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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Leandro Soares Martins, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Edenio Detmann, Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Roman Maza Ortega, Deilen Paff Sotelo Moreno, Javier Enrique Garces Cárdenas
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days...
August 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Manjeet, B L Pander, R Sharma, S S Dhaka, Ankit Magotra, Kapil Dev
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most contagious disease of mammals and a major threat to animal husbandry sector. In India, vaccination with the inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) vaccine is one proven way for protecting the livestock from FMD. However, many outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the country. Therefore, present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on FMD viral vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu cattle. The effect of season of vaccination was not consistent...
August 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Adriana Agostini Barbosa, Ana Cristina Silva Figueiredo, Miller Pereira Palhao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana, Carlos Antonio Carvalho Fernandes
Brucellosis is an infectious and contagious disease that profoundly impacts public health. However, in many countries, disease prevention is restricted to the vaccination of calves, and there is no prophylactic strategy for pregnant heifers and cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the rough strain vaccine against brucellosis in pregnant cattle. Crossbred cows (N = 96) at three gestational periods (early, mid, or late pregnancy) were randomly allocated into the vaccine treatment group or to the control group...
August 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Bárbara Machado Campos, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Andrea Alves do Egito, Arthur Silva da Mariante, Maria Socorro Muaés do Albuquerque, João José Simoni de Gouveia, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Lucas Lima Verardo, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
Genetic diversity is one of the most important issues in studies on conservation of cattle breeds and endangered species. The objective of this study was to estimate the levels of genetic differentiation between locally adapted taurine (Bos taurus taurus) and zebu (Bos taurus indicus) breeds in Brazil, which were genotyped for more than 777,000 SNPs. The fixation index (F ST), principal component analysis (PCA), and Bayesian clustering were estimated. The F ST highlighted genetic differentiation between taurine and zebu breeds...
August 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
R Santos-Ricalde, E Gutiérrez-Ruiz, W Novelo-Ucan, P Martinez-Romero, J Segura-Correa
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera (MO) or Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and growth of rabbits. In experiment one, 45 rabbits (male and female) weighing 1.18 ± 0.15 kg were used. They were randomly distributed to three feed restriction treatments (20, 30, and 40%) with 15 rabbits each (9 females and 6 males) and they were offered M. oleifera (MO) ad libitum. In experiment two, 45 growing male rabbits weighing 0.63 ± 0.113 kg were used...
August 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Tiago Pansard Alves, Aline Cristina Dall-Orsoletta, Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro-Filho
The study assessed the effect of Acacia mearnsii tannin extract supplementation grazing dairy cows on dry matter (DM) intake, enteric methane (CH4) emission, and performance. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two groups and subjected to two treatments that consisted of millet pasture (Pennisetum glaucum L.) plus supplementation with 6 kg of concentrate (750-g/kg ground corn and 250-g/kg soybean meal) including or excluding 120-g tannin extract. The trial design was a double reversal using three periods of 28 days each, with 21 days for the adaption period, and 7 days for sample collection...
August 11, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Mohsen Gholizadeh, Ghodrat Rahimi-Mianji, Ayoub Farhadi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have introduced an influential tool in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing economically important traits in sheep. To identify QTL associated with greasy fleece weight, a GWAS with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in a Baluchi sheep population. Association with greasy fleece weights was tested using the software Plink. The results of our GWAS provided three novel SNP markers and candidate genes associated with greasy fleece weight...
August 11, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Abdelfatah Abdelsalam Mustafa, Nitin Tyagi, Mayank Gautam, Alkesh Chaudhari, Jawid Sediqi
Fifteen close up pregnant Murrah buffaloes of mean body weight (668.3 ± 24.03) kg, lactation number (2.8 ± 0.17) and expected producing ability (EPA) (2125.7 ± 46.34) were randomly distributed into three groups each of five animals to investigate the performance at different levels of metabolizable energy and protein. Control group was fed as per ICAR Nutrient requirements of animals (2013) recommendation whereas treatment group (1) high metabolizable energy and high metabolizable protein (HMEMP) and group (2) low metabolizable energy and low metabolizable protein (LMEMP) were offered with ration containing 15% more and 15% less ME and MP, respectively...
August 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Fernando Prospero-Bernal, Carlos Galdino Martínez-García, Rafael Olea-Pérez, Felipe López-González, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
The effects of two innovative feeding strategies-intensive grazing (GR) and maize silage (MS)-on the sustainability of small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) were assessed in the highlands of central Mexico. On a total of 24 farms, four innovations were adopted between 2011 and 2014. Five farms continued their conventional feeding strategy (CC) of cut-and-carry pasture supplemented with commercial concentrate and ground corn grain, as well as straws (maize, oat, and wheat) in the dry season of feed scarcity; six farms implemented MS in the dry season; six farms GR of pastures; and seven farms implemented both GR and MS...
August 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Moustafa Kardjadj
In 2006, the Algerian authorities started the Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats; consequently, there was a significant improvement of small ruminant brucellosis sanitary status. In this paper, we attempt to study the effect of Rev-1 small ruminants' vaccination on cattle brucellosis prevalence in Algeria. Our results showed an overall cattle herd seroprevalence of 12% (9 positive herds of 75). The risk factor analysis using a logistic regression model indicated that the presence of small ruminants along with cattle in the herd (mixed herds) decreased the odds for brucellosis seropositivity by 1...
