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Tropical Animal Health and Production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624928/a-survey-analysis-of-indigenous-goat-production-in-communal-farming-systems-of-botswana
#1
P I Monau, C Visser, S J Nsoso, E Van Marle-Köster
A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624927/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-bovine-brucellosis-in-domestic-yaks-bos-grunniens-in-tibet-china
#2
Jiangyong Zeng, Ciren Duoji, Zhenjie Yuan, Silang Yuzhen, Weixing Fan, Lili Tian, Chang Cai, Ian Robertson
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three counties (Damxung, Maizhokunggar and Yadong) in Tibet in April and May 2015. A total of 1,523 yaks owned by 181 herders were randomly selected and blood sampled. Sera were tested using the rose bengal test (RBT) and a competitive immune-enzymatic assay (C-ELISA) and the test results interpreted in parallel. The individual yak prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI 2.0-3.7) with a herd prevalence of 18.2% (95% CI 12.9-24.6). At the individual level, two predictor variables, age and production system, were significantly associated with seropositivity by a binary logistic regression analysis...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624926/limited-awareness-of-animal-influenza-prevention-and-control-among-dai-lue-smallholder-farmers-in-southwest-china
#3
Xiang Zhao, Gareth Davey
Awareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18-83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623602/protein-requirements-of-collared-peccary-pecari-tajacu
#4
Rogério M Borges, Alcester Mendes, Selene S C Nogueira, Jérôme Bindelle, Sérgio L G Nogueira-Filho
A nitrogen (N) balance digestion trial was conducted to determine the protein requirement of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu). In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four captive adult male peccaries were fed four isoenergy diets containing four different levels of N (11.7, 16.3, 22.8, and 26.7 g N/kg of dry matter-DM). After 15 days of adaptation, a total collection of feces and urine was carried out for five consecutive days. Regression analyses between N intake and N in feces and urine allowed to calculate the metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN = 2...
June 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620683/modeling-production-functions-and-economic-weights-in-intensive-meat-production-of-guinea-pigs
#5
Mariam Pascual, Danny Julio Cruz, Agustín Blasco
A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12)...
June 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620682/infectious-bursal-disease-outbreak-investigation-molecular-characterization-and-vaccine-immunogenicity-trial-in-ethiopia
#6
Aregitu Mekuriaw, Molalegne Bitew, Esyas Gelaye, Bedaso Mamo, Gelagay Ayelet
The study was conducted with the objective of isolation and molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) circulating in Ethiopia and to assess the immunogenicity of different commercially available live attenuated IBD vaccines and finally to select the appropriate vaccine strain for the existing IBDV. Outbreak samples collected from different poultry farms with IBD infection between 2013 and 2015 were used for the virus isolation and molecular characterization. IBD vaccine immunogenicity test was conducted using four different commercially available live attenuated IBD vaccine strains: namely D78, B2K, LC75, and EXTREM...
June 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616790/serological-survey-for-brucella-antibodies-in-donkeys-of-north-eastern-nigeria
#7
A O Tijjani, A U Junaidu, M D Salihu, A A Farouq, O O Faleke, S G Adamu, H I Musa, I U Hambali
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and risk factors influencing the presence of Brucella antibodies in donkeys of Borno State, north-eastern Nigeria. The study aimed at providing baseline information that may be used in planning a control policy against equine brucellosis. Blood samples were collected from 601 donkeys, comprised of 374 males and 227 females from the six agricultural zones of the state between March 2013 and September 2014. The sera obtained were tested for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA)...
