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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Lei Guo, Mingming Su, Pei Liang, Shuo Li, Dong Chu
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q biotype (BTQ) has spread to many tropical and subtropical regions over the past several decades. This may reflect an advantage biotype Q has over closely related forms in having greater thermal and/or insecticide resistance, although the effects of higher temperatures on insecticide tolerance of BTQ has, to date, been largely ignored. In this study, the effects of elevated temperatures on BTQ's tolerance to the insecticide thiamethoxam were investigated. The effect on the activities of detoxifying enzymes [carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450)] and expression profiling of eleven genes of detoxifying enzymes were also determined...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dandan Xu, Yanyan He, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a serious agricultural pest that has developed resistance to many pesticides. A leaf dip assay was used to assess the resistance of seven field populations of T. urticae to 11 pesticides in China. The mutation frequencies of target genes related to pesticide resistance were also determined. The results showed that all seven field populations had high or extremely high resistance to abamectin and had low or moderate resistance to newly developed pesticides including bifenazate, cyenopyrafen, chlorfenapyr, B-azolemiteacrylic, and spinetoram...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Karoline Felisbino, Ronaldo Santos-Filho, Laercio D S Piancini, Marta Margarete Cestari, Daniela Morais Leme
Mesotrione (MES) is an herbicide from the triketone family and has been used as an alternative to Atrazine (ATZ), which was banned in some countries due to its toxicity to non-target organisms. Despite being considered an eco-friendly herbicide, data from the literature about the harmful effects of MES in its pure form and/or in combination with other herbicides is still scarce. Aimed at assessing the potential of MES to induce cell death and DNA damage, seeds of Allium cepa (higher plant, monocotyledon) were exposed to this herbicide, pure and in mixture with ATZ, and the number of dividing cells (cytotoxicity), chromosomal aberrations (CA, genotoxicity) and micronuclei (MN, mutagenicity) were then quantified...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Qing Xia Zhang, Ying Zhang, Ling Ling He, Zhao Lin Ji, Yun Hui Tong
Bacillus sp. 6256 is a good biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea which caused tomato gray mold disease. Strain 6256 was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens by analysis of its partial gyrB gene sequence. To identify and characterize the antimycotic peptides from the culture broth of the bacterium, the antimicrobial substances produced by B. amyloliquefaciens 6256 were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatography and DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified compound was designated as P657...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lucila Thomsett Herbert, Juan Manuel Castro, Virginia Angélica Bianchi, Paula Fanny Cossi, Carlos Marcelo Luquet, Gisela Kristoff
The use of a battery of biomarkers, especially those more closely related to species integrity, is desired for more complete ecotoxicological assessments of the effects of pesticide contamination on aquatic organisms. The phosphorodithioate azinphos-methyl has been intensively used in agriculture worldwide and have been found in the habitat of Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater snail endemic to South America. This snail has been proposed as a good model organism for ecotoxicity bioassays on the basis of studies focused mainly on enzymatic responses in whole tissue homogenates...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ke Wu, Caitlin E Taylor, Elane Fishilevich, Kenneth E Narva, Blair D Siegfried
RNA interference (RNAi) has proven effective for controlling pest insects such as western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Previous studies have shown that WCR adults display a robust RNAi response to orally-administered double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, it is unclear how quickly the response occurs after ingestion or how long RNAi effect lasts after WCR stop ingesting diet containing dsRNA. In the current study, WCR adult females were provided with diet treated with dsRNAs of Laccase 2 and Argonaute 2, two nonessential genes, for 8 days...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lin Xiao, Yuan-Ming Zhou, Xiang-Fei Zhang, Feng-Yu Du
In the search for antifungal lead compounds from natural resources, Notopterygium incisum, a medicine plant only distributed in China, showed antifungal potential against apple fruit pathogens. Based on the bioassay-guided isolation, chromatography fraction 6 of the ethyl acetate partition exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against apple fruit pathogens. Furthermore, nine antifungal secondary metabolites, including five linear furocoumarins (1-5), two phenylethyl esters (6-7), one falcarindiol (8), and one sesquiterpenoid (9), were isolated and elucidated from fraction 6...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Adrianne Smith, Xiaozhong Yu, Lei Yin
Environmental chemical exposure could be a contributor to the increasing obesity epidemic. Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, has been widely used in the agriculture, and exposure of the general population to diazinon has been reported. Diazinon has been known to induce neurotoxic effects mainly through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, its association with dysregulation of adipogenesis has been poorly investigated. The current study aimed to examine the mechanism of diazinon's effect on adipogenesis using the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes combined with a single-cell-based high-content analysis...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Morteza Shahriari, Arash Zibaee, Najmeh Sahebzadeh, Leila Shamakhi
The current study aimed to determine the potential effects of three essential oil constituents, α-pinene, trans-anethole, and thymol, on antioxidant system and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The 4th instar larvae were initially fed on an artificial diet containing an LC50 concentration of each above-mentioned compounds separately prior to being undertaken for sample preparation and biochemical assays. The significant higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were observed in the treated-larvae at both time intervals...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiangkun Meng, Zhijuan Xie, Nan Zhang, Caihong Ji, Fan Dong, Kun Qian, Jianjun Wang
To understand the role of target site insensitivity in abamectin resistance in the western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), cDNAs encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (FoRdl) and glutamate-gated chloride channel (FoGluCl) were cloned from WFT, and both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mRNA expression levels of FoRdl and FoGluCl were detected in a susceptible strain (ABA-S) and a laboratory selected strain (ABA-R) displaying 45.5-fold resistance to abamectin...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Seok-Hee Lee, Kyu Baik Ha, Dong Hwan Park, Ying Fang, Jong Hoon Kim, Min Gu Park, Ra Mi Woo, Woo Jin Kim, Il-Kwon Park, Jae Young Choi, Yeon Ho Je
Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are attractive pest control agents due to their high target specificity and relative safety to the environment. Recently, plants have been shown to synthesize IGRs that affect the insect juvenile hormone (JH) as a part of their defense mechanisms. Using a yeast two-hybrid system transformed with the Aedes aegypti JH receptor as a reporter system, we identified several JH agonists (JHAs) and antagonists (JHANs) causing retardation in the ovarian development of female Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, from plant essential oil compounds...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiaoqin Sun, Youhui Gong, Shahbaz Ali, Maolin Hou
The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) has developed high resistance to the first-generation neonicotinoids (imidacloprid). With commercialization and widespread field use of the second-(thiamethoxam) and third-(dinotefuran) generation neonicotinoids, resistance to these insecticides is also reported. We investigated the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxification in thiamethoxam- and dinotefuran- resistant in comparison to imidacloprid-resistant strains of BPH. In the three moderately resistant BPH strains selected separately with the three insecticides from a same susceptible strain, P450 activities were significantly enhanced over the susceptible control...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Wei Jia, Chengxiao Hu, Jiajia Ming, Yuanyuan Zhao, Juan Xin, Xuecheng Sun, Xiaohu Zhao
Selenium (Se) in soil is beneficial for environmental stress tolerance of plants, and it has widespread toxic effects on pathogens. Based on the fact that Se significantly inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, we set experiments with different concentrations of Se to investigate the action of Se against S. sclerotiorum in this study. The results showed that Se (>0.5 mg L-1 ) changed the morphology of S. sclerotiorum mycelia, and higher Se concentrations severely damaged mycelial structures...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiu-Shi Song, Kai-Xin Gu, Xiao-Xin Duan, Xue-Mei Xiao, Yi-Ping Hou, Ya-Bing Duan, Jian-Xin Wang, Ming-Guo Zhou
Fungal resistance to fungicides is a serious challenge in crop protection. Although strategies have been found to prevent the development of fungicide resistance, rare strategy has been found to quickly reduce such resistance once it has occurred. We demonstrate that the application of dsRNAs, which inhibit the expression of the phenamacril (fungicide JS399-19) target gene-Myosin 5 (Myo5) in Fusarium, decreased F. asiaticum resistance to phenamacril and infection. RNAi molecules derived from different regions of Myo5 gene had different effects on phenamacril-resistance...
September 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Neelima Sharma, Sayantan Banerjee, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
Deltamethrin (DLM) is an α-cyano type-II synthetic pyrethroid compound which is extensively used in different agricultural and home pest control. The advantages of pyrethroids over other insecticides are that they are relatively non-toxic to birds and mammals and show high efficacy at relatively lower concentrations. DLM may have dual characteristics i.e. at low molar-concentration, it is nontoxic to normal healthy cells but can induce apoptotic cell death in cancerous cells. There is no reported work based on such hypothesis...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xuwen Xiang, Hui Tao, Shan Jiang, Lian-Hui Zhang, Zi-Ning Cui
Targeting virulence factors of bacterial without affecting their growth and survival, has been an initiative strategy for the development of novel anti-microbial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS), one of essential and highly conserved virulence factors in most Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, has been regarded as an effective target that developed new anti-microbial drugs. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most Important bacterial pathogens on rice, which causes leaf blight disease...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Ya-Li Chen, Luo-Yu Wu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
Benzovindiflupyr is a novel member of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides. The filamentous fungus Bipolaris maydis Nisik. et Miyake was the causal agent of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB). Here, baseline sensitivity of B. maydis to benzovindiflupyr was established by mycelial growth and conidium germination methods using 96 B. maydis isolates collected from various places of Jiangsu Province of China, and EC50 values ranged from 0.0321 to 0.9149 μg/ml with the mean value of 0.3446 (±0.2248) μg/ml for mycelial growth, and 0...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mohammad Shahid, Mohammad Saghir Khan
In vitro experiments were performed to ascertain the impact of kitazin, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and carbendazim on growth behaviour, enzymatic profile, ultrastructure, cell permeability and bioactive molecules of phosphate-solubilizing bacterium. Strain BC8 isolated from Brassica oleracea rhizosphere was characterized and identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S rDNA sequencing (Accession no. MG028650) technique. Strain BC8 was unambiguously chosen due to its high tolerance capability to various fungicides and substantial production of plant growth regulators...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Vivek Sharma, Richa Salwan, V Shanmugam
The endoglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 61 are little studied. In present study, a β-endoglucanase of ~37 kDa induced on autoclaved mycelium of Fusarium oxysporum was cloned and characterized. The molecular characterization of β-endoglucanase encoding gene revealed presence of a single intron and an open reading frame of 1044-bp which encoded a protein of 347 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of Eglu revealed its similarity to endo-β-glucanases of other Trichoderma spp. The catalytic site of β-endoglucanase contained Asp, Asn, His and Tyr residues...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jinda Wang, Liuqi Gu, Douglas C Knipple
In this study, we explored the efficacy of knockdown four genes required for proper nervous system function by RNAi, in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Three of these genes encode components of validated insecticide target sites. We synthesized cDNA sequences orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster genes Para (paralyticts ), TipE (temperature-induced paralysis locus E), GluCl (glutamate-gated chloride channel), and Notch, and used these fragments to synthesize double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). We then performed experiments in an attempt to induce RNAi-mediated effects on gene expression and viability using three modes of delivery of the dsRNAs: microinjection of eggs, soaking of eggs and feeding of larvae...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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