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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742367/genetics-realized-heritability-and-possible-mechanism-of-chlorfenapyr-resistance-in-oxycarenus-hyalinipennis-lygaeidae-hemiptera
#1
Saif Ullah, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742366/larval-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-fitness-and-oviposition-site-preference-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742365/resistance-to-aryloxyphenoxypropionate-herbicides-in-amazon-sprangletop-confirmation-control-and-molecular-basis-of-resistance
#3
Parsa Tehranchian, Jason K Norsworthy, Nicholas E Korres, Scott McElroy, Shu Chen, Robert C Scott
Amazon sprangletop is problematic weed of rice in the midsouthern USA. Two biotypes of this species from rice fields approximately 100km apart in Louisiana were unaffected when sprayed with the labeled field rate of cyhalofop-butyl (314g ai ha(-1)) in 2008. Dose response studies were conducted to confirm the level of resistance to cyhalofop-butyl over a range of doses. Cross-resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides from two different chemical families and multiple herbicide resistance to other mechanisms of action were evaluated...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742364/an-investigation-into-the-formation-of-tebufenozide-s-toxic-aromatic-amine-metabolites-in-human-in-vitro-hepatic-microsomes
#4
Khaled M Abass
Tebufenozide is a nonsteroid ecdysone agonist that causes premature and incomplete molting in Lepidoptera. Studies conducted so far have shown the low toxicity of tebufenozide in mammals, birds and invertebrates. Tebufenozide potential metabolites such as aromatic amines are known to induce methemoglobinemia disorder in humans, most likely by the formation of N-hydroxy metabolites; therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the formation of the potential toxic N-hydroxy derivatives in pooled human hepatic microsomal fractions...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742363/unravelling-the-resistance-mechanisms-to-2-4-d-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-in-corn-poppy-papaver-rhoeas
#5
Jordi Rey-Caballero, Julio Menéndez, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba, Marisa Salas, Ricardo Alcántara, Joel Torra
In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742362/enzymatic-antioxidant-defense-in-resistant-plant-pennisetum-americanum-l-k-schum-during-long-term-atrazine-exposure
#6
Zhao Jiang, Bingbing Ma, Kehinde Olajide Erinle, Bo Cao, Xiaoxue Liu, Siyuan Ye, Ying Zhang
Plants belonging to the genus Pennisetum have been reported to be resistant to atrazine, a widely used herbicide that also can cause serious pollution of soil and water. To evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism to the oxidative stress of atrazine, experiments focusing on the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme in the leaf and root of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum (P. americanum) during long-term (68days) atrazine exposure were carried out. The test plant had not suffered obvious lipid membrane peroxidation, which was further confirmed by the result that the MDA content in the root and the leaf of the test plant did not significantly increase when treated with various concentrations of atrazine...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742361/evidences-of-dna-and-chromosomal-damage-induced-by-the-mancozeb-based-fungicide-mancozan-%C3%A2-in-fish-anguilla-anguilla-l
#7
Ana Marques, Andreia Rego, Sofia Guilherme, Isabel Gaivão, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco
The formulation Mancozan(®), containing mancozeb as active ingredient, is among the most widely used fungicides. Although mancozeb has been detected in surface waters, studies addressing the genotoxic risk to fish arising from the use of this formulation, testing environmentally realistic concentrations, are absent from the literature. Hence, this work aimed to investigate the DNA and chromosome damaging potential of Mancozan(®) (0.29 and 2.9μgL(-1)) in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), after a short-term exposure (3days), through the adoption of the comet and the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assays...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742360/rnai-of-selected-candidate-genes-interrupts-growth-and-development-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
Yojana R Chikate, Vishal V Dawkar, Ranjit S Barbole, Priyadarshini V Tilak, Vidya S Gupta, Ashok P Giri
Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major crop pests and is less amenable to current pest control approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent arsenal for the insect pest control over current methods. Here, we examined the effect on growth and development in H. armigera by targeting various enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine protease like cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b) through dsRNA approach...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742359/fumigant-and-contact-toxicity-of-22-wooden-essential-oils-and-their-major-components-against-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#9
Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742358/identification-of-glutathione-s-transferase-genes-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-and-their-expression-patterns-under-stress-of-three-insecticides
#10
