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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003916/phoneutria-nigriventer-venom-a-pharmacological-treasure
#1
Steve Peigneur, Maria Elena de Lima, Jan Tytgat
In millions of years, spiders have optimized their venoms in order to assure successful prey capture and defence against predators. Spider venoms have become unique cocktails of biological active components enabling potentially interesting application for drug discovery or for agricultural purposes. The venom of Phoneutria nigriventer has been studied for over 60 years. This spider is responsible for a high number of envenomations with severe clinical manifestations in humans, which necessitates a comprehensive knowledge of its venom composition...
July 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003918/cdc45-mcm2-7-gins-complex-down-regulation-mediates-s-phase-arrest-in-okadaic-acid-induced-cell-damage
#2
Mei Feng, Mi Zhou, Ling-Ling Fu, Jiang-Jia Cai, Lin-Dan Ji, Jin-Shun Zhao, Jin Xu
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and widespread marine toxins and causes acute gastrointestinal symptoms known as diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Although OA is not classified as a typical neurotoxin, an increasing number of studies have reported its neurotoxic effects. However, most of the available studies have focused on OA-induced inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, while the molecular mechanism of OA-induced neurotoxicity remains largely unclear. To better understand the potentially toxicological profile of OA, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and alterations in gene expression in the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y upon OA exposure were determined using flow cytometry, comet assay, and transcriptome microarray...
July 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003917/exposure-routes-and-health-effects-of-microcystins-on-animals-and-humans-a-mini-review
#3
REVIEW
Isaac Yaw Massey, Fei Yang, Zhen Ding, Shu Yang, Jian Guo, Clara Tezi, Muwaffak Al-Osman, Robert Boukem Kamegni, Weiming Zeng
Microcystins (MCs) pollution has quickly risen in infamy and has become a major problem to public health worldwide. MCs are a group of monocyclic hepatotoxic peptides, which are produced by some bloom-forming cyanobacteria in water. More than 100 different MCs variants posing a great threat to animals and humans due to their potential carcinogenicity have been reported. To reduce MCs risks, the World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline of 1 µg/L MCs in human's drinking water. This paper provides an overview of exposure routes of MCs into the human system and health effects on different organs after MCs exposure including the liver, intestine, brain, kidney, lung, heart and reproductive system...
July 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003915/the-inhibitory-effect-of-sapli%C3%AE-a-snake-sourced-pla-2-inhibitor-on-carrageenan-induced-inflammation-in-mice
#4
Denghong Zhang, Jingjing Li, Shimin Sun, Chunhong Huang
SaPLIγ is a natural phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) inhibitor, isolated from Sinonatrix annularis, that has been demonstrated to protect against envenomation by other venomous snakes. As snake venom PLA2 s and mammalian secretory PLA2 s are similar, saPLIγ is thought to have potential to alleviate inflammatory reactions in which PLA2 s act as a key enzyme for arachidonic acid release. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of action of saPLIγ in an animal model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation...
July 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990530/rapid-ligand-fishing-for-identification-of-acetylcholinesterase-binding-peptides-in-snake-venom-reveals-new-properties-of-dendrotoxins
#5
Kenia Lourenço Vanzolini, Stuart Ainsworth, Ben Bruyneel, Volker Herzig, Mitchell G L Seraus, Govert W Somsen, Nicholas R Casewell, Quezia Bezerra Cass, Jeroen Kool
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Electrophorus electricus (eel) was immobilized on the surface of amino-modified paramagnetic beads to serve as a model for the development, validation and application of a new affinity-based ligand-fishing assay for the discovery of bioactive peptides from complex protein mixtures such as venoms. Nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) was used for the analysis of trapped peptides. Using enzyme-functionalized beads, the ligand-fishing assay was evaluated and optimized using a peptide reference mixture composed of one acetylcholinesterase binder (fasciculin-II) and five non-binders (mambalgin-1, angiotensin-II, bradykinin, cardiotoxin and α-bungarotoxin)...
July 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981813/severe-haemolysis-and-spherocytosis-in-a-dog-envenomed-by-a-red-bellied-black-snake-pseudechis-porphyriacus-and-successful-treatment-with-a-bivalent-whole-equine-igg-antivenom-and-blood-transfusion
#6
E Lenske, A M Padula, E Leister, S Boyd
This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. The dog was initially hospitalised, treated with intravenous fluids and one vial of tiger-brown snake antivenom which is recommended for RBBS envenomation in Australia...
July 6, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981815/developing-recombinant-phospholipase-d1-rpld1-toxoid-from-iranian-hemiscorpius-lepturus-scorpion-and-its-protective-effects-in-balb-c-mice
#7
Narges Safari Foroushani, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri, Mahdi Behdani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh
Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) is one of the most dangerous scorpions and the most medically important scorpion in Iran. The clinical signs of H. lepturus envenomation, including dermonecrosis, hematuria, renal failure and early death, are attributed to phospholipase D activity. This study was conducted to develop a novel recombinant phospholipase D1 (rPLD1) toxoid and investigate its immunogenicity and protective effects against the lethality of H. lepturus venom. The lethal protein recombinant phospholipase D1 was expressed from PLD H...
