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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Mohammad Bagher Ghavami, Fahimeh Pourrastgou Haghi, Zohreh Alibabaei, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Hassan Vatandoost
The human flea, Pulex irritans, is the most important ectoparasite of humans. Intensive use of pyrethroids for its control has led to insecticide resistance. Monitoring pyrethroid resistance and its underlying mechanisms is essential for flea control. The aims of this study were to identify the susceptibility status of human flea to permethrin and to detect the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation and its frequency in populations of P. irritans. Adults of P. irritans were collected from Zanjan Province, northwest of Iran, during 2013-2017...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Haifeng Qian, Youchao Zhu, Si Chen, Yujian Jin, Michel Lavoie, Mingjing Ke, Zhengwei Fu
A better knowledge of the intertwined effects of herbicides on plant physiology and microbiome as well as nutrient biogeochemical cycles are needed for environmental management. Here we studied the influence of herbicide diclofop-methyl (DM) on the rice root microbiome and its relationship with N cycle. To do so, we exposed rice seedlings to 100 μg/L DM and studied rhizosphere microbiota using MiSeq-pyrosequencing, root exudation by GC-MS, and denitrification activity by 15 N isotope-tracing and qRT-PCR...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Xiang-Pu Qu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
Cyprodinil belongs to the chemical class of anilinopyrimidines fungicides. In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to cyprodinil was determined using 100 strains collected from the fields in Jiangsu Province of China. The EC50 (50% effective concentration) values ranged from 0.0636-0.8163 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.1869 (±0.1118) ug/ml for mycelial growth. Nine cyprodinil-resistant mutants (Range of resistance factor: 20.22-271.59) were obtained from sensitive strains exposed on PDA medium amended with cyprodinil and the resistance was stable after their ten transfers on PDA without the fungicide or stored at 4 °C for two months...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xuegui Wang, Xing Xiang, Huiling Yu, Shuhua Liu, Yong Yin, Peng Cui, Yaqiong Wu, Jing Yang, Chunxian Jiang, Qunfang Yang
The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a major pest affecting numerous cultivated crops in China, has developed a serious resistance to many traditional chemical insecticides. The resistance levels of the field-collected populations from different districts in Sichuan Province, China, to nine insecticides were detected with a diet-incorporation bioassay. Compared to the Lab-ZN strain, five (in 2014) and three (in 2016) field populations displayed either high or extremely high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yu Mei, Yufang Xu, Shipeng Wang, Lihong Qiu, Mingqi Zheng
The resistance levels to glyphosate and target-site based resistance mechanisms in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Conyza canadensis (L.) populations, which were collected from apple orchards around areas of Bohai seas and Loess Plateau in China, were investigated. Among forty C. canadensis populations, eighteen populations (45%) were still susceptible; fourteen populations (35%) evolved low resistance levels resistance to glyphosate with resistance index (RI) of 2.02 to 3.90. In contrast, eight populations (20%) evolved medium resistance levels with RI of 4...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dolors Bosch, Jesús Avilla, Selim Musleh, Marcela A Rodríguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xinda Lin, Yiwen Mao, Ling Zhang
Insects receive a variety of chemical signals from the environment. Chemosensory protein (CSP) is one of the olfactory proteins that can accommodate a variety of small molecules and have the ability to bind to lipophilic compounds, transmitting nonvolatile odor molecules and chemical stimuli to target cells. To understand the correlation between the insect olfactory system and environment, we identified four antennae-expressed SlituCSP genes and investigated their expression profiles after treatment with different temperatures, starvation and three commonly used pesticides: chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hafiz Husnain Nawaz, M J Nelly Rajaofera, Qiguang He, Usmani Anam, Chunhua Lin, Weiguo Miao
Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yuan Gao, Jun Li, Xukun Pan, Dingrong Liu, Richard Napier, Liyao Dong
We previously reported that the mechanism of quinclorac resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis may be closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and the detoxification of cyanide. Differences in EcCAS gene sequences and expression levels may result in higher capacity to detoxify cyanide in resistant biotypes, which may avoid cyanide accumulation and avoid more ethylene and cyanide production and then avoid damage. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism of resistance related to ethylene biosynthesis in E...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jourdi Georges, Lefèbvre Sebastien, Le Bonniec Bernard, Curis Emmanuel, Gaussem Pascale, Lattard Virginie, Siguret Virginie
Vitamin K antagonist rodenticide pharmacodynamics (PD) is studied in rodents with traditional laboratory tests. We wondered if thrombin generation test (TGT) could add value. Difethialone (10 mg/kg) was administered per os to 97 OFA-Sprague Dawley rats. PD was studied over a 72 h-period using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram on platelet poor plasma before and after intoxication (3 female and 3 male rats for each 13 time points) and TGT parameters were compared with the prothrombin time (PT) and vitamin K dependent factor activities previously reported...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ying Yan, Lei Tang, Jiaqi Hu, Jianta Wang, Tiwalade Adegoke Adelakun, Dongqiong Yang, Yingtong Di, Yu Zhang, Xiaojiang Hao
