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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Caroline C Piotrowski, Margherita Cameranesi
Multi-informant reports of aggression by siblings in families with and without a history of IPV were compared. Associations between aggressive behavior and child depressive and trauma-related symptoms, as well as maternal and sibling warmth were also explored. Mothers, observers and the siblings themselves reported on aggressive behaviour. Mothers reported on child trauma-related symptoms while children provided self-report on depressive symptoms and mother-child and sibling warmth. The frequency of observed aggression did not differ across groups on average, although more sibling dyads exposed to IPV engaged in aggression than those not exposed...
September 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Maria-Zoe Hadjicharalambous, Kostas A Fanti
The majority of prior work focuses on understanding the association between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems, providing limited information on why some youth who score high on CU traits do not engage in conduct problem behaviors. The current study investigated heterogeneity among a sub-sample of adolescents with CU traits (N = 152; Mage = 13.09, SD = 2.76, 45.6% female) identified from a large community sample. Three groups were compared: control, callous-unemotional traits only (CU-only), and combined callous-unemotional and conduct problems (CU + CP)...
August 28, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nicholas Kavish, Cassandra Bailey, Carla Sharp, Amanda Venta
A substantial literature has investigated relations between intelligence and psychopathic traits. At the construct level, findings have been mixed, with a small negative relation found. At the facet level however, a positive relation between verbal intelligence and the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, and a negative relation between verbal intelligence and the lifestyle factor of psychopathy emerge. To date, this research has largely neglected adolescents and prior research has focused on clinical and incarcerated populations, while failing to control for psychopathology...
August 23, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Chloe Lau, Shannon L Stewart, Donald H Saklofske, Paul F Tremblay, John Hirdes
The present study aims to validate the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (interRAI ChYMH), Disruptive/Aggression Behaviour Scale (DABS) and Hyperactive/Distraction Scale (HDS). Data were collected from children/youth aged 4-18 (N = 3464) across 39 mental health agencies in Ontario, Canada. Unrestricted factor analysis using polychoric correlation matrices and Samejima's graded item response theory (IRT) parameterizations were conducted for both measures. Scores on the HDS and DABS were also compared amongst children/youth diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) respectively using DSM-IV criteria...
August 8, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tamika C B Zapolski, Devin E Banks, Katherine S L Lau, Matthew C Aalsma
Although many juvenile offenders report experiencing police injustice, few studies have examined how this source of strain may impact youths' behavioral outcomes, including risk for future recidivism. This study begins to address that gap in the literature. We applied the general strain theory as our theoretical framework to examine the interactive effect of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement on juvenile aggressive behavior. Our sample included 95 juvenile offenders who completed questionnaires on measures of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement...
August 8, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Lara J Farrell, Helen Kershaw, Thomas Ollendick
The one-session treatment (OST) approach for SPs is deemed well-established, and has been found to be highly effective for older children and adults; however, has not yet been trialled with very young children. The present study examines the preliminary effectiveness of play-modified OST for young children with a SP of dogs, using a multiple baseline controlled case series design. Treatment involved play modified one-session of intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy (OST plus Play) which was followed by brief telephone delivered maintenance calls over the 3 weeks immediately following treatment...
August 1, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tord Ivarsson, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Markus Andersson, Håkan Jarbin
We evaluated the clinical utility of the Swedish SCARED-R in child- and adolescent psychiatric outpatients (n = 239) and validated it against Longitudinal Expert All Data (LEAD) DSM IV diagnoses based on the Children's Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) and subsequent clinical work-up and treatment outcome. The SCARED-R total score and subscales had acceptable sensitivity/specificity for child and parent reports for cut-offs based on Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves, with mostly moderate area under the curve...
July 29, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Robert R Selles, Martin Franklin, Jeffrey Sapyta, Scott N Compton, Doug Tommet, Richard N Jones, Abbe Garcia, Jennifer Freeman
The present study explored the concept of tolerance for child distress in 46 children (ages 5-8), along with their mothers and fathers, who received family-based CBT for OCD. The study sought to describe baseline tolerance, changes in tolerance with treatment, and the predictive impact of tolerance on symptom improvement. Tolerance was rated by clinicians on a single item and the CY-BOCS was used to measure OCD severity. Descriptive results suggested that all participants had some difficulty tolerating the child's distress at baseline while paired t tests indicated large improvements were made over treatment (d = 1...