June 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612173/evaluation-of-the-feeding-value-of-dichrostachys-cinerea-pods-for-fattening-pigs-in-cuba
#8
N Martín-Casas, M Reinoso-Pérez, J R García-Díaz, H H Hansen, M O Nielsen
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. is a tropical leguminous shrub widely regarded as an invasive species in Cuba, after having invaded a significant proportion of its arable land during the past decades. Concurrently, smallholder pig producers are highly constrained by the scarcity of protein feeds. This study aimed to assess the feeding value of D. cinerea pod meal (DCPM) as an alternative protein supplement for pigs in Cuban smallholder production systems. An on-farm feeding trial was carried out with three groups (N = 10) of growing-fattening pigs over 60 days, where DCPM replaced 0, 15, and 30% in DM of a dietary commercial concentrate...
June 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608308/effect-of-reproductive-methods-and-gnrh-administration-on-long-term-protocol-in-santa-ines-ewes
#9
Marcos V Biehl, Marcos V C Ferraz Junior, Evandro M Ferreira, Daniel M Polizel, Alexandre A Miszura, José P R Barroso, Gabriela B Oliveira, Analisa V Bertoloni, Alexandre V Pires
This study aimed to determine whether reproductive performance of ewes submitted to laparoscopic timed artificial insemination (TAI) would be similar to ante meridiem (AM)/post meridiem (PM) rule and assisted natural mating (NM), and whether GnRH may enhance the pregnancy rate in TAI. In experiment I, 191 non-lactating ewes were synchronized, then TAI was performed either 48 h after progesterone (P4) removal (TAI-48 h) or 12 h after estrus detection (AM/PM); moreover, some ewes were submitted to NM (NM) as control treatment...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608307/effects-of-l-glutamine-on-rectal-temperature-and-some-markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-red-sokoto-goats-during-the-hot-dry-season
#10
Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Tagang Aluwong, Ndazo Salka Minka
The experiment investigated the ameliorative effects of L-glutamine administration on rectal temperature (RT), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season. Twenty eight healthy Red Sokoto goats, comprising 14 experimental (administered 0.2 g/kg of L-glutamine dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water, once daily for 21 days) and 14 control (administered equivalent of distilled water) goats served as subjects...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608306/replacement-of-alfalfa-hay-medicago-sativa-l-with-subabul-leucaena-leucocephala-leaf-meal-in-diets-of-najdi-goats-effect-on-digestion-activity-of-rumen-microorganisms
#11
Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Alireza Jolazadeh
This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level)...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601905/effect-of-the-genetic-group-production-system-and-sex-on-the-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-beef-from-crossbred-animals
#12
R T Nassu, R R Tullio, A Berndt, V C Francisco, T A Diesel, M M Alencar
The crossbreeding of two or more breeds from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus species is an alternative for obtaining high-quality meat from animals adapted to tropical climates. Quality and sensory attributes of beef, mainly its tenderness and flavour, are very important with regard to the consumer's point of view. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of crossbred young bulls and heifers, the offspring of Angus or Limousin bulls and 1/2 Angus + 1/2 Nellore or 1/2 Simental + 1/2 Nellore cows that were finished on feedlot or pasture...
June 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597193/concentrate-supplementations-of-grazing-pregnant-kalahari-red-goats-effects-on-pregnancy-variables-reproductive-performance-birth-types-and-weight-of-kids
#13
O A Oderinwale, B O Oluwatosin, O S Sowande, M N Bemji, S D Amosu, G O Sanusi
A study was conducted for 22 weeks to determine the effects of concentrate supplementations at three crude protein (CP) levels, i.e. low protein diet-LPD 12.42% CP (124.93 g day(-1)); medium protein diet-MPD 14.18% CP (145.87 g day(-1)) and high protein diet-HPD 16.35% CP (168.19 g day(-1)) on some pregnancy variables, reproductive performance, birth types and weight of kids kidded by pregnant Kalahari Red goats grazed on Chloris gayana. Thirty-three matured Kalahari Red goats of first parity within age range of 2 to 2(1)/2 years with an average body weight of 38...
