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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043338/molecular-diagnostics-for-detecting-pyrethroid-and-abamectin-resistance-mutations-in-tetranychus-urticae
#1
Aris Ilias, Vassilis A Vassiliou, John Vontas, Anastasia Tsagkarakou
Avermectin and pyrethroid resistance mutations (the G314D and the G326E in the glutamate gated chloride channels, and the F1538I in the voltage gated sodium channel) have been reported in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, one of the most devastating pests of protected and open field crops worldwide. We developed three TaqMan molecular diagnostic assays for monitoring the presence and frequency of these mutations in T. urticae field populations. The TaqMan assays were validated against known genotypes and subsequently used to monitor the frequency of the resistance mutations in eleven T...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043337/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-in-chlumetia-transversa-walker
#2
Hui Wei, Hong Chang, Lizhen Zheng, Shuo Lin, Yixin Chen, Houjun Tian, Jianwei Zhao, Yong Chen, Hongjiao Cai, Xiaojun Gu, Kadarkarai Murugan
Insect neuropeptides (NPs) in the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family are actively involved in many essential endocrine functions. These peptides are potential targets in the search for novel insect control agents. This is the first report on the cloning and sequence determination of Chlumetia transversa (Walker) PBAN (Ct-PBAN) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of Ct-PBAN was 588bp in length and encoded 195 amino acids, which were assembled into five putative neuropeptides (diapause hormone homolog, α-neuropeptide, β-neuropeptide, PBAN, and γ-neuropeptide)...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043336/sensitivity-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-to-propamidine
#3
Yong Wang, Yang Sun, Ying Zhang, Yinxing Zhang, Lirong Han, Xing Zhang, Juntao Feng
Propamidine is an aromatic diamidine compound. In the current study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to propamidine was determined using 78 strains collected from the oilseed rape fields without a previous history of propamidine usage. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for propamidine inhibiting mycelial growth ranged from 0.406 to 3.647μg/mL, with a mean of 1.616±0.217μg/mL. There was no correlation between sensitivity to propamidine and sensitivity to dimethachlon or carbendazim...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043335/a-high-throughput-modified-als-activity-assay-for-cyperus-difformis-and-schoenoplectus-mucronatus-seedlings
#4
Rafael M Pedroso, Kassim Al-Khatib, Bradley D Hanson, Albert J Fischer
Cyperus difformis L. (CYPDI) and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla (SCHMU) are major weeds of California (CA) rice, where resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors was identified in several CYPDI and SCHMU populations that have also evolved resistance to photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. The mechanism of ALS resistance in these populations remains to be clarified but this information is crucial in a weed management program, especially in a scenario where resistance to multiple herbicides has been identified...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043334/ryanodine-receptor-genes-of-the-rice-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-molecular-cloning-alternative-splicing-and-expression-profiling
#5
Y C Peng, C W Sheng, John E Casida, C Q Zhao, Z J Han
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043333/a-nematicidal-tannin-from-punica-granatum-l-rind-and-its-physiological-effect-on-pine-wood-nematode-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
#6
Qunqun Guo, Guicai Du, Hongtao Qi, Yanan Zhang, Tongqing Yue, Jingchao Wang, Ronggui Li
The ethanol extract of Punica granatum L. rind was tested to show significant nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Three nematicidal compounds were obtained from the ethanol extract by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as punicalagin 1, punicalin 2, and corilagin 3 by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data analysis. Punicalagin 1 was most active against PWN among the purified compounds with the LC50 value of 307.08μM in 72h. According to the enzyme assays in vitro, punicalagin 1 could inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase, amylase and cellulase from PWN with IC50 value of 0...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043332/resistance-of-green-lacewing-chrysoperla-carnea-stephens-to-nitenpyram-cross-resistance-patterns-mechanism-stability-and-realized-heritability
#7
Muhammad Mudassir Mansoor, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Naeem Abbas, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Muhammad Afzal
The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043331/avermectin-induced-global-dna-hypomethylation-and-over-expression-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-cardiac-tissues-of-pigeon
#8
Ci Liu, Ye Cao, Shuo Zhou, Pervez Ahmed Khoso, Shu Li