July 5, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981814/arizona-ridge-nosed-rattlesnake-envenomation-case-report-of-a-personal-encounter-with-the-official-state-reptile-of-arizona-crotalus-willardi-willardi
#8
S Denise Holzman, Daniel J Massey, Andrea Clements, Keith J Boesen, Farshad M Shirazi
This case report describes the effects of an envenomation from one of the most infrequently encountered species of rattlesnake in the United States, Crotalus willardi willardi (C. w. willardi), the Arizona Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake. A previously healthy 57-year-old male sustained a bite to his non-dominant hand from a C. w. willardi. The most pronounced effect from the envenomation was edema and progression of edema that extended from his hand to the mid bicep. He also experienced erythema and tenderness to palpation in the affected limb, and some diminished range of motion in the hand...
July 5, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29964058/the-diversity-of-venom-components-of-the-scorpion-species-paravaejovis-schwenkmeyeri-scorpiones-vaejovidae-revealed-by-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses
#9
Jimena I Cid-Uribe, Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Erika P Meneses, Cesar V F Batista, Juana M Jiménez-Vargas, Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
The recent publication of high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of scorpion venom glands has increased our knowledge on the biodiversity of venom components. In this contribution, we report the transcriptome of the venom gland and the proteome of the venom for the scorpion species Paravaejovis schwenkmeyeri, a member of the family Vaejovidae. We report 138 annotated transcripts encoding putative peptides/proteins with sequence identity to known venom components available from different databases...
June 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959968/current-technology-for-the-industrial-manufacture-of-snake-antivenoms
#10
Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas, Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Gabriela Solano, Aarón Gómez, Melvin Sánchez, Ricardo Estrada, José María Gutiérrez
Snake antivenoms are formulations of animal immunoglobulins used in the treatment of snakebite envenomation. The general scheme for producing snake antivenoms has undergone few changes since its development more than a century ago; however, technological innovations have been introduced in the manufacturing process. These medicines must comply with identity, purity, safety and efficacy profiles, as requested by the current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) applied to modern biopharmaceutical drugs. Industrial production of snake antivenoms comprises several stages, such as: 1) production of reference venom pools, 2) production of hyperimmune plasma, 3) purification of the antivenom immunoglobulins, 4) formulation of the antivenom, 5) stabilization of the formulation, and 6) quality control of in-process and final products...
June 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959967/bactridine-2-effect-in-drg-neurons-identification-of-nhe-as-a-second-target
#11
Pedro Royero, Lisbeth García, Arnaldo Rosales, Gina D'Suze, Carlos Sevcik, Cecilia Castillo
Bactridine 2 (Bact-2) is an antibacterial toxin from Tityus discrepans venom which modifies isoforms 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 voltage-dependent sodium (Nav ) channels. Bactridine-induced Na+ outflow in Yersinia enterocolitica was blocked by amiloride, suggesting that Bact-2 effect was mediated by an amiloride sensitive sodium channel. In this study we show that Bact-2 increases also an outward rectifying current in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons; therefore, the nature of the outward rectifying currents was characterized and then the effect of Bact-2 on these currents was studied...
June 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958858/bioavailability-of-bound-microcystins-in-mice-orally-fed-with-contaminated-tilapia-edible-tissues-implications-to-human-health
#12
Zakaria A Mohamed, Asmaa Bakr, Hamdy A Soliman
This study investigates for the first time in vivo potential release of bound microcystins (MCs) from edible fish tissues. Bound MCs were released in the mouse digestive system and reached the liver (2.1-14.3 ng g-1 ) and blood (1-5 ng ml-1 ). The released MCs were active and negatively affected liver functions of treated mice. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for bound MCs (93.5 μg kg-1 day-1 ) is about 2300 times higher than the WHO safe EDI (0.04 μg kg-1 day-1 ), compared to lower EDI for free MCs (0...
June 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935923/thromboelastometry-analysis-of-severe-north-american-pit-viper-induced-coagulopathy-a-case-report
#13
Dazhe Cao, Kristina Domanski, Erica Hodgman, Carlos Cardenas, Mark Weinreich, Jake Hutto, Kareem R AbdelFattah, Catherine Chen
CASE DETAILS: A 51-year-old man presented with rapid onset encephalopathy and respiratory failure after a suspected intravascular envenomation from a North American pit viper. The patient received antivenom and was transferred to a tertiary care facility where he had cardiovascular collapse and persistent coagulopathy requiring 28 vials of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom for initial control and six vials for maintenance. The patient's coagulopathy was monitored using "traditional" measures (platelets, fibrinogen, and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM® )...
