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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

N Aribi, M C Oulhaci, S Kilani-Morakchi, J C Sandoz, L Kaiser, B Denis, D Joly
Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD50 (0...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Gerald B Watson, Monica B Olson, Kenneth W Beavers, Michael R Loso, Thomas C Sparks
Sulfoxaflor (SFX, Isoclast™ Active) is a recently developed sulfoximine insecticide that is highly effective against sap-feeding insect pests. SFX has been shown to act through an interaction with insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). SFX was previously found to interact weakly with the binding site for the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. However, radioligand displacement studies characterizing the binding site of the insecticide SFX itself have not been conducted. In this study, we report the characterization of a high affinity [3H]SFX Myzus persicae (green peach aphid, GPA) binding site with relatively low abundance...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Abdelaziz Kishk, Faraj Hijaz, Helmy A I Anber, Tsamoh K AbdEl-Raof, AbdEl-Hakeem D El-Sherbeni, Sobhy Hamed, Nabil Killiny
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Lividae) transmits the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which causes citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing, (HLB). To date, there is no efficient cure for HLB disease and the control of D. citri using insecticides became the most important tools for the management of HLB. However, the extensive use of insecticides could increase D. citri resistance to these insecticides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RNA interference of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the mortality and susceptibility of D...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Junfan Niu, Danyue Nie, Diya Yu, Qinglai Wu, Linhua Yu, Zongli Yao, Xiaoying Du, Junkai Li
Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that has been proven effective against a number of soil-borne fungal phytopathogens and registered for biofungicide against rice sheath blight in China. In order to improve the phloem mobility of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), four PCA derivatives were designed and synthesized by conjugating PCA with l-alanine methyl ester, d-alanine methyl ester, l-alanine and d-alanine respectively. In vitro and planta bioassays results showed that conjugates L-PAM and D-PAM exhibited higher fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn than PCA while L-PA and D-PA were less active than PCA...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Mariana Regina Durigan, Alberto Soares Corrêa, Rogério Machado Pereira, Natália Alves Leite, Douglas Amado, Dayana Rosalina de Sousa, Celso Omoto
Control failures with the use of pyrethroid insecticides have been reported frequently for populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in Brazil, since its detection in 2013. Here, we confirmed and investigated the metabolic mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera populations from Brazil. Mortality of H. armigera populations was lower than 50% at the highest dose (10μg a.i./3rd instar larva) of the pyrethroids deltamethrin and fenvalerate in dose-response bioassays. Very low mortality (10 to 40%) was obtained at a diagnostic dose of 10μg a...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
L Scarabel, A Milani, S Panozzo, A Rasori
Resistance to 2,4-D (2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide is increasing in various dicotyledonous weed species, including Papaver rhoeas, a weed infesting Southern European wheat crops. Non-target-site resistance to this herbicide is governed by a range of genes involved in herbicide stress response. To enable reliable measurement of gene expression levels in herbicide-resistant and susceptible plants it is necessary to normalize qPCR data using internal control genes with stable expression. In an attempt to find the best reference genes, the stability of seven candidate reference genes was assessed in plants resistant and susceptible to 2,4-D, subjected or not to herbicide stress...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Koichi Hirata, Akiya Jouraku, Seigo Kuwazaki, Jun Kanazawa, Takao Iwasa
The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is one of the most agriculturally important insect pests. Neonicotinoid insecticides and sulfoxaflor have generally shown excellent control of A. gossypii, but these aphids have recently developed resistance against neonicotinoid insecticides. We previously characterized a field-collected A. gossypii Kushima clone that showed higher resistance to nitro-substituted neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, than to cyano-substituted neonicotinoids, such as acetamiprid. This Kushima clone harbors the R81T mutation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) β1 subunit; this mutation is the source of neonicotinoid insecticide resistance...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Gyung Deok Han, Jahyun Na, Yong Shik Chun, Sunil Kumar, Wook Kim, Yonggyun Kim