July 29, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jantiene Schoorl, Sophie van Rijn, Minet de Wied, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab
Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions...
July 28, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Noora Similä, Helinä Hakko, Pirkko Riipinen, Kaisa Riala
This study examined the impact of clinical and family related factors on adolescent revolving door (RD) phenomenon, defined as having three or more psychiatric hospitalizations before the age of 18. A clinical sample of adolescents (N = 508) aged 13-17 years, admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 through March 2006, were interviewed using the k-SADS-PL and the EuropASI instruments. The national Finnish Care Register for Health Care provided life-time data on child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient hospitalizations...
July 27, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Peter Muris, Cor Meesters, Mike van Asseldonk
This study explored the relations between self-conscious emotions, personality traits, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical youths. One-hundred-and-eighteen adolescents aged 12-15 years completed the brief shame and guilt questionnaire for children (BSGQ-C) and items of the youth self-report (YSR) to measure shame and guilt, the big five personality questionnaire for children, and the youth anxiety measure for DSM-5. Results for shame indicated that this self-conscious emotion-either measured by the BSGQ-C or the YSR-was uniquely and positively associated with a broad range of anxiety disorders symptoms, and correlated positively with neuroticism and negatively with extraversion...
July 14, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sarah Buchanan-Pascall, Kylie M Gray, Michael Gordon, Glenn A Melvin
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of parent training group interventions to treat child externalizing and/or internalizing problems. A search identified 21 randomized controlled trials of parent group interventions aimed at ameliorating child externalizing and/or internalizing problems in children aged 4-12 years. Random effects meta-analyses yielded significant pooled treatment effect size (g) estimates for child externalizing (g = -0.38) and internalizing problems (g = -0...
July 11, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nicholas D Thomson, Luna C M Centifanti
This study aimed to assess whether groups of aggressive children differed on psychopathic traits, and neuropsychological and neurobiological measures of prefrontal functioning consistent with the objectives of their aggression-reactive or proactive. Including 110 typically developing children (9-11 years), a latent class analysis identified a low aggression group, a high reactive aggression group, and a mixed (high reactive and proactive) aggression group. Results show high callous-unemotional traits and low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia increased the likelihood of children being in the mixed aggression group, when compared to the reactive and low aggression groups...
July 5, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alyson K Zalta, Eric Bui, Niranjan S Karnik, Philip Held, Lauren M Laifer, Julia C Sager, Denise Zou, Paula K Rauch, Naomi M Simon, Mark H Pollack, Bonnie Ohye
This study aimed to examine: (1) the relationship between parental psychopathology and child psychopathology in military families and (2) parenting sense of competence as a mediator of the relationship between veteran psychopathology and child psychopathology. As part of their standard clinical evaluations, 215 treatment-seeking veterans who reported having a child between the ages of 4 and 17 were assessed for psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and stress), their sense of competence as a parent, and their child's psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing, and attentional symptoms)...
June 28, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Robin Petering, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe, David Dent, Eric Rice
Insane Clown Posse is a musical duo whose fans are known as Juggalos. Many homeless youths (HY) identify as Juggalos, most likely because the group's music embraces poverty and being an outsider in mainstream society. Juggalos are stereotyped as being violent, undereducated, poor, racist, crime-committing youth, and in 2011 the FBI officially labeled Juggalos as a gang. However, little is known about the intersection of HY and Juggalos. A convenience sample of Los Angeles-area, drop-in service-seeking HY completed a self-administered questionnaire (N = 495)...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Laura López-Romero, Estrella Romero, Paula Villar
Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sara Agnafors, Carl Göran Svedin, Lars Oreland, Marie Bladh, Erika Comasco, Gunilla Sydsjö
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children's experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Rachel E R Ellis, Marc L Seal, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Orli S Schwartz, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Variations in symptom trajectories within a population may represent distinct groups with different etiologies and outcomes. This study aimed to identify subgroups of depression symptom trajectories in a sample of adolescents, and to describe psychosocial attributes of the different groups. In a longitudinal study, 243 adolescents (121 males and 122 females), were assessed using a battery of measures of temperament, psychopathology, and psychological and behavioral functioning. Four phases of data collection over 7 years spanned average ages of the participants from 12 to 18 years old...
August 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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