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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Yunhe Zhao, Qiuhong Wang, Jinfeng Ding, Yao Wang, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the major pest affecting Chinese chive production. Chlorfenapyr is a halogenated pyrrole-based pro-insecticide that is currently used to control insects and mites on a variety of crops. In the present study, fourth-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga were exposed to chlorfenapyr at LC1 , LC20 and LC50 concentrations. The developmental duration of the treated larvae was not significantly different, but fecundity was significantly increased in the LC1 and LC20 treatment groups compared with the control group...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Maria Martha Quintana, Valeria Rivero Osimani, Gladis Magnarelli, María Gabriela Rovedatti, Natalia Guiñazú
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xian Zhang, Jun Ding, Bing Xu, Lin-Quan Ge, Guo-Qing Yang, Jin-Cai Wu
The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen) is a major pest insect of rice, wheat, and maize in China and other countries. SBPH not only damage rice plants through sucking plant sap, but also transmits rice virus diseases, for example, striped virus disease (RSV), black streaked dwarf, and maize rough disease virus. Therefore, understanding of pesticide-induced stimulation of reproduction in SBPH is of great significance for the pest management. Our previous study discovered that triazophos (TZP) increased reproduction of SBPH...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ya-Li Chen, Xue-Wei Mao, Jian-Xin Wang, Luo-Yu Wu, Ming-Guo Zhou, Yi-Ping Hou
Fluazinam is a dinitroaniline fungicide with broad-spectrum activities. However, the activity of fluazinam against Bipolaris maydis which is the causal agent of southern corn leaf blight is unknown yet. In this study, baseline sensitivity of B. maydis to fluazinam was determined using 92 isolates collected during 2015 and 2016 from different geographical regions in Jiangsu Province of China, and the EC50 values ranged from 0.0396 to 0.9808 μg/ml with average value of 0.3853 ± 0.2297 μg/ml, and 0...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Roberto Busi, Aimone Porri, Todd A Gaines, Stephen B Powles
The evolution of resistant weed populations in response to intensive herbicide selection pressure is a global issue. Resistance to post-emergence herbicides is widespread, whereas soil-applied pre-emergence herbicides can often remain effective. For example, in Australia pyroxasulfone is a new pre-emergence soil-applied herbicide which provides control of Lolium rigidum populations resistant to multiple post-emergence herbicide modes of action. A fundamental knowledge of the genetic basis of metabolic resistance in weeds is important for understanding plant evolution pathways under herbicide selection and sustaining long-term weed resistance management...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hang-Tang Wang, Cheng-Lung Tsai, Mei-Er Chen
The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, which is a primary pest of stored products, breaks up whole grains and makes them susceptible to secondary infestation by other pests. Insecticide application is the main control measure against this borer. A resistant strain of R. dominica against the insecticide, spinosad, was selected in the laboratory. The full-length cDNA of the target site of spinosad, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit α6, from R. dominica (Rdα6) was cloned and analyzed using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hiba Hamdi, Intidhar Ben Salem, Yosra Ben Othmène, Emna Annabi, Salwa Abid-Essefi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
A Sevastos, I F Kalampokis, A Panagiotopoulou, M Pelecanou, K A Aliferis
Fungal metabolomics is a field of high potential but yet largely unexploited. Focusing on plant-pathogenic fungi, no metabolomics studies exist on their resistance to fungicides, which represents a major issue that the agrochemical and agricultural sectors are facing. Fungal infections cause quantitative, but also qualitative yield losses, especially in the case of mycotoxin-producing species. The aim of the study was to correlate metabolic changes in Fusarium graminearum strains' metabolomes with their carbendazim-resistant level and discover corresponding metabolites-biomarkers, with primary focus on its primary metabolism...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kazuki Takeda, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazuyuki D Tanaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Tsutomu Tanikawa, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Anti-blood coagulation rodenticides, such as warfarin, have been used all over the world. They inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), which is necessary for producing several blood clotting factors. This inhibition by rodenticides results in lethal hemorrhage in rodents. However, heavy usage of these agents has led to the appearance of rodenticide-resistant rats. There are two major mechanisms underlying this resistance, i.e., mutation of the target enzyme of warfarin, VKOR, and enhanced metabolism of warfarin...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jin-Da Wang, Li-Fei Chen, Ya-Ru Wang, Hua-Ying Fu, Ahmad Ali, Da Xiao, Ran Wang, San-Ji Gao
