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Clinical Radiology

A J Bizdikian, A Assi, Z Bakouny, F Yared, E Saghbini, G E Bakhos, S Esber, N Khalil, J Otayek, J Ghanimeh, C Sauret, W Skalli, I Ghanem
AIM: To determine a valid and reliable neck-shaft angle (NSA) measurement method while rotating the pelvises in increments of 5° in order to simulate patient malpositioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 17 patients were used to produce digitally reconstructed radiographs in frontal and lateral views and three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructions of the femurs, considered to be the reference standard. Malpositioning was simulated by axially rotating the frontal radiographs from 0° to 20°...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Radiology
I Missrie, B Hochhegger, M Zanon, J Capobianco, A César de Macedo Neto, R Pereira Maciel, V Baptista Antunes, C M de Figueiredo, G Szarf, G Meirelles
AIM: To evaluate digital chest radiography (CR) performance compared to computed tomography (CT) for characterising small low-risk pulmonary nodules detected incidentally in non-oncological patients. A second aim was to assess the prevalence of calcification and possible false-positive findings mimicking nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seven patients who presented with a pulmonary nodule on CR and underwent CT were included prospectively. Nine radiologists blinded to the CT images reviewed the CRs assessing for the presence of nodules...
July 3, 2018: Clinical Radiology
A Evans, P Whelehan, A Thompson, C Purdie, L Jordan, J Macaskill, S Henderson, S Vinnicombe
AIM: To assess the value of post-treatment shear-wave elastography (SWE) parameters (maximum stiffness [Emax], mean stiffness [Emean], and standard deviation [SD]) compared to greyscale ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 80 patients receiving NACT for breast cancer underwent baseline and post-treatment US, SWE, and MRI examinations...
July 3, 2018: Clinical Radiology
O Hulson
AIM: To analyse data provided by the National Health Service Litigation Authority (NHSLA) to establish common and/or reoccurring themes or trends, and use these established learning points to reduce the possibility of such claims in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data provided by the NHSLA under the Freedom of Information Act for settled claims against radiology between 1995 and 2014 were analysed for common themes. RESULTS: Seven hundred and ninety-one settled claims were recorded by the NHSLA between 1995 and 2014 where radiology was implicated as the primary specialty at fault...
July 3, 2018: Clinical Radiology
J J James, E Giannotti, Y Chen
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of computer-aided detection (CAD)-enhanced synthetic mammograms in comparison with standard synthetic mammograms and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CAD-enhanced synthetic mammogram, a standard synthetic mammogram, and FFDM were available in 68 breast-screening cases recalled for soft-tissue abnormalities (masses, parenchymal deformities, and asymmetric densities). Two radiologists, blinded to image type and final assessment outcome, retrospectively read oblique and craniocaudal projections for each type of mammogram...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
D Zhang, Q Zhang, S Suo, Z Zhuang, L Li, J Lu, J Hua
AIM: To determine which region of interest (ROI) placement method of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement has the best performance for predicting pathological complete response (PCR) at two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) according to different tumour shrinkage patterns of luminal breast cancer and to assess the evaluative accuracy of ADC value combined with other clinicopathological indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients who underwent NAC for histopathologically confirmed breast cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
G Bathla, P Watal, S Gupta, N Soni, A A Capizzano, C P Derdeyn, T Moritani
AIM: To determine the occurrence of ischaemic and haemorrhagic events in patients with neurosarcoidosis at presentation and follow-up and to evaluate its association with perivascular enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI findings in patients with neurosarcoidosis who presented to our institute from 2002-2017 were retrospectively reviewed, with emphasis on cerebrovascular events. A chi-squared test was used to evaluate the statistical association with presence of perivascular enhancement...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
W Ma, Y Ji, L Qi, X Guo, X Jian, P Liu
AIM: To investigate whether quantitative radiomics features extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are associated with Ki67 expression of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective study comprised 377 Chinese women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2015. This cohort included 53 low-Ki67 expression (Ki67 proliferation index less than 14%) and 324 cases with high-Ki67 expression (Ki67 proliferation index more than 14%)...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
J A Stephenson, J Pancholi, C V Ivan, J H Mullineux, H Patel, R Verma, M Elabassy
AIM: To present the initial 12 months of data of a straight-to-test (STT) computed tomography colonography (CTC) protocol as the first-line investigation for change in bowel habit (CIBH) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in patients over 60 referred directly from primary care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 months, 1,792 STT CTC for IDA and CIBH were performed. No colonoscopies were performed as the primary investigation in this cohort. Data from this cohort were gathered prospectively...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
S Sevcenco, A B Maj-Hes, S Hruby, L Ponhold, G Heinz-Peer, M Rauchenwald, M Marszalek, H C Klingler, S Polanec, P A T Baltzer
AIM: To assess the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements obtained by MRI to predict disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with bladder cancer and compare it with established clinico-pathological prognostic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ethical review board approved this cross-sectional study. Patients with suspected bladder cancer receiving diagnostic 3 T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the bladder before transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B) or radical cystectomy were evaluated prospectively...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Radiology
