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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Luis Javier Montiel-Olguín, Eliab Estrada-Cortés, Mario Alfredo Espinosa-Martínez, Miguel Mellado, Josafath Omar Hernández-Vélez, Guillermina Martínez-Trejo, Felipe J Ruiz-López, Hector Raymundo Vera-Avila
Several studies suggest that reproductive performance in small-scale dairy farms is low reducing the farms' profitability. Therefore, identifying risk factors associated with low reproductive performance is a key step to implement an improved reproductive management program. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to identify the main risk factors affecting the reproductive performance of cows in small-scale dairy farms. Ninety-six dairy farms were incorporated into this study, and data from 1263 lactations were collected with different events as potential risk factors...
August 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Eric Lim Teik Chung, Yusuf Abba, Kalai Vaani Muniandy, Ahmad Hafizin Ahmad Ramizi Tan, Dharshini Maslamany, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohd Jefri Norsidin
Pneumonic pasteurellosis is an economically important infectious disease in the small ruminant industry which causes sudden death and loss for farmers. Nonetheless, this disease is still a common sight in sheep and goats in Malaysia, probably due to the unpopular usage of pasteurellosis vaccine or inappropriate vaccination practices. The aim of this study was designed to classify the severity of pneumonia via the establishment of auscultation scoring method and to quantify the acute phase proteins and heat shock proteins responses from vaccinated and non-vaccinated goats...
August 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
F Mutua, J Onono, A Bruck, L Makau
Information sharing is an important pillar for any strategy that aims to control infectious diseases especially in farms and systems that are connected. A study was designed to analyze practices related to sharing of animal health information and identify health constraints affecting livestock keeping in smallholder farming systems of Mwala in Machakos County. Data were collected through focus group discussions (number of groups = 3) and one-on-one questionnaire interviews (n = 172). These were analyzed using both descriptive and thematic approaches...
August 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
M Barbera, M C Muñoz, E Rodriguez-Ponce, M R Ventura
Bituminaria bituminosa (C.H. Stirt.) is a drought tolerant legume that grows spontaneously in subtropical areas: Canary Islands (Spain) and in North African and Mediterranean regions, traditionally used as forage for ruminants. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of B. bituminosa as a high protein resource for poultry feed by means of feed intake, growth, feed conversion rate (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and the influence of B. bituminosa feed form (fresh green and dried) on the preference by chicks...
August 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Daniel Cézar da Silva, Beatriz Dantas Fernandes, Jessica Monique Dos Santos Lima, Gilderlândio Pinheiro Rodrigues, Déborah Lanne Barros Dias, Evaristo Jorge de Oliveira Souza, Miguel Arcanjo Moreira Filho
Subclinical hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder characterised by a decrease in serum calcium (Ca) levels, with no clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the punctual prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows, in the Sousa city micro-region, Paraíba state. Samples were collected from 29 dairy farms, consisting of 153 and 296 blood samples in the pre- and postpartum period respectively. In relation to the mineral supplementation profile, 89.25% of the properties use a commercial supplement...
August 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C Atherstone, R G Galiwango, D Grace, S Alonso, N K Dhand, M P Ward, S M Mor
East Africa is undergoing rapid expansion of pig rearing, driven by increasing pork consumption. Introduction and expansion of pig production systems in this biodiverse landscape may create new risks, including zoonotic pathogen transmission. Historically, biosecurity measures have primarily been focused at farm level, ignoring the important function pig traders fulfill between farmers and consumers. This study interviewed pig traders operating at Uganda's only registered pork abattoir to describe their characteristics, business practices, biosecurity practices, and pig health management and reporting practices...
August 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Gregory Chingala, Emiliano Raffrenato, Kennedy Dzama, Louwrens C Hoffman, Cletos Mapiye
The study evaluated effects of feeding Malawi Zebu steers with diets containing baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal and white thorn tree (Vachellia polyacantha) leaf-meal as alternative protein sources to soybean meal on dry matter intake (DMI), total tract nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial nitrogen supply and growth performance. Thirty Malawi Zebu steers (181 ± 21.4 kg and 29 months), put into individual pens, were randomly assigned to three treatments (10 steers per treatment) made up of rangeland hay and maize bran with either baobab seed meal (baobab diet), V...
