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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Mehdi Zarei, Masoud Ghorbanpour, Samaneh Tajbakhsh, Nader Mosavari
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status...
May 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
P A Wallace, J K Nyameasem, G A Adu-Aboagye, S Affedzie-Obresi, E K Nkegbe, N Karbo, F Murray, W Leschen, P -O Maquart
In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the BSFLM treatment groups compared to the control group. The final body weight of the birds at age 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0...
May 26, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Bui Phan Thu Hang, Johan Dicksved, Kerstin Svennersten Sjaunja, Ewa Wredle
Dairy production is expanding rapidly in Vietnam, but still, the smallholder farms are most common. The aim of this study was therefore to get improved knowledge about colostrum quality in dairy cows, immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption, daily weight gain in dairy calves and calf management in small-scale dairy production systems in Southern Vietnam. A field survey was conducted on 40 farms, with two calves on each farm being intensively studied. It was observed that newborn calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and offered 2-4 L first colostrum within 4 h by bucket feeding...
May 25, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Lian-Ben Chang, Chih-Jen Chou, Jia-Shian Shiu, Po-An Tu, Shi-Xuan Gao, Shao-Yu Peng, Shinn-Chih Wu
Our aim was to investigate insemination techniques in order to improve pregnancy rates of artificial insemination (AI) using sex-sorted semen (sexed AI) in cattle in tropical and subtropical (T/ST) regions. In T/ST regions, the pregnancy rates by sexed AI are reportedly the lowest in the hottest months of the year, with less than 15% in cows and 35-40% in heifers (PMID 24048822). We compared sexed AI by depositing the semen into the uterine body (UB-AI, n = 12) versus the unilateral uterine horn (UUH-AI, n = 14) of pre-ovulation heifers...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Andrew Tukana, B Gummow
Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Francesca Cecchi, Claudia Russo, Daniela Iamartino, Alessia Galiero, Barbara Turchi, Filippo Fratini, Sara Degl'Innocenti, Raffaele Mazza, Stefano Biffani, Giovanna Preziuso, Carlo Cantile
Paratuberculosis disease is a chronic bacterial disease infection of ruminants of global relevance, caused by MAP (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis). The present study was conducted on the Garfagnina goat breed that is an Italian native goat population registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. Forty-eight adult goats (27 serologically positive to MAP-positive and 21 serologically negative to MAP-negative) belonging to a single flock that had experienced annual mortalities due to MAP infection were identified and genotyped with the Illumina GoatSNP60 BeadChip...
May 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rosine Manishimwe, Kizito Nishimwe, Lonzy Ojok
The irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals is highly related to the emergence and increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. A cross-sectional survey aimed at evaluating the current level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda was carried out countrywide. Interviews were conducted on 229 farmers rearing different types of animals. The study has revealed that almost all respondent farmers could name at least one antibiotic used in farm animals and peni-streptomycin was named by most of them (95...
May 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Thiago Vilar Silva, Benner Geraldo Alves, Kele Amaral Alves, Regiani Nascimento Gagno Porto, Maria Lucia Gambarini
The effects of calving season [rainy (RS) and dry (DS)] on the voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 58 Holstein cows raised in the tropical savannah were investigated using data of temperature humidity index (THI), total antioxidant status (TAS), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), velocity of uterine regression, and subsequent reproductive performance. Blood samples and clinical data were taken once every week, from calving until the sixth postpartum week...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rocío Rímac, Luis Luna, Raquel Hurtado, Raúl Rosadio, Lenin Maturrano
Pasteurella multocida is a common constituent of upper respiratory tract microbiota but is frequently isolated of alpaca lung tissues from pulmonary infections. Despite its importance, very little is known about this bacteria at molecular level. In order to characterize P. multocida isolates, 24 isolates recovered from 46 mortal acute cases in young alpacas with suspected pneumonia were analyzed, using biochemical and molecular tests for capsule and LPS typing, virulence factors detection, and ERIC-PCR genetic diversity analysis...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jamie R V Sookhoo, Arianne Brown-Jordan, Lemar Blake, Ridley B Holder, Sharon M Brookes, Stephen Essen, Christine V F Carrington, Ian H Brown, Christopher A L Oura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Vidya Singh, Niranjan Mishra, S Kalaiyarasu, R K Khetan, D Hemadri, R K Singh, K Rajukumar, J Chamuah, K P Suresh, S S Patil, V P Singh
Despite reports of BVDV infection in several domestic and wild ruminants, no information exists for mithun (Bos frontalis) species. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine prevalence of BVDV infection in mithuns, which contribute significantly to local economy in the North Eastern region of India. Blood and serum samples were collected between 2013 and 2016 from mithuns (n = 466) belonging to the states of Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh. Serum samples were tested for BVDV antibodies by a commercial ELISA and leukocytes were tested for BVDV by real-time RT-PCR...
