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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Robert A Moyer, Kevin G McGarry, Michael C Babin, Gennady E Platoff, David A Jett, David T Yeung
Phorate is a highly toxic agricultural pesticide currently in use throughout the world. Like many other organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, the primary mechanism of the acute toxicity of phorate is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition mediated by its bioactivated oxon metabolite. AChE reactivation is a critical aspect in the treatment of acute OP intoxication. Unfortunately, very little is currently known about the capacity of various oximes to rescue phorate oxon (PHO)-inhibited AChE. To help fill this knowledge gap, we evaluated the kinetics of inhibition, reactivation, and aging of PHO using recombinant AChE derived from three species (rat, guinea pig and human) commonly utilized to study the toxicity of OP compounds and five oximes that are currently fielded (or have been deemed extremely promising) as anti-OP therapies by various nations around the globe: 2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl2 , MMB4-DMS, and HLö7 DMS...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Paweł Czerniewicz, Grzegorz Chrzanowski, Iwona Sprawka, Hubert Sytykiewicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiayan Pan, Shu Xu, Jian Wu, Jianying Luo, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Feng Zhang, Mingguo Zhou
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and can be effectively controlled by phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an antibiotic secreted by Pseudomonas spp. PCA resistance in Xoo was investigated in this research. Only four PCA-resistant strains were obtained by extensive screening, and the resistance was genetically stable in only one of them (P4). P4 was also resistant to phenazine and 1-hydroxyphezine but not to captan, bismerthiazol, or streptomycin. The following were reduced in P4 relative to the parental wild type: growth, virulence, EPS production, extracellular cellulase production and activity, biofilm formation, and swimming ability...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhan, Yiran Liang, Donghui Liu, Chang Liu, Hui Liu, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou
Acetofenate (AF) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide used for controlling hygiene pests. In this study, the metabolism of AF in rabbits in vivo and in vitro was investigated and the primary chiral metabolite acetofenate-alcohol (AF-A) was analyzed. The cytotoxicity of AF and AF-A was also determined. AF in rabbits in vivo was eliminated so rapidly that AF could not be detected within 10min after intravenous administration at 20mg/kg (body weight), and AF-A was quickly formed. In vitro metabolism assay, using plasma and liver microsomes, showed that AF was also quickly metabolized to AF-A and the metabolic process was significantly enantioselective with preferential degradation of (-)-AF and formation of (-)-AF-A...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mohd Faizan Siddiqui, Bilqees Bano
Carbendazim is a broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide which is used to ensure plants' protection from pest and pathogens' invasion. The present work describes the impact of carbendazim (CAR) on garlic phytocystatin (GPC) which is a crucial plant regulatory protein. Interaction of carbendazim with GPC has been investigated through various biophysical techniques viz. UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, far-UV circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy which showed binding between them with consequent modulatory effects...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
J S Mendoza-Figueroa, A Kvarnheden, J Méndez-Lozano, E-A Rodríguez-Negrete, R Arreguín-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M Soriano-García
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) infects mainly plants of the family Solanaceae, and the infection induces curling and chlorosis of leaves, dwarfing of the whole plant, and reduced fruit production. Alternatives for direct control of TYLCV and other geminiviruses have been reported, for example, the use of esterified whey proteins, peptide aptamer libraries or artificial zinc finger proteins. The two latter alternatives affect directly the replication of TYLCV as well as of other geminiviruses because the replication structures and sequences are highly conserved within this virus family...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ajaz Ahmad, Masood Ahmad
Edifenphos (EDF), an important organophosphate fungicide used in agriculture, is a great threat to human health and environment. To assess the toxicity of EDF at the level of protein molecule, the effect of EDF on human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by biophysical and biochemical approaches. EDF-HSA complex is formed as a result of static quenching as revealed by the intrinsic fluorescence analysis. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data suggests involvement of hydrophobic interactions in EDF-HSA complex formation, which is in line with molecular docking results...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi, Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Temitope Hannah Farombi, Abiola Surajudeen Oropo, Omowunmi Abigail Owoje, Mathew Terwase Awunah
Rotenone, a naturally occurring and commonly used pesticide, has been established as a model for inducing Parkinson's Disease (PD) in rodents. Kolaviron is a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we evaluated the ameliorative role of Kolaviron on rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for longevity study were exposed to Kolaviron (100-500mg/kg diet) throughout the lifespan. For biochemical study, Groups A, B and C flies were treated with ethanol (2...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Tae-Kyun Hong, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Kyoung-Hwa Jang, Eun-Shik Na, Young-Joon Ahn
Bradysia procera is a serious insect pest of Panax ginseng plants. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of three phenylpropanoids, three terpenoids, and a ketone from Syzygium aromaticum bud methanol extract and hydrodistillate against third-instar larvae and eggs of B. procera. In a filter-paper mortality bioassay, methyl salicylate (LC50 , 5.26μg/cm2 ) was the most toxic compound, followed by 2-nonanone, eugenol, and eugenyl acetate (8.77-15.40μg/cm2 ). These compounds were significantly less toxic than either thiamethoxam, clothianidin, or cypermethrin...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Shi-Peng Lin, Xiu-Shi Song, Ya-Bing Duan, Jian-Xin Wang, Ming-Guo Zhou
