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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Vandana Dahiya, Bhawna Chaubey, Ashok K Dhaharwal, Samanwita Pal
Analysis of the interaction of pesticides and their metabolites with the cellular proteins has drawn considerable attention in past several years to understand the effect of pesticides on environment and mankind. In this study, we have investigated the binding interaction of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) with a widely used organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its stable metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) to provide a comparative analysis of the two molecules by employing various spectroscopic techniques viz...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sabrina Lavarías, Florencia Arrighetti, Augusto Siri
Pesticides are extensively used for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, but they also affect non-target organisms. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide. Otherwise, bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have received great attention as an environmentally benign and desirable alternative. In order to evaluate the toxicity of those pesticides, Chironomus calligraphus was selected due to its high sensitivity to some toxicants. Third and fourth instars larvae were exposed to serial dilutions of CYP and Bti to determine LC50 values...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lei Zhao, Yujia Chen, Kuan Wu, He Yan, Xingan Hao, Yunfeng Wu
Numerous studies reported fatty acids (FAs) affecting basal resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens in plants, but limited reports focused on antiviral agents. In this study, oleic acid was separated from cottonseed oil sludge by antiviral bioassay-guided methods. Antiviral activity of FAs was compared with that of Ningnanmycin. Subsequently, effects of FAs on defense-related enzymes (PAL, POD) and defense-related genes (PR-1a, PR-5) were studied. FAs presented moderate antiviral activity, which is close to that of Ningnanmycin, and activities of PAL and POD were higher in oleic-acid-treated tobacco leaves than those inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and water-treated tobacco...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sethuraman Veeran, Benshui Shu, Gaofeng Cui, Shengjiao Fu, Guohua Zhong
The increasing interest in the role of autophagy (type II cell death) in the regulation of insect toxicology has propelled study of investigating autophagic cell death pathways. Turmeric, the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa (Mañjaḷ in Tamil, India and Jiānghuáng in Chinese) have been traditionally used for the pest control either alone or combination with other botanical pesticides. However, the mechanisms by which Curcuma longa or curcumin exerts cytotoxicity in pests are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potency of Curcuma longa (curcumin) as a natural pesticide employing Sf9 insect line...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jun Ding, You Wu, Lin-Lin You, Bin Xu, Lin-Quan Ge, Guo-Qing Yang, Jin-Cai Wu
The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen), is a serious pest insect of rice, wheat, and maize in China. SBPH not only sucks plant sap but also transmits plant disease viruses, causing serious damage. These viruses include rice striped virus disease (RSV disease), black streaked dwarf, and maize rough disease virus. SBPH outbreaks are related to the overuse of pesticides in China. Some pesticides, such as triazophos, stimulate the reproduction of SBPH, but an antibiotic fungicide jinggangmycin (JGM) suppresses its reproduction...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
K M U Janadaree Bandara, S H P Parakrama Karunaratne
High tolerance of ticks to acaricides is increasingly becoming a problem to cattle farmers. Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)from two cattle farms of Sri Lanka were determined against different concentrations of pyrethroid permethrin, organophosphate malathion, organochlorine DDT and carbamate propoxur using Larval Packet Test (LPT) as recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Mechanisms of acaricide resistance were studied by conducting biochemical and PCR assays...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Shujie Ma, Lin Liu, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang
This study investigated the mode of action of wilforine, an alkaloid with insecticidal properties, extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., on the microstructure and ultrastructure of the muscle cells of larvae and adults of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The bioassay results showed that wilforine had oral toxicity against both M. separata larvae (LC50=63μg/mL) and adults (LC50=36μg/mL). The typical toxicity sign was paralysis leading to death. Both light and electron microscope observations revealed that damage to the muscle cells increased with poisoning time in larvae and adults treated with the LC80 dose of wilforine...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jun Shen, Dongyang Li, Shuzhen Zhang, Xun Zhu, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) has developed resistance to many types of insecticides in the field. To study inheritance and fitness cost of metaflumizone resistance, a susceptible strain of diamondback moth was continuously selected with metaflumizone during 37 generations under laboratory conditions. The resistance to metaflumizone was at a high level (resistance ratios from 250.37 to 1450.47-fold). We investigated a metaflumizone resistance strain (G27) and a susceptible strain of P. xylostella, using the age-stage, two-sex life table approach...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Liping Wang, Zhe Li, Lan Zhang, Yanning Zhang, Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang
Camptothecin (CPT), a quinolone alkaloid extracted from Camptotheca acuminata Decne, exhibits potential insecticidal activities against various insect species. Our previous studies have showed that CPT induced apoptosis in Spodoptera exigua Hübner cell line and inhibited the relaxation activity of topoisomerase I (Topo I). In this study, total seven 20(S)-t-butoxy carbonyl-amino acid derivatives of CPT were synthesized and evaluated for insecticidal activities, cytotoxicity and Topo I inhibitory activities...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lin Chen, Yong Zhang, Haibo Yu, Dongliang Cui, Bin Li
Tetrahydrophthalimidobenzoates are a class of protoporphyrinogen oxidase herbicides acting on the protoporphyrinogen oxidase enzyme. After the discovery of compound 1, a series of novel tetrahydrophthalimidobenzoate derivatives were designed and synthesized, and some synthesized compounds exhibited good herbicidal activity in controlling broadleaf weeds. The structure activity relationship of the synthesized compounds was also determined. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the 4-position of benzene ring resulted in better herbicidal activity than that with non-substitution...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xu Han, Hu Zhao, Weichao Ren, ChiYuan Lv, Changjun Chen
