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Tropical Animal Health and Production

I I Abdul-Rahman, A Bernard
One hundred and fifty West African Dwarf (WAD) kids were tested at the National Goats Breeding Station to determine the effects of some neonatal factors on their vigour levels within the first 24 h post-partum. The kids were also tested to establish the relationship between maternal weight, rectal temperature, times of first standing and sucking, sucking period and vigour. The distance covered (in meters) by a kid towards its mother during a 5-min test period was considered as vigour trait. Vigour levels increased significantly (p < 0...
January 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sukanya Kamphayae, Hajime Kumagai, Patima Butcha, Viroj Ritruechai, Supachai Udchachon
This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixtures of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and growth of dairy heifers. Sixteen Holstein crossbred heifers (13.8 ± 1.6 months old, 210 ± 23 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly allocated to four feeding treatments with four replications, which were 0:0:100 (RS), 0:70:30 (0%LBY), 20:50:30 (20%LBY), and 50:20:30 (50%LBY), respectively, for LBY/CVP/RS on a fresh matter basis...
January 11, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Vivek Joshi, V K Gupta, U Dimri, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sharma, A G Bhanuprakash
Twelve screened cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves were enrolled. Six of the calves were treated intramuscularly with sodium ceftiofur (1 mg/kg), and six were treated with nebulised sodium ceftiofur (1 mg/kg). Comparative evaluation of the two therapeutic modalities was based on repetitive analysis of hematological profile of calves on days 0, 5, and 10 post-therapy. The mortality rate in the group of calves treated with the nebulised sodium ceftiofur was significantly (p < 0.001) lower, and their clinical and hematological parameters returned to normal significantly (p < 0...
January 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Cuong Nguyen-Kien, Nguyen Van Khanh, Christian Hanzen
The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first service (CRFS) was 1...
January 5, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
F M Paterno, M E Buzanskas, W Koury Filho, R B Lôbo, S A Queiroz
The aims of our study were to estimate genetic parameters for body weight and visual scores and to evaluate their inclusion as selection criteria in the Nelore breeding program in Brazil. The traits studied were the body weight adjusted to 210 (W210) and to 450 (W450) days of age and visual scores for body structure, finishing precocity, and muscling evaluated at weaning (BSW, FPW, and MSW) and yearling (BSY, FPY, and MSY) ages. A total of 33,242, 26,259, 23,075, and 26,057 observations were considered to analyze W210, W450, and visual scores at weaning and yearling...
December 27, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Gregory Duarte Juffo, Daniele Mariath Bassuino, Danilo Carloto Gomes, Fabiana Wurster, Caroline Pissetti, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, David Driemeier
The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations...
December 24, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sabah Mabrouki, Raja Chalghoumi, Hedi Abdouli
Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC)...
December 23, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ararsa Duguma, Shubisa Abera, Wubishet Zewdie, Dinaol Belina, Godana Haro
A cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2015 to June 2016 to estimate the status of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), assessment of community's current knowledge, and zoonotic importance on this disease in Borana zone, southern Ethiopia. In this study, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, structured questionnaires, and retrospective data were used, while the result indicated 3.8% prevalence at individual animal level with 5.6% (31/554) of doubtful reactors. Among related risk factors included, old animals were significantly infected by BTB than young one (χ (2) = 32...
December 17, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede, Mashood Abiola Raji, Clara Nna Kwanashie, Jacob Kwada Pajhi Kwaga
This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction...
