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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Paul Olalekan Odeniran, Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
Stomoxyines are mechanical vectors of several pathogens of livestock with severe consequences such as low productivity from constant irritation and disturbance. In vitro and in vivo bioassays were conducted to confirm the efficacy of cypermethrin analogues on stomoxyines. Cattle treated with cypermethrin (Pantex 30 g l-1 ) and cypermethrin-mix (cypermethrin + oil from Senna occidentalis locally prepared by Fulani herdsmen) were compared using the restricted insecticidal application (RAP) method and a local Fulani application approach (FAA), while untreated cattle serve as control...
October 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Neeti Lakhani, Devki Nandan Kamra, Preeti Lakhani, Mohanned Naif Alhussien
The present study was performed to ascertain the synergistic effects of phytogenic feed additives (PFA-7) supplementation on immune status and haemato-biochemical profile of buffalo calves. The PFA-7 is a mixture of neem seed cake (Azadirachta indica), mahua seed cake (Madhuca longifolia), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare), harad (Terminalia chebula), fruit pulp of bahera (Terminalia bellirica), fruit pulp of amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and ajwain seed (Trachyspermum ammi) mixed in 2:2:2:1:1:1:1 proportion. Male buffalo calves (n = 21) having similar age and body weight were allotted to three groups in a completely randomised design...
October 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ali Reza Yousefi, Abolhassan Sadeghipanah, Hamid Kohram, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Navid Dadashpour Davachi, Alireza Aghashahi, Eric N Ponnampalam
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum carcass weight for meat quality and fatty acid composition in fat-tailed Chall lambs. Thirty lambs (15 male and 15 female) were allotted to three carcass weight groups: (1) light carcass weight (LCW 10-15 kg), (2) moderate carcass weight (MCW 15-20 kg), and (3) heavy carcass weight (HCW 20-25 kg). Back fat thickness and intramuscular fat (IMF) content were greater (P < 0.05) for HCW and female groups than their counterparts, respectively. Drip loss was lower (P < 0...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar Saxena, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
Nutritional scarcity during summer and winter is a major constraint for sheep rearing in the semi-arid tropical region. In this region, a new crossbred sheep has been developed by the crossing of a native sheep breed Malpura with a breed of hot-humid coastal region breed Garole. A study was conducted for 9 weeks to assess the physiological response of crossbred (Garole x Malpura x Malpura, GMM) rams under nutritional scarcity in the semi-arid tropical region. Eighteen adult crossbred rams were randomly allocated into three groups of six animals each...
October 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ahkarapon Nunoi, Metha Wanapat, Suban Foiklang, Thiwakorn Ampapon, Bounnaxay Viennasay
Feed ingredients costs have been impacting the production cost. Attempts have been made to use local feed resources in order to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to identify effect of using crushed tamarind seed meal (TSM) in concentrate mixture on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake, and digestibility of dairy steers. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square Design. Four levels of TSM were used to replace rice bran (RB) in the concentrate mixtures in four treatments (T1 = 0% replacement of RB, T2 = 30% replacement of RB, T3 = 60% replacement of RB, T4 = 100% replacement of RB)...
October 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Erina Kino, Rui Kawakami, Tomoya Minamino, Yoko Mikurino, Yoichiro Horii, Kazuyuki Honkawa, Yosuke Sasaki
In this study, we examined factors that affected milk production by cows raised in a temperate climate area. We conducted this study on a large dairy farm containing approximately 2000 Holstein cows, located in a temperate climate area. We collected 7803 calving records for 4069 cows from 2012 to 2016. We then assessed the effect of hot weather on milk yield by examining three climate factors: season, maximum temperature (MAX), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). We found that increases in heat stress caused linear decreases in milk yield (P < 0...
