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Clinical Radiology

T Tang, J-L Qiu, G-W Li, M-P Huang, Y Li, Y-J Li, S-Z Gu
AIM: To evaluate the value of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 315 patients were enrolled, who were randomly divided into the training cohort (n=158) and the validation cohort (n=157). The optimal cut-off value of the APRI was determined using the X-tile software in the training cohort, and was validated in the validation cohort...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Y Lu, J Xiong, B Yin, J Wen, L Liu, D Geng
AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) imaging in grading and differentiating histological subtypes of meningiomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and pCASL were acquired with a 3 T MRI system before surgery in 125 consecutive patients with suspected meningiomas. Finally, the perfusion parameters were collected from 84 grade I and 23 grade II meningiomas...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Y Nagayama, T Nakaura, S Oda, A Tsuji, J Urata, M Furusawa, S Tanoue, D Utsunomiya, Y Yamashita
AIM: To perform an intra-individual investigation of the usefulness of a contrast medium (CM) and radiation dose-reduction protocol using single-source computed tomography (CT) combined with 100 kVp and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) for whole-body CT (WBCT; chest-abdomen-pelvis CT) in oncology patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three oncology patients who had undergone WBCT under both 120 and 100 kVp protocols at different time points (mean interscan intervals: 98 days) were included retrospectively...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Radiology
T A Szyszko, G J R Cook
Combined 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has an established role in the staging of difficult cases of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), looking for an unknown primary, assessing response post-chemotherapy at 3-6 months, and differentiating relapse from treatment effects in patients suspected to have tumour recurrence. The PET NECK trial, comparing PET/CT surveillance versus neck dissection in advanced head and neck cancer showed survival was similar among patients who underwent PET/CT-guided surveillance and those who underwent planned neck dissection, but surveillance was more cost-effective...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Radiology
T J A van Nijnatten, R-J Schipper, M B I Lobbes, L M van Roozendaal, S Vöö, M Moossdorff, M-L Paiman, B de Vries, K B M I Keymeulen, J E Wildberger, M L Smidt, R G H Beets-Tan
AIM: To evaluate diagnostic performance of gadofosveset (GDF)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to T2-weighted (T2W) MRI for nodal (re)staging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety patients underwent axillary T2W- and GDF-MRI. Two radiologists independently scored each lymph node; first on T2W-MRI, subsequently adjusting their score on GDF-MRI. Diagnostic performance parameters were calculated on node-by-node and patient-by-patient validation with histopathology as the reference standard...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Radiology
N Venkatanarasimha, A Gogna, K T A Tong, K Damodharan, P K H Chow, R H G Lo, S Chandramohan
Transarterial radioembolisation (TARE) has gained increasing acceptance as an additional/alternative locoregional treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal hepatic metastases that present beyond potentially curative options. This is a catheter-based transarterial selective internal brachytherapy that involves injection of radioactive microspheres (usually Y-90) that are delivered selectively to the liver tumours. Owing to the combined radioactive and microembolic effect, the findings at follow-up imaging are significantly different from that seen with other transarterial treatment options...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Radiology
T J Sadler, T Zhang, H L Taylor, C Brassett
AIMS: To investigate the current use of radiology in anatomy teaching across the UK, and to determine the level of interest expressed in expanding its role in medical education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 22-question electronic survey was distributed to the organisers of anatomy teaching at 35 UK medical schools. The questionnaire explored the use of radiology in their anatomy course, the different kinds of available resources, and attitudes towards integrating radiology into anatomy teaching...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Radiology
A S McQueen, K S Bhatia
High-resolution ultrasound (US) provides superb anatomical detail in the superficial anatomy of the neck and has become the first-line imaging investigation for neck lumps and a crucial component of clinical pathways. In this article, a wide range of advances in neck US are described with a focus on the emerging role of ultrasound elastography. Selected examples of clinical utility are presented across a spectrum of scenarios with discussion of newer applications, service delivery, and training issues. The changing role of the neck ultrasound practitioner and the future of the technique in the head and neck are considered...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Radiology
R K Lingam, S E J Connor, J W Casselman, T Beale
Imaging of middle-ear cholesteatoma with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and inner-ear endolymphatic hydrops (in Ménière's disease) with post-gadolinium high-resolution MRI, are reviewed. DWI MRI provides for a more specific diagnosis of tympano-mastoid cholesteatoma. There is an established and increasing role of DWI MRI in detecting both primary and postoperative cholesteatoma, localising disease, and planning surgery. The contemporary diagnostic accuracy of DWI is reviewed, pitfalls in interpretation are described, and potential future developments are highlighted...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Radiology
S Liu, X Pan, R Liu, H Zheng, L Chen, W Guan, H Wang, Y Sun, L Tang, Y Guan, Y Ge, J He, Z Zhou
AIM: To explore the role of texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) images in predicting the malignancy risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with histopathologically confirmed GISTs underwent preoperative CT. Texture analysis was performed on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images, respectively. Fourteen CT texture parameters were obtained and compared among GISTs at different malignancy risks with one-way analysis of variance or independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Radiology
C H Suh, A B Shinagare, A M Westenfield, N H Ramaiya, A D Van den Abbeele, K W Kim
AIM: To evaluate the yield of staging bone scintigraphy in patients with treatment-naive prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerised search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to find relevant original literature. Studies that investigated the positivity of a staging bone scintigraphy according to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and/or Gleason score in patients with treatment-naive prostate cancer were eligible for inclusion. Meta-analytic pooling was performed using the inverse variance method for calculating weights...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Radiology
F He, Y Yin, L Huang, H Li, Y Cao
AIM: To use prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define features of meconium peritonitis (MP) and analyse the relationship between prenatal MRI findings and postnatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight cases were enrolled who had been diagnosed with MP through prenatal MRI; the diagnoses were confirmed at surgery and pathology or follow-up. MP was diagnosed by the findings of meconium ascites, meconium pseudocyst, or dilated bowel loops. Prenatal follow-up after diagnosis by MRI was performed by ultrasound...