August 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Janaina Kelli Gomes Arandas, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves, Olivardo Facó, Ernandes Barboza Belchior, Luciana Shiotsuki, Paulo Márcio Barbosa de Arruda Leite, Maria Norma Ribeiro
The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed...
July 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Manmeet Kaur, Amit Sharma, Ravikant Gupta, Yashpal Singh, A P S Sethi, Chanchal Singh
Present study was conducted to assess the resource use efficiency of broilers production, in tunnel-ventilated environment control (ECBH) and open-sided conventional (OSCBH) house under different stocking densities. Different treatments comprised of T 0 (birds with floor space, 1.0/ft(2)/bird in open-sided conventional broiler house (OSCBH) as control, while different treatments in tunnel-ventilated environment control broiler house (ECBH) were T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4 and T 5 with floor space of 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0...
July 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
M Ozdogan, A O Ustundag, E Yarali
In this study, the effects of diet including different levels of olive cake were investigated on the fattening performance, blood parameters, certain slaughtering traits, and carcass quality of lambs. Thirty-six male lambs were used in the experiment. The lambs were randomly assigned to three groups with 12 lambs each. Groups included control, 12.5 and 25% olive cake (OC). The mixed feeds were offered ad libitum. All lambs were also allowed to consume alfalfa hay (83.8 g DM/animal/day). The experiment lasted for a period of 56 days...
July 28, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Isack I Kerario, Martin C Simuunza, Sebastian W Chenyambuga, Marja Koski, Seong-Gu Hwang, Walter Muleya
Ticks and tickborne diseases (TBDs) are serious constraints to cattle production in Tanzania and other tropical and subtropical countries. Among the TBDs, East Coast fever (ECF) is the most important as it causes significant economic losses to the cattle industry in Tanzania. However, control of ECF in Tanzania has continued to be a challenge due to inadequate epidemiological information. The main objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological situation of Theileria parva infections in cattle kept under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems in Mara, Singida, and Mbeya regions of Tanzania...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
G E Chethan, J Garkhal, Shubhankar Sircar, Y P S Malik, R Mukherjee, V K Gupta, N R Sahoo, R K Agarwal, U K De
Porcine rotavirus type A (RVA) is a major cause of neonatal piglet mortality in India. The effect of the disease on haemogram and serum biochemical profile is not well established in piglets. Accordingly, we assessed the haemogram and serum biochemical profile in the neonatal piglet diarrhoea with RVA infection (n = 17). The diagnosis of RVA was confirmed using RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE), commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mary Lubungu
Structural changes in the economic and demographic landscapes in the developing countries create a host of opportunities for smallholder livestock producers to tap into the economic growth from which they have largely been excluded. However, small livestock herd sizes limit the opportunities available to farmers to commercialize and benefit from the growing demand for livestock and livestock products. Therefore, understanding what it takes to build and maintain the herd size is a critical step in addressing the problem of low market participation...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Raj Sukhbir Singh, B K Bansal, D K Gupta
The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between selected morphological traits of teat and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Frieswal crossbred dairy cows. A total of 1040 quarters from 261 lactating cows were evaluated for teat shape (bottle/fleshy/collapsed/conical/normal/pencil and short), teat-end shape (dished/flat/funnel/pocketed/pointed and rounded), teat orientation (aligned/misaligned) and teat position (front and rear; left-sided and right-sided). Each udder quarter was screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) for the purpose of defining quarter health status...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Gang Qiu, Yapei Rui, Kun Li, Shucheng Huang, Zhaoqing Han, Xiaoqiang Wang, Wenteng Jiang, Houqiang Luo, Yanfang Lan, Jiakui Li
Enzootic pneumonia (EP), often caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, occurs in Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds and also the prevalence of infection. M. hyopneumoniae was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty-nine inflammatory gross-lesions were observed in 155 lungs of slaughtered pigs. Invasion of focal lymphocytes was confirmed by paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining of lung sections...
July 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Bashir A Lone, M Z Chishti, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat, Hidayatullah Tak, Suhaib A Bandh, Abida Khan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Chenopodium album against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and some pathogenic microbes. A worm motility inhibition assay was used for in vitro study, and a faecal egg count reduction assay was used for an in vivo study. Various concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 μg/ml of the extract were subjected to antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion method against four selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas multocida and Escherichia coli) and two fungal (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) strains in order to estimate the medicinal potential of the herb...
July 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Muhammad Saeed, Daryoush Babazadeh, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Arain, Faiz Ul Hassan, Sun Chao
Betaine is found ubiquitously in plants, animals, microorganisms, and rich dietary sources including seafood, spinach, and wheat bran. The chief physiological role of betaine is to function as a methyl donor and an osmolyte. Betaine also acts as an osmolyte, to maintain the avian's cellular water and ion balance to improve the avian's capacity against heat stress via preventing dehydration and osmotic inactivation. It helps in maintaining the protective osmolytic activity, especially in heat-stressed birds...
July 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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