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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Xiang-Pu Qu, Jiao-Sheng Li, Jian-Xin Wang, Luo-Yu Wu, Ying-Fan Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou, Yi-Ping Hou
Fusarium fujikuroi is the primary causal agent of rice bakanae disease. Fluazinam is a protective dinitroaniline fungicide which could interrupt the fungal cell's energy production. Little is known about the effects of fluazinam on F. fujikuroi. In this study, baseline sensitivity of F. fujikuroi to fluazinam was determined using 103 isolates collected from diseased young rice of different fields in Shaoxing of Zhejiang Province and Huaian of Jiangsu Province of China in 2016. The EC50 values of fluazinam on inhibiting mycelial growth against 103 isolates of F...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Si-Quan Ling, Ya-Nan Xu, Yan-Ping Gu, Shu-Yu Liu, Wen-Wei Tang
Itol A, a novel isoryanodane diterpene derived from Itoa orientalis Hemsl., has potent activities against insect pests. This study was conducted to determine the contact toxicity and biochemical effects of itol A on the Nilaparvata lugens. After macropterous females of N. lugens were exposed to itol A from 0.5 to 24 h, the mortality and poisoning symptoms were measured. Effects of itol A on the major enzymes activity and oxidative stress level were assessed in dose-response (with LD10 -LD70 at 24 h) and time-course (with LD50 at 0...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jian Hu, Shaojun Deng, Tao Gao, Kurt Lamour, Xili Liu, Haiyan Ren
Sclerotinia homoeocarpa causes dollar spot disease on many turfgrass species and is a significant problem worldwide. Thiophanate-methyl (TM), a methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicide, has been used for over forty years to manage dollar spot. Here we describe genetic mutations linked to three distinct TM fungicide resistance phenotypes: sensitive (S), moderately resistant (MR) and highly resistant (HR). These were established using multiple doses of TM, compared to previous studies using single discriminatory doses...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Di Liu, Zhong-Qiang Jia, Ying-Chuan Peng, Cheng-Wang Sheng, Tao Tang, Lu Xu, Zhao-Jun Han, Chun-Qing Zhao
The increasing occurrence of resistance to chemical insecticides in insect pest populations is a serious threat to the integrity of current pest management strategies, and exploring new alternative chemistries is one important way to overcome this obstacle. Fluralaner, as a novel isoxazoline insecticide, has broad spectrum activity against a variety of insect pests, but little data is available about its effect on Lepidopterans. The effects of fluralaner on Spodoptera litura Fabricius, a widespread and polyphagous pest, were evaluated in the present study...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Fengping Chen, Qian Zhou, Chunfang Qin, Yuan Li, Jiasui Zhan
Iprovalicarb is a carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicide, highly effective in the control of potato late blight, causing by Phytophthora infestans. Due to cross-resistance with other CAA fungicides and moderate resistance risk of P. capsici to iprovalicarb, the evolutionary risk of P. infestans resistance to this fungicide and the contribution of inherited genes and environmental effect was evaluated using a common garden experiment. The results showed that the ratio of heritability and plasticity of iprovalicarb in the seven populations equaled 1...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Habiba Zaffar, Raza Ahmad, Arshid Pervez, Tatheer Alam Naqvi
Endosulfan an organochlorinated pesticide was used extensively throughout the world. Its enormous and inadequate use creates environmental as well as health problems. A bacterial strain capable to utilize endosulfan as a sole source of sulfur was isolated from pesticide contaminated soil and identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA. Batch experiments were conducted at various initial concentrations of endosulfan, i.e. 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l to study its rate of degradation. After three days of incubation, 70-80% of each initial concentration was degraded by the isolated strain as compared to the control...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Pratheep Thangaraj, Ramesh Kumar Neelamegam, Kayalvizhi Nagarajan, Krishnan Muthukalingan
This study investigates the effects of the insect growth regulator azadirachtin on lipid transportation to the ovary of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Lipids are hydrophobic in nature and require a carrier for circulation in the blood. Protein-lipid interactions play a vital role in lipid transport, thereby keeping the system balanced. In general, lipids bind to lipoproteins in a specific region called the lipid-binding domain (LBD). In this study, B. mori apolipophorin amino acid sequences were retrieved from NCBI and the LBD was identified...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yabing Duan, Meixia Li, Huahua Zhao, Fei Lu, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), the causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, has the different geographically distributed species. Our previous study suggested that a DMI fungicide metconazole exhibits a strong fungicidal activity in mycelial growth of Chinese FHB pathogens and metconazole is currently a most effective compound of commercial fungicides for controlling FHB in China. In the current study, metconazole-resistant F. graminearum mutants were induced by chemical taming and their molecular and biological characteristics were determined...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Peng-Cheng Yan, Chao-Wei Wen, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Zhi-da Zhang, Jia-Ping Xu, Ming-Jie Deng
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is a natural d-glucose analogue from mulberry with promising physiological activity in vivo. Up to the present, the antidiabetic effects of DNJ on lowering blood sugar and accelerating lipid metabolism in mammals were broadly reported, but the specific character of DNJ against insects was vastly ignored. In this study, a toxicological test of DNJ againgst eri-silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini was carried out to investigate the potential of DNJ in insect management. Further, a method of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics and real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR) were performed to analyze the alteration in midgut of eri-silkworm caused by DNJ...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Joonghyuk Park, Young Ock Ahn, Jeong-Won Nam, Myoung-Ki Hong, Namsook Song, Taejoon Kim, Gyung-Hee Yu, Soon-Kee Sung
We conducted biochemical and physiological experiments to investigate the mode of action of tiafenacil (Terrad'or™), a new protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting pyrimidinedione herbicide. Analysis of the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) against recombinant PPO enzymes from various plant species, including amaranth (Amaranthus tuberculatus), soybean (Glycine max), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rapeseed (Brassica napus), showed that tiafenacil had an IC50 of 22 to 28 nM, similar to the pyrimidinedione herbicides butafenacil and saflufenacil and the N-phenylphthalimide herbicide flumioxazin...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Rasha M Hussein, Wafaa R Mohamed, Hany A Omar