Polyunsaturated fatty acids usually undergo lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Calcium-independent cellular phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) can maintain fatty acid compositions in phospholipids depending on physiological conditions. An insect iPLA2 (Pi-iPLA2) was predicted from the transciptome of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. It encodes 835 amino acids. It possesses five ankyrin repeats in the N terminal and patatin lipase domain in the C terminal. Pi-iPLA2 was expressed in all developmental stages of the Indianmeal moth...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Qiu-Ling Tang, Kang-Sheng Ma, You-Ming Hou, Xi-Wu Gao
Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is one of the most serious agricultural pests in China, and management strategies mainly rely on insecticidal treatment. To evaluate the resistance of field populations of M. persicae to seven insecticides, we assessed the susceptibility of 11 field populations collected from eight provinces in China using leaf-dip bioassays. Toxicity assays showed that M. persicae field populations have developed several levels of resistance to each tested insecticide. For pyrethroids, the field populations have developed a high level of resistance to β-cypermethrin and cypermethrin, while the resistance to bifenthrin is still low...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Joseph S Clements, Rafique Islam, Baonan Sun, Fan Tong, Aaron D Gross, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Paul R Carlier
New public health insecticides are urgently required to prevent the spread of vector-borne disease. With the goal of identifying new K+-channel-directed mosquitocides, analogs of the RH-5849 family of diacyl t-butylhydrazines were synthesized and tested for topical toxicity against adult Anopheles gambiae, the African vector of malaria. In total, 80N'-monoacyl and N, N'-diacyl derivatives of benzyl- and arylhydrazines were prepared. Three compounds (2bo, 2kb, 3ab) were identified that were more toxic than RH-5849 and RH-1266...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhihang Liu, Pingliang Li, Xiaoxue Sun, Fei Zhou, Congjun Yang, Lingxu Li, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Xiaoyong Luo
Acanthospermum hispidum D.C. was particularly susceptible to fluazifop-P-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide, and the primary action site for the herbicide was shoot apical meristem, which is also the main site of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and action. Membrane lipid peroxidation caused by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was considered as an action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in A. hispidum. To further clarify the ROS inducing mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in the plant, the interactions between fluazifop-P-butyl and auxin compounds IAA or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were studied...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jiaxing Yu, Haitao Gao, Lang Pan, Zhenwei Yao, Liyao Dong
Chinese sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees) is a serious grass weed in rice paddies. In some areas, L. chinensis has become resistant to the herbicide cyhalofop-butyl because of its frequent and extensive use over the past five years. In this study, whole-plant dose-response assays were conducted, and a L. chinensis population (ZHYH) had a 75.8-fold resistance index to cyhalofop-butyl. Molecular analyses revealed that this resistance was attributed to a tryptophan (Trp)-2027-to-cysteine (Cys) substitution in the CT domain of the ACCase gene...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Chao Xu, Yuan Zhou, Ruilin Qi, Guoqiang Dai, Xiaosong Tan, Hongwu He
α-(Substituted phenoxyacetoxy) alkylphosphonates containing one chiral carbon atom have been demonstrated to be PDHc inhibitor with good herbicidal activity and some of them could be used as potential herbicide. In order to determine any difference in herbicidal activities between (R) and (S) isomers, the synthetic method of optically active substituted phenylalkylphosphonates IB were explored. A highly practical, enantioselective hydrophosphonylation was developed to prepare optically active O,O-dimethyl α-hydroxyalkylphosphonates 3 as key intermediate by asymmetric addition reaction of dimethylphosphite 1 and several kinds of aldehydes 2 using tridentate Schiff base Al(III) complexes as catalysts...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xing Huang, Jian He, Xin Yan, Qing Hong, Kai Chen, Qin He, Long Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Shaochuang Chuang, Shunpeng Li, Jiandong Jiang