The ryanodine receptors of insects are the main target sites of diamide insecticides, which show highly selective insecticidal activity relative to toxicity in mammals and provide a novel option for managing lepidopteran pests. The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), is a destructive pest of agricultural crops, and great efforts have been undertaken to control this pest including repeated insecticide applications. In this study, full-length cDNA of a ryanodine receptor gene from M. separata (MsRyR) was cloned and characterized...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kaiyang Feng, Xiang Wen, Xiulong He, Peng Wei, Li Shi, Yuwei Yang, Lin He
As a new acaricide, cyflumetofen can effectively control Tetranychus, Panonychus, as well as other phytophagous mites. But its risk and the way of genetic and resistant inheritance in mites are not clear. In this study, two cyflumetofen-resistant strains (CyR and YN-CyR) were selected for 104 and 12 generations, and developed 104.7-fold and 25.6-fold resistance, respectively. Three crossing groups (CyR_80 × SS, CyR_104 × SS, YN-CyR × SS) were conducted to explore the resistant inheritance of cyflumetofen in T...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Juliana Miron Vani, Laynna de Carvalho Schweich, Karla Regina Warszawski de Oliveira, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Andréia Conceição Millan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Carlos Eduardo Domingues Nazario, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
Temephos is considered the gold standard by the Ministry of Health for controlling the larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The present study evaluated the effects of Temephos larvicide on the reproductive performance, embryo-fetal development and DNA integrity of Swiss mice. This study used 30 pregnant female mice: 10 were controls treated with drinking water at a dosage of 0.1 mL/10 g (body weight - b.w., administered orally - a.o.), and 20 were treated with Temephos at doses of 0.0043 mg/kg and 0...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xueting Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Wenjun Wu, Ke Dong, Zhaonong Hu
Pyrethroid insecticides modify the gating of voltage-gated sodium channels, thus disrupting the function of the nervous system. In Drosophila melanogaster, para encodes a functional sodium channel. Drosophila Sodium Channel 1 (DSC1), although considered as a putative sodium channel gene for decades due to its high sequence similarity with sodium channels, encodes a voltage-gated cation channel with high permeability to Ca2+ . Previous study showed that knockout of the DSC1 gene (DSC1-/- ) caused Drosophila adults to be more susceptible to pyrethroids and the adult giant fiber (GF) neural circuit were more susceptible to pyrethroids...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yiou Pan, Pujin Chai, Chao Zheng, Hongfei Xu, Yongqiang Wu, Xiwu Gao, Jinghui Xi, Qingli Shang
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a key role in detoxification mechanism for spirotetramat resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover. However, only one P450 genes (CYP6DA2), among thirty-five P450 genes identified from Aphis gossypii transcriptome database, has been reported to play important role in spirotetramat resistance in previous resistance level until now. In this study, after the confirmation of the rise of resistance level and important roles of P450s in spirotetramat resistance by the synergism analysis, the gene expression changes were determined for P450 genes in spirotetramat susceptible and resistant strains...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Allan Pinto Leal, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Ana Paula Artusi Perin, Bruna Trindade Borges, Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Tiago Gomes Dos Santos, Lúcia Vinadé, Chiara Valsecchi, Cháriston André Dal Belo