June 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935922/next-generation-sequencing-and-mass-spectrometry-reveal-high-taxonomic-diversity-and-complex-phytoplankton-phycotoxins-patterns-in-southeastern-pacific-fjords
#14
Mario Moreno-Pino, Bernd Krock, Rodrigo De la Iglesia, Isidora Echenique-Subiabre, Gemita Pizarro, Mónica Vásquez, Nicole Trefault
In fjord systems, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) not only constitute a serious problem when affecting the wildlife and ecosystems, but also human health and economic activities related to the marine environment. This is mostly due to a broad spectrum of toxic compounds produced by several members of the phytoplankton. Nevertheless, a deep coverage of the taxonomic diversity and composition of phytoplankton species and phycotoxin profiles in HAB prone areas are still lacking and little is known about the relationship between these fundamental elements for fjord ecosystems...
June 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928892/phospholipases-a-2-purified-from-cottonmouth-snake-venoms-display-no-antibacterial-effect-against-four-representative-bacterial-species
#15
Ying Jia, Justin Villarreal
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) has widely been reported to possess antibacterial effects, and PLA2 is the major component of cottonmouth snake venoms. We assessed the antibacterial activities of crude venoms from Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) snakes against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae) bacteria...
June 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920255/potential-for-dietary-exposure-to-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-and-microcystin-from-a-freshwater-system
#16
Laura L Scott, Simoné Downing, Tim Downing
The suggested link between β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and the onset of neurodegenerative diseases and the detection of this cyanotoxin in aquatic organisms has prompted research into the potential human exposure risk associated with sourcing food items from eutrophied water bodies worldwide. The Hartbeespoort Dam reservoir in the North West province of South Africa has persistent cyanobacterial blooms and is used extensively by anglers, many of whom consume their catch. The commercial sale of fish species harvested from this reservoir as part of a recent biomanipulative remediation strategy may pose an additional hazard...
June 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920256/dipteran-toxicity-assays-for-determining-the-oral-insecticidal-activity-of-venoms-and-toxins
#17
Shaodong Guo, Volker Herzig, Glenn F King
The growing world population is placing an increasing demand on food production. In addition, abuse and misuse of chemical insecticides has led to the evolution of resistance in insect pests as well as environmental damage. Together, these developments have created a demand for new insecticidal compounds to facilitate global food production. Arachnid venom peptides provide an environmentally-friendly alternative as potential bioinsecticides given their advantages of being fully biodegradable, highly potent, and phyletically selective...
June 16, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913196/pntx2-6-or-%C3%AE-cntx-pn2a-a-toxin-from-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom-releases-l-glutamate-from-rat-brain-synaptosomes-involving-na-and-ca-2-channels-and-changes-protein-expression-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Carolina Nunes da Silva, Rosângela Silva Lomeo, Fernanda Silva Torres, Marcia Helena Borges, Marta Cordeiro Nascimento, Maria Helena Rodrigues Mesquita-Britto, Catarina Rapôso, Adriano Monteiro de Castro Pimenta, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Dawidson Assis Gomes, Maria Elena de Lima
PhTx2 is the most toxic fraction from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, being responsible to sodium entry into cortical synaptosomes, increasing the release of neurotransmitters, such as l-glutamate (L-Glu) and; acetylcholine. In this study, we investigated the action of a toxin purified from; PhTx2 fraction, called PnTx2-6 or δ-CNTX-Pn2a, on L-Glu release from rat; brain cortex synaptosomes, as well as its ability to induce blood-brain barrier permeability. PnTx2-6 increased L-Glu release from rat cortical brain synaptosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner (EC50 = ∼20 nM; Tm = 16min), as measured by a fluorimetric method...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913195/loss-of-skin-alkaloids-in-poison-toads-melanophryniscus-klappenbachi-anura-bufonidae-when-fed-alkaloid-free-diet
#19
Dietrich Mebs, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Toads of the genus Melanophryniscus contain toxic alkaloids sequestered from a diet of mainly ants and mites. Wild-caught specimens of M. klappenbachi were fed an alkaloid-free diet and their alkaloid profile was analyzed during 38 months in captivity. Individual alkaloid patterns varied considerably. Over time, the concentration of two alkaloids, pumiliotoxin 251D and 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 195B, significantly declined, suggesting that the toads depend on continuous access to alkaloid-containing prey to maintain natural levels of their chemical defense...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909065/evaluation-of-kim-1-as-an-early-biomarker-of-snakebite-induced-aki-in-mice
#20
Rodrigo Tavares Dantas, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Dânya Bandeira Lima, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Jader Almeida Canuto, Marcos Hikari Toyama, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications of bothropic poisoning and its early identification remains challenging. The nephrotoxicity of Bothrops insularis venom (BinsV) was previously described by our research group. In this study, we continued to evaluate the effect of BinsV on kidney function in mice and LLC-MK2 proximal tubule cells, evaluating KIM-1 protein as an early AKI biomarker. Male Swiss mice were inoculated with BinsV intramuscularly and observed for 24 h in a metabolic cage model...
June 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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