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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
March 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sharon M Holder, Kenneth Rogers, Eunice Peterson, Christian Ochonma
The emergency department (ED) is increasingly being used for mental health visits by children and adolescents. It is estimated that 21-23% of youth have a diagnosable psychiatric or substance use disorder. Using data from the ED of a tertiary medical center, we examined trends in mental health diagnoses over a 5-year period. In school age children the most prevalent diagnoses were anxiety disorders (28.4%); disorders first usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence (26.5%), and mood disorders (18...
March 17, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tamara Pringsheim
While attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder have been shown to have major impacts on quality of life in individuals with Tourette syndrome, there is comparatively little data on how the presence of these comorbidities influence tic severity and treatment. 114 children (mean age 10.25 years) were extensively clinically phenotyped at a single specialty clinic. While there was no difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores in children with versus without ADHD, children with obsessive compulsive behaviors had significantly higher YGTSS scores (p = 0...
March 13, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Marina Jiujias, Elizabeth Kelley, Layla Hall
This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena...
March 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sara J Bufferd, Lea R Dougherty, Thomas M Olino
Depressive emotions and behaviors, such as sadness, irritability, and sleep difficulties, are often early-emerging, impairing, and persistent. However, these behaviors are normative in early development, so it is critical to identify the spectrum of behaviors that may be relevant to the development of depression. This study characterizes the frequency and severity of depressive behaviors and impairment in preschool-aged children using a novel daily diary method with 291 parents. A coherent depression dimension was identified, and the specific frequency at which individual behaviors were identified as severe is reported...
March 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Vahdet Gormez, Ayse Kilincaslan, Chad Ebesutani, A Cahid Orengul, Ilyas Kaya, Veysi Ceri, Serhat Nasiroglu, Mekiya Filiz, Bruce F Chorpita
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent version (RCADS-P) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses dimensions of DSM-based anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in a clinical sample of 483 children and adolescents. The child and parent versions of the RCADS, parent versions of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-Depression Scale were administered...
March 1, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Donna L Griffiths, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Susan W White
Research has shown high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Farrell et al., Psychiatry Res 199(2):115-123, 2012; Lewin et al., Psychiatry Res 178(2):317-322, 2010; POTS Team, J Am Med Assoc 292(16):1969-1976, 2004). Autism and autistic traits co-occur at high rates within clinical samples of youth with OCD (Ivarsson and Melin in J Anxiety Disord 22(6):969-978, 2008; Stewart et al. in Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 1-9, 2016). This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between ASD traits, family accommodation, and functional impairment in a sample of youth with OCD across a wide age range (n = 80; aged 7-17 years)...
February 24, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Paula J Fite, Jonathan Poquiz, Andrew L Frazer, Nicholas Reiter
This study examined associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression and suicidal behavior in a sample of outpatient treatment seeking youth (n = 111, 60.5% male) ranging from 6 to 17 years of age (Mean age = 10.57 years). Additionally, hope was evaluated as a moderator of these associations. Child reports of measures were used to evaluate associations. When also considering the variance associated with child depressive symptoms and hope, reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely associated with suicidal behavior...
February 10, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Liesbeth G E Telman, Francisca J A van Steensel, Marija Maric, Susan M Bögels
We compared clinically referred children with anxiety disorders (AD; n = 63) to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 39), ADHD Combined (ADHD-C; n = 62), ADHD Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I; n = 64), and typically developing children (n = 42) on child quality of life (QOL), paternal and maternal psychopathology and parental stress. Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multilevel analyses showed that QOL in AD was higher on school and social functioning, compared to respectively ADHD and ASD, and lower compared to normal controls on all five domains...
February 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anna Abate, Kaisa Marshall, Carla Sharp, Amanda Venta
High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior...
February 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Chao-Yu Liu, Wei-Lieh Huang, Wei-Chih Kao, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning...