Despite increasing evidences pointing to residues of avermectin (AVM) pose toxic effects on non-target organisms in environment, but the data in pigeon is insufficient. The alteration of global DNA methylation and response of heat shock proteins (Hsps) are important for assessing the AVM toxicity in cardiac tissues of pigeon (Columba livia). To investigate the effects of AVM exposure in cardiac tissues of pigeon, we detected the expression levels of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts), methylated DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), and Hsp 60, 70 and 90...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043330/synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-of-2-allylphenol-derivatives-against-fungal-plant-pathogens
#9
Tianli Qu, Shumei Gao, Jianqiang Li, Jianjun J Hao, Pingsheng Ji
2-Allylphenol (2-AP) is an effective fungicide against a number of plant pathogens, which can be metabolized and bio-transformed to four chemical compounds by Rhizoctonia cerealis. To determine if its degradation affects antifungal activity, two major metabolites derived from 2-AP including 2-(2-hydroxypropyl) phenol and 2-(3-hydroxypropyl) phenol were synthesized. Inhibition of mycelial growth of several plant pathogens by the metabolites was evaluated, and structures of two metabolites were determined by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043329/evaluation-of-the-toxicity-of-fungicides-to-flight-muscle-mitochondria-of-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris-l
#10
Mikhail Y Syromyatnikov, Anastasia V Kokina, Alexey V Lopatin, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Insects pollinate 75% of crops used for human consumption. Over the last decade, a substantial reduction in the abundance of pollinating insects has been recorded and recognized as a severe matter for food supply security. Many of the important food crops destined for human consumption are grown in greenhouses. A unique feature of greenhouse agriculture is the extensive use of fungicides to curb multiple fungal infections. The most widely used pollinating insects in greenhouses are commercially reared bumblebees...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043328/rna-interference-of-three-up-regulated-transcripts-associated-with-insecticide-resistance-in-an-imidacloprid-resistant-population-of-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#11
Justin Clements, Sean Schoville, Nathan Peterson, Anders S Huseth, Que Lan, Russell L Groves
The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of potatoes in the Central Sands production region of Wisconsin. Previous studies have shown that populations of L. decemlineata have become resistant to many classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, L. decemlineata has multiple mechanisms of resistance to deal with a pesticide insult, including enhanced metabolic detoxification by cytochrome p450s and glutathione S-transferases...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043327/acetylcholinesterases-from-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditid-bacteriophora-susceptibility-to-insecticides-and-immunological-characteristics
#12
Magda A Mohamed, El-Sayed M E Mahdy, Abd-El-Hady M Ghazy, Nihal M Ibrahim, Hatem A El-Mezayen, Manal M E Ghanem
Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) from the infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) have been investigated with respect to their susceptibility to insecticides and immunological characteristics, aiming at nominating the most compatible insecticide(s) to be used in conjunction with the most insecticide-tolerant EPN strain before incorporation in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The inhibition kinetics of two purified AChE isoenzymes, AChEAII and AChEBI isolated from Heterorhabditid bacteriophora EM2 strain, by different insecticides revealed that the insensitivity to inhibition by such insecticides could be arranged in a descending order as; methomyl>carbofuran>acetamiprid>oxamyl>malathion...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043326/advances-and-prospects-in-biogenic-substances-against-plant-virus-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Lei Zhao, Chaohong Feng, Kuan Wu, Wenbao Chen, Yujia Chen, Xingan Hao, Yunfeng Wu
Plant virus diseases, known as 'plant cancer', are the second largest plant diseases after plant fungal diseases, which have caused great damage to agricultural industry. Since now, the most direct and effective method for controlling viruses is chemotherapeutics, except for screening of anti-disease species. As the occurrence and harm of plant diseases intensify, production and consumption of pesticides have increased year by year, and greatly contributed to the fertility of agriculture, but also brought a series of problems, such as the increase of drug resistance of plant pathogens and the excessive pesticide residues...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043325/exploring-poisonous-mechanism-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-ligustica-spinola-caused-by-pyrethroids
#14
Qiang Wang, Qingyun Diao, Pingli Dai, Yanna Chu, Yanyan Wu, Ting Zhou, Qingnian Cai
As the important intracellular secondary messengers, calcium channel is the target of many neurotoxic pesticides as calcium homeostasis in the neuroplasm play important role in neuronal functions and behavior in insects. This study investigated the effect of deltamethrin (DM) on calcium channel in the brain nerve cells of adult workers of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola that were cultured in vitro. The results showed that the intracellular calcium concentration was significantly elevated even with a very low concentration of the DM (3...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914545/potential-mode-of-action-of-a-novel-plumbagin-as-a-mosquito-repellent-against-the-malarial-vector-anopheles-stephensi-culicidae-diptera
