journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716647/earwax-a-clue-to-discover-fluoroacetate-intoxication-in-cattle
#1
Engy Shokry, Fabrício Carrião Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Jorge da Cunha, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti, Antônio Dionísio Feitosa Noronha Filho, Naiara Zedes Pereira, Nelson Roberto Antoniosi Filho
An innovative method was developed to detect fluoroacetate poisoning in cattle by headspace/gas chromatographic analysis of earwax samples of intoxicated cattle. Samples were collected from 2 groups of cattle subjected to induced fluoroacetate intoxication, each group receiving a different dose of acetamide (antidote). Monofluoroacetic acid was detected in samples of intoxicated cattle in concentrations inversely proportional to the dose of acetamide. Thus, earwax analysis represents a successful approach for detection and monitoring of fluoroacetate poisoning...
July 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712914/ige-cross-reactivity-of-phospholipase-a2-and-hyaluronidase-of-apis-dorsata-giant-asian-honeybee-and-apis-mellifera-western-honeybee-venom-possible-use-of-a-mellifera-venom-for-diagnosis-of-patients-allergic-to-a-dorsata-venom
#2
Peshala Gunasekara, S M Handunnetti, Sunil Premawansa, E W R A Witharana, W M D K Dasanayake, Indra P Ratnayake, Suranjith L Seneviratne, R K S Dias, G A S Premakumara, Rajiva de Silva
Diagnostic and therapeutic reagents are unavailable for anaphylaxis arising from stings by Apis dorsata. Venom profiles and cross-reactivity of A. dorsata and Apis mellifera were compared, to ascertain whether venom of A. mellifera can be used for diagnosis in A. dorsata allergy. Both venom profiles were similar by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and SDS-PAGE. Sera of 29 of 30 (96.7%) patients with anaphylaxis to A. dorsata stings had IgE to the phospholipase-2 (PLA2) doublet (15 and 16 kDa) of A. dorsata venom by immunoblot, compared to 26 of 30 (86...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712915/comparative-analyses-and-implications-for-antivenom-serotherapy-of-four-moroccan-scorpion-buthus-occitanus-venoms-subspecies-tunetanus-paris-malhommei-and-mardochei
#3
Bruna Luiza Emerich, Maria Elena De Lima, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Pierre E Bougis
Temporary passive immunity such as serotherapy against venoms requires the full knowledge of all venom's components. Here, four venoms from Moroccan common yellow scorpions belonging to Buthus occitanus, subspecies tunetanus, paris, malhommei, and mardochei, all collected in four different restricted areas, were analysed in deep. They were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their molecular masse profile determined by off-line MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Characterisation of their main components was achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antisera against the major lethal scorpion toxins identified so far, i...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712913/acute-ochratoxin-a-exposure-induces-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-human-embryonic-kidney-hek293-cells
#4
Shanel Raghubeer, Savania Nagiah, Anil A Chuturgoon
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common contaminant of grain and fruit and known carcinogen, has been linked to impaired antioxidant response and cellular repair. The effect of OTA on inflammation in cells has not been explored. This study investigated OTA's influence on inflammatory mediators using a range of OTA concentrations (0.5 μM (sub-IC50), 1.2 μm (IC50) and 2 μm (supra-IC50)) on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells over 24hr. The markers of inflammation in HEK293 cells were evaluated using the following techniques: western blotting (phosphorylated (p-)NFκB (Ser536), p-IKK (Ser176/180) and p-p53 (Ser392), total NFκB, IKK, IκBα and p53), luminometry (caspases 1, 3/7, 8, 9, ATP) and ELISA to determine IL-1β levels...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711466/comparative-proteomics-reveals-recruitment-patterns-of-some-protein-families-in-the-venoms-of-cnidaria
#5
Adrian Jaimes-Becerra, Ray Chung, André C Morandini, Andrew J Weston, Gabriel Padilla, Ranko Gacesa, Malcolm Ward, Paul F Long, Antonio C Marques
Cnidarians are probably the oldest group of animals to be venomous, yet our current picture of cnidarian venom evolution is highly imbalanced due to limited taxon sampling. High-throughput tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine venom composition of the scyphozoan Chrysaora lactea and two cubozoans Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. Protein recruitment patterns were then compared against 5 other cnidarian venom proteomes taken from the literature. A total of 28 putative toxin protein families were identified, many for the first time in Cnidaria...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711467/retrospective-study-of-jellyfish-envenomation-in-emergency-wards-in-guadeloupe-between-2010-and-2016-when-to-diagnose-irukandji-syndrome
#6
Djoudi Bouyer-Monot, Stéphane Pelczar, Serge Ferracci, Denis Boucaud-Maitre
BACKGROUND: In Guadeloupe (French West Indies), many marine envenomation cases by jellyfish are observed. Some of them might induce an Irukandji syndrome (IS). The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical features of IS from the envenomation cases in the two public hospitals in Guadeloupe, and to compare them to non-IS stings. METHODS: All jellyfish envenomation cases between the 1st of January 2010 and the 1st of September 2016, from the emergencies data-base, have been extracted...
