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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Peter Muris, Dorien Roodenrijs, Lut Kelgtermans, Sonja Sliwinski, Ulrike Berlage, Hanna Baillieux, Anne Deckers, Marieke Gunther, Bertien Paanakker, Ida Holterman
In this naturalistic clinical study, we explored the applicability and clinical effectiveness of Cogmed WMT, pharmacotherapy, and their combination for clinically referred children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ninety youth with ADHD (ages 6-16 years) and their parents were offered the possibility to choose one of the three interventions. The motives for choosing various interventions were quite different. Medication was chosen because this treatment was expected to be most effective, but also because the Cogmed WMT program was regarded as too taxing...
May 16, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Maria Khan, Kimberly Renk
Although research has suggested that mothers who experienced childhood maltreatment tend to exhibit heightened risk for attachment difficulties with their young children, less is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Thus, this study examined mothers' symptoms of depression as a mediator in the relationship between mothers' childhood maltreatment experiences and patterns of insecure (i.e., anxious, avoidant, and disorganized) mother-young child attachment. Mothers (N = 146) with children aged 1½-to 5-years provided ratings of their childhood maltreatment experiences, attachment with their young children, and symptoms of depression...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This is a first study that investigated the relationships between executive attention-as an important aspect of emotion regulation-and state empathy and sympathy in ODD/CD boys with (N = 31) and without (N = 18) comorbid anxiety disorder (7-12 years). Empathic reactions were evoked using three sadness-inducing film clips. One clip was highly evocative involving a bear cub losing his mother, whilst two other clips were mildly evocative involving children in common childhood situations. Self-reports of empathy and sympathy were collected and executive attention was assessed with a performance task...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Eileen T Crehan, Julie Baer, Robert R Althoff, John N Constantino
This study aims to further explore the implications of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms for children who do not meet full diagnostic criteria. More specific characterization of how challenges present relative to traits of ASD such as social responsiveness is vital to developing an understanding of what competency and mental health difficulties these impairments are related to, and if they persist over time. Assessments of autistic traits, clinical symptomotology, and competency were used to quantify the relation of these domains cross-sectionally and across time...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Laura Wante, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
It has been suggested that altered processing of emotion during cognitive control plays an important role in the etiology of depressive symptoms. The current study investigates the influence of emotional stimuli on working memory (WM) in adolescents with dysphoric symptomatology (DS). Twenty-five adolescents with DS and 40 adolescents with no dysphoric symptomatology (NDS) completed a memory-guided eye movement task. This task assessed the influence of irrelevant affective information on WM processes during high and low cognitive load...
May 9, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nejra Van Zalk, Maria Tillfors, Kari Trost
This study investigated the links between parental worry, parental over-control and adolescent social anxiety in parent-adolescent dyads. Using a longitudinal sample of adolescents (Mage  = 14.28) and their parents (224 mother-daughter, 234 mother-son, 51 father-daughter, and 47 father-son dyads), comparisons were conducted using cross-lagged path models across two time points. We used adolescent reports of social anxiety and feelings of being overly controlled by parents, and mother and father self-reports of worries...
May 5, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Steven M Gillespie, Mickey T Kongerslev, Carla Sharp, Sune Bo, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Adolescent psychopathic tendencies are associated with phenotypic increases in proactive aggression. However, the extent to which an understanding of others' affective mental states, or affective theory of mind (ToM), contributes to proactive aggression remains unknown. We examined how performance on a well-known test of affective ToM, based on cropped images of the eye region, contributes to reactive and proactive types of aggression in a mixed ethnicity sample of 80 incarcerated adolescent boys. A hierarchical regression model showed that affective ToM predicted proactive aggression over and above the influence of clinically rated psychopathic tendencies...
April 27, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anke M Klein, Emmelie Flokstra, Rianne van Niekerk, Steven Klein, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
We investigated the role of self-reports and behavioral measures of interpretation biases and their content-specificity in children with varying levels of spider fear and/or social anxiety. In total, 141 selected children from a community sample completed an interpretation bias task with scenarios that were related to either spider threat or social threat. Specific interpretation biases were found; only spider-related interpretation bias and self-reported spider fear predicted unique variance in avoidance behavior on the Behavior Avoidance Task for spiders...
April 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Dagmar Kr Hannesdottir, Sandra Bjorg Sigurjonsdottir, Urdur Njardvik, Thomas H Ollendick
Studies on the relationship between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in childhood and panic disorder (PD) in adolescence and adulthood have yielded results which suggest a common underlying vulnerability for both disorders. In this study, we examined whether one such possible vulnerability-anxiety sensitivity-differed for youth diagnosed with SAD versus other anxiety disorders. Anxiety sensitivity was assessed using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in 315 clinic-referred youth (ages 6-17, 113 girls)...
