journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782952/the-snakebite-problem-and-antivenom-crisis-from-a-health-economic-perspective
#1
Abdulrazaq G Habib, Nicholas I Brown
The scourge of snakebite has been well documented but largely ignored by the global health community for several decades, especially the role that economics has played in causing and exacerbating this crisis. Every year millions of people in low and middle-income countries face death, disability and disadvantage from snakebite envenoming (SBE) without access to appropriate treatment. Health-economic factors pervade every aspect of this neglected problem. A multitude of financial and commercial factors helped to cause, and now perpetuate, shortages of high quality, affordable and region-appropriate antivenom in areas where they are most needed...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782951/clinical-consequences-of-toxic-envenomations-by-hymenoptera
#2
Justin O Schmidt
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782950/geographic-range-expansion-of-tetrodotoxin-in-amphibians-first-record-in-atelopus-hoogmoedi-from-the-guiana-shield
#3
Dietrich Mebs, Max Lorentz, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Daniela C Rößler, Raffael Ernst, Stefan Lötters
For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by high resolution hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. One specimen from Suriname was found to contain TTX and 4-epiTTX. Using a monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical staining technique, TTX was localized mainly in the granular glands and epithelium of the skin, but not in internal organs except liver showing weak TTX-positive reaction...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778595/the-history-of-antivenoms-development-beyond-calmette-and-vital-brazil
#4
Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão, Osvaldo Augusto Sant'Anna, José Roberto Marcelino, Denise V Tambourgi
This review presents the main contributions to our knowledge regarding the development of antivenoms for therapeutic use in victims of venomous animal bites. We cover the progress of serum therapy since tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins in Germany and France until the current scenario of antivenom production worldwide. During these more than 120 years of antivenom development, many researchers contributed to establish what are nowadays the antivenoms used for therapeutic purpose. The history of antivenoms development is fascinating! This review aims to recognize all those who contributed to the establishment of new sera, new methodologies and saving lives: much more than Calmette and Vital Brazil...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778594/differetial-toxin-profiles-of-ciguatoxins-in-marine-organisms-chemistry-fate-and-global-distribution
#5
REVIEW
Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable cells causing the human food poisoning known as Ciguatera (CFP). Endemic from tropical areas in central Pacific and West Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea, CTX may affects up to 500,000 people annually due to fish consumption...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778593/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-exposure-on-cerebral-lipid-peroxidation-neurotransmitter-and-calcium-homeostasis-of-chicks-in-vivo
#6
Xichun Wang, Jishun Tang, Fangfang Geng, Lei Zhu, Xiaoyan Chu, Yafei Zhang, Sajid Ur Rahman, Xiaofang Chen, Yunjing Jiang, Dianfeng Zhu, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Jin Jie Wu
During current research, the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure on cerebral lipid peroxidation, neurotransmitter secretion and calcium homeostasis in chicks were evaluated. One hundred and twenty Hailan chicks (male, 1-day-old) were randomly divided into four groups. Chicks in low, medium and high dose groups were fed with 0.27, 1.68 and 12.21 mg/kg-1 DON respectively by gavage according to feed intake. Chicks in control group were fed with physiological saline by gavage. The trials were conducted for 36 d...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772212/a-new-microcystin-producing-nostoc-strain-discovered-in-broad-toxicological-screening-of-non-planktic-nostocaceae-cyanobacteria
#7
Andreja Kust, Petra Urajová, Pavel Hrouzek, Dai Long Vu, Kateřina Čapková, Lenka Štenclová, Klára Řeháková, Eliška Kozlíková-Zapomělová, Olga Lepšová-Skácelová, Alena Lukešová, Jan Mareš
Benthic cyanobacteria recognized as producers of natural products, including cyanotoxins, have been neglected for systematic toxicological studies. Thus, we have performed a broad study investigating cyanotoxin potential of 311 non-planktic nostocacean representatives combining molecular and chemical analyses. Out of these, a single strain Nostoc sp. Treb K1/5, was identified as a new microcystin producer. Microcystins [Asp3 ]MC-YR, [Asp3 ]MC-FR, [Asp3 ]MC-HtyR and Ala-Leu/Ile-Asp-Arg-Adda-Glu-Mdha are reported for the first time from the genus Nostoc...
May 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772211/synthesis-folding-structure-and-activity-of-a-predicted-peptide-from-the-sea-anemone-oulactis-sp-with-an-shkt-fold
#8
Bankala Krishnarjuna, Jessica Villegas-Moreno, Michela L Mitchell, Agota Csoti, Steve Peigneur, Carlos Amero, Michael W Pennington, Jan Tytgat, Gyorgy Panyi, Raymond S Norton
Sea anemone venom is rich in bioactive compounds, including peptides containing multiple disulfide bridges. In a transcriptomic study on Oulactis sp., we identified the putative 36-residue peptide, OspTx2b, which is an isoform of the KV channel blocker OspTx2a (Sunanda P et al. (2018) Identification, chemical synthesis, structure and function of a new KV 1 channel blocking peptide from Oulactis sp. Peptide Science, in press). As OspTx2b contains a ShK/BgK-like cysteine framework, with high amino acid sequence similarity to BgK, we were interested to investigate its structure and function...
May 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763628/whole-snake-venoms-cytotoxic-anti-metastatic-and-antiangiogenic-properties
#9
Harald Kerkkamp, Christoph Bagowski, Jeroen Kool, Babette van Soolingen, Freek Vonk, Daniëlle Vlecken
Currently, biological and organic substances are screened in order to find a new generation of therapeutics active against cancer. Previous research has identified promising candidate peptides in snake venom. In this study, venoms from different snake species (Naja annulifera, Naja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah and Echis carinatus) were screened for potential anti-cancer properties using pancreatic tumour cells as the assay system. The cells were incubated with venom and then subjected to the following analyses: (i) in vitro cell death (ii) in vitro migration (iii) in vivo dissemination and (iv) in vivo angiogenesis...