July 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698056/daboia-vipera-palaestinae-envenomation-in-horses-clinical-and-hematological-signs-risk-factors-for-mortality-and-construction-of-a-novel-severity-scoring-system
#7
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich, Judith Comte, Gila A Sutton, Amir Steinman
Daboia palaestinae is the most common venomous snake in Israel and an important cause of envenomations in humans and animals. Although specific antivenom is produced from horses, little documentation exists regarding the characteristics of envenomed horses. This survey was constructed to describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical characteristics of D. palaestinae envenomation in horses, to identify risk factors for fatality and to construct a prognostic snakebite severity scale (SSS) to be used by veterinarians in the field...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698055/small-molecule-metalloprotease-inhibitor-with-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-efficacy-against-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a
#8
Alan R Jacobson, Michael Adler, Nicholas R Silvaggi, Karen N Allen, Genessa M Smith, Ross A Fredenburg, Ross L Stein, Jong-Beak Park, Xiaochuan Feng, Charles B Shoemaker, Sharad S Deshpande, Michael C Goodnough, Carl J Malizio, Eric A Johnson, Sabine Pellett, William H Tepp, Saul Tzipori
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known to mankind and are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism. Their ease of production and extreme toxicity have caused these neurotoxins to be classified as Tier 1 bioterrorist threat agents and have led to a sustained effort to develop countermeasures to treat intoxication in case of a bioterrorist attack. While timely administration of an approved antitoxin is effective in reducing the severity of botulism, reversing intoxication requires different strategies...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694006/neurotoxicity-with-persistent-unilateral-ophthalmoplegia-from-envenoming-by-a-wild-inland-taipan-oxyuranus-microlepidotus-elapidae-in-remote-outback-south-australia
#9
Scott A Weinstein, Evan Everest, Jeremy Purdell-Lewis, Michael Harrison, Fiona Tavender, Sam Alfred, Liz Marrack, Chris Davenport-Klunder, Neralie Wearn, Julian White
INTRODUCTION: A case of life threatening envenoming by a wild specimen of the inland taipan, Oxyuranus microlepidotus, is described. There have been 11 previously well-documented envenomings by O. microlepidotus, but only 2 were inflicted by wild snakes. Envenomed patients have presented predominantly with defibrinating coagulopathy and neurotoxicity. CASE REPORT: The victim was seeking to observe members of an isolated population of this species and was envenomed while attempting to photograph an approximately 1...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690013/peptides-derived-from-plasma-proteins-released-by-bothropasin-a-metalloprotease-present-in-the-bothrops-jararaca-venom
#10
Cristiane Castilho Fernandes da Silva, Milene Cristina Menezes, Miryam Palomino, Ana Karina Oliveira, Leo Kei Iwai, Marcella Faria, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
Viperid snake venoms contain proteases that affect hemostasis by degrading important proteins such as those that participate in the coagulation cascade. The Bothrops jararaca venom presents as its main components metallo and serine proteases, which comprise around 65% of the venom composition. Bothropasin is a hemorrhagic metalloprotease from the B. jararaca venom which causes disruption of the basement membrane of the vascular endothelium, resulting in bleeding. Although the bothropasin ability to degrade plasmatic and extracellular matrix proteins in vitro has been described, the primary sequence of the released peptides is unknown...
July 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688806/evaluation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-alpha-amanitin-in-mice-bone-marrow-cells
#11
B Marciniak, D Łopaczyńska, T Ferenc
Alpha-amanitin is a known cytotoxic substance found in some mushroom species including Amanita phalloides. Its main mechanism of action is to block the transcription, which can lead to cell death. Lack of reports on the genotoxicity of this toxin was an inspiration for undertaking this experiment. Genotoxic effect of α-amanitin on balb/c mice bone marrow cells was tested using: comet assay and chromosomal aberration test. The tested substance was given once by intraperitoneal administration to animals at doses: 0...