September 24, 2017: Clinical Radiology
S Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Clinical Radiology
A De Silvestro, K Martini, A S Becker, T D L Kim-Nguyen, R Guggenberger, M Calcagni, T Frauenfelder
AIM: To prospectively investigate digital tomosynthesis (DTS) as an alternative to digital radiography (DR) for postoperative imaging of orthopaedic hardware after trauma or arthrodesis in the hand and wrist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients (12 female, median age 36 years, range 19-86 years) were included in this institutional review board approved clinical trial. Imaging was performed with DTS in dorso-palmar projection and DR was performed in dorso-palmar, lateral, and oblique views...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Radiology
M De Maeseneer, S Wuertzer, J de Mey, M Shahabpour
In this article we provide an overview of impingement syndromes of the lower limb. At the level of the hip, femoroacetabular and ischiofemoral impingement are recognised. At the level of the knee, we discuss Hoffa's fat pad impingement, suprapatellar fat pad impingement, pericruciate impingement, and iliotibial band syndrome. The impingement syndromes associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair and intercondylar osteophytes are also illustrated. Most impingement syndromes are described at the level of the ankle...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Radiology
F Bolster, Z Ali, B Daly
AIM: To document the detection of underlying low-attenuation spinal cord or brain stem injuries in the presence of the "pseudo-CT myelogram sign" (PCMS) on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PCMS was identified on PMCT in 20 decedents (11 male, nine female; age 3-83 years, mean age 35.3 years) following fatal blunt trauma at a single forensic centre. Osseous and ligamentous craniocervical region injuries and brain stem or spinal cord trauma detectable on PMCT were recorded...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
S L Savaridas, D B Taylor, D Gunawardana, M Phillips
AIM: To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on contrast-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography (CESM) with CE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluate how these relate to hormonal status, mammographic breast density (MBD) and MRI fibroglandular tissue volume (FGTV). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 2012 to October 2015, participants in a cancer staging study underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM), CEMRI, and CESM. Two readers independently rated FGTV, MBD, and BPE using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) criteria...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
A K Ho, S Girgis, G Low
Uncommon liver lesions pose a diagnostic challenge because of unfamiliar imaging findings. For simplification, these lesions can be divided into four broad categories based on the dominant imaging feature in each: hypervascular, hypovascular, fat-containing, or cystic lesions. In this review, we profile the radiological features of uncommon liver lesions on multimodality imaging including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine.
September 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
M França, L Martí-Bonmatí, G Porto, S Silva, S Guimarães, Á Alberich-Bayarri, J R Vizcaíno, H Pessegueiro Miranda
AIM: To investigate iron loading within the liver, pancreas, spleen, and bone marrow using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) transverse relaxation rate (R2*), in patients with diffuse liver diseases; to evaluate the relationships between iron accumulation in these tissue compartments; and to assess the association between tissue iron overload and the pattern of hepatic cellular iron distribution (hepatocytes versus Kupffer cells). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with diffuse liver diseases had MRI-derived R2* values, using a multi-echo chemical-shift encoded MRI sequence, of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and vertebral bone marrow...
August 29, 2017: Clinical Radiology
A W H Ng, J F Griffith, R K L Lee, W L Tse, C W Y Wong, P C Ho
AIM: To define the usefulness of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve distal to the carpal tunnel in addition to other established common parameters in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four wrists from 24 symptomatic CTS patients and 32 wrists from 17 asymptomatic volunteers were evaluated by ultrasound. The CSA of the median nerve was measured at four pre-selected levels, i.e., proximal, inlet, outlet, and distal to the carpal tunnel...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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