Chemical herbicides are widely used to control weeds and are frequently detected as contaminants in the environment. Due to their toxicity, the environmental fate of herbicides is of great concern. Microbial catabolism is considered the major pathway for the dissipation of herbicides in the environment. In recent decades, there have been an increasing number of reports on the catabolism of various herbicides by microorganisms. This review presents an overview of the recent advances in the microbial catabolism of various herbicides, including phenoxyacetic acid, chlorinated benzoic acid, diphenyl ether, tetra-substituted benzene, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, aryloxyphenoxypropionate, phenylurea, dinitroaniline, s-triazine, chloroacetanilide, organophosphorus, thiocarbamate, trazinone, triketone, pyrimidinylthiobenzoate, benzonitrile, isoxazole and bipyridinium herbicides...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dongzhi Li, Qinggang Gao, Li Xu, Sen Pang, Zhiqian Liu, Chengju Wang, Weiming Tan
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been widely studied in relation to their role in herbicide tolerance and detoxification. However, a detailed characterization of GSTs from herbicide tolerant and sensitive maize cultivars is still lacking. In this study, we determined the mechanism of differential tolerance between two maize cultivars which had 4-fold difference tolerance to metolachlor. The metabolism rate of metolachlor was more rapid in the tolerant cultivar (Zea mays L. cv Nongda86) than the susceptible one (Zea mays L...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Amal Smaili, Lalla Aicha Rifai, Siham Esserti, Tayeb Koussa, Fouad Bentiss, Salaheddine Guesmi, Abdelhakim Laachir, Mohamed Faize
The metallic complexes μ-chloro-μ-[2,5-bis (2-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole] aqua chlorocopper (II) dichlorocopper (II) (abbreviated 2PTH-Cu2-Cl4); aquabis [2,5-bis (2-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ2N2,N3] (trifluoromethane-sulfonato-κO) copper(II) trifluoro metrhanesulfonate (2PTH-Cu-tF) and bis[(2,5-bis(pyridine-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-di-azido copper(II)] (2PTH-Cu-Az) were compared for their antimicrobial activities in vitro, and their aptitude to control Verticillium wilt and crown gall diseases development of tomato in the greenhouse...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiaoyong Luo, Zhihang Liu, Yukari Sunohara, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Pingliang Li
In order to understand the action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl (FB) in bristly starbur (Acanthospermum hispidum D.C.), a susceptible plant, the role of active oxygen species (ROS) in herbicide-induced cell death in shoots was investigated. FB-induced phytotoxicity was not reduced by the antioxidants, 1,4-diazabicyclooctane (dabaco), sodium azide, l-tryptophan, d-tryptophan, hydroquinone and dimethyl pyridine N-oxide (DMPO). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in bristly starbur seedlings were significantly increased by FB at 12 HAT and 24 HAT, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased only at 12 HAT...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Shiguo Chen, Sheng Qiang
Tenuazonic acid (TeA), belonging to tetramic acids that are the largest family of natural products, is a mycotoxin produced by members of the genus Alternaria and other phytopathogenic fungi. TeA has many desirable bioactivities. In the past two decades, several studies have addressed its phytotoxic activity. Because it can cause brown leaf spot and kill seedlings of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, TeA is regarded as a potential herbicidal agent. TeA blocks electron transport beyond QA by interacting with D1 protein and is a PSII inhibitor...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Qiao Wu, Changling Liu, Jichun Yang, Aiying Guan, Hongjuan Ma
A series of novel quaternary ammonium salt derivatives were designed and synthesized by introducing the herbicide carboxylic acid into substituted aminoacetanilide compounds which derived from herbicides alachlor or acetochlor, using the intermediate derivatization methods in an attempt to obtain novel candidates for weed control. The herbicidal activity assays in greenhouse demonstrated that some of the title compounds exhibited good herbicidal activities against velvet leaf, youth-and-old age, barnyard grass, and foxtail...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lele Zhang, Wenlei Guo, Qi Li, Cuixia Wu, Ning Zhao, Weitang Liu, Jinxin Wang
Shepherd's purse is a troublesome dicot weed that occurs in the major wheat-producing areas in China. Twenty-eight shepherd's purse populations were collected from winter wheat-planting areas in Henan Province and used to evaluate tribenuron-methyl resistance and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene-mutation diversity. The results indicate that all 28 shepherd's purse populations were resistant to tribenuron-methyl at different levels compared with the susceptible population. Mutation of the 197 codon (CCT) changed proline (Pro) into tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His), leucine (Leu), serine (Ser), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala) and threonine (Thr), whereas mutation of the 574 codon (TGG) changed tryptophan (Trp) into leucine (Leu)...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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