July 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688807/modulation-of-hepatic-glutathione-transferases-isoenzymes-in-three-bivalve-species-exposed-to-purified-microcystin-lr-and-microcystis-extracts
#12
M Carneiro, P Antas, B Reis, J Azevedo, H Osório, A Campos, V Vasconcelos, J C Martins
This study compares the role of hepatic cytosolic glutathione transferases (cGST) isoforms of three different bivalve species to a Microcystis aeruginosa extract and purified MC-LR exposure (both at 150 μg MC-LR L(-1)) for 24 h. Characterization and alterations of the cytosolic GST activities in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum and Corbicula fluminea were measured using four class-specific substrates and changes in individual GST isoforms expression were achieved by a subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688805/low-level-of-ochratoxin-a-affects-genome-wide-expression-in-kidney-of-pig
#13
Daniela Eliza Marin, Cornelia Braicu, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu Petric, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Mihai Palade, Ionelia Taranu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by fungus belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genra. The aim of the present paper was to investigate if a low concentration OTA has toxic effect in pigs. Twelve piglets were fed with a control or an OTA (0.05 mg/kg feed) contaminated diet. After 30 days, animals were slaughtered and samples of blood and kidney were used for further analyses. The mycotoxin analyses showed a significant higher (6.25 times) concentration of OTA in the kidney of OTA intoxicated piglets than in control ones...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688804/crotoxin-a-rattlesnake-toxin-down-modulates-functions-of-bone-marrow-neutrophils-and-impairs-the-syk-gtpase-pathway
#14
Tatiane S Lima, Camila L Neves, Vanessa O Zambelli, Flávia S R Lopes, Sandra C Sampaio, Maria Cristina Cirillo
Neutrophils have a critical role in the innate immune response; these cells represent the primary line of defense against invading pathogens or tissue injury. Crotoxin (CTX), the major toxin of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, presents longstanding anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting neutrophil migration and phagocytosis by peritoneal neutrophils for 14 days. Herein, to elucidate these sustained inhibitory effects induced by CTX, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the functionality of bone marrow neutrophils and possible molecular mechanisms associated with these effects...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688803/hyaluronidase-like-enzymes-are-a-frequent-component-of-venoms-from-theraphosid-spiders
#15
Luis Rodríguez-Rios, Luis Fernando Díaz-Peña, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, Alejandro García-Arredondo
Theraphosid spider venoms are extremely complex mixtures, composed mainly by low molecular compounds, peptides, and enzymes. The large size of these spiders and their ability to breed in captivity permits access to rather large amounts of venom and an easier venom extraction. In the present study, we conducted a comparative investigation about the content of hyaluronidase-like enzymes in the venoms from several theraphosid spiders, with a special focus on the Poecilotheria species, which are considered as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684119/gene-expression-profiles-and-molecular-mechanism-of-cultured-human-chondrocytes-exposure-to-t-2-toxin-and-deoxynivalenol
#16
Lei Yang, Jianping Zhang, Guanghui Zhao, Cuiyan Wu, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo, Xi Wang, Mikko J Lammi
T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi and are commonly found on food and feed. Although T-2 toxin and DON have been suggested as the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, little is known about the mechanism when human chondrocytes are exposed to T-2 toxin and DON. The purpose of this study is to identify the gene expression differences and underlying molecular changes modulated by T-2 toxin and DON in vitro in human chondrocytes...
July 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676453/ac2-26-peptide-and-serine-protease-of-bothrops-atrox-similarly-induces-angiogenesis-without-triggering-local-and-systemic-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-dorsal-skinfold-chamber
#17
Rafaela Batista Molás, Marina de Paula-Silva, Rehana Masood, Anwar Ullah, Alexandre Dantas Gimenes, Sonia Maria Oliani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668563/production-of-a-bisdemethylated-microcystin-variant-by-planktothrix-rubescens
#18
Kristin Zoschke, Marta Schübel, Hilmar Börnick, Eckhard Worch
Reservoir samples from a bloom of Planktothrix rubescens were analyzed by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. The comparison of the results of both methods points to the presence of a microcystin variant not yet available as analytical standard and therefore, not detectable by LC-MS/MS analysis. It is proposed that the unknown cyanotoxin variant is a bisdemethylated microcystin variant, presumably [Asp(3),Dha(7)]-microcystin-RR. [Asp(3),Dha(7)]-MC-RR has not been described for a bloom of P. rubescens before.
June 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668562/origin-and-characterization-of-small-membranous-vesicles-present-in-the-venom-of-crotalus-durissus-terrificus
#19
Andréia Souza-Imberg, Sylvia Mendes Carneiro, Karina Cristina Giannotti, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Norma Yamanouye
Small membranous vesicles are small closed fragments of membrane. They are released from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) or shed from the surface membrane (microvesicles). They contains various bioactive molecules and their molecular composition varies depending on their cellular origin. Small membranous vesicles have been identified in snake venoms, but the origin of these small membranous vesicles in the venom is controversial. The aim of this study was to verify the origin of the small membranous vesicles in venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus by morphological analyses using electron microscopy...
June 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651991/ribosome-inactivating-proteins-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#20
Walter Jesús Lapadula, Maximiliano Juri Ayub
Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) are rRNA N-glycosidases that inhibit protein synthesis through the elimination of a single adenine residue from 28S rRNA. Many of these toxins have been characterized in depth from a biochemical and molecular point of view. In addition, their potential use in medicine as highly selective toxins is being explored. In contrast, the evolutionary history of RIP encoding genes has remained traditionally underexplored. In recent years, accumulation of large genomic data has fueled research on this issue and revealed unexpected information about the origin and evolution of RIP toxins...
June 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
journal
journal
25464
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"