Rhinella icterica is a poisonous toad whose toxic secretion has never been studied against entomotoxic potential. Sublethal doses of Rhinella icterica toxic secretion (RITS) were assayed in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches, in order to understand the physiological and behavioral parameters, over the insect central and peripheral nervous system. RITS (10 μg/g) injections, induced behavioral impairment as evidenced by a significant decrease (38 ± 14%) in the distance traveled (p < .05), followed by an increase (90 ± 6%) of immobile episodes (p < ...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Joanna Kania, Agnieszka Mączyńska, Mariola Głazek, Tomasz Krawczyk, Danuta M Gillner
Cultivation of oilseed rape requires application of specific fungicides. Besides their protective role, they can potentially influence the expression and activity of crucial enzymes in the plant. Among the large number of enzymes expressed in plants, aminopeptidases play a key role in all crucial physiological processes during the whole life cycle (e.g. storage protein mobilization and thus supplying plant with needed amino acids, as well as plant aging, protection and defense responses). In the present paper, we evaluate for the first time, the influence of the treatment of winter oilseed rape with commercially available fungicides (Pictor 400 SC, Propulse 250 SE and Symetra 325 SC), on the activity of aminopeptidases expressed in each plant organ (flowers, leaves, stems and pods separately)...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hamed Zeinvand-Lorestani, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh Balak, Gholamreza Hasanzadeh, Omid Sabzevari
Paraquat is a common and effective herbicide; although its poisoning could lead to severe oxidative organ damages and its main target organs are the lungs, kidneys, heart, and liver. Thymoquinone is the active ingredient of Nigella sativa which is traditionally used in herbal medicine; recent studies have shown that thymoquinone could inhibit oxidative stress. This study explores protective effects of thymoquinone on paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Accordingly, adult male mice were randomly divided into nine groups for three continuous days intraperitoneal injection treatment: (1) control; (2) solvent; (3) 20 mg/kg vitamin E; (4) 20 mg/kg thymoquinone; (5) 20 mg/kg paraquat and Groups 6, 7, 8, and 9 received 20 mg/kg of vitamin E and 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of thymoquinone, respectively...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lin-Bo Shi, Hua-Ping Xu, Yu-Jie Wu, Xin Li, Jin-Yan Gao, Hong-Bing Chen
Low levels of endosulfan are known to stimulate mast cells to release allergic mediators, while imidacloprid can inhibit IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, little information about the effects of both pesticides together on mast cell degranulation is available. To measure the effects, IgE-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were treated with imidacloprid and endosulfan, individually, and simultaneously at equi-molar concentrations in tenfold steps ranging from 10-4 to 10-11  M, followed by measuring several allergy-related parameters expressed in BMMCs: the mediator production and influx of Ca2+ , the phosphorylation content of NF-κB in the FcεRI signaling pathway...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Chunping Yang, Yue Tian, Tianxing Lv, Xiaoli Chang, Min Zhang, Guoshu Gong, Liulan Zhao, Song Yang, Huabao Chen
Pedunsaponin A, a novel molluscicidal compound isolated from Pueraria peduncularis, exhibits strong toxicity against Pomacea canaliculata. To determine the mechanisms of Pedunsaponin A toxicity, its effects on the organs and hemocytes of P. canaliculata were examined in this study. The results showed that Pedunsaponin A had significant toxic effects on different organs of the snail, including the lungs, gills, mantle, siphon tube, ventricle, pericardial cavity, hepatopancreas, kidneys, and the major symptom of this toxicity was the loss of cilia in the lungs and gills...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Iga Hołyńska-Iwan, Joanna Bogusiewicz, Dagmara Chajdas, Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Magdalena Lampka, Dorota Olszewska-Słonina
Deltamethrin can be absorbed into the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract and through the skin. The study was designed to assess the effect of deltamethrin on electrophysiological parameters of rabbit's skin, studied in vitro, to identify the mechanism of action and effects of short-term dermal exposure to deltamethrin. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in electrophysiological parameters after exposure to 0.01 M deltamethrin under unchanged conditions, in the presence of amiloride (sodium transport blocker) and bumetanide (chloride transport blocker)...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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