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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
October 21, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Vladislav Ruchkin, Roman A Koposov, Ai Koyanagi, Andrew Stickley
This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Louis A Schmidt, Alva Tang, Kimberly L Day, Ayelet Lahat, Michael H Boyle, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Studies have shown that shy children born in the 1920s and 1950s had delayed marriage and parenthood, less stable careers, and lower occupational attainment as adults than other children. Do these effects still hold true? We examined demographic and social outcomes of children born between 1977 and 1982 in a prospective longitudinal study. We assessed shyness in childhood (age 8), adolescence (age 12-16), young adulthood (age 22-26), and adulthood (age 30-35), and derived three shyness trajectories (i.e., decreasing, increasing, and low-stable)...
October 11, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Laura López-Romero, Estrella Romero, Paula Villar
Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17...
October 6, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Man Cheung Chung, Zhuo Sheng Chen
This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25...
October 4, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Maria Serrano-Villar, Keng-Yen Huang, Esther J Calzada
This study focused on social support and its association with child developmental outcomes, indirectly through parenting practices, in families of 4-5 year old Latino children. Data were collected from mothers and teachers of 610 Mexican American (MA) and Dominican American (DA) children. Mothers reported on perceived social support, parenting practices and children's problem and adaptive behavior functioning at home, and teachers reported on mothers' parent involvement and children's problem and adaptive behavior functioning in the classroom...
September 30, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sara Agnafors, Carl Göran Svedin, Lars Oreland, Marie Bladh, Erika Comasco, Gunilla Sydsjö
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children's experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence...
September 15, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Rachel E R Ellis, Marc L Seal, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Orli S Schwartz, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Variations in symptom trajectories within a population may represent distinct groups with different etiologies and outcomes. This study aimed to identify subgroups of depression symptom trajectories in a sample of adolescents, and to describe psychosocial attributes of the different groups. In a longitudinal study, 243 adolescents (121 males and 122 females), were assessed using a battery of measures of temperament, psychopathology, and psychological and behavioral functioning. Four phases of data collection over 7 years spanned average ages of the participants from 12 to 18 years old...
September 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Keng-Yen Huang, Esther Calzada, Sabrina Cheng, R Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez, Laurie Miller Brotman
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods...
September 9, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Emily M Becker-Haimes, Kathleen I Diaz, Bryan A Haimes, Jill Ehrenreich-May
Anxiety frequently co-occurs with atopic diseases (e.g., allergies) in community samples, although data are limited to community and pediatric medical samples. Little work has examined atopy rates among mental health treatment seeking youth or whether youth with comorbid anxiety and atopy present similarly to non-comorbid youth. Using initial intake data from a University-based specialty youth clinic for anxiety and depressive disorders (n = 189), rates of atopic comorbidity were benchmarked against lifetime prevalence estimates in epidemiological samples...
August 26, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anita L Pedersen, Sydney Pettygrove, Zhenqiang Lu, Jennifer Andrews, F John Meaney, Margaret Kurzius-Spencer, Li-Ching Lee, Maureen S Durkin, Christopher Cunniff
Clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) overlap, creating potential for diagnostic confusion. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) criteria that best differentiate children with ID and some ASD features from those with comorbid ID and ASD were identified. Records-based surveillance of ASD among 8-year-old children across 14 US populations ascertained 2816 children with ID, with or without ASD. Area under the curve (AUC) was conducted to determine discriminatory power of DSM criteria...
August 24, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Keng-Yen Huang, Gloria Abura, Rachelle Theise, Janet Nakigudde
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health challenges in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms of parental depression on children's development are understudied in these countries. This study examined the prevalence of parental depression, contextual predictors of parental depression, and the associations between parental depression, parenting and children's development in one of the Sub-Saharan African countries-Uganda. Three hundred and three Ugandan parents of young children were recruited and interviewed...
August 20, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
William Mellick, Carla Sharp, Anna Wilkinson
Behavioral inhibition is associated with a range of negative affective states and behaviors in adolescents which may elicit critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) among mothers. Whether the relation between adolescent behavioral inhibition and maternal EE-Crit may depend on the presence of maternal depression is unknown. Therefore, a total of N = 81 biological mother/adolescent daughter dyads were recruited: mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (n = 45) and never-depressed mothers (non-depressed: n = 36)...
August 19, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Monica S Wu, Robert R Selles, Juan Carlos Novoa, Raquel Zepeda, Daniel Guttfreund, Nicole M McBride, Eric A Storch
Emetophobia is an under-researched disorder characterized by a specific fear of vomiting. There is a paucity of research on this impairing condition, with extant examinations being largely limited to adult samples and online communities. The present study examined the incidence, phenomenology, and correlates of emetophobia in 305 Salvadorian youths. Caregivers completed a battery of questionnaires regarding the youth's symptoms of emetophobia, internalizing/externalizing symptoms, health anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
August 11, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sarah E Martin, Jeffrey I Hunt, Lauren R Mernick, Mia DeMarco, Heather L Hunter, Maria Teresa Coutinho, John R Boekamp
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a new and controversial child psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent irritability and frequent temper loss. Among the controversies surrounding DMDD is whether the age of onset criterion-that DMDD may not be diagnosed before age 6 years-is justified. This study examined DMDD symptoms and associated patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, behavioral, and family functioning in a sample of 139 preschoolers (ages 4-0 to 5-11 years) admitted to an early childhood psychiatric day treatment program...
August 10, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Glenn A Melvin, Amanda L Dudley, Michael S Gordon, Ester Klimkeit, Eleonora Gullone, John Taffe, Bruce J Tonge
This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo. All treatments were well tolerated; with one suicide-attempt in the CBT + placebo group. All groups improved significantly on primary (school attendance) and secondary outcome measures (anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and clinician-rated global functioning); with gains largely maintained at 6-months and 1-year...
August 2, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ana Beato, Ana Isabel Pereira, Luísa Barros
Parents' perceptions about their strategies to deal with children's anxiety have been minimally explored. Based on a mixed-method approach, the current study compared the strategies that parents said they use more frequently to deal with their child's anxious behaviors and the strategies they actually used during two mildly anxiogenic interactions with their child. Forty-two parents of children with anxiety disorders, aged 9-12 years, participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were administered to identify parental perceptions about their strategies to deal with their children's anxiety...
August 2, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ni Yan, Aprile Benner, Elliot Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
As a stressful environment in families, mothers' depressive symptoms might increase children's risks of developing behavioral problems by exacerbating genetic influences. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data of approximately 750 pairs of twins, we examined whether genetic influences on preschoolers' behavioral problems depended upon mothers' depressive symptoms. Results indicated that the genetic etiology for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors varied with maternal depressive symptoms at 9-months child age...
July 29, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Casey A Pederson, Jamie L Rathert, Paula J Fite, Laura Stoppelbein, Leilani Greening
Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth...
October 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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