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Tropical Animal Health and Production

Ahmed Ali, Derar Derar, Abdulhadi Alsharari, Assaf Alsharari, Rashid Khalil, Tariq I Almundarij, Yaser Alboti, Fahd Al-Sobayil
A survey of 7122 dromedary camels in 115 herds in Saudi Arabia was used to estimate the effects of herd size (HZ; < 25 vs. 25-49 vs. 50-100 vs. > 100 camels), herder/camels ratio (H/C; 1:< 25 vs. 1:25-50 vs. 1:> 50), manager experience (ME; < 5 vs. 5-10 vs. > 10 years), male/females ratio (M/F), housing system (HS; free vs. closed vs. mixed), length of the breeding season (winter vs. winter and spring vs. fall, winter and spring), age at first mating (3 vs. > 3 years), and time of mating after parturition (≤ 3 vs...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Anusha Alamuri, K Bharathkumar, Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Mohandoss Nagalingam, Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy, Habibur Rahman, Bibek Ranjan Shome
In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals...
February 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
P K Pathak, R Roychoudhury, J Saharia, M C Borah, D J Dutta, R Bhuyan, D Kalita
The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936...
February 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Reena Kamal, Triveni Dutt, Manjunath Patel, Amitava Dey, Panch Kishore Bharti, Poolangulam Chinnakkan Chandran
In tropical countries, at high temperatures, several physiological rearrangements occur in cows as they attempt to facilitate heat dissipation and/or reduce metabolic heat production. Following exposure to heat, cattle appear to acclimatize within 2-7 weeks. The failure of homeostasis at high temperatures may lead to reduced productivity or even death. The situation is even worse when humidity adds to high temperature. Livestock with elevated body temperature exhibit lower DMI and growth with less efficiency, reducing profitability for dairy farms in hot and humid climates...
February 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Z Matore, P Woods, S Kagler
Zimbabwe's smallholder dairying faces many challenges that affect the welfare of dairy cows; however, the status of this welfare has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Midlands Province on 41 active smallholder dairy farms with 86 cows in winter and summer to determine the risk factors and indicators to impaired cow welfare. These objectives were achieved using farmer questionnaires and direct observations. Eleven percent of the observed cows were severely lame in summer while only 5% were severely lame in winter...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kimberly E Coker, Joseph J Lim, Rebecca L Schleisman, Christopher Vosloo, Hilari M French, Juan C Samper, John J Callanan, Robert O Gilbert, Fortune Sithole, Chaoqun Yao, Aspinas Chapwanya
Trichomonosis is an endemic disease in cattle that are reared under extensive conditions and bred by natural mating. It causes profound economic losses to the producers by increasing calving interval, increasing embryo losses, and decreasing pregnancy rates. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tritrichomonas foetus infections were absent from cattle in St. Kitts. Using the modified hypergeometric method, preputial samples from bulls (n = 78) were tested using the InPouch™ culture for presence of T...
February 11, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
F N Costa, N O Belo, E A Costa, G I Andrade, L S Pereira, I A Carvalho, R L Santos
Staphylococcus aureus is among the microorganisms more frequently associated with subclinical bovine mastitis. S. aureus may produce several virulence factors. This study aimed at determining the frequency of virulence factors such as enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and ica adhesion genes. In addition, we assessed antimicrobial drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis. A total of 88 cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis were sampled, resulting in 38 S...
February 10, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alejandro Alavez Ramírez, Victor Manuel Meza Villalvazo, Emmanuel Sosa Arredondo, Hugo Alonso Ramírez Ramírez, Héctor Magaña Sevilla
To compare the effects of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) and D-cloprostenol in a two-dose protocol for estrus synchronization in hair sheep during breeding season in Yucatán, México, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 61 cyclic hair sheep were divided into two groups: G1 (control n = 30), two doses of 50 μg of dinoprost tromethamine IM with 12 days between applications, and G2 (n = 31), two doses of 50 μg of D-cloprostenol IM at the same time interval. For determination of progesterone levels, 16 ewes from each group were randomly selected...
February 10, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Solomon W Mwendia, Chris M Mwungu, Stanley Karanja Ng'ang'a, David Njenga, An Notenbaert
Despite the significant livestock contribution to households' nutrition and incomes in many African smallholder farms, milk productivity remains low. Inadequate feeding is the main reason for the underperformance. To contribute towards addressing this, an on-farm feeding trial was undertaken in Ol-joro-Orok Central Kenya. A feed basket using oat (Avena sativa) cv Conway and vetch (Vicia villosa) was compared to farmers practice. Milk production (kg) and quality parameters, including butterfat, protein, lactose, and density, were monitored, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) undertaken...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Marcelo de Oliveira Alves Rufino, Márcia Saladine Vieira Salles, João Alberto Negrão, João Luiz Pratti Daniel, Luciano Soares de Lima, Francilaine Eloise De Marchi, Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior, Geraldo Tadeu Dos Santos
In this study, we evaluated the effects of supplementation with peanut and sunflower oils on intake and digestibility, milk yield and composition, energy balance (EB), changes in weight and body condition score (BW and BCS), and blood metabolites of Jersey cows on pasture in early lactation. Twenty-four cows were distributed in a randomized block design where they received the following treatments: concentrate without oil (CON), concentrate plus 59.6 g/kg DM peanut oil (PEA), concentrate plus 59.6 g/kg DM sunflower oil (SUN), and concentrate plus 59...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
José E García, Leónides Gómez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, José L Rivera-Corona, Jair Millán-Orozco, Juan A Ascacio, Miguel A Medina, Miguel Mellado
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the anthelminthic activity of hydro-methanolic extracts of Larrea tridentata on sheathed and exsheathed larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Larvae of the parasite were incubated at 20-25 °C in hydro-methanolic extracts at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24, 48, or 72 h. Ivermectin and water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. Total phenolic compounds of leaves of L. tridentata were 97.88 ± 10.45 mg/g of dry matter. Other compounds detected in this shrub by HPLC-mass spectrometry were sesamin, galocatechin, peonidin 3-O rutinoside, methyl galangin, epigallocatechin 7-O-glucuronide, and epigalocatechin...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
H R Otsyina, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E G M Mogoa, P G Mbuthia, W O Ogara
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost...