October 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jian-Gang Ma, Ai-Ling Tian, Wen-Bin Zheng, Yang Zou, Yu-Ti Zhang, Zeng-Qi Yang
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are important pathogens, which cause serious disease in animals. However, information about BVDV and MAP infection in Tibetan sheep in China is limited. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-seven blood samples were collected from Tibetan sheep between April 2013 and March 2014 from the Tibetan Plateau and tested for BVDV and MAP antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of BVDV and MAP in Tibetan sheep was 36...
September 30, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mario Felipe A Balaro, Samuel Guaraná Valverde de Mello, Alex da Silva Santos, Luiza Mattos Cavalcanti, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny, Jeferson F Fonseca, Felipe Z Brandão
This study aimed to verify the reproductive seasonality in Saanen goats from distinct parity orders (nulliparous, primiparous, and pluriparous) throughout an entire year in the Southeast Region of Brazil. In addition, it was also verified the influence of environmental indexes, metabolic profile, body weight, and social interactions on the reproductive seasonality of these animals. Forty Saanen goats kept under intensive system at latitude 22° 52' 30″ s and tropical photoperiod (11-13 h of light per day) were used...
September 29, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S Gowrishankar, M Aravind, Bhaskaran Ravi Latha, C Sreekumar
Fifteen apparently healthy Kandari cross-bred cattle aged about 4 years were purchased from Rurki, Patiala district of Punjab by a private dairy farmer in Erode, Tamil Nadu. Four animals showed eruptions on the lateral thoracic and dorsal abdominal regions of the body after 15-day period of quarantine. Manual palpation of the eruptions resulted in the emergence of larval stages of dipteran flies, identified by their morphology as Hypoderma from these animals. Molecular identification based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 (COX-1) gene confirmed it to be Hypoderma lineatum...
September 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
I P Ogbuewu, C A Mbajiorgu
The projected human population growth of 9 billion by the year 2050 has placed greater demand on food security. This calls for an increased supply of foods, especially of animal origin in order to prevent food scarcity in the future. Poultry which would have been a solution to this increased demand for foods of animal origin had suffered from the rising costs of conventional feed ingredients, and this emphasizes the interest to develop local feedstuffs. In view of this, there is increased interest by livestock farmers especially in developing countries to harness the potential of leaf and seeds of tropical browse plants...
September 24, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
B A Kume, J A Ayoade, J Oloche
Sixteen red Sokoto (RS) bucks having an average weight of 9.11 kg and aged 5-8 months were used to determine the performance and digestibility of diets containing graded levels of yam peel meal in a completely randomized design. Four diets were compounded to replace maize offal with yam peel meal (YPM) at 0% (T1), 50% (T2), 75% (T2), and 100% (T4) levels and fed to the red Sokoto bucks for 105 days. Results show that there was no effect of treatment on all the performance parameters measured. There was also no effect of treatment on dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, nitrogen free extract, and ether extract digestibility of RS bucks...
September 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Amel Dhaoui, Mohamed Chniter, Moufida Atigui, Mohamed Dbara, Mabrouk-Mouldi Seddik, Mohamed Hammadi
This work aimed to investigate milk potentiality and the influence of some non-genetic factors both on milk yield production and composition in prolific D'man sheep. Observations were performed in eighty lactating D'man ewes maintained under an intensive oases system in Southern Tunisia. Daily milk yield was determined at 7-day intervals using oxytocin + hand milking method. Chemical milk composition was determined by Lactoscan. Total productions over lactation (milk, fat, and protein) were estimated using the Fleischmann method...
September 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Won Yun, Min Ho Song, Ji Hwan Lee, Chang Hee Lee, Seo Young Oh, Woo Gi Kwak, Doo Wan Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, Jin Ho Cho
The effects of corn particle size on nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in pigs were determined under optimal (experiment 1, 25 ± 1 °C) or heat stress (experiment 2, 37 ± 1 °C) conditions. In Exp. 1 and 2, five experimental diets were tested using a 5 × 5 Latin square design involving five barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, average initial body weight of 30 ± 1 kg and 45.0 ± 1.8 kg, respectively, in individual metabolic cages). Dietary treatments were as follows: 200-, 300-, 400-, 600-, 800-μm corn particle sizes obtained by mesh screens...