August 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Eduardo Lisbinski, Ricardo Ronsani, João de Assis Farias, Wagner Paris, Roberta Farenzena, Fernanda Stanqueviski, Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of temperate and legume grasses with or without energy supplementation on the performance and feeding behavior of finishing beef steers. Eighteen Nellore-Zebu steers, average 23 months old and body weight (BW) of 380 kg, were used in a continuous grazing system, in a randomized block experimental design. Treatments were ORS: oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) + annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) + supplementation with corn bran; ORVS: oat + ryegrass + vetch (Vicia sativa L...
July 31, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Shashie Ayele, Mengistu Urge, Getachew Animut, Mohammed Yusuf
A study was conducted to compare carcass and noncarcass yield, carcass composition, conformation, and fat depot partitioning of three Ethiopian fat-tailed hair sheep breeds (Blackhead Ogaden (BHO), Horro, and Washera) under two concentrate supplement levels (CSL). Sixteen sheep from each genotype (8 sheep per concentrate level), a total of 48, were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (3 breeds and 2 CSL). The two CSL were 1% (L1) and 1.75% (L2) body weight. Animals were about a year of age at the start of the experiment and all were slaughtered after 90 days of fattening...
July 31, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nadja Naiara Pereira Farias, Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas, Germano Augusto Jerônimo do Nascimento, Regina Patrícia Souza Xavier, Nádia de Melo Braz, Francisco Diego Teixeira Dantas, Carlos Weiber Silva Figueiredo, Valter Luis Maia Gomes, Pedro Henrique Watanabe
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the addition of fresh and stored copra meal to the diet of meat quails. Two hundred eighty-seven-day-old male and female quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, in a 2 × 2 + 1factorial arrangement. Two copra meal types (fresh and stored) at inclusion levels of 12.5% and 25%, respectively, were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet, with seven replicates, of eight quails each. Copra meal acidity index recorded oleic acid percentage increase from 0...
July 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Antônio José Neto, Mariane Vieira Azenha, Eliane Silva Morgado, Liziane de Figueiredo Brito, Estela Rossetto Janusckiewicz, Telma Terezinha Berchielli, Ricardo Andrade Reis, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri
The effect of mineral salts on water ingestion and urine volume in cattle has been extensively studied. However, recently, this effect has been investigated as a potential mitigator of environmental aspects related to the nitrogen (N) cycle, such as nitrate (NO3 - ) lixiviation, ammonia (NH3 ) volatilisation, and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. The effect of mineral salts, particularly sodium chloride (NaCl), on urine-N concentration, urine volume, the proportion of N compounds in the urine, and faecal-N concentration has not yet been explored in field conditions with respect to environmental aspects of beef cattle production...
July 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Abdullah D Alanazi, Ashraf E Said, Ahmed M Ghoneim, Mohamed S Alyousif, Ibrahim O Alanazi
A total of 1000 clinically healthy small ruminants comprising 500 sheep and 500 goats from five districts within Riyadh Province in Saudi Arabia were investigated by routine Giemsa staining for hematozoan parasites. Out of these, 100 sheep and 95 goat samples were investigated by PCR using three pairs of hemoprotozoan-specific primers. Based on microscopic examination, 33.2% of sheep and 25.2% of goats were found infected with hemoprotozoan parasites, while PCR detected hematozoan infection in 46% of sheep and 33...
July 25, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Keyvan Vase-Khavari, Seyyed-Hossein Mortezavi, Behrouz Rasouli, Ameer Khusro, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Alireza Seidavi
The pivotal aim of the present context was to determine the effect of probiotic (superzist) and medicinal plants (R. coriaria, H. persicum, and M. piperita) powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, immunity response, and microflora counts of broilers over a 42-day feeding period. One hundred and fifty one-day-old chickens were randomly allocated to the following five treatments: (1) Control diets; (2) control diets + 0.03% w/v superzist; (3) control diets + 0.5% w/v R...
July 25, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Satish Kumar Illa, Gangaraju Gollamoori, Sapna Nath
The objective of the present study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADGa), birth to 6 months (ADGb) and 3 to 6 months (ADGc) and corresponding Kleiber ratios (Ka, Kb, and Kc) in Nellore sheep. Data were collected from the records maintained at Livestock Research Station, Palamaner, for analysis and the data spread from 1993 to 2016 (23 years). Lambing year, sex of lamb, season of lambing, and parity of dam were included in the model as fixed effects, and ewe weight was kept as a covariate...