Bipolaris maydis (anamorph: Cochliobolus heterostrophus) is the causal agent of Southern Corn Leaf Blight (SCLB), leading to huge annually losses worldwide. Although fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide with a broad spectrum of activity, was introduced in the 1990s, no baseline sensitivity has been established for B. maydis. One hundred field isolates were used to establish a baseline sensitivity of B. maydis against fludioxonil during 2015-2016. The results showed that the baseline sensitivity was distributed as a unimodal curve with a mean EC50 value of 0...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Nancy Garg, Neena Singla, Vikas Jindal, Bhupinder K Babbar
There are several reports on development of resistance to bromadiolone in different species of rodents around the globe, however, there is no such report involving systematic study from India. Hence, present study was carried out to investigate current status of bromadiolone resistance in house rat (Rattus rattus; n=154) collected from different poultry farms (n=8) based on feeding test, blood clotting response (BCR) test and molecular characterization of VKORC1 gene. Based on feeding test and BCR test, 28% rats were suspected to be resistant...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kiran S, Anupam Kujur, Laluram Patel, Ramalakshmi K, Bhanu Prakash
The present study was undertaken to investigate the insecticidal activity of chemically characterized Boswellia carterii essential oil (EO) and its mode of action against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus. GC-MS analysis depicted α-thujene (69.16%), α-Pinene (7.20) and α-Phellandrene (6.78%) as the major components of test EO. EO exhibited absolute toxicity at 0.10μl/ml air against both C. chinensis and C. maculatus following 24h exposure. EO caused a significant reduction in oviposition and further reproductive development at LC50 doses (0...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Masahiro Osakabe, Tsuyoshi Imamura, Ryohei Nakano, Satoshi Kamikawa, Misono Tadatsu, Yoshinori Kunimoto, Makoto Doi
Monitoring resistance allele frequency at the early stage of resistance development is important for the successful acaricide resistance management. Etoxazole is a mite growth inhibitor to which resistance is conferred by an amino acid substitution in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1; I1017F) in T. urticae. If the susceptible allele can be specifically digested by restriction endonuclease, the ΔΔCt method using real-time PCR for genomic DNA (RED-ΔΔCt method) may be available for monitoring the resistance allele frequency...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Anastasios A Malandrakis, Konstantinos N Vattis, Anastasios N Markoglou, George S Karaoglanidis
Laboratory mutants of Penicillium expansum highly resistant (Rfs: 90 to >500, based on EC50s) to Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHIs) were isolated after UV-mutagenesis and selection on media containing boscalid. A positive correlation was found between sensitivity of isolates to boscalid and other SDHIs such as isopyrazam and carboxin but not to fungicides affecting other cellular pathways or processes, such as the triazole flusilazole, the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil, the anilinopyrimidine cyprodinil and the benzimidazole benomyl...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiang Wei, Yiou Pan, Xuecheng Xin, Chao Zheng, Xiwu Gao, Jinghui Xi, Qingli Shang
A thiamethoxam-resistant strain of cotton aphid (ThR) displayed a 13.79-fold greater resistance to thiamethoxam than a susceptible cotton aphid (SS) strain. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) synergistically increased the toxicity of thiamethoxam in the resistant strain, whereas diethyl maleate (DEM) did not exhibit significant synergistic effects. Bioassay results indicated that the ThR strain developed increased levels of cross-resistance to bifenthrin (11.71 fold), cyfluthrin (17.90 fold), esfenvalerate (6...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Rune Zeng, Xing Yu, Xing Tan, Shan Ye, Zhong Ding
Deltamethrin belongs to the class of synthetic pyrethroids, which are being widely used as insecticides in agricultural practices. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the primary targets of these chemicals for toxicity to insects. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) does not have VGSCs but is susceptible to deltamethrin. Recent findings have suggested that pyrethroids can affect voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, it remains elusive whether deltamethrin induces toxicity to C. elegans via modulating the activity of VGCCs...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ravindran Keppanan, Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal, Dash Chadra Kanta, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Liande Wang
Fungal virulence has been mostly associated with cuticle-degrading enzymes, which form the first formidable barrier to pathogens and pass through certain discrete stages before breaching the insect cuticle. The present study was conducted to extract and purify the extracellular protease enzyme from three isolates from Metarhizium anisopliae. The molecular weight of protease enzyme from each isolate was identified using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and found to be 35-40kDa...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xing Mou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Hong-Bo Jiang, Zhao Liu, Jin-Jun Wang
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphate- and carbamate-based insecticides. We sequenced the full-length cDNAs of two AChE genes from the brown citrus aphid Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus (Kirkaldy). These two genes, Tcace1 and Tcace2, which encode TcAChE1 and TcAChE2, respectively, had a shared amino acid identity of 29% and were highly similar to other insect ace1 and ace2 genes, respectively, having specific functional motifs. Potential differences in enzymatic function were characterized by the heterologous expression of the two genes using a baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Xuewei Chen, Ying Liu, Qiuling Tang, Xiwu Gao
Plant allelochemicals are a group of important defensive agents of plants, which have been documented to be deleterious to insect herbivores. In the present study, we found that the expression level of Dicer-1 was significantly increased when Aphis gossypii adults fed on plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) incorporated artificial diets. Consider that miRNAs play great regulatory roles in various biological processes, this suggested that miRNAs may be related to the regulation of enzymes involved in metabolism of plant allelochemicals in A...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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