A series of limonoids (1-8) were isolated from the whole plant of Munronia henryi and antiviral activities of the compounds were evaluated. The bioassay results demonstrated that Munronin O (1) showed remarkable protective activity and compounds 7 and 8 showed significant inactivating, protective, and curative activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). With a 50% effective concentration (EC50 ) value of 91.5 μg/mL, compound 1 exhibited the best protective activity compared with ningnanmycin (192.3 μg/mL)...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Shun-Fan Wu, Dan-Dan Zhao, Jing-Mei Huang, Si-Qi Zhao, Li-Qi Zhou, Cong-Fen Gao
The susceptibilities of three field populations of pink stem borer (PSB), Sesamia inferens (walker) to diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, were evaluated in this study. The results showed that these PSB field populations were still sensitive to the two diamide insecticides after many years of exposure. To further understand PSB and diamide insecticide, the full-length ryanodine receptor (RyR) cDNA (named as SiRyR), the molecular target of diamide insecticides was cloned from PSB and characterized...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Robert A Moyer, Kevin G McGarry, Michael C Babin, Gennady E Platoff, David A Jett, David T Yeung
Phorate is a highly toxic agricultural pesticide currently in use throughout the world. Like many other organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, the primary mechanism of the acute toxicity of phorate is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition mediated by its bioactivated oxon metabolite. AChE reactivation is a critical aspect in the treatment of acute OP intoxication. Unfortunately, very little is currently known about the capacity of various oximes to rescue phorate oxon (PHO)-inhibited AChE. To help fill this knowledge gap, we evaluated the kinetics of inhibition, reactivation, and aging of PHO using recombinant AChE derived from three species (rat, guinea pig and human) commonly utilized to study the toxicity of OP compounds and five oximes that are currently fielded (or have been deemed extremely promising) as anti-OP therapies by various nations around the globe: 2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl2 , MMB4-DMS, and HLö7 DMS...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Paweł Czerniewicz, Grzegorz Chrzanowski, Iwona Sprawka, Hubert Sytykiewicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiayan Pan, Shu Xu, Jian Wu, Jianying Luo, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Feng Zhang, Mingguo Zhou
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and can be effectively controlled by phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an antibiotic secreted by Pseudomonas spp. PCA resistance in Xoo was investigated in this research. Only four PCA-resistant strains were obtained by extensive screening, and the resistance was genetically stable in only one of them (P4). P4 was also resistant to phenazine and 1-hydroxyphezine but not to captan, bismerthiazol, or streptomycin. The following were reduced in P4 relative to the parental wild type: growth, virulence, EPS production, extracellular cellulase production and activity, biofilm formation, and swimming ability...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhan, Yiran Liang, Donghui Liu, Chang Liu, Hui Liu, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou
Acetofenate (AF) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide used for controlling hygiene pests. In this study, the metabolism of AF in rabbits in vivo and in vitro was investigated and the primary chiral metabolite acetofenate-alcohol (AF-A) was analyzed. The cytotoxicity of AF and AF-A was also determined. AF in rabbits in vivo was eliminated so rapidly that AF could not be detected within 10min after intravenous administration at 20mg/kg (body weight), and AF-A was quickly formed. In vitro metabolism assay, using plasma and liver microsomes, showed that AF was also quickly metabolized to AF-A and the metabolic process was significantly enantioselective with preferential degradation of (-)-AF and formation of (-)-AF-A...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mohd Faizan Siddiqui, Bilqees Bano
Carbendazim is a broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide which is used to ensure plants' protection from pest and pathogens' invasion. The present work describes the impact of carbendazim (CAR) on garlic phytocystatin (GPC) which is a crucial plant regulatory protein. Interaction of carbendazim with GPC has been investigated through various biophysical techniques viz. UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, far-UV circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy which showed binding between them with consequent modulatory effects...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
J S Mendoza-Figueroa, A Kvarnheden, J Méndez-Lozano, E-A Rodríguez-Negrete, R Arreguín-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M Soriano-García
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) infects mainly plants of the family Solanaceae, and the infection induces curling and chlorosis of leaves, dwarfing of the whole plant, and reduced fruit production. Alternatives for direct control of TYLCV and other geminiviruses have been reported, for example, the use of esterified whey proteins, peptide aptamer libraries or artificial zinc finger proteins. The two latter alternatives affect directly the replication of TYLCV as well as of other geminiviruses because the replication structures and sequences are highly conserved within this virus family...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ajaz Ahmad, Masood Ahmad
Edifenphos (EDF), an important organophosphate fungicide used in agriculture, is a great threat to human health and environment. To assess the toxicity of EDF at the level of protein molecule, the effect of EDF on human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by biophysical and biochemical approaches. EDF-HSA complex is formed as a result of static quenching as revealed by the intrinsic fluorescence analysis. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data suggests involvement of hydrophobic interactions in EDF-HSA complex formation, which is in line with molecular docking results...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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