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Tropical Animal Health and Production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909915/a-systematic-review-of-leptospirosis-on-dogs-pigs-and-horses-in-latin-america
#1
REVIEW
Priscila S Pinto, Hugo Libonati, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which can affect many species. Control programs need accurate diagnosis to be successful, and currently, diagnosis relies on serology. It presents three main issues: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. Herein, we propose a systematic review on leptospirosis among dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America in order to improve the understanding of the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in these species in the region as well as the temporal development of the research on this topic and, consequently, improve the chances of success on control programs...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909914/association-of-snp-variants-of-mhc-class-ii-drb-gene-with-thermo-physiological-traits-in-tropical-goats
#2
Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Adebowale E Salako, Marcos De Donato, Sunday O Peters, Michael I Takeet, Mathew Wheto, Moses Okpeku, Ikhide G Imumorin
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909913/plant-extracts-as-phytogenic-additives-considering-intake-digestibility-and-feeding-behavior-of-sheep
#3
Camila Sousa da Silva, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti Pereira, Edwilka Oliveira Cavalcante, Ewerton Ivo Martins de Lima, Thaysa Rodrigues Torres, José Ricardo Coelho da Silva, Daniel Cézar da Silva
The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889851/effect-of-cow-colostrum-on-the-performance-and-survival-rate-of-local-newborn-piglets-in-benin-republic
#4
Aristide Mahoutin Agbokounou, Gbênangnon Serge Ahounou, Issaka Youssao Abdou Karim, Guy Apollinaire Mensah, Bénoît Koutinhouin, Jean-Luc Hornick
The effect of bovine colostrum, including its thermally labile compounds, on the survival and growth performance of local breed piglets reared by their mother, in Benin, was evaluated over a 49-day trial. Three groups of 16 piglets, stemming from two primiparous sows belonging to a unique traditional farm, were respectively fed for the first 48 h of life with either bovine colostrum heated to 85 °C for 30 min, or thawed bovine colostrum, or colostrum from the mother. Thereafter, the animals that received bovine colostrum turned back to their mother...
November 26, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888394/comparative-evaluation-of-hormonal-protocol-on-the-performance-of-crossbred-cattle
#5
J K Sahoo, S K Das, K Sethy, S K Mishra, R K Swain, P C Mishra, S P Sahoo
A total of 60 animals (38 cows, 22 heifers) were selected and were divided into three groups of 20 animals each (containing both anoestrus and repeat breeder) in which treatment was performed for 60 days. Group I: control (farmer practice), T1 group: group I + hormone (double synch), and T2 group: group I + hormone (Estra double synch). The growth performances were measured in terms of body weight and average daily gain (ADG). Blood collection was done at the start and end of the experiment for assessment of blood biochemical, hematological, and reproductive status of the animals...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885492/polymorphism-of-growth-hormone-receptor-ghr-gene-in-nilagiri-sheep
#6
Amiya Ranjan Sahu, V Jeichitra, R Rajendran, A Raja
The allelic variation in the regulatory sequence of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene influences the growth traits of sheep. A study was carried out to find out the polymorphisms associated with exon 10 of GHR gene and its association with growth traits of Nilagiri sheep. The blood samples were collected from Nilagiri sheep (n = 103) reared at Sheep Breeding Research Station, Sandynallah, Tamil Nadu, India. DNA was isolated using the phenol-chloroform extraction procedure and eight samples having amplified product of part of exon 10 (895 bp) sequenced...
November 24, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878428/seroprevalence-of-anaplasma-marginale-and-babesia-bigemina-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-in-machakos-county-kenya
#7
F D Wesonga, J M Gachohi, P M Kitala, J M Gathuma, M J Njenga
Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina are important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. marginale and B. bigemina infections and identify associated risk factors on traditional smallholder farms in Machakos County, Kenya. A total of 421 cattle from 127 farms from four divisions in the county were sampled and visited between September and November 2007. The farms were selected by a proportional allocation approach based on the number of farms in the four divisions previously selected by stratified random sampling method...
