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Tropical Animal Health and Production

O Mapiye, G Makombe, C Mapiye, K Dzama
The opportunity for the smallholder beef farming system to support the growth of South Africa's livestock industry is untapped. Slow growth of the sector is attributed to many limitations that affect the smallholder beef farming sector. The objectives of the current study were to identify and characterize the systemic challenges and constraints that confront market-oriented smallholder beef farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data collection involved interviewing all the 62 farmers under the Limpopo Industrial Development Corporation (IDC)-Nguni project using structured questionnaires...
June 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Aziz-Ul-Rahman, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Muhammad Abubakar, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Paul Rossiter
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of domestic small ruminants. It also affects wild ungulates but there are comparatively few studies of the incidence of natural infection, clinical signs and pathology, and confirmation of the virus, and in these species. In this article, we list the wild ungulates in which PPRV infection has been confirmed and summarize available information about the presentation of the disease, its identification, and impact of virus on wildlife populations. Considering recent reports of outbreaks by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), it is important to understand the transmission of this disease within wildlife populations in PPR endemic regions...
June 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Leandro Soares Martins, Faider Alberto Castaño Villadiego, Mário Fonseca Paulino
The research aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean grain on the nutritional parameters and productivity of heifers grazing on Urochloa decumbens in the rainy-dry transition period. Forty crossbred heifers with the initial age and weight of 18 months and 292 ± 6.1 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design, with five treatments and eight replications. The evaluated treatments were as follows: SM0.5 -supply of 0.5 kg/animal/day of soybean meal supplement; SG0...
June 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Pratpot Maliwan, Sutisa Khempaka, Wittawat Molee, Jan Thomas Schonewille
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the energy density of diet on the growth performance of Thai indigenous crossbred (50%) chickens known as Korat chicken (KRC). A total of 1440 mixed-sex KRC (720 birds in each phase) were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments containing 2750, 2900, 3050, or 3200 kcal ME/kg diet with 6 replicates of each treatment in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were tested from hatch to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days of age. In both age groups, body weight gain was not affected (P > 0...
June 1, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kassaye Aragaw, Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Eystein Skjerve, Endrias Z Gebremedhin, Kassahun Asmare
This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sonália Ferreira Paixão, Juliana Torres Tomazi Fritzen, Sarah Elizabeth Izzo Crespo, Helder de Moraes Pereira, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Serological studies have characterized the presence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in water buffalo herds worldwide. However, the molecular characterization of BVDV strains circulating in this animal species is uncommon. The aim of this study was to identify young water buffalo with acute infection and characterize the subgenotype of the infecting wild-type BVDV strain. Two dairy water buffalo herds from Northeastern Brazil were selected based on the results of virus neutralization test which showed high titers of anti-BVDV antibodies...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
A M Tsotetsi-Khambule, S Njiro, T C Katsande, L J S Harrison
The aim of this study was to determine which of the livestock management and human practices known to be risk factors associated with taeniosis-cysticercosis occur in Gauteng Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted in two regions of Gauteng Province, Germiston and Pretoria. Results revealed that almost 20% of the interviewed farmers do not have toilets, most of them let their animals roam freely during the day for grazing and scavenging, and 47% use streams as the water source for their animals. This may create an infection opportunity through ingestion of Taenia-contaminated herbage or water...
May 30, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Tiago Facury Moreira, Rafael Romero Nicolino, Leandro Silva de Andrade, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, Antônio Ultimo de Carvalho
Lameness is a growing concern to the dairy industry worldwide. However, little is known about lameness and its causes in grazing cattle, especially in tropical climates. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of hoof lesions and lameness in dairy herds of all year-round grazing cattle under tropical condition, and to identify the main lesions associated with lameness. We visited 48 farms located in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, equally divided into four groups based on daily milk production. All lactating cows in the visited farms were locomotion scored, and a representative sample was randomly chosen for hoof inspection...