July 24, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
R Glenda Rojas, Fabián Patiño, Jesús Pérez, Claudio Medina, María Lares, César Méndez, Johan Aular, R M E Parkhouse, María M Cortéz
The aim of this study was to assess transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Palmarito Arriba, a small village in the rural area of the Portuguesa state of Venezuela, through (1) an evaluation of T. solium transmission risk factors present in the community and (2) serological detection of the secreted metacestode HP10 antigen (HP10 Ag) and of anti-metacestode antibodies in sera from rural pigs. Risk factors associated with transmission of cysticercosis were the following: 100% (23/23) of the households lacked piped water, 87...
July 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ankan De, Tapan Kumar Das, Karam Chand, Bikas Chandra Debnath, Saikat Dey, Divakar Hemadri, Nagendra Nath Barman, Jitendra Kumar Chaudhary, Dhanavelu Muthuchelvan, Arpit Saxena, Neha Tewari, Ankita Chauhan, Ankita Lohumi, Sanchay Kumar Biswas
Bluetongue (BT) is a notifiable multiple species transboundary viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Though the disease is enzootic in India, little is known of the disease burden and prevalent serotypes in Tripura, a hilly state of northeastern India sharing a vast porous border with Bangladesh. A surveillance study was conducted to understand the disease burden in goats in Tripura. Serum (n = 1240) and blood (n = 194) samples were collected during the year 2014 to 2017 from all the eight districts of Tripura...
July 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C Kotresh Prasad, John Abraham, Girish Panchbhai, Deepandita Barman, Pradeep Nag, H M Ajithakumar
In order to investigate the effect of rearing systems on growth and rumen development in Malabari male kids, 14 pre-weaned Malabari male kids of uniform morphological characters were randomly divided into two equal groups as T1 and T2 . Both the groups were reared intensively for 12 weeks whereby kids under T1 group were allowed to suckle their dams and provided green grass ad libitum. The kids under T2 were weaned at the age of 7 days and provided formulated semi-solid broiler goat concentrate diet through the feeding bottle and were not offered any grass/roughage...
July 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
José Luis Zepeda-Batista, Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte, Rafael Núñez-Domínguez, Rodolfo Ramírez-Valverde, Agustín Ruíz-Flores
Heritable abnormalities can cause a reduction in productive performance, structural defects, or death of the animal. There are reports of hereditary abnormalities in Braunvieh cattle from several countries, but no evidence was found on their existence in Mexico. In this study, 28 genes associated with hereditary diseases were screened with the GGP-LD 30K array (GeneSeek® ) in 300 Mexican registered Braunvieh animals. Allelic frequencies of the markers associated with illness were obtained for the following: citrullinaemia, spinal dysmyelination, spinal muscular atrophy, Brows Swiss fertility haplotype 2, congenital muscular dystonia, epidermolysis bullosa, Pompes, maple syrup urine, syndactyly, Weaver syndrome, crooked tail, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, hypotrichosis, Marfan syndrome, and weak calf syndrome...
July 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
F Boucher, Y Moutroifi, M Ali, Y Moindjie, M Soulé, O Charafouddine, C Cêtre-Sossah, E Cardinale
East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most serious tick-borne diseases in sub-Saharan and eastern Africa, was introduced to the island of Grande Comore in 2002 through zebu import from Tanzania, resulting in at least a 10% loss of livestock. A participatory epidemiology initiative was launched in 2015 to gain a better understanding of ECF epidemiology. Thirty-six villages were investigated involving 36 focus group sessions and 120 individual questionnaires. Farmers' knowledge of ECF and of priority diseases affecting the country was assessed, and the impacts of ECF and other major diseases were compared by a scoring method...
July 16, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Isaiah O Ademola, Philip O Ojo, Paul O Odeniran
Coccidian organisms of poultry have proved very hard to control due to their abilities to resist most anticoccidial drugs. Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Jacq. ex (Pleurotaceae), a medicinal mushroom, was investigated in vivo against Eimeria spp. Ninety-six broilers (day-old) naturally infected with Eimeria spp. were divided into eight groups (12 birds per group). Group A was infected untreated (negative control) and group B was treated with toltrazuril (positive control) while groups C-H were gavaged with graded doses of P...
July 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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