-inhibited-ihh-pthrp-signalling-pathway-activity-in-the-articular-cartilage-of-rats-caused-by-t-2-toxin
#6
Fu Xiao Yan, Gao Yan Hui, Yang Yan Mei, Z O U Ning, Wang Ke Wei, Y A N Pan, Sun Dian Jun
This study aims to investigate the role of Ihh-PTHrP signalling pathway in the articular cartilage injury of rats caused by T-2 toxin. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A, normal diet; group B, normal diet plus the dissolvent (0.9% sodium chloride sterile aqueous solution containing ethanol); group C, normal diet plus low T-2 toxin (0.1 mg/kg BW/day) and group D, normal diet plus high T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) by intragastric administration daily for 4 weeks. Histological changes in articular cartilage were assessed by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy...
December 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543821/versatile-spider-venom-peptides-and-their-medical-and-agricultural-applications
#7
Natalie J Saez, Volker Herzig
Spiders have been evolving complex and diverse repertoires of peptides in their venoms with vast pharmacological activities for more than 300 million years. Spiders use their venoms for prey capture and defense, hence they contain peptides that target both prey (mainly arthropods) and predators (other arthropods or vertebrates). This includes peptides that potently and selectively modulate a range of targets such as ion channels, receptors and signaling pathways involved in physiological processes. The contribution of these targets in particular disease pathophysiologies makes spider venoms a valuable source of peptides with potential therapeutic use...
December 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529476/arthropod-venoms-biochemistry-ecology-and-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Senji Laxme R R, Vivek Suranse, Kartik Sunagar
Comprising of over a million described species of highly diverse invertebrates, Arthropoda is amongst the most successful animal lineages to have colonized aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic domains. Venom, one of the many fascinating traits to have evolved in various members of this phylum, has underpinned their adaptation to diverse habitats. Over millions of years of evolution, arthropods have evolved ingenious ways of delivering venom in their targets for self-defence and predation. The morphological diversity of venom delivery apparatus in arthropods is astounding, and includes extensively modified pedipalps, tail (telson), mouth parts (hypostome), fangs, appendages (maxillulae), proboscis, ovipositor (stinger), and hair (urticating bristles)...
December 6, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529382/alleviation-of-aflatoxin-related-oxidative-damage-to-liver-and-improvement-of-growth-performance-in-broiler-chickens-consumed-lactobacillus-plantarum-299v-for-entire-growth-period
#9
Maryam Khanian, Mohammad-Amir Karimi-Torshizi, Abdolamir Allameh
Growing broiler chicks on a diet contaminated with aflatoxins (200 or 2000 ppb) for entire growth period resulted in increased oxidative stress and liver damage markers. The toxicity was subsided in broilers received a specific aflatoxin-binding probiotic i.e., Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). There was a substantial (30-90%) increase in antioxidant activity of plasma, which was suppressed due to dietary aflatoxins. Probiotic also reduced serum lactate dehydrogenase and alanine amino transferase together with lipid peroxidation products in liver, which were elevated due to aflatoxin...
December 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529381/queen-venom-isosolenopsin-a-delivers-rapid-incapacitation-of-fire-ant-competitors
#10
Eduardo G P Fox, Xiaoqing Wu, Lei Wang, Li Chen, Yong-Yue Lu, Yijuan Xu
Fire ant venom contains insecticidal alkaloids named 'solenopsins'. Whilst species-specific differences are reported, little attention has been given to caste-specific venom adaptations. The venom of fire ant queens has remained particularly poorly studied, though studies have shown it to be strikingly similar across different species, in being primarily composed of the alkaloid isosolenopsin A, regardless of chemical configuration in workers. We predict that this is the evolutionary outcome of stabilising selection, implying that a shared mechanism is responsible for the conserved venom composition among fire ant queens...
December 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529380/a-review-of-cardiac-glycosides-structure-toxicokinetics-clinical-signs-diagnosis-and-antineoplastic-potential
#11
REVIEW
Ana Flávia M Botelho, Felipe Pierezan, Benito Soto-Blanco, Marília Martins Melo
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are secondary compounds found in plants and amphibians and are widely distributed in nature with potential cardiovascular action. Their mechanism is based on the blockage of the heart's sodium potassium ATPase, with a positive inotropic effect. Some of the most well-known CGs are digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin, and bufalin. They have similar chemical structures: a lactone ring, steroid ring, and sugar moiety. Digoxin, ouabain, and oleandrin are classified as cardenolides, consisting of a lactone ring with five carbons, while bufalin is classified as bufodienolides, with a six-carbon ring...
December 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529379/evaluation-of-vasoactivity-after-haemotoxic-snake-venom-administration
#12
R B Knight, S Dvorcakova, L Luptakova, K Vdoviakova, V Petrilla, E Petrovova
The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model in medical research and fulfils the requirements laid out in the 3 R's. The CAM, contains a dense network of blood vessels, essential for embryo development but also makes the chick embryo an invaluable resource for the study of angiogenesis and the haemotoxicity of substances. Non-neurotoxic snake venom is responsible worldwide for numerous deaths but also has been found to have a vast range of medicinal benefit. This study combines evaluating the time of onset and intensity of effects of three whole viper venoms (Bitis aritans, Crotalus viridis, Agkistrodon contortrix) at varying concentrations...