Jin-Bo Han, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Tao-Tao Zhu, Qing-Wei Meng
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in detoxification of poisonous compounds. In the present paper, the Leptinotarsa decemlineata genome and transcriptome dataset were mined and 30 GST genes were identified. These GSTs belonged to cytosolic (29 genes) and microsomal (1 gene) classes. Among them 3 GSTs (LdGSTe2, LdGSTs4, and LdGSTo3) possessed splice variants. Of the 29 cytosolic LdGSTs, 3, 10, 5, 4, 4, and 1 members were classified as delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta, and zeta subclasses respectively, along with 2 unclassified genes...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742357/metabolism-of-citral-the-major-constituent-of-lemongrass-oil-in-the-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni-and-effects-of-enzyme-inhibitors-on-toxicity-and-metabolism
#11
Jun-Hyung Tak, Murray B Isman
Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742356/genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-the-fungicide-azoxystrobin-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-livers
#12
Yingnan Han, Tong Liu, Jinhua Wang, Jun Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lusheng Zhu
Azoxystrobin is a frequently used fungicide in agriculture. Its toxicological effects on non-target organisms have aroused attention. In the present work, the toxic effects of azoxystrobin on zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. Male and female zebrafish were separately exposed to a control solution and three azoxystrobin treatments (1, 10, and 100μg/L) and were sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated in excess in the zebrafish livers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly inhibited in the male zebrafish...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742355/pyrethroid-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-important-mosquito-vectors-of-human-diseases
#13
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521923/identification-and-characteristic-analysis-of-the-catalase-gene-from-locusta-migratoria
#14
Xueyao Zhang, Yahong Li, Junxiu Wang, Tingting Zhang, Tao Li, Wei Dong, Enbo Ma, Jianzhen Zhang
Catalase (CAT) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms exposed to atmosphere, which involved in decomposing harmful hydrogen peroxide, into oxygen and water. In this study, a full-length cDNA (1524bp) encoding the catalase gene (LmCAT) from Locusta migratoria was cloned (accession number KT716445). The open reading frame of the LmCAT gene encoded 507 amino acids and shared 57.8%-97.8% amino acid identities with other insect CATs. The coding region was interrupted by 9 introns, while its promoter region contained 15 putative binding sites for 5 kinds of transcriptional regulation factors...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521922/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-family-in-three-mosquito-species
#15
Hong Lu, Yongyu Xu, Feng Cui
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521921/proteomics-based-identification-of-midgut-proteins-correlated-with-cry1ac-resistance-in-plutella-xylostella-l
#16
Jixing Xia, Zhaojiang Guo, Zezhong Yang, Xun Zhu, Shi Kang, Xin Yang, Fengshan Yang, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Wen Xie, Weijun Xu, Youjun Zhang
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521920/sublethal-effects-of-spinetoram-on-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae
#17
Ling Wang, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521919/cycloxaprid-a-novel-cis-nitromethylene-neonicotinoid-insecticide-to-control-imidacloprid-resistant-cotton-aphid-aphis-gossypii
#18
Li Cui, Haoliang Qi, Daibin Yang, Huizhu Yuan, Changhui Rui
Imidacloprid is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with potent insecticidal activity. However, resistance to imidacloprid is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species. Cycloxaprid with cis-configuration is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, which shows high activity against imidacloprid-resistant pests. The LC50 of imidacloprid against the resistant Aphis gossypii was 14.33mgL(-1) while it was only 0.70mgL(-1) for the susceptible population, giving a resistance ratio of 20...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521918/cloning-of-eight-rhopalosiphum-padi-hemiptera-aphididae-nachr-subunit-genes-and-mutation-detection-of-the-%C3%AE-1-subunit-in-field-samples-from-china
#19
Meng Zhang, Xianfeng Qiao, Yuting Li, Bing Fang, Yayun Zuo, Maohua Chen
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is one of the most important wheat pests. This aphid damages through direct feeding and by transmitting the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Both types of damage significantly reduce the quality and yield of wheat crops globally. Insecticides are the primary method of controlling the bird cherry-oat aphid in China, yet this aphid species has developed resistance to different types of insecticides, especially organophosphates and carbamates. In the last decade, control of R...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521917/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-an-epsilon-glutathione-s-transferase-from-the-beet-armyworm-spodoptera-exigua
#20
Hu Wan, Sha Zhan, Xiangdong Xia, Pengfei Xu, Hong You, Byung Rae Jin, Jianhong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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