September 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante, Aldrin Vieira Pires, Renata Helena Branco, Enilson Geraldo Ribeiro, Gabriel Machado Dallago, Marianne Schorer, Pedro Ribeiro Rocha
This study aimed to compare feed efficiency measures of Nellore beef cattle on different residual intake and gain (RIG) classes. We used data from 610 animals weighing on average 236.33 kg and average of 283 days of age from feedlot performance tests carried out between 2005 and 2012. Animals were grouped based on RIG into three different classes: high RIG (> mean + 0.5 standard deviation (SD), most efficient; n = 193), medium RIG (mean ± 0.5 SD; n = 235), and low RIG (< mean - 0...
September 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ansha Ali, Firew Tegegne, Bimrew Asmare, Zeleke Mekuriaw
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of sun-dried Ziziphus spina-christi (ZC) leaves on feed intake and live weight gain of local male goats. Twenty-five male local breed of goats at 1 year of age (body weight; BW = 20.7 ± 0.72 kg) were randomly allocated to five treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: T1 (grass hay only; control group); T2 (75% grass hay + 25% ZC leaves); T3 (50% grass hay + 50% ZC leaves); T4 (25% grass hay + 75% ZC leaves), and T5 (100% ZC leaves)...
September 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C Castelo, J Simões
This study aimed to determinate the main risk factors of brucellosis recurrence or highest animal incidence in flocks, under pastoralism, in an endemic area of Northeast Portugal. An epidemiological survey was performed on 25 recurrent (n = 18) or highest seropositive (n = 7) sheep and mixed goat flocks and 19 historical (≥ 10 years) brucellosis-free flock, between 2014 and 2017, within the same epidemiological area presenting an average annual incidence around 6%. According to the multivariable logistic model (P < 0...
September 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kamil Uney, Bunyamin Tras, Orhan Corum, Ramazan Yildiz, Mehmet Maden
This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after single-dose intravenous (IV) administration (10 mg/kg) of PTX in six healthy cattle. The safety of PTX was evaluated by clinical observation and biochemical analysis. Plasma concentrations of PTX and M-I were simultaneously determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods. Salivation and discomfort were observed for 2 h following the drug administration...
September 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mahmoud S El-Tarabany
This study was conducted to evaluate the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) virus vaccines (live attenuated and inactivated) in purebred Lohman Selected Leghorn (LSL), Fayoumi, male Fayomi × female LSL (FL crossbred), male LSL × female Fayomi (LF reciprocal crossbred) chickens. One-hundred-day-old chicks of each genetic type were assigned to five equal replicates. The log geometric means of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were calculated. The FL crossbred chickens had a significantly higher HI antibody titer at day 26 of age when compared with the LSL chickens (P = 0...
September 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Liliana Cárdenas, Jhon J Cañas-Álvarez, Ana Vázquez, Ester Boixadera, Jordi Casal
Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes great economic losses. The disease is endemic in Colombia and animal movements from infected herds carry a risk of introduction to other herds. With the objective of analyzing the animal movements and determining their relationship with bovine brucellosis, we performed a descriptive analysis of the space-time movement of livestock in Colombia between 2006 and 2014. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were employed to determine the relationship between brucellosis status and animal movements at the province level...
September 12, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Charity Masole, Oscar Ingasia Ayuya, John Cassius Moreki
This paper examines factors influencing the adoption of alternative response to Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) among smallholder beef producers in the dry lands of Africa, specifically, North East district in Botswana. Principal component analysis was used to categorise FMD responses. Thereafter, a multivariate probit regression model was used to examine the effect of socioeconomic and institutional factors on the adoption of alternative responses to FMD. The study found that household size, opportunity cost incurred, frequency of contact with extension officers, training received on FMD, distance to the nearest market, as well as distance to grazing and water areas had a positive effect on the adoption of alternative responses to the outbreak...
September 12, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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