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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Andrew Tukana, Robert Hedlefs, Bruce Gummow
A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented...
April 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Metha Wanapat, Kampanat Phesatcha, Bounnaxay Viennasay, Burarat Phesatcha, Thiwakorn Ampapon, Sungchhang Kang
High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S G Adamu, J Kabir, J U Umoh, M A Raji
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis and Q fever in cattle in Maigana and Birnin Gwari agro-ecological zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the significance of Brucella spp. and Coxiella burnetti infections in cattle. A total of 400 sera samples (139 from males and 261 from females cattle) were collected and screened for brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for brucellosis and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for Q fever...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Asabe Halimat Momoh, Jacob K P Kwaga, Mohammed Bello, Anthony K B Sackey, Anders Rhod Larsen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium with impact on public health and livestock industry. The study investigated nasal carriage, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of S. aureus in pigs and pig workers. Nasal swabs from 300 backyard-raised pigs and 101 pig workers were used for the study. Resulting isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF MS, tested for antibiotic resistance, and three different multiplex PCRs were used to detect enterotoxin, mecA, spaA, scn, and pvl genes...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
K K Choudhary, A Bharadwaj, R K Sharma, A Jerome, S Khanna, K M Kavya
This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for detecting the onset of cyclicity in post-partum Murrah buffaloes. The methods investigated were visual signs, transrectal ultrasonography, and serum progesterone (P4 ) assay. For this study, 102 post-partum Murrah buffalo cows were grouped for monitoring their ovarian activity. The first group of buffaloes was between 26 and 35 days post-partum. Thereafter, the buffalo cows that calved were grouped after every 10 days for the study sample...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ewonetu Kebede, Melese Mengistu, Biresaw Serda
Modern livestock health care is still at its lowest stage in Ethiopia and most modern veterinary services like drugs and veterinary professionals are not accessible and affordable to the majority of pastoral farmers. As a result, they rely on their traditional knowledge and practices on locally available. However, this traditional knowledge has not yet been well documented. Therefore, this study identified medicinal plants used in treating animal diseases and examined factors that threatens ethno-veterinary in pastoral community of Shinle Districts...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Juliane Ribeiro, Luciana de Carvalho Balbo, Elis Lorenzetti, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
Dairy calf rearing unit is a management system that is only recently being implemented by some milk producer's cooperatives in southern Brazil. However, aspects related to the health profile of the heifer calves that arrive in the rearing unit as well as about biosecurity practices and microbiological challenges have not yet been evaluated in this rearing system in a tropical country. Diarrhea is the main and most frequent consequence of enteric infections in newborn calves. This study, through some etiological and epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea, has the aim to alert to the possibility of pathogenic microorganism spread in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
M L Longo, F M Vargas Junior, K Cansian, M R Souza, P C Burim, A L A Silva, C M Costa, L O Seno
The main objective of this research was to conduct an exploratory study of the lactation curve in order to characterize the productive potential of Pantaneiro ewes and lambs. Fifty ewes were bred using four rams in two different mating seasons. The ewes were kept with their lambs on pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. Ewe body score, ewe weight, and lamb weight were evaluated. Milk sampling was performed every week. In the morning for milk collections, the ewes were treated with 1 UI of oxytocin (intramuscular) for complete milking...
April 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
P A Wallace, J K Nyameasem, G A Aboagye, S Affedzie-Obresi, K Nkegbe, F Murray, V Botchway, N Karbo, W Leschen, P-O Maquart, V Clottey
The study was conducted with the view to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) on growing guinea fowls. BSFLM replaced fishmeal (3% in the control diet) in the ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% to produce six dietary treatments, which were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Two hundred and forty-eight-week old guinea fowls with mean live weight of 273.2 ± 10.9 g were tagged, weighted, and randomly assigned to 24 (6 × 4) floor pens; each pen was treated as a replicate...
April 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
James Madzimure, Rumbidzai Motsi, Archibold G Bakare, Milton Zimondi
The objective of the study was to determine growth performance, viscera organ development, economic benefit and sensory characteristics of meat from broilers finished on Acacia anguistissima leaf meal-based diets. One hundred and eighty Cobb 500-day-old chicks were used in the study. Acacia anguistissima was used as a protein source and included in broiler diets at 0, 50 and 100 g/kg. Total feed intake (TFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) and cost benefit analysis were determined. There were no differences in TFI of broilers across treatments diets...
April 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kifah Jumaah Odhaib, Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi, Muideen Adewale Ahmed, Muhammad Faseleh Jahromi, Shokri Jusoh, Anjas Asmara Samsudin, Abdul Razak Alimon, Halimatun Yaakub, Awis Qurni Sazili
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves and their combination on rumen metabolism, nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, immune response and blood metabolites in Dorper lambs. Twenty-four entire male Dorper lambs (18.68 ± 0.6 kg, 4-5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing on a dry matter basis either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% R. officinalis leaves (T2), 1% N...