November 22, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826688/improving-dairy-production-in-malawi-a-literature-review
#8
Ivo Baur, Léa Tabin, McLoyd Banda, Daniel Chiumia, Markus Lips
Milk production in Malawi is stagnating while steadily increasing in neighboring countries. We performed a literature review to identify factors negatively affecting milk production in Malawi and propose potential solutions to overcome the particular constraints. We structured the analysis along the value chain with three major components: upstream providers, on-farm production, and downstream providers. It is shown that the literature strongly focuses on on-farm constraints and most prominently on animal health, breed choice, and milk yield...
November 8, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822596/investigation-of-the-prion-protein-gene-prnp-polymorphisms-in-anatolian-murrah-and-crossbred-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#9
Yalçın Yaman, Orhan Karadağ, Cemal Ün
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of the cattle is the outstanding disease among other transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSEs). It can be transmitted from the cattle to a human and causes a new variant of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). It is known that prion protein coding gene (PRNP) plays a major role in the TSE susceptibility or resistance in some species. Recent researches demonstrated that the insertion (in) and deletion (del) polymorphisms within promoter and intron 1 region of the PRNP related to BSE susceptibility in cattle...
November 8, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815669/effect-of-agro-ecological-zone-season-of-birth-and-sex-on-pre-weaning-performance-of-nguni-calves-in-limpopo-province-south-africa
#10
T J Mpofu, M M Ginindza, N A Siwendu, K A Nephawe, B J Mtileni
The study was conducted to determine the effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on Nguni calves' pre-weaning performance. Production indices such as birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), pre-weaning average daily gain (P-ADG) and pre-weaning gain (P-WG) were assessed in the different agro-ecological zones. Herd records on performance of 826 Nguni calves' from nine Nguni herds representing different agro-ecological zones: arid zone (n = 217); semi-arid zone (n = 296); dry sub-humid zone (n = 118) and humid zone (n = 195) were used for the analysis of pre-weaning calf performance...
November 4, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815668/effect-of-season-and-breed-group-on-the-follicular-population-and-cyclicity-of-heifers-under-tropical-conditions
#11
Jorge Alonso Peralta-Torres, Jesús Ricardo Aké-López, Fernando Gerardo Centurión-Castro, José C Segura-Correa
The aim was to determine the effect of season and breed group on follicular population, and presence and size of CL of heifers under tropical conditions. The seasons were hot-dry (March-June), hot-humid (July-October), and fresh-humid (November-February). Thirty Zebu (Brahman) and 38 F1 (Simmental × Brahman) heifers were used. Five evaluations were made in each season, at intervals of 7 days, to assess ovarian activity by ultrasound. Follicles were classified as small (≤4 mm), middle (4.1-8 mm), and large (≥8...
November 4, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812845/the-effect-of-post-mating-hcg-or-progesterone-administration-on-reproductive-performance-of-afshari%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-booroola-merino-crossbred-ewes
#12
Behnam Rostami, Rahman Hajizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Shahir, Davood Aliyari
To investigate the efficiency of hCG/CIDR after breeding to increase the reproductive performance, 35 synchronized ewes were mated with fertile rams and were assigned to three treatment groups. Ewes in hCG group (n = 12) received 400 IU hCG on day 11 post-mating, and ewes in CIDR group (n = 11) received CIDR from day 7 until day 19 post-mating. Ewes in the control group (n = 12) did not receive any treatment. Blood samples were collected on days 7, 12, 17, and 22 post-mating. Plasma P4 concentrations were higher on days 12 and 17 post-mating in hCG- and CIDR-treated groups (P < 0...
November 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785765/long-term-effects-of-good-handling-practices-during-the-pre-weaning-period-of-crossbred-dairy-heifer-calves
#13
Luciana Pontes Silva, Aline Cristina Sant'Anna, Lívia Carolina Magalhães Silva, Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
The aim of this study was to determine whether applying good practices of handling during the pre-weaning period have long-term effects on behavioral and physiological indicators, health status, and average daily gain (ADG) of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus heifer calves. During the pre-weaning period, 98 crossbred of Holstein × Gir heifer calves were allotted into three treatments: (1) good practices of handling + brushing (GPB; n = 25), (2) good practices of handling (GP; n = 25), and (3) control (n = 48)...