December 4, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521837/an-examination-of-microcystin-lr-accumulation-and-toxicity-using-tethered-bilayer-lipid-membranes-tblms
#13
Jordan A Facey, Joel R Steele, Jake P Violi, Simon M Mitrovic, Charles Cranfield
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent cyanobacterial toxin responsible for animal and human poisonings worldwide. MC-LR is found in organisms throughout the foodweb, however there is conjecture regarding whether it biomagnifies. Few studies have investigated how MC-LR interacts with lipid membranes, a determinant of biomagnification potential. We tested whether 1 μM MC-LR irreversibly associates with lipid bilayers or causes the creation of pore defects upon short and long-term exposure. Using tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs), we observed an increase in membrane conduction in tBLMs, representing an interaction of microcystin-LR with the lipid bilayer and a change in membrane packing properties...
December 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496730/arthropod-assassins-crawling-biochemists-with-diverse-toxin-pharmacopeias
#14
EDITORIAL
Volker Herzig
The millions of extant arthropod species are testament to their evolutionary success that can at least partially be attributed to venom usage, which evolved independently in at least 19 arthropod lineages. While some arthropods primarily use venom for predation (e.g., spiders and centipedes) or defense (e.g., bees and caterpillars), it can also have more specialised functions (e.g. in parasitoid wasps to paralyse arthropods for their brood to feed on) or even a combination of functions (e.g. the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus can deliver a prevenom for predator deterrence and a venom for predation)...
November 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472110/biochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-proteins-and-peptides-purified-from-the-venoms-of-the-snakes-macrovipera-lebetina-subspecies
#15
REVIEW
Jüri Siigur, Anu Aaspõllu, Ene Siigur
The isolation and characterization of individual snake venom components is important for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of envenomations, for improving the therapeutic procedures of patients, and it also opens possibilities for the discovery of novel toxins that might be useful as tools for understanding cellular and molecular processes. This review provides a summary of the different toxins that have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of Vipera lebetina (Macrovipera lebetina) subspecies Macrovipera lebetina cernovi, Macrovipera lebetina lebetina, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea, Macrovipera lebetina turanica, the snake species causing the majority of human envenomings in Central Asia (Middle East) and North Africa...
November 22, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472109/defensins-a-novel-type-of-animal-toxin-like-potassium-channel-inhibitor
#16
REVIEW
Yonghui Zhao, Zongyun Chen, Zhijian Cao, Wenxin Li, Yingliang Wu
The classical potassium channel inhibitors are toxin peptides from venomous animals, and whether there are peptide inhibitors from other species is an open question. Due to both the independent and interdependent relationships between the spear (peptide inhibitors) and the shield (potassium channels), human defensins were first identified by our group as endogenous potassium channel inhibitors. Encouraged by the discovery of human defensins as potassium channel inhibitors, defensins from invertebrates and fungi were successively found by our group to be potassium channel inhibitors...
November 22, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471382/a-c-type-lectin-from-bothrops-leucurus-snake-venom-forms-amyloid-like-aggregates-in-rpmi-medium-and-are-efficiently-phagocytosed-by-peritoneal-macrophages
#17
Mary Ângela Aranda-Souza, Vírginia Maria Barros de Lorena, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play important roles in the immune system. Under specific conditions, lectins can form amyloids, proteinaceous aggregates rich in cross β-strand structures. A Ca++ -dependent lectin, isolated from Bothrops leucurus snake venom (BLL) has demonstrated relevant biological activities such as antibacterial and antitumor activity. In this work, we aimed to study the interaction of BLL with macrophages. The formation of amyloid structures by BLL in a cell culture medium, the effects of the lectin on macrophage morphology and cytokine production were investigated...
November 22, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471381/the-analgesic-effect-of-intraarticular-onabotulinumtoxina-in-a-female-murine-model-of-collagenase-induced-chronic-degenerative-monoarthritis
#18
Nicole Blanshan, Maren L Mahowald, Christopher Dorman, Sandra Frizelle, Hollis E Krug
PURPOSE: We previously reported the efficacy of intraarticular (IA) rimabotulinumtoxinB (BoNT/B) in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain. This study aimed to measure the analgesic effects of onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT/A) on collagenase induced chronic degenerative arthritis joint pain. METHODS: Chronic degenerative arthritis was produced by IA injection of 10 μl collagenase (Col) (10 IU) into the left knee of C57BL/6J female mice 4 weeks prior to pain assessment...
November 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471380/re-evaluation-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-profiles-in-cyanobacteria-using-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Paul M D'Agostino, Michael J Boundy, Tim D Harwood, Wayne W Carmichael, Brett A Neilan, Susanna A Wood
To date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated the PST profiles of five cyanobacterial cultures (Dolichospermum circinale AWQC131C, Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5, Raphidiopsis raciborskii T3, Scytonema cf. crispum CAWBG524 and CAWBG72) and one environmental sample (Microseria wollei) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
November 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471379/toxicity-of-the-different-vegetative-stages-of-amorimia-pubiflora-to-sheep
#20
Stephanie C Lima, Kelly C S Godoy, Paula V Leal, Stephen T Lee, Jim Pfister, Alda I Souza, Claudio S L de Barros, Ricardo A A de Lemos
Toxic plants containing monofluoroacetate (MFA) cause sudden death in livestock in Australia, South Africa and Brazil, causing economic losses to producers. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of MFA present in young leaves, mature leaves, senescent leaves, and seeds of Amorimia pubiflora harvested at different times of the year and to determine their toxic effect on sheep. Samples of Amorimia pubiflora were collected during April, August and December of 2015 and March of 2016, separated according to the vegetative stage (young leaves, seeds, mature leaves, and senescent leaves), dried in an oven, and administered in daily doses of 5 g/kg/body weight (bw) of fresh leaves to sheep through ruminal cannulae...
November 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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