April 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Xu Zhang, Haobang Li, Guitao Jiang, Xiangrong Wang, Xuan Huang, Chuang Li, Duanqin Wu, Qiuzhong Dai
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp as unusual feedstuffs in Linwu ducks. Forty ducks were assigned to each treatment group and fed diets with or without complex enzyme supplementation. All birds received the same quantity of raw material (60 g) via the force-feeding procedure. With the exception of leucine and phenylalanine, amino acid concentrations in hawthorn pulp were twice those in citrus pulp...
April 11, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
V Arthy, R Venkataramanan, S N Sivaselvam, C Sreekumar, D Balasubramanyam
The Network Project on Sheep Improvement (NWPSI)-Madras Red field unit is a group breeding scheme involving 198 farmers' flocks of Madras Red sheep in which selection for growth traits and rotation of rams have been practised for over two decades. Growth data collected from these flocks were used to evaluate the performance and understand the direct and expected responses to selection based on genetic parameters. The body weight at birth (BW), weaning weight (WW), 6-month weight (6W), 9-month weight (9W), 12-month weight (YW), pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG1, birth to 3 months), post-weaning ADG2 (3-6 months), ADG3 (6-9 months), ADG4 (9-12 months) and ADG5 (3-12 months) were 2...
April 11, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Syeda M Hussain, Valdo Rodrigues Herling, Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues, Ishrat Naz, Hamayun Khan, Muhammad Tahir Khan
Photosensitization is severe dermatitis or oxidative/chemical changes in the epidermal tissues activated by the light-induced excitation of molecules within the tissue. It is a series of reactions mediated through light receptors and is more common when the plant-produced metabolites are heterocyclic/polyphenols in nature. The areas affected are exposed body parts and mostly non-pigmented areas with least ultraviolet protection. Similarly, cellular alteration also occurs in the affected animal's dermal tissues and body parts and grazing animals by the accumulation and activation of photodynamic molecules...
April 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Pankaj Kumar, Amitava Dey, Abhay Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Ray, Poolangulam Chinnakkan Chandran, Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Manish Kumar
Outbreaks of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viral disease in Black Bengal goats were investigated from the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Clinical profile of PPR-affected flocks was recorded from four different outbreak sites of the region. The PPR outbreak was diagnosed serologically using commercially available sandwich ELISA kit. Relatively, low mortality rate (mean 26.75%) for PPR outbreak was recorded due to the endemic status of the disease. To understand the role of oxidative stress in PPR virus pathogenesis, various oxidant and antioxidant parameters in goats infected with PPR were estimated and compared with the uninfected/healthy goats of the same flock...
March 28, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S A Migose, B O Bebe, I J M de Boer, S J Oosting
We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions with eight groups of stakeholders were held to collect narratives and data about market quality, production factors, farm performance and functions of dairy cattle...
March 28, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S Abin, C Visser, C B Banga
The aim of this study was to benchmark the performance of dairy cows in the low-input smallholder system against their counterparts in the high-input system, in South Africa. Data comprised of cow performance records from the national dairy recording scheme. Performance measures included production (305-day yields of milk, fat, and protein), lactation length, somatic cell count (SCC), and reproductive traits, represented by age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI). Least squares means of each trait were compared between the two systems, and lactation curves for production traits and SCC were plotted for each production system...
March 28, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Irina Nadieska Peniche-Gonzalez, Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco, Ronald Herve Santos-Ricalde
Twenty nine Pelibuey × Katahdin hair ewes rearing single lamb were used during 42 days of lactation to evaluate the effect of including the Mucuna pruriens whole pods in the diets of lactating ewes on milk production and offspring performance. Animals were distributed at random into three experimental diets: a control diet without Mucuna (M0), and two more diets with the inclusion of 13 (M13) and 26% (M26), of milled pods of Mucuna pruriens, respectively. Dry matter intake, was not significantly different (P > 0...
March 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Heydar Ghiasi, M S Mokhtari
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat breed. In total, 13,193 records on live body weight collected from 4788 Raeini Cashmere goats were used. According to Akanke's information criterion (AIC), the sing-trait random regression model included fourth-order Legendre polynomial for direct and maternal genetic effect; maternal and individual permanent environmental effect was the best model for estimating (co)variance components...
March 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
A Rezaeenia, A A Naserian, R Valizadeh, A M Tahmasbi, A Mokhtarpour
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of ground date seed (GDS) on intake, digestibility, and milk yield and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of lactating Holstein cows. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square with eight lactating dairy cows with an average milk production of 35.5 ± 1.5 kg and 75 ± 5 days in milk (DIM). Dairy cows were fed one of the four treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6% of diet dry matter (DM) GDS in replacement of wheat bran...
March 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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