December 16, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
D N Makau, G K Gitau, G K Muchemi, L F Thomas, E A J Cook, N A Wardrop, E M Fèvre, W A de Glanville
Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan infection affecting most domestic animal species. Outbreaks in cattle are associated with various environmental factors in temperate climates but limited work has been done in tropical settings. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and environmental factors associated with bovine Eimeria spp. infection in a mixed farming area of western Kenya. A total of 983 cattle were sampled from 226 cattle-keeping households. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum via digital extraction and analysed for the presence of Eimeria spp...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sylvester W Fomum, Ignatius V Nsahlai
This study determined in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of three plant species: Trema orientalis, Urtica dioica and Zanthozylum capense on nematode larvae of small ruminants. Dried leaf samples (40 g) were extracted in 70% ethanol, in portions of 10 g and concentrated to 100 ml. Half and one quarter of the original crude extract were both made to 100 ml. Rectal faecal material from 10 Merino sheep and 25 Nguni goats was pooled within species and thoroughly hand-mixed. Dung samples, each of 5 g were cultured for 12 days at 27 °C...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sulochana Shrestha, Mamta Dhawan, Meritxell Donadeu, Baptiste Dungu
The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R2B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log2 HI units following booster vaccination with R2B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
H Kylla, T K Dutta, P Roychoudhury, Y S Malik, R Mandakini, P K Subudhi
Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been recognized as one of the important causal viral agents of gastroenteritis in several animal species especially in young immunocompromised hosts. In this study, we report the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine PBVs from North Eastern Hilly region of India. A total of 457 fecal samples from piglets were collected from local (n = 130) and cross (n = 327) breed piglets in different seasons for 2 years. All the samples were subjected to RNA-PAGE and RT-PCR analysis for detection of PBVs...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Adriana Dantas Palmieri, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Manuela Silva Libânio Tosto, Vagner Maximino Leite, Stefanie Alvarenga Santos, Máikal Souza Borja, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, José Esler Freitas Júnior, Laudi Cunha Leite, Luana Marta de Almeida Rufino
An investigation was made into the feeding behavior of goats to evaluate the effects of a detoxified castor bean meal in the diet of goats. Thirty-six ½ crossbred Boer goats were used, with an average weight of 20 ± 3.2 kg. A completely randomized design was used with four treatments (diets with of 0, 100, 200, and 300 g detoxified castor bean meals/kg dry matter) and nine replicates. Castor bean meal was detoxified using calcium oxide. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, and the forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Aline Gomes da Silva, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Lincoln da Silva Amorim, Edenio Detmann, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Márcio de Souza Duarte, Felipe Henrique de Moura, Luciano Prímola de Melo, Paulo Henrique Silva E Paiva, Marcos Rocha Manso, Victor Valério de Carvalho
Creep feeding has been used to reduce calves' nutritional dependence on the cow, but research results under tropical conditions have not been conclusive about the effects on the cow. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high and low supplementation levels for Nellore heifer calves on performance, milk production, and metabolic profile of their mothers. Fifty multiparous Nellore cows and their respective calves were used. The following treatments were evaluated: 0-control, no supplement was fed to calves; 3-calves received supplement in the amount of 3 g/kg of body weight (BW); 6-calves received supplement in the amount of 6 g/kg of BW...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mohamed Youssef, Maged El-Ashker
Health problems occurring during the transition period in dairy cattle are of utmost importance as they can decrease the animal's reproductive performance and favor the development of various metabolic diseases with resultant significant reproductive disorders. Among the commonly reported metabolic diseases occurring during that time, hyperketonemia is the most prevalent and could provoke a significant economic impact. The failing of a dairy cow to transit optimally between pregnancy and lactation is economically very relevant and should be considered...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Berhan Demeke, Shiferaw Jenberie, Biruk Tesfaye, Gelagay Ayelet, Martha Yami, Charles Euloge Lamien, Esayas Gelaye
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Erika Chenais, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin, Sofia Boqvist, Lihong Liu, Neil LeBlanc, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Everton Dezordi Sartori, Leonardo Canali Canellas, Gabriel Ribas Pereira, Fernanda Gomes Moojen, Helena Robatini Carvalho, Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos
This study was conducted on 78 13-month-old crossbred beef heifers that weighed 215 kg in Southern Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. We evaluated the performance of beef heifers that were reared in a pasture system that received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added sodium lasalocid (LAS). The heifers were randomly and uniformly divided into 2 groups, with 39 animals in each group. One group of animals received a mineral supplement energy-type protein without sodium lasalocid (CON), and the other group received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Hisashi Nabenishi, Atusi Yamazaki
We evaluated the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and health and growth performance in Japanese black calves in Japan. Data were collected from medical records of 19,313 Japanese black calves aged up to 3 months for correlation analysis with THI from July 2008 to June 2011. Data were also collected on the market weights of 57,144 Japanese black calves, and we calculated the body weight gain (BWG) of each calf based on body weight and age in days at the calf market. Analysis for the relationship between disease incidence and THI demonstrated a negative correlation (r = -0...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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