K L Cheng, J Y Huang, C L Su, K C Tung, J Y Chiou
AIM: To demonstrate the risk of cataract associated with radiation exposure from neuro-interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based, matched-cohort study. The exposed group (group E) comprised patients diagnosed with an aneurysm, cerebrovascular system anomaly, or subarachnoid haemorrhage who underwent a neuro-interventional procedure, such as brain digital subtraction angiography or endovascular embolisation. The comparison group (group C) included subjects who were never exposed to radiation from neuro-interventional procedures and were propensity score-matched by the date of enrolment, age, sex, and associated comorbidities...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Radiology
J J James, S L Tennant
Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and staging of primary breast cancer. It combines an iodinated contrast agent with conventional mammography to improve diagnostic accuracy, particularly in women with denser parenchymal background patterns. This review describes the CESM technique, reviews performance compared to conventional mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, assesses its role in the diagnosis and staging of primary breast cancer, and investigates its potential as a screening tool...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Y Liu, G-M-Y Zhang, X Peng, Y Wen, W Ye, K Zheng, X Li, H Sun, L Chen
AIM: To evaluate renal fibrosis in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled. DKI was performed on a clinical 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, and region-of-interest measurements were conducted to determine mean kurtosis (K), mean diffusivity (D), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the kidney cortex. Renal biopsy specimens were scored based on the severity of renal fibrosis...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Radiology
H Pasquier, F Gardavaud, M Chiaradia, F Zanca, E Hérin, S Mulé, A Rahmouni, A Luciani
AIM: To evaluate the clinical benefits on image quality (IQ) of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in multiphasic liver CT compared to filtered back-projection (FBP), in patients and on phantoms using a novel task-based metric. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image data of 65 patients who underwent a routine multiphasic liver CT during a 1-month period were reconstructed with FBP, ASIR50, ASIR80, and MBIR...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Radiology
A N Tavare, S S Hare, F N A Miller, C J Hammond, A Edey, A Devaraj
AIM: To ascertain current percutaneous lung biopsy practices around the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to all British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) and British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) members (May 2017) assessing all aspects of lung biopsy practice. Responses were collected anonymously. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-nine completed responses were received (28.8% response rate). Of the respondents, 48...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
B Wang, B Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, P Zhao, Na Sun, C Li, Q Pang, S Xu, Y Liu
AIM: To investigate the efficiency of absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the differentiation of tumour recurrence (TR) and radionecrosis (RN) in brain metastases (BM) and to evaluate the performance of absolute CBV compared to relative CBV (rCBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2017, 46 patients with BM underwent quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) because new enhancement had been demonstrated in irradiated lesions after gamma knife radiotherapy...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
S V de Lange, M F Bakker, E M Monninkhof, P H M Peeters, P K de Koekkoek-Doll, R M Mann, M J C M Rutten, R H C Bisschops, J Veltman, K M Duvivier, M B I Lobbes, H J de Koning, N Karssemeijer, R M Pijnappel, W B Veldhuis, C H van Gils
AIM: To determine the willingness of women with extremely dense breasts to undergo breast cancer screening with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a research setting, and to examine reasons for women to participate or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2011 and 2015, 8,061 women (50-75 years) were invited for supplemental MRI as part of the Dense Tissue and Early Breast Neoplasm Screening (DENSE) trial ( Identifier: NCT01315015), after a negative screening mammography in the national population-based mammography screening programme...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
T Gaunt, K Mankad, A Calder, A P Tan, G Talenti, T A Watson, D Thompson
The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is the bony transition between the cranium and cervical spine. It is a biomechanically complex articulation comprising the occipital condyles (Oc) the atlas (C1) and axis (C2). Pathologies affecting the CVJ in children are myriad with clinical features resulting from biomechanical instability, deformity, or neuraxial compression. Establishing the natural history and clinical burden of a condition is challenging in infants and young children, often complicated by co-existing neuromuscular and cognitive impairment...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Radiology
C Park, J M Ahn, H Kim, Y Kang, E Lee, J W Lee, H S Kang
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence, clinical relevance, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of extra-capsular ganglia at the gastrocnemius origin and to assess their association with internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the knee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive knee MRI examinations, obtained within a 6-month period from patients with no history of recent knee trauma, recent injections, inflammatory arthritis, infection, or tumours, were evaluated retrospectively for the presence of ganglia at the gastrocnemius origin...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Y Arlachov, R Ibrahem Adam
Acute hip pain is a common presenting complaint among patients attending Emergency Departments particularly following a traumatic event. A proximal femoral fracture is the main consideration, which requires urgent confirmation and treatment; however, there are a number of conditions, which could mimic neck of femur fracture and the causes may not be directly related to the hip, so systematic and careful observation of pelvic MRI could shed light on the true culprit of acute hip pain.
June 11, 2018: Clinical Radiology
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