May 30, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Lívia Vieira de Barros, Carla Heloísa Avelino Cabral, Leandro Soares Martins, David Esteban Contreras Marquez, Felipe Vélez Saldarriaga, Faider Alberto Castaño Villadiego, Manuela Acevedo Cardozo, Roman Maza Ortega, Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas, Virginia Lucia Neves Brandão, Mário Fonseca Paulino
Beef cows' milk yield is typically determined by measuring milk yield once daily and then doubling this value to estimate daily production. However, it is not known whether this is accurate. Thus, we aimed to determine the association between morning and afternoon milk yield in grazing Nellore cows. Eighty Nellore cows were used, with initial weight of 516.0 ± 1.0 kg. The experiment was a completely randomized factorial scheme, with 20 replications and four treatments (i.e., + or - pre-partum supplementation in combination with + or - post-partum supplementation): PRMM-1 kg of supplement/cow/day for 90 days pre-partum; MMPS-1 kg of supplement/cow/day for 90 days post-partum; PRPS-1 kg of supplement/cow/day for 90 days pre-partum and 90 days post-partum; and MM-only mineral mix ad libitum during pre- and post-partum...
May 28, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Paulo Márcio Barbosa de Arruda Leite, Robson Magno Liberal Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras, Adriana Guim, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Karla Katiene de Souza Silva, Lígia Maria Gomes Barreto, Janaina de Lima Silva, Daniel Barros Cardoso
This aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, blood parameters, and performance of lambs fed two roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios, with or without liquid residue of cassava (LRC). Forty lambs (19.5 ± 1.45 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. The intake of dry matter (1311 g/day) and total digestible nutrients (755 g/day), and the intake (172 g/day) and digestibility (552 g/kg) of crude protein were higher for lambs fed R:C of 40:60...
May 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Katherine Ashley, Holly Harrison, Phalleap Hok Chan, Suon Sothoeun, James Robert Young, Peter Andrew Windsor, Russell David Bush
The majority of smallholder farming households in Cambodia are rurally based and rely on agriculture to support their livelihoods. However, in recent years, growth in the agriculture sector has stagnated with farmers facing several challenges including declining prices for traditional crops and irregular rainfall patterns. This has led to a need for farmers to diversify income sources with livestock promoted as a more viable livelihood activity, particularly the raising of cattle and poultry. However, uncertain profitability of livestock activities is a common perception by smallholders, especially where animals have not been traditionally viewed as a primary income source...
May 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Paula A Gonzalez-Rivas, Megan Sullivan, Jeremy J Cottrell, Brian J Leury, John B Gaughan, Frank R Dunshea
Feeding low-fiber and high-energy diets to dairy cows is one approach to ameliorate heat stress (HS) by reducing heat increment (HI) during digestion. However, rapidly and slowly fermentable cereal grains differ in their HI. The aim of this experiment was to quantify if feeding slowly fermentable grains ameliorated the physiological responses to HS and improved milk production (MP) in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows were housed in shaded pens and were fed either a total mixed ration (TMR) plus wheat (TMRW), a TMR plus wheat treated with 2% of a commercial starch-binding agent (TMRB), or a TMR plus corn (TMRC) (n = 8 cows per diet) during summer in Queensland, Australia...
May 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
T B Matshogo, V Mlambo, U Marume, N Sebola
Lippia javanica leaves may have nutraceutical bioactivity and thus could be a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets. To test this hypothesis, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of Lippia javanica leaf meal (LJ) on growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality of indigenous Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) chickens. The leaf meal was used to dilute a commercial chicken grower diet at a rate of 25 or 50 g/kg diet...