May 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753785/lactoferrin-inhibits-aflatoxin-b1-and-aflatoxin-m1-induced-cytotoxicity-and-dna-damage-in-caco-2-hek-hep-g2-and-sk-n-sh-cells
#10
Nan Zheng, Huan Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang, Jia Liu, Hui Ren, Yanan Gao
Aflatoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and M1 (AFM1 ), are natural potent carcinogens produced by Aspergillus spp. These compounds, which can often be detected in dairy foods, can cause diseases in human beings. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in cytotoxicity, as well as methods for intervention, remain largely unexplored. For example, it is unclear whether lactoferrin (LF), a major antioxidant in milk, can inhibit the cytotoxicity of AFB1 and AFM1 . In this study, we assessed AFB1 - and AFM1 -induced cell toxicity by measuring cell viability, membrane permeability, and genotoxicity, and then investigated the ability of LF to protect cells against AFB1 and AFM1 ...
May 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746979/benthic-periphyton-from-pennsylvania-usa-are-a-source-for-both-hepatotoxins-microcystins-nodularin-and-neurotoxins-anatoxin-a-homoanatoxin-a
#11
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Mark T Aubel
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lower levels. Microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) were also tested and found to be concomitant, with NOD-R confirmed present by LC-MS/MS.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#12
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746977/antivenoms-life-saving-drugs-for-envenomings-by-animal-bites-and-stings
#13
EDITORIAL
José María Gutiérrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730150/neurotoxicity-fingerprinting-of-venoms-using-on-line-microfluidic-achbp-profiling
#14
Julien Slagboom, Reka A Otvos, Fernanda C Cardoso, Janaki Iyer, Jeroen C Visser, Bjorn R van Doodewaerd, Ryan J R McCleary, Wilfried M A Niessen, Govert W Somsen, Richard J Lewis, R Manjunatha Kini, August B Smit, Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen Kool
Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation...
May 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730149/comparison-of-biological-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-venom-from-rattlesnakes-in-the-southern-baja-california-peninsula
#15
Gustavo Arnaud-Franco, Amaury Cordero-Tapia, Víctor Ortíz-Ávila, Claudia Lizbeth Moctezuma-González, Moisés Tejocote-Pérez, Alejandro Carbajal-Saucedo
In Mexico more than 40% of reported snakebites are due to rattlesnake species. In general, the venoms of these snakes are characterized by the presence of highly enzymatic components that could provoke coagulopathies, local and systemic tissue damage and some cases neurotoxicity. In northwestern Mexico (Baja California Peninsula, Gulf of California and Pacific islands), 15 species of Crotalus are distributed. Such a biodiversity implies a high variability in venom compositions that in turns would results in high variability in clinical manifestations...
May 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723550/scorpion-toxins-to-unravel-the-conundrum-of-ion-channel-structure-and-functioning
#16
Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
The consequences of scorpion stings on the affected victims, including humans, have been known since ancient times. The effects of the venom, first on neurotransmission and thereafter on many physiological processes at the organism, tissue, cellular or molecular levels, have been the subject of intense research. It is, therefore, not surprising that a large number of toxins acting on a variety of ion channels have been isolated and described to date. Many of these toxins show high specificities and affinities towards their natural targets...
April 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715468/immunomodulatory-effects-of-selected-cyanobacterial-peptides-in-vitro
#17
Zdena Moosova, Pavel Hrouzek, Aleksandra Kapuscik, Ludek Blaha, Ondrej Adamovsky
Cyanobacteria produce many biologically active metabolites synthesized via nonribosomal synthetic pathways such as cyclic microcystins (MCs) and linear aeruginosins (Aers). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different MC variants and the newly isolated aerugenosin Aer-865 on macrophages, which represent one of the key effector cells within the innate immune responses. Specifically, our study included RAW 264.7 macrophage activation associated with production of cytotoxic and cytostatic nitric oxide (NO) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
April 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715467/diversity-of-peptidic-and-proteinaceous-toxins-from-social-hymenoptera-venoms
#18
José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma
Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey...
April 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705151/extraction-and-preliminary-chemical-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-spider-wasp-pepsis-decorata-hymenoptera-pompilidae
#19
Matheus Nolasco, Ilka Biondi, Daniel C Pimenta, Alexsandro Branco
Arthropod venoms may be considered important sources of bioactive molecules; however, technical difficulties, such as venom extraction and homogeneity may impair the biochemical identification of new molecules. In this context, we have developed a method to maintain wasps in captivity that allows the collection of the venom, without use of chemical, mechanical or electrical stimuli. The crude venom was analyzed by RP-HPLC-ESIQ-ToF and 20 peptides were identified by de novo peptide sequencing, among them Eumenine-Mastoparan and a Ponericin-G2-simile peptide...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705150/a-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase-a-2-homologue-is-the-major-component-of-the-venom-of-bothrops-cotiara-from-misiones-argentina
#20
Adolfo de Roodt, Julián Fernández, Daniela Solano, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops cotiara is a pitviper found in Southeastern Brazil and, scarcely, in the Misiones province of Argentina. In contrast to considerable information available on the venom of the Brazilian snake population, that of Misiones has received little attention. While exploring the chromatographic venom profile of Argentinean B. cotiara, a major protein peak was found which, according to a previous study, is not present in the venom of Brazilian origin. The corresponding protein was isolated by RP-HPLC, and characterized by electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) assay, and myotoxic activities...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
journal
journal
25464
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"