#15
Venkatraman Pradeepa, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Subbiah Sathish-Narayanan, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Edward-Sam Edwin, Muthiah Sakthi-Bagavathy, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Kadarkarai Murugan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914544/resistance-monitoring-and-cross-resistance-patterns-of-three-rice-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-sogatella-furcifera-and-laodelphax-striatellus-to-dinotefuran-in-china
#16
Xi-Chao Mu, Wei Zhang, Li-Xiang Wang, Shuai Zhang, Kai Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Shun-Fan Wu
Three rice planthoppers, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera and small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, are important pests of cultivated rice in tropical and temperate Asia. They have caused severe economic loss and developed resistance to insecticides from most chemical classes. Dinotefuran is the third neonicotinoid which possesses a broad spectrum and systemic insecticidal activity. We determined the susceptibility of dinotefuran to field populations from major rice production areas in China from 2013 to 2015...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914543/extract-of-syringa-oblata-a-new-biocontrol-agent-against-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-caused-by-ralstonia-solanacearum
#17
Wanming Bai, Fanyu Kong, Yong Lin, Chengsheng Zhang
Ralstonia solanacearum causes serious wilt disease in tobacco. To effectively control this disease, the antibacterial activity of 95% ethanol extracts from the flower buds of Syringa oblata was examined. Based on GC-MS analysis and an inhibition experiment against R. solanacearum, the main antibacterial component is eugenol. We further determined the effect of eugenol on the physiology, biochemistry, and cellular morphology of R. solanacearum. The results showed that eugenol can destroy wilt bacteria, leading to the disappearance of flagella, the leakage of contents, and the appearance of a cavity...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914542/glutathione-s-transferases-are-involved-in-thiamethoxam-resistance-in-the-field-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-q-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#18
Xin Yang, Chao He, Wen Xie, Yating Liu, Jixing Xia, Zezong Yang, Litao Guo, Yanan Wen, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Fengshan Yang, Xiaomao Zhou, Youjun Zhang
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we assessed the level of cross-resistance, the activities of detoxifying enzymes, and the expression profiles of 23 glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in a thiamethoxam-resistant ant and -susceptible strain of Bemisia tabaci Q. The thiamethoxam-resistant strain showed a moderate level of cross-resistance to another nicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, a low level of cross-resistance to acetamiprid and nitenpyram, and no significant cross-resistance to abamectin and bifenthrin...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914541/two-new-fatty-acids-esters-were-detected-in-ginseng-stems-by-the-application-of-azoxystrobin-and-the-increasing-of-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-ginsenosides-content
#19
Shuang Liang, Xuan-Wei Xu, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Zhi-Guang Hou, Xin-Hong Wang, Zhong-Bin Lu
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a valuable herb in China that has also gained popularity in the West because of its pharmacological properties. The constituents isolated and characterized in ginseng stems include ginsenosides, fatty acids, amino acids, volatile oils, and polysaccharides. In this study, the effects of fungicide azoxystrobin applied on antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content in ginseng stems was studied by using Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. cv. (the cultivar of Ermaya) under natural environmental conditions...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914540/evaluation-of-antidesmone-alkaloid-as-a-photosynthesis-inhibitor
#20
Olívia Moreira Sampaio, Murilo Marinho de Castro Lima, Thiago André Moura Veiga, Beatriz King-Díaz, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva, Blas Lotina-Hennsen
Antidesmone, isolated from Waltheria brachypetala Turcz., owns special structural features as two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups and a side alkyl chain that can compete with the quinones involved in the pool of plastoquinones at photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we showed that the alkaloid is an inhibitor of Hill reaction and its target was located at the acceptor side of PSII. Studies of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence showed a J-band that indicates direct action of antidesmone in accumulation of QA(-) (reduced plastoquinone A) due to the electron transport blocked at the QB (plastoquinone B) level similar to DCMU...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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