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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Sara M S Francis, Erin B Tone, Nicole E Caporino, Erin C Tully, Lindsey L Cohen
Cognitive factors, such as beliefs that anxiety is harmful, may lead parents to engage excessively in over-controlling parenting practices, such as "rescuing" children from distress. The present study examined whether parental rescue behavior, or the speed at which parents intervened to rescue an increasingly distressed child during an audio paradigm, was associated with beliefs about child anxiety. We also evaluated the impact of psychoeducation on rescue behavior during the audio paradigm. A nonclinical sample of 310 parents was recruited from an online crowdsourcing platform...
September 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tyler Colasante, Joanna Peplak, Stefania Sette, Tina Malti
With a sample of 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 131), we tested the extent to which more frequent experiences of victimization were associated with heightened aggression towards others, and how sympathetic concern and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) factored into this relationship. Caregivers reported their children's aggression and sympathy. Children reported their victimization and their resting RSA was calculated from electrocardiogram data in response to a nondescript video. Findings revealed that children who reported more frequent victimization were rated as less sympathetic and, in turn, more aggressive...
August 31, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Aja Louise Murray, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel Eisner, George Murray, Karen McKenzie
ADHD symptoms show considerable individual variation in the contexts in which they are expressed. It has previously been proposed that subtyping individuals according to the contexts in which symptoms are expressed may be clinically useful. We examined context-based patterns of ADHD symptoms in a longitudinal cohort study of n = 1388 children, as well as context-specific and context-general predictors of symptoms. Participants were community-ascertained and provided ADHD symptom data at ages 7, 9, and 11...
August 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Katja Bödeker, Anna Fuchs, Daniel Führer, Dorothea Kluczniok, Katja Dittrich, Corinna Reichl, Corinna Reck, Michael Kaess, Catherine Hindi Attar, Eva Möhler, Corinne Neukel, Anna-Lena Bierbaum, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Charlotte Jaite, Ulrike Lehmkuhl, Sibylle Maria Winter, Sabine Herpertz, Romuald Brunner, Felix Bermpohl, Franz Resch
The study addresses the impact of maternal early life maltreatment (ELM) and maternal history of depression (HoD) on offspring's mental health. Maternal sensitivity was examined as a potential mediator explaining the relationship between maternal ELM, maternal HoD and child psychopathology. Participants were 194 mothers with and without HoD and/or ELM as well as their children between 5 and 12 years. Maternal sensitivity was assessed using the Emotional Availability Scales. Parent and teacher ratings were utilized to assess child psychopathology...
August 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
M Burn, L A Tully, Y Jiang, P J Piotrowska, D A J Collins, K Sargeant, D Hawes, C Moul, R K Lenroot, P J Frick, V Anderson, E R Kimonis, M R Dadds
Fathers are consistently underrepresented in parenting interventions and practitioners are an important target for change in interventions to enhance father engagement. This research examined the effects of two practitioner training programs in improving practitioner rated competencies and organizational father-inclusive practices. Two studies were conducted, each with a single group, repeated measures (pre, post and 2-month follow-up) design. Study 1 (N = 233) examined the outcomes of face-to-face training in improving practitioner ratings of competencies in engaging fathers, perceived effectiveness and use of father engagement strategies, organizational practices and rates of father engagement...
August 4, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ovsanna Leyfer, Aubrey Carpenter, Donna Pincus
Panic disorder (PD) can result in significant functional impairment. Studies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PD have demonstrated response rates ranging between 38 and 65%. D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA agonist, may enhance the effects of exposure-based therapy for PD in adults; however, no studies have examined its effect in adolescents with PD. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of the use of DCS to augment intensive CBT for PD in adolescents. Twenty-four adolescents (ages 12-17) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, to compare CBT + DCS to CBT + placebo...
August 4, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Yu-Tien Hsu, Ichiro Kawachi
We examined the impact of time-varying exposure to family adversity, including parental conflict, parental absence from home, divorce, and parental death, on the timing of drinking and smoking initiation among Taiwanese youth between ages 14 and 22 years. We used six waves of data from a longitudinal panel study conducted in northern Taiwan between 2001 and 2009, and included 5446 students. The analysis demonstrated that exposure to parental conflict, divorce, and parental death increased the risk of drinking and smoking initiation...
August 1, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Clair Bennett, Glenn A Melvin, Jeremy Quek, Naysun Saeedi, Michael S Gordon, Louise K Newman
Childhood experiences of emotional invalidation are commonly reported by adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study aimed to compare perceptions of emotional invalidation between adolescents with and adolescents without BPD, and their primary caregivers. Participants were 51 adolescents subdivided into a clinical group of 26 adolescents with BPD and a community-control group of 25 adolescents, each with their primary caregivers. To examine perceptions of invalidation, adolescents and caregivers completed parallel reports assessing caregiver responses to adolescents' negative emotions...
August 1, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Pedro Pechorro, Teresa Braga, Samuel W Hawes, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Mário R Simões, James V Ray
The primary aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) self-report and its short version (ICU-12) among a mixed-sex normative sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-factor structure of the ICU obtained the best fit after the removal of two items, and the two-factor structure of the ICU-12 obtained the best fit after the removal of one item...
July 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Natalie Hong, Jonathan S Comer
In practice, ADHD is commonly assessed with parent-reports in the absence of diagnostic interviews or behavioral observations, yet little is known about how accurately rating scales can independently detect ADHD. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the CBCL 1.5-5 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale's ability to correctly classify the presence/absence of ADHD within a sample of young children with disruptive behavior disorders (N = 44), offering a conservative test of the scale's ability to distinguish ADHD symptoms from neighboring problems (i...