April 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Valérie La Buissonnière-Ariza, Dennis Hart, Sophie C Schneider, Nicole M McBride, Sandra L Cepeda, Brandon Haney, Sara Tauriello, Shannon Glenn, Danielle Ung, Peter Huszar, Lisa Tetreault, Erin Petti, S Parrish Winesett, Eric A Storch
Youths with chronic pain may experience difficulties with peer relationships. We investigated the quality and correlates of peer relationships in a sample of 181 youths with chronic pain. A majority of youths were satisfied with their relationships with peers; however, levels were highly variable. Higher functional impairment and depression levels predicted lower peer relationship quality, controlling for demographic and other pain-related factors. In addition, peer relationship quality and pain severity predicted child depression and anxiety symptoms, whereas peer relationship quality only predicted anger symptoms...
April 10, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Madison Aitken, Jordana A Waxman, Katie MacDonald, Brendan F Andrade
This study examined the effects of comorbid ADHD symptoms, internalizing psychopathology, Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits, and conduct problem severity on children's response to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention. Clinic-referred children with DBD ages 8-12 years (N = 76) participated in a 15-week multi-component intervention. Parents provided weekly ratings of children's oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment. Oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment decreased significantly over the course of the intervention; however, there was considerable variability in weekly ratings...
March 29, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Keng-Yen Huang, Lindsay A Bornheimer, Ernestina Dankyi, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Approximately one-third of early childhood pupils in Ghana are struggling with meeting basic behavioral and developmental milestones, but little is known about mechanisms or factors that contribute to poor early childhood development. With a lack of developmental research to guide intervention or education program and policy planning, this study aimed to address these research gaps by examining a developmental mechanism for early childhood development. We tested a mediational mechanism model that examined the influence of parental wellbeing on parenting and children's development...
March 27, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Annabel O Franz, Cliff McKinney
Previous literature has not examined the processes underlying the relations among parent-child relationship quality, parental psychopathology, and child psychopathology in the context of gender. Further, research examining these variables in emerging adulthood is lacking. The current study examined whether parent-child relationship quality would mediate the relation between parental and child psychopathology, and whether gender moderated these associations. Participants were emerging adults (N = 665) who reported on perceptions of their parents' and their own psychological problems as well as their parent-child relationship quality...
March 26, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, John C Piacentini, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, James T McCracken
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed...
March 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Karl Wissemann, Julia Y Gorday, Alexandria Meyer
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the perception that anxiety symptoms and experiences have negative consequences, and has been identified as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. AS has been measured in adults and in children, but to date, the construct of parent's sensitivity to their children's anxiety symptoms has not been identified, measured, or evaluated. The current study presents a novel measure of this construct, the Parent Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Index (PSCAI), and an initial evaluation of its psychometric properties...
March 15, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ł Konowałek, T Wolanczyk
Since after the second world war there has been an increasing number of studies investigating secular changes in adolescent mental health. Although no general trends could be outlined, the majority of studies show at least partial deterioration of psychological wellbeing from year 2000 on. Our study adds to this knowledge by exploring changes in self-declared emotional and behavioral problems in Poland, which is a part of post-communist Europe. In this paper, we compared responses on the Youth Self-Report by Polish 16-year-olds from 2000 and those from 2011...
March 5, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Dominika A Winiarski, Melissa L Engel, Niranjan S Karnik, Patricia A Brennan
The article "Early Life Stress and Childhood Aggression: Mediating and Moderating Effects of Child Callousness and Stress Reactivity", written by Dominika A. Winiarski, Melissa L. Engel, Niranjan S. Karnik and Patricia A. Brennan, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal ( on 13 February 2018 without open access.
February 24, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Bep Uink, Kathryn Lynn Modecki, Bonnie L Barber, Helen M Correia
Numerous theories assert that youth with externalizing symptomatology experience intensified emotion reactivity to stressful events; yet scant empirical research has assessed this notion. Using in-vivo data collected via experience sampling methodology, we assessed whether externalizing symptoms conditioned adolescents' emotion reactivity to daily stressors (i.e. change in emotion pre-post stressor) among 206 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. We also assessed whether higher externalizing symptomology was associated with experiencing more stressors overall, and whether adolescents' emotional upheavals resulted in experiencing a subsequent stressor...
February 24, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Katherine Rosenblum, Jamie Lawler, Emily Alfafara, Nicole Miller, Melisa Schuster, Maria Muzik
A key mechanism of risk transmission between maternal risk and child outcomes are the mother's representations. The current study examined the effects of an attachment-based, trauma-informed parenting intervention, the Mom Power (MP) program, in optimizing maternal representations of high-risk mothers utilizing a randomized, controlled trial design (NCT01554215). High-risk mothers were recruited from low-income community locations and randomized to either the MP Intervention (n = 42) or a control condition (n = 33) in a parallel design...
June 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Chloe Lau, Shannon L Stewart, Donald H Saklofske, Paul F Tremblay, John Hirdes
The present study aims to validate the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health (interRAI ChYMH), Disruptive/Aggression Behaviour Scale (DABS) and Hyperactive/Distraction Scale (HDS). Data were collected from children/youth aged 4-18 (N = 3464) across 39 mental health agencies in Ontario, Canada. Unrestricted factor analysis using polychoric correlation matrices and Samejima's graded item response theory (IRT) parameterizations were conducted for both measures. Scores on the HDS and DABS were also compared amongst children/youth diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) respectively using DSM-IV criteria...
April 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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