October 26, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785764/bacteriological-and-molecular-studies-of-clostridium-perfringens-infections-in-newly-born-calves
#14
A M Selim, M M Elhaig, I Zakaria, A Ali
Clostridium perfringens is considered one of the important causes of calf diarrhea. Two hundred and twenty-seven clinical samples from newly born and dead diarrheic calves were examined bacteriologically and by PCR. Bacterial culture identified C. perfringens in 168 of 227 samples. A total of 144 of these isolates were lecithinase positive, indicating C. perfringens Type A. In addition, 154 isolates were positive by alpha toxin encoding gene-PCR assay. This study showed high agreement between the results of bacteriology and multiplex PCR...
October 26, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785763/long-term-changes-in-the-spatial-distribution-of-lumpy-skin-disease-hotspots-in-zimbabwe
#15
Samuel Swiswa, Mhosisi Masocha, Davies M Pfukenyi, Solomon Dhliwayo, Silvester M Chikerema
Outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) are reported almost every year in Zimbabwe but not much is known regarding whether the pattern of the disease is changing in response to major socio-economic programmes such as the land reform launched in 2000. In this paper, geo-referenced data of LSD cases was used to detect and map significant LSD hotspots over a 20-year period (1995-2014). The hotspots were then overlaid on top of a land tenure map to explore whether hotspots have spread or persist in some land tenure types...
October 26, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778142/effect-of-stocking-rate-and-supplementation-on-performance-of-dairy-cows-grazing-native-grassland-in-small-scale-systems-in-the-highlands-of-central-mexico
#16
Pedro Alan Sainz-Sánchez, Felipe López-González, Julieta Gertrudis Estrada-Flores, Carlos Galdino Martínez-García, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
The use and management of native grassland for dairy production during the rainy season was studied on two small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico. Two stocking rates (2 and 4 cows/ha) and two levels of supplementation with commercial concentrate (4 and 6 kg/cow/day) under grazing were given to 12 milking Holstein cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design replicated three times in a factorial arrangement. Net herbage accumulation (NHA), sward height, chemical composition, and in vitro digestibility of organic matter were recorded for the grassland, as well as vegetation cover and herbage mass 12 weeks post experiment...
October 25, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761776/prospective-study-of-avian-influenza-h9-infection-in-commercial-poultry-farms-of-punjab-province-and-islamabad-capital-territory-pakistan
#17
Mamoona Chaudhry, Maqbool Ahmad, Hamad Bin Rashid, Bakhat Sultan, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry, Aayesha Riaz, Muhammad Shabir Shaheen
A prospective study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014 to estimate the spatial clustering; cumulative incidence and risk factors associated with avian influenza (AI) subtype H9 infection on commercial poultry farms of Pakistan. A total of 400 farms were enrolled and followed during the study period. Among these, 109 farms submitted samples suspected for AI to the laboratory, and only 47 farms were confirmed positive by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) test. Data was collected from these 109 farms about their demography, management, and biosecurity practices...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761775/improving-smallholder-cattle-reproductive-efficiency-in-cambodia-to-address-expanding-regional-beef-demand
#18
L Olmo, K Ashley, J R Young, S Suon, P C Thomson, P A Windsor, R D Bush
This study aimed to identify factors associated with cattle reproductive output in rural smallholder farms in Cambodia in order to determine the main causes of reproductive failure and design efficient interventions for improvement. The majority of the nation's beef is produced on smallholder farms where productivity is constrained by poor animal reproductivity reflected in the recent livestock population decline of approximately 13 % from 2009 to 2013. Farmers (n = 240) from 16 villages from five provinces were surveyed in mid-2015 to determine their baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) associated with cattle reproduction...
October 19, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761774/foot-and-mouth-disease-fmd-in-the-maghreb-and-its-threat-to-southern-european-countries
#19
Moustafa Kardjadj
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The present study summarizes the knowledge generated from the epidemiology, diagnosis, and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb (2014-2015) in assessing its threat to southern European countries. Currently, two serotypes of the FMD virus (O and SAT-2) and four lineages are circulating in the Maghreb region. The introduction of serotype SAT-2 in Libya and Mauritania in 2012 and 2015 respectively sets their neighbors and subsequently south European countries at constant risk of FMD re-emergence...
October 19, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761773/morphological-study-of-socorro-island-merino-sheep-and-its-crosses-with-hair-breeds
#20
Juan Augusto Hernández, Marissa Lepe, Rafael Macedo, Victalina Arredondo, Carlos Eliseo Cortez, Luis Jorge García, Omar Prado
A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation...
October 19, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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