February 6, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Riikka Korja, Saara Nolvi, Kerry Ann Grant, Cathy McMahon
In the present review, we examine the association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety and children's early negative reactivity or self-regulation. The review includes 32 studies that focus on pregnancy-related anxiety, state or trait anxiety, perceived stress, and stressful life events in relation to child's crying, temperament, or behavior during the first 2 years of life. We searched four electronic databases and 32 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies found an association between maternal prenatal anxiety or stress and a child's negative reactivity or self-regulation, and typically the effect sizes varied from low to moderate...
January 25, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Frederike Y Scheper, Mirjana Majdandžić, Peter M van de Ven, Lucres M C Jansen, Theo A H Doreleijers, Carlo Schuengel, Annelou L C de Vries
Evidence from general population studies shows the contribution of various temperament traits to the development of child psychopathology. Little is known about which traits are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in young clinically referred children. The current study assessed temperament and internalizing and externalizing problems in 216 referred children (M = 4.35 years, SD 0.89, 81% boys). A comparison was made with an age and gender matched general population sample. Referred children showed less effortful control than general population children...
January 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anne Deckers, Peter Muris, Jeffrey Roelofs
A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine loneliness and its correlates in children (7 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 18 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 73) and control groups of clinically referred (ADHD, n = 76) and non-clinical (n = 106) youths. Youths completed questionnaires on loneliness and desire for social interaction, while parents and teachers filled out scales on other aspects of children's social functioning. Results indicated that only at an adolescent age, the ASD group reported higher levels of loneliness than the control groups...
January 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sabine Baker, Matthew R Sanders
Web-based parenting interventions have the potential to increase the currently low reach of parenting programs, but few evidence-based online programs are available, and little is known about who benefits from this delivery format. This study investigated if improvements in child behavior and parenting, following participation in a brief online parenting program (Triple P Online Brief), can be predicted by family and program-related factors. Participants were 100 parents of 2-9-year-old children displaying disruptive behavior problems...
December 30, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Richard O'Kearney, Karen Salmon, Maria Liwag, Clare-Ann Fortune, Amy Dawel
Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups...
April 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Beth L Mah, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Dorothee Out, Roger Smith, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Postnatal depression (PND) is common and negatively affects the mother-infant relationship; oxytocin (OT) has been found to have positive effects on parenting, although psychiatric disorders may reduce these effects. Thus, we explored the role of OT in mothers diagnosed with PND. A within-subject, randomized controlled double-blind design was used to test the effects of nasal administration of OT or placebo on sensitive caregiving. The outcome measures were perceptual and caregiving responses to prerecorded cry sounds, as well as observed maternal sensitivity...
April 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jian-Bin Li, Elisa Delvecchio, Daniela Di Riso, Adriana Lis, Silvia Salcuni
The parent-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P) is a widely used scale that assesses children's and adolescents' strengths and difficulties. The present study applied this scale to Italian adolescents and compared the current results with previous Chinese findings and the United Kingdom norm. Participants were 422 Italian parents and their adolescent children. Parents and adolescents answered the parent-report and the self-report SDQ, respectively. Results showed that the five-factor first-order model was better than other competing models...
April 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Cyd K Eaton, Anna M Jones, Ana M Gutierrez-Colina, Emily K Ivey, Olivia Carlson, Lauren Melville, Patricia Kardon, Ronald L Blount
Although there is evidence that environmental consequences for displaying tics and internalizing symptoms are related to tic severity in children with TS, less is known about the inter-relationships of these variables or how these factors jointly contribute to tic severity. This study included 45 children with Tourette syndrome. Caregivers reported on children's environmental consequences for displaying tics, internalizing symptoms, and tic severity. Results indicated that children with higher levels of internalizing symptoms experienced significantly more environmental consequences for displaying tics...
April 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Xingchao Wang, Li Lei, Jiping Yang, Ling Gao, Fengqing Zhao
The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire...
April 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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