May 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Leandro Soares Martins, David Esteban Contreras Marquez, Faider Castaño Villadiego, Felipe Velez Saldarriaga, Román Maza Ortega, Deilen Paff Sotelo Moreno, Sidnei Antônio Lopes, Manuela Acevedo Cardozo, Mário Fonseca Paulino
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation strategy on performance, nutritional and metabolic characteristics of Nellore suckling female calves, on grazing Urochloa decumbens during the rainy-dry transition period. Forty-four Nellore female calves, averaging 147.6 ± 1.34 kg (4 months), were used. A single supplement 20% of crude protein of dry matter was provided, consisting of daily supplement at 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% of body weight. A positive linear effect (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
M Barbera, J R Jaber, S Ahmed-Salek, A Ravelo-Garcia, E Rodríguez-Ponce, L Rey, M R Ventura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing rye-grass (Lolium spp.) hay with banana (Musa acuminata L.) by-products on feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion rate (FCR) in Pelibuey (hair sheep breed) lambs. The lambs (n = 22; initial BW = 14.8 ± 2.5 kg) were individually housed and fed on two different types of diet for 58 days: the first group (experimental diet) received as forage a mixture of fresh banana by-products composed of leaves and pseudostem...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mohamed Haji Abdilatif, Joshua Orungo Onono, Florence Kanini Mutua
Small ruminants' production contributes to livelihood of pastoral communities, but this faces myriad constraints. This study aimed at identifying challenges facing producers of small ruminants, prioritizing diseases and their control measures and documenting opportunities for improvement. Sixteen focus group discussions with livestock owners and 13 key informant interviews were done in selected areas in Mandera County, Northern Kenya, and both quantitative and qualitative data collected using a questionnaire guide...
May 16, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Frederick Y Obese, Kwame Dwumah, Leonard K Adjorlolo, Raphael A Ayizanga
This study determined the effects of feed supplementation during the postpartum period on the weight gain, milk yield, blood profiles and reproductive performance of Sanga and Friesian-Sanga cows grazing on natural pasture. 20 Sanga and 20 Friesian-Sanga cows were randomly allocated either to serve as a control on grazing only or to be supplemented with 2.5 kg of concentrate a day for 10 weeks during the dry season. Each week, all cows were weighed and scored for body condition. Partial milk yield of cows was determined daily...
May 11, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Gerardo Ordaz-Ochoa, Aureliano Juarez-Caratachea, Rosa Elena Pérez-Sánchez, Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores, Juvenal Esquivel-Cordova, Ruy Ortiz-Rodríguez
The effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) added to the diet of lactating (21 days of lactation) sows on voluntary feed intake, and its impact on the productive and reproductive post-weaning performance was evaluated. Data collected of 72 farrowings from 37 hybrid sows were analyzed during 12-month period. The sows were divided into two groups: (i) control group (CG; n = 18 sows), sows fed only with commercial feed, and (ii) experimental group (EG; n = 19 sows), sows fed with commercial feed plus cactus supplement...
May 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Zwelethu Mfanafuthi Mdletshe, Sithembile Zenith Ndlela, Ignatius Verla Nsahlai, Michael Chimonyo
The objective of the study was to compare factors influencing water scarcity for goats in areas where there are seasonal and perennial rivers under resource-limited communal farming environments. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire (n = 285) administered randomly to smallholder goat farmers from areas with seasonal and perennial rivers. Ceremonies was ranked as the major reason for keeping goats. Water scarcity was ranked the major constraint to goat production in areas with seasonal rivers when compared to areas with perennial rivers (P < 0...
May 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Imran Rashid, H Nabi, S Islam, Amjad Islam Aqib, Kashif Hussain, Amjad Khan, Syeda Nayab Batool Rizvi, Shakeel Mahmood, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in Pakistan where it reduces livestock productivity and leads to high mortality, especially in young animals. This study was aimed to identify the potential risk factors responsible for the occurrence and spread of anaplasmosis in cattle and buffaloes for the first time in Pakistan. A total of 900 (cattle = 479, buffalo = 421) blood samples were collected irrespective of age and sex from three distinct zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for the molecular detection of anaplasmosis...
May 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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