May 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Kamal Kumar, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
In the hot semi-arid tropical region, extreme summer is a major constraint in sheep production. The growth performance of growing lambs is impaired during the summer. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of protection against hot climate on growth performance, physiological response, and endocrine profile of growing lambs under semi-arid tropical environment. All the data in the experiment were presented as mean ± SE. Thirty Malpura lambs with the age of 122.7 ± 6.05 days and body weight of 19...
May 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
A A M Habeeb, A E Gad, M A A Atta, M A M Abdel-Hafez
Twenty Zaraibi goat bucks were used in this experiment which lasted 3 months during summer season of Egypt. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups. The first group was kept without treatment as control while in the second group, rumen-protected choline (RPC) at the level of 20 g/buck/day was added to the concentrate feed mixture at the morning feeding. RPC additives to diet of Zaraibi goat bucks during the period of hot summer season increased (P < 0.01) total gain and average daily gain compared to the control group...
May 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Daniela P V Castro, Sandra M Yamamoto, Gherman G L Araújo, Rafael S B Pinheiro, Mario A A Queiroz, Ítalo R R Albuquerque, José H A Moura
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different salinity levels in drinking water on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lamb carcass and meat. Ram lambs (n = 32) were distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels of salinity in the drinking water (640 mg of total dissolved solids (TDS)/L of water, 3188 mg TDS/L water, 5740 mg TDS/L water, and 8326 mg TDS/L water). After slaughter, blending, gutting, and skinning the carcass, hot and biological carcass yields were obtained...
May 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
David Brown, Jones W Ng'ambi
Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A...
May 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Arash GhalyanchiLangeroudi, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Reza Kh Farahani, Hamed Abdollahi, Farshad Tehrani, Mohammad Hossein Fallah
In 2010, H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage dramatically affected poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, and North America. In November 2016, HPAI H5N8 was detected in a commercial layer farm in Tehran province. The diagnosis was based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) and sequencing of haemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from suspected samples. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene demonstrated that the Iranian HPAI H5N8 viruses belong to the HPAI H5 virus clade 2...
May 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Paula Taunde, Palmira Timbe, Ana Felicidade Lucas, Cesaltina Tchamo, Abel Chilundo, Filomena Dos Anjos, Rosa Costa, Custodio Gabriel Bila
A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region...
May 4, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Danielle Gava, Carine Kunzler Souza, Tiago José Mores, Laura Espíndola Argenti, André Felipe Streck, Cláudio Wageck Canal, Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo, Ivo Wentz
The prevention of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (UPV1) infection and consequently the reproductive losses is based on vaccination of all pigs intended for breeding. As maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with the development of immunity following vaccination, it is important to know the duration of anti-UPV1 MDA to determine the optimal age for the best vaccination efficacy. To elucidate the association between dam and piglet antibody levels against UPV1 and to estimate the decrease rate of MDA, sera and colostrum of 127 gilts (before the first vaccination against UPV1; 15 days after the second vaccine dose; at farrowing; and during the second pregnancy) and sera of 276 piglets (prior to initial colostrum intake; at 7, 21, 57, 87, and 128 days-old) were tested by ELISA...
May 3, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Muhammad Mudasser Nazir, Muhammad Oneeb, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Fehmeeda Bibi, Atif Nisar Ahmad, Abdul Waheed, Muhammad Afzal Sajid, Muhammad Tauseef Sultan, Ghulam Yasin, David S Lindsay
Infection with the Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide. This parasite causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide. The current study was designed to assess the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the sera of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Rakh Mahni, Bhakkar, Pakistan, to better understand the epidemiology of this important cause of bovine abortion in Pakistan. Eighty-one sera samples collected from apparently healthy camels (male = 19, female = 62) were tested for antibodies against N...
May 3, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Janeffer N Njuguna, Michael M Gicheru, Lucy M Kamau, Peter M Mbatha
Brucellosis in cattle is a zoonosis mainly caused by Brucella abortus. In Kenya, the disease is widespread, but its prevalence is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate incidence rates of brucellosis and farmers' knowledge on the disease in Kahuro district, Murang'a County. In this study, 150 pooled milk samples were collected from 75 milk collection centers and tested. Subsequently, 230 milk samples were collected from farmers in 16 collection centers in Wangu and Mugoiri divisions whose pooled samples gave positive results...
May 3, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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