July 28, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Susanna W Chang, Jennie M Kuckertz, Deepika Bose, Arturo R Carmona, John Piacentini, Nader Amir
A growing evidence base supports attention bias modification (ABM) as a novel intervention for anxiety. However, research has been largely conducted with adults and analogue samples, leaving the impact of ABM for child anxiety be fully elucidated. Thus, we conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial testing ABM efficacy versus an attention control condition (CC) in 31 children diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Youth were assigned to 4 weeks of ABM where attention was trained away from threat, or a sham CC in which no bias training occurred...
July 26, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
L H Wolters, P J M Prins, G J A Garst, S M Hogendoorn, F Boer, L Vervoort, E de Haan
Reframing cognitions is assumed to play an important role in treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there hardly is any empirical support for this assumption, especially for children. The aim of this study was to examine if changing dysfunctional beliefs is a mediating mechanism of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood OCD. Fifty-eight children (8-18 years) with OCD received CBT. Dysfunctional beliefs (OBQ-CV) and OCD severity (CY-BOCS) were measured pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 16-week follow-up...
July 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jessica Buthmann, Jacob Ham, Katherine Davey, Jackie Finik, Kathryn Dana, Patricia Pehme, Wei Zhang, Vivette Glover, Yoko Nomura
This study recruited a prospective cohort of 380 pregnant women before, during, or after Superstorm Sandy in 2012 to examine the association between disaster-related pre- and post-natal maternal stress and offspring temperament at 6 months-old. Mothers prospectively reported stressful experiences during the storm and rated their child's temperament 6 months postpartum. Results indicated that length of time without phone or electricity and financial loss was associated with offspring negative affect, whereas financial loss and threat of death or injury was associated with emotion dysregulation...
July 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Christina M Rodriguez, Doris F Pu, Ashley R Foiles
Children's maladaptive cognitive attributions may elicit affective reactions that contribute to depressive and anxious symptoms. This study investigated cognitive-affective pathways in depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 110 prepubertal children, evaluating children's specific appraisals of experiences of parental discipline as well as general attributional style, along with their hopelessness, self-esteem, and shame. Pathways toward depressive and anxious symptoms were tested simultaneously to identify potential unique etiological mechanisms...
July 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nejra Van Zalk, Maarten Van Zalk
This study focuses on the temporal sequence between social anxiety and depressive symptoms, and whether cybervictimization might mediate these links. We used a longitudinal sample of 501 early adolescents (51.9% girls; Mage  = 13.96) followed at three time points. Using a cross-lagged path model in MPlus, we found that social anxiety predicted depressive symptoms over time, but not the other way around. Time-1 depressive symptoms also predicted cybervictimization, but only for boys and not for girls. No mediating effects of cybervictimization emerged; however, Time-2 social anxiety was a significant mediator between Time-1 social anxiety and depressive symptoms, whereas Time-2 depressive symptoms significantly mediated the link between Time-1 social anxiety and Time-3 depressive symptoms...
July 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Liuhua Ying, Qing Yan, Xin Shen, Xuji Jia, Chongde Lin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the mediating roles of parent-child communication and parental warmth in the relationship between economic pressure and loneliness in a sample of migrant children in China. A total of 437 participants were selected from two public schools for migrant children in Zhejiang Province, China. All participants were asked to complete four measures, including the Perceived Economic Strain Scale, the Parent-Child Communication Questionnaire, the Parental Warmth Scale, and the Children's Loneliness Scale...
July 7, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Heidi Jacobsen, Kristin Alvestad Vang, Karoline Mentzoni Lindahl, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Smith, Vibeke Moe
The main aim of this study was to investigate the quality of social interaction between 60 foster parents and their foster children compared to a group of 55 non-foster families at 2 (T1) and again at 3 (T2) years of age. Video observations were used to investigate child-parent interaction at both time-points. "This is My Baby" interview was administered to investigate foster parents' commitment at T1. The main results revealed significant group differences at T1 on all child-parent social interaction measures, although not at T2...
June 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Elizabeth M Parker, Jedediah Jacobson, Michael D Pullmann, Suzanne E U Kerns
Youth who enter foster care are at risk of mental health need, but questions arise as to the validity of their self-reported symptomatology. This study examines the screening validity of the youth-report version of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 (PSC-17) in a child welfare population. Data come from 2389 youth who completed a version of the PSC-17 adapted for youth report, and their biological and foster parents who completed the parent-report version. Youth also completed a shortened version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED)...
June 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Charlie Rioux, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Sophie Parent, Frank Vitaro, Jean R Séguin
This study examined whether interactions of parental knowledge of adolescent's whereabouts with impulsivity and sensation seeking in the prediction of adolescent substance use supported the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model in 230 15-year old adolescents (53% girls). Interactions between impulsivity and parental knowledge supported the diathesis-stress model with high impulsivity as a vulnerability factor: when impulsivity was higher, low levels of parental knowledge were associated with higher levels of substance use...
June 29, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anton Dahlberg, Ata Ghaderi, Anna Sarkadi, Raziye Salari
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-established instrument for measuring social and behavioural problems among children, with good psychometric properties for older children, but less validity reports on pre-schoolers. In addition, there is a knowledge gap concerning fathers as informants. The present work is one of the few validity studies to include preschool teachers and the first on preschool children where fathers are included as separate informants. In this study, SDQs were collected from a large community sample (n = 17,752) of children aged 3-5, rated by mothers, fathers, and preschool teachers and analysed using confirmatory factor analysis...
June 29, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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