February 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
O M El-Malky, T H Mostafa, A M Abd El-Salaam, M S Ayyat
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of reproductive disorders on reproductive efficiency and milk production in relation with pro-inflammatory cytokines in dromedary she-camels. Total of 20 late pregnant Maghrabi she-camels, aging 6-9 years, weighing 420-550 kg, and between the second and third parities were divided into two groups. Animals in the first group (n = 12) showed normal reproductive status (G1) at parturition, while those in the second one (n = 8) were suffered from reproductive disorders after parturition (G2)...
February 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Marcos Paulo Gonçalves de Rezende, Julio Cesar de Souza, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Riccardo Bozzi, Rodrigo Jose Delgado Jardim, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado
Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes...
February 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
A O Lala, O L Ajayi, N Okwelum, A O Oso, T V Fakorede, T A Adebayo, J E Jagbojo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Morinda lucida leaf meal (MLLM) on the haematology, biochemical and organ changes of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety-eight day-old Marshall broiler chicks were completely randomised into 6 treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of M. lucida leaf meal supplementation (0, 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg) with or without medication. The treatment consisted of both negative (without MLLM and routine medication) and positive (containing no MLLM but with routine medication) control groups while each treatment was replicated thrice...
February 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
O E Oke
Dietary manipulation has been seen as one of the practical ways to ameliorate the adverse effects of thermal stress in the hot humid tropical climate. In order to investigate the influence of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizome powder on physiological responses and performance under hot humid tropical climate, 240 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments having four replicates of 15 birds each in a complete randomized design. Broiler birds were fed basal diets and supplemented with 0 (CT), 4 (TG), 8 (FT), and 12 g (SG) of turmeric powder/kg of diet for 8 weeks...
February 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Firew Tegegne, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Toshiyoshi Ichinohe
The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of substituting concentrate mixture (CM) with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaves (WHL) at different inclusion levels of feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, and growth performance of Washera sheep. Twenty yearlings intact male sheep with initial body weight of 24.1 ± 1.68 kg (mean ± SD) were used in both 90 days of feeding and 7 days of digestibility trials. The experimental animals were arranged into four blocks of five animals based on their initial body weight...
February 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rodolfo Rogelio Posadas-Domínguez, Oscar Enrique Del Razo-Rodríguez, Isaac Almaraz-Buendía, Armando Pelaez-Acero, Verónica Espinosa-Muñoz, Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar, Jesús Armando Salinas-Martínez
This article combines a Policy Analysis Matrix with a sensitivity and poverty line analysis with the objective of evaluating the economic contribution of comparative advantages to the private profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy systems. For 1 year, socioeconomic data were collected from 82 farms selected from four strata via statistical sampling. Two scenarios were established to determine the quantitative contribution of comparative advantages: (1) a simulated scenario, which accounted for the cost of purchasing the total food and the opportunity cost of the family labour force (FLF), and (2) an actual production scenario, which accounted for the cost of producing food and eliminating the payment of the FLF and included other income...
February 1, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika Hemali Abeyratne Kothalawala, Kohei Makita, Hemal Kothalawala, Athambawa Mohamed Jiffry, Satoko Kubota, Hiroichi Kono
Farmers' lack of knowledge is assumed to have affected the presence of brucellosis in Sri Lanka for decades. This study, carried out in the Ampara district in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap for brucellosis compared to foot and mouth disease (FMD) (p < 0.001). Only 8.3% of farmers knew that brucellosis causes cattle abortions. Only 2.6% knew that it is zoonotic. The difference in knowledge of the symptoms and transmission of brucellosis and FMD was significant (p < 0...
February 1, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rajeev Ranjan, Jitendra K Biswal, Saravanan Subramaniam, Bana B Dash, Karam P Singh, Jonathan Arzt, Luis L Rodriguez, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important, transboundary viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is known that an asymptomatic, persistent FMD virus (FMDV) infection may occur subsequent to acute or subclinical FMDV infection in adult ruminants. However, virus persistence in young calves has not been studied. In the current investigation, FMDV infection parameters were examined for calves born to FMD-clinically recovered cows (CRC), asymptomatic cows from infected herds (ASC) and cows from with no history of FMD (NHF)...
February 1, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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