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an agricultural pesticide and a potential food contaminant, which causes neurotoxicity. Here, we aimed at exploring the link between the repeated exposure to CPF and memory dysfunction in rats and the possible protective effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid with appreciable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rats were divided into: Control group (received drug vehicles for 14 days); CPF-treated group (received subcutaneous 18 mg/kg BW of CPF daily for 14 days and CPF + Kaempferol treated group (received the same CPF dose +21 mg/kg BW of Kaempferol intraperitoneally for 14 days...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Samira Veiga Ravaiano, Wagner Faria Barbosa, Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé, Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Gustavo Ferreira Martins
In the present work, the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid formulation on the total hemocyte counts (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC) were investigated in foraging workers of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata under (or not) the challenge with the bacteria Escherichia coli. The THC was not altered with the insecticide exposure and/or bacterial infection. However, the DHC of the bees changed with the imidacloprid exposure and/or bacterial infection. The number of prohemocytes (stem cells) increased in bees exposed to imidacloprid, but it did not change after the bacterial infection...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Tengfei Shi, Sawyer Burton, Yufei Wang, Shengyun Xu, Wenxin Zhang, Linsheng Yu
The cyano-substituted neonicotinoid insecticide, thiacloprid, is nowadays widely used in agriculture for controlling insect pests. However, it also simultaneously has adverse effects on the health of important pollinators, such as honey bees. Previous studies have reported that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impaired immunocompetence, learning and memory performance, and homing behaviour in honey bees. In the present study, using LC-MS-based combined with GC-MS-based metabolomic approaches, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the head of honey bee after subchronic exposure to 2 mg/L thiacloprid over 3 days...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Xiang-Pu Qu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yabing Duan, Xuemei Xiao, Tao Li, Weiwei Chen, Jianxin Wang, Bart A Fraaije, Mingguo Zhou
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals with Fusarium graminearum as one of the most important causal agents. FHB not only can reduce yield and quality of grains, but also lead to accumulation of mycotoxins in grain, thereby threatening human and animal health. In this study, we observed that epoxiconazole exhibits strong inhibitory effects on both carbendazim-resistant and phenamacril-resistant isolates using mycelial growth inhibition assays. The artificially inoculated field trials further showed that epoxiconazole increased the control efficacy of FHB by being able to control carbendazim-resistant and phenamacril-resistant isolates...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiao-Hong Zhang, Jiao Wu, Ji-Guang Huang, Li-Juan Zhou
Berberine is a naturally occurring plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic and cytotoxic properties. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of berberine against tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. We found that berberine inhibited tobacco BY-2 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner and the potency of berberine was comparable to the traditional herbicide glyphosate. Meanwhile, the in vivo test revealed that the herbicidal activity of berberine was also comparable to that of glyphosate. Further mechanism studies for the cytotoxicity demonstrated that berberine at concentrations of 40 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL induced cell death by causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization, irregular nuclei and chromatin condensation but not leading to significant apoptosis...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zengrong Huang, Neil Carter, Hongliang Lu, Zhizhong Zhang, Gefu Wang-Pruski
Phosphite (Phi)-based fungicides, such as the commercial product Phostrol™, are widely used in potato late blight control. However, the Phi translocation efficiency and the efficacy against pathogen are less discussed. In this study, the Phi concentration were quantified by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) and the Phi translocation efficiency in potato tissues was evaluated using potato cultivar Russet Burbank with foliar application of the Phostrol solution both under greenhouse and field conditions...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Bi Wang, Shu Xu, Yan Cao, Fei Liu, Xingzeng Zhao, Xu Feng
10-deacetyl-bacatin III (10-DAB) is a natural plant-derived taxane diterpene, whose antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of 10-DAB on plant-pathogenic oomycetes. Our results revealed that 10-DAB exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against test oomycetes, especially against Phytophthora capsici, with a median effective concentration (EC50 ) of 1.46 μg/mL, but had no effect on test fungi. Under 10-DAB treatment, mycelia of P...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dicheng Ma, Jiamei Zhu, Jiangong Jiang, Yunhe Zhao, Beixing Li, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
Tetramycin is a novel polyene antibiotic that has exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against many plant pathogens. In this study, the sensitivity of Corynespora cassiicola to tetramycin was assessed in vitro using a series of 91 isolates, and its effects on hyphae and conidia were evaluated. Preventive and curative efficacies of tetramycin against Corynespora leaf spot were evaluated using detached cucumber leaves and potted cucumber plants. The control efficacy of tetramycin against the pathogen was also determined under field conditions...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Guang-Lei Chen, Yu-Feng Pan, Yun-Feng Ma, Jun Wang, Ming He, Peng He
The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera is a notorious rice pest in Asia. Olfaction is crucial for the WBPH to seek and locate rice plants. However, its mechanism is still not fully understood. Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are some of the important olfactory-related proteins. In this study, we first used a bacterial system to successfully express the recombinant, antennae-enriched protein SfurCSP5. Further, competitive fluorescence binding assays with 86 candidate ligands, including some known rice plant volatiles, showed that SfurCSP5 has high affinities for 2-tridecanone, 2-pentadecanone, and β-ionone, which are known to be present in volatile mixtures that can attract rice planthoppers, and produced Ki values of 4...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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