Pyraziflumid is a novel member of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides (SDHI). In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to pyraziflumid was determined using 105 strains collected during 2015 and 2017 from different geographical regions in Jiangsu Province of China, and the average EC50 value was 0.0561 (±0.0263)μg/ml for mycelial growth. There was no cross-resistance between pyraziflumid and the widely used fungicides carbendazim, dimethachlon and the phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ying Yang, Mei-Xia Li, Ya-Bing Duan, Tao Li, Yi-Yuan Shi, Dong-Lei Zhao, Ze-Hua Zhou, Wen-Jing Xin, Jian Wu, Xia-Yan Pan, Yan-Jun Li, Yuan-Ye Zhu, Ming-Guo Zhou
Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides in many phytopathogenic fungi is caused by specific point mutations in the β-tubulin gene (β-tubulin). However, the mutated locus and genotype of β-tubulin differ among phytopathogenic fungi. To validate the point mutation in Fusarium asiaticum β2 -tubulin that confers resistance to carbendazim and to analyze the molecular interaction between carbendazim and F. asiaticum β2 -tubulin. In this study, a new point mutation (GAG→GCG, E198A) at codon 198 of β2 -tubulin in a wild-type F...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jian Wang, Xuemei Zhong, Fenghai Li, Zhensheng Shi
Nicosulfuron is a postemergence herbicide used for weed control in maize fields (Zea mays L.). We used the pair of nearly isogenic inbred lines, SN509-R (nicosulfuron resistant) and SN509-S (nicosulfuron sensitive), to study the effect of nicosulfuron on growth, oxidative stress, and the ascorbate-glutathione (AA-GSH) cycle in waxy maize seedlings. Nicosulfuron treatment was applied when the fourth leaves were fully developed and the obtained effects were compared to water treatment as control. After nicosulfuron treatment, compared to SN509-R, the death of SN509-S might be associated with increased oxidative stress, since higher O2 - and H2 O2 accumulations were observed in SN509-S...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Bangqiang Mao, Min Gao, Changshui Chen, Zhijun Li, Hong-Yu Zhang, Qingye Zhang
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC: is a target for the development of novel herbicides. Two series of N-nitrophenyl derivatives, type-A and type-B, were designed and synthesized based on the active site of the AHAS structure. All the structures of newly prepared compounds were thorough characterized by IR, and1 H NMR spectrums. The IC50 values of all synthesized target compounds against AHAS enzyme and EC50 values for herbicidal activity against Brassica campestris L., Amaranthus mangostanus L. and Sorghum sudanense were determined...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Peiling Wei, Wunan Che, Jinda Wang, Da Xiao, Ran Wang, Chen Luo
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species complex comprises very destructive insect pests of agricultural crops worldwide and has been found to be resistant to various insecticides in China. Abamectin is one of the most widely used insecticides for insect pest control and the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) in insects was presumed to be the main target site of abamectin. In this study, a 1353bp full-length cDNA encoding GluCl (named BtGluCl, GenBank ID: MF673854) was cloned and characterized from B...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Guangyan Wu, Lin Li, Bo Chen, Chuan Chen, Duqiang Luo, Bingjun He
A new meroterpenoid, named acetoxydehydroaustin A (1) and the known meroterpenoid austin (2) were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium albo-atrum. Their structures were established based on general spectroscopic techniques and the relative configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. We first investigated and identified their significant electrophysiological effects on the gating kinetics of voltage-gated sodium channels in central neurons acutely dissociated from Helicoverpa armigera using whole-cell patch clamp technique...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Owain R Edwards, Thomas K Walsh, Suzanne Metcalfe, Wee Tek Tay, Ary A Hoffmann, Peter Mangano, Alan Lord, Svetlana Micic, Paul A Umina
Resistance mechanisms are typically uncovered by identifying sequence variation in known candidate genes, however this strategy can be problematic for species with no reference data in known relatives. Here we take a genomic approach to identify resistance to pyrethroids in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, a member of the Penthalidae family of mites that are virtually uncharacterized genetically. Based on shallow genome sequencing followed by a genome assembly, we first identified contigs of the H...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kejun Yang, Yifei Zhang, Lianhua Zhu, Zuotong Li, Benliang Deng
Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H2 O2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H2 O2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Elham Ahmadian, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi, Mohammad Ali Eghbal, Aziz Eftekhari
Organophosphates (OP) are potent pesticide commonly utilized in agricultural and domestic use. However, plentitude of data represent their side effects in different body tissues. We attempted to study whether betanin (a natural pigment) is able to mitigate some OPs-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH) depletion and mitochondrial depolarization were tested as toxicity markers...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mayra A Borrero Landazabal, Aurora L Carreño Otero, Vladimir V Kouznetsov, Jonny E Duque Luna, Stelia C Mendez-Sanchez
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Due to the absence of vaccines or antiviral drugs for human treatment, the majority of control strategies are targeted at Ae. aegypti elimination. Our research on mosquito control insecticidal agents has previously shown that the alkaloid girgensohnine and its analogues (α-aminonitriles) present in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vivo insecticidal activity against Ae...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Congai Zhen, Ling Miao, Xiwu Gao
The mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) has evolved the resistance towards some traditional insecticides, especially pyrethroids and organophosphates. Sulfoxaflor, as a novel insecticide, is used for control of sap-feeding insects, like A. lucorum. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the acute toxicity and the potential sublethal effects of sulfoxaflor in A. lucorum. Here, the LD50 value of sulfoxaflor against A. lucorum was assayed as 3.347ng/adult at 48h via topical application. Besides, the effects of a sublethal dose (LD15 ) of sulfoxaflor on biological characteristics of A...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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