June 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597141/apparent-metabolizable-energy-value-of-whole-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-and-its-possible-use-as-a-feedstuff-for-aged-laying-hens
#14
Mohamad Hamed Salajegheh, Mostafa Yousef Elahi, Mohamad Salarmoini, Akbar Yaghobfar
This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of whole date palm (WDP) with and without enzyme supplementation on aged laying hen's performance. Apparent metabolizable energy value of WDP was determined by the total collection method using ten adult leghorn cockerels. WDP was substituted with a corn-soybean meal basal diet at 40% level, and then the metabolizable energy of this experimental diet and basal diet was determined. After that, a total number of 256 Bovanz 95-week-old hens were randomly allocated into eight groups consisting of four replicates of eight birds each, based on a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of the treatments...
June 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593444/efficacy-of-dietary-supplementation-of-fatty-acid-compound-on-performance-and-production-in-finishing-pigs
#15
Santi Devi Upadhaya, Hyeok Min Yun, Shuaiqi Huang, In Ho Kim
The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1% of fatty acid (FA) compound containing conjugated linoleic acid as active component on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, serum lipid profile, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles in muscle and adipose tissue in finishing pigs. A total of 90 finishing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were used in 5-week trial. The growth performance and nutrient digestibility were unaffected with FA supplementation...
June 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589312/assessing-the-diversity-of-preferences-of-suburban-smallholder-sheep-keepers-for-breeding-rams-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#16
K Tindano, N Moula, A Traoré, P Leroy, N Antoine-Moussiaux
Urbanisation in developing countries entails deep changes in the livestock sector and the management of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Sheep breeding around Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) illustrates these changes and the need to coordinate genetic improvement in general and the use of crossbreeding in particular. For this, it is important to understand breeders' choices and improvement strategy, to accompany them within a national plan for AnGR management. In a context of missing market for breeding rams, a stated choice experiment was conducted with 137 farmers, together with a characterisation of herd management practices...
June 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573453/diurnal-thermoregulatory-responses-in-pregnant-yankasa-ewes-to-the-dry-season-in-a-tropical-savannah
#17
Lukuman Surakat Yaqub, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Muhammad Umar Kawu, Peter Ibrahim Rekwot
The study investigated concomitant effect of gestation and high ambient temperature under a tropical environment on rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) responses in Yankasa ewes. Twenty Yankasa ewes, consisting of ten pregnant and ten non-pregnant ewes, were used for the study. Ewes were synchronised and bred, such that each gestation phase coincided with different periods of the dry-seasons, early-gestation (cold/harmattan), mid-gestation (peak hot-dry) and late-gestation (late hot-dry)...
June 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573452/sow-efficiency-and-early-piglet-mortality-in-two-local-pig-breeds-on-smallholder-farms-in-northern-vietnam-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Philipp C Muth, Le T T Huyen, Anne Valle Zárate
In the recent past, pig performance and sow management on smallholder farms in the Southeast Asian Massif have been extensively researched. But the objective of this study was to investigate the lifetime efficiency of breeding sows of the local Vietnamese Ban (n = 89) and Mong Cai (n = 131) breeds in a production system context. The impact of sow longevity was considered in particular. In addition, predictors of early pre-weaning mortality in piglets were investigated. In total, nine villages of Son La province, situated in the uplands of north-western Vietnam, were selected, differing in access to markets, production intensity, and pig management level...
June 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550594/comparison-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-to-detect-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-disseminated-infection-in-bovine-liver
#19
Mehdi Zarei, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Samaneh Tajbakhsh, Nader Mosavari
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status...
May 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550593/impact-of-black-soldier-fly-larval-meal-on-growth-performance-apparent-digestibility-haematological-and-blood-chemistry-indices-of-guinea-fowl-starter-keets-under-tropical-conditions
#20
P A Wallace, J K Nyameasem, G A Adu-Aboagye, S Affedzie-Obresi, E K Nkegbe, N Karbo, F Murray, W Leschen, P -O Maquart
In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the BSFLM treatment groups compared to the control group. The final body weight of the birds at age 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0...
May 26, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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