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Child Psychiatry and Human Development

Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, John C Piacentini, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, James T McCracken
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed...
March 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Karl Wissemann, Julia Y Gorday, Alexandria Meyer
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the perception that anxiety symptoms and experiences have negative consequences, and has been identified as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. AS has been measured in adults and in children, but to date, the construct of parent's sensitivity to their children's anxiety symptoms has not been identified, measured, or evaluated. The current study presents a novel measure of this construct, the Parent Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Index (PSCAI), and an initial evaluation of its psychometric properties...
March 15, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ł Konowałek, T Wolanczyk
Since after the second world war there has been an increasing number of studies investigating secular changes in adolescent mental health. Although no general trends could be outlined, the majority of studies show at least partial deterioration of psychological wellbeing from year 2000 on. Our study adds to this knowledge by exploring changes in self-declared emotional and behavioral problems in Poland, which is a part of post-communist Europe. In this paper, we compared responses on the Youth Self-Report by Polish 16-year-olds from 2000 and those from 2011...
March 5, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Dominika A Winiarski, Melissa L Engel, Niranjan S Karnik, Patricia A Brennan
The article "Early Life Stress and Childhood Aggression: Mediating and Moderating Effects of Child Callousness and Stress Reactivity", written by Dominika A. Winiarski, Melissa L. Engel, Niranjan S. Karnik and Patricia A. Brennan, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal ( on 13 February 2018 without open access.
February 24, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Bep Uink, Kathryn Lynn Modecki, Bonnie L Barber, Helen M Correia
Numerous theories assert that youth with externalizing symptomatology experience intensified emotion reactivity to stressful events; yet scant empirical research has assessed this notion. Using in-vivo data collected via experience sampling methodology, we assessed whether externalizing symptoms conditioned adolescents' emotion reactivity to daily stressors (i.e. change in emotion pre-post stressor) among 206 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. We also assessed whether higher externalizing symptomology was associated with experiencing more stressors overall, and whether adolescents' emotional upheavals resulted in experiencing a subsequent stressor...
February 24, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Annelie Klippel, Ulrich Reininghaus, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Jeroen Decoster, Philippe Delespaul, Cathérine Derom, Marc de Hert, Nele Jacobs, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Bart Rutten, Evert Thiery, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel, Inez Myin-Germeys, Marieke Wichers
Adolescents and young adults are highly focused on peer evaluation, but little is known about sources of their differential sensitivity. We examined to what extent sensitivity to peer evaluation is influenced by interacting environmental and genetic factors. A sample of 354 healthy adolescent twin pairs (n = 708) took part in a structured, laboratory task in which they were exposed to peer evaluation. The proportion of the variance in sensitivity to peer evaluation due to genetic and environmental factors was estimated, as was the association with specific a priori environmental risk factors...
February 23, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
K L Healy, M R Sanders
This study investigated how supportive relationships with peers and parents protect children against ongoing victimization, internalizing problems and depression. The longitudinal data set tracked progress of 111 children recruited for the trial of Resilience Triple P, and previously bullied by peers. Informants included children, parents and teachers. Higher levels of facilitative parenting (warm parenting that supports peer relationships) and peer acceptance predicted lower later levels of both depression and victimization over time...
February 22, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Adam Vakrat, Yael Apter-Levy, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression across the first years of life carries long-term negative consequences for children's well-being; yet, few studies focused on fathers as potential source of resilience in the context of chronic maternal depression. Utilizing an extreme-case design, a community birth cohort of married/cohabitating mothers (N = 1983) with no comorbid risk was repeatedly tested for maternal depression across the first year and again at 6 years, leading to two matched cohorts; 46 mothers with chronic depression and 103 non-depressed controls...
February 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Benjamin Rolon-Arroyo, David H Arnold, Rosanna P Breaux, Elizabeth A Harvey
Reciprocal relations between children's conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and parenting behaviors were examined across the preschool years. Participants were 199 children (M = 44.26 months, SD = 3.37; 92 girls) and their 199 mothers and 158 fathers. CD symptoms were assessed via structured interviews; parenting was assessed via observational and self-report measures. Fixed effects models were used to assess within-individual changes and traditional cross-lagged models were used to assess between-individual changes; comparisons by sex were also carried out...
February 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Rachel M Tache, Sharon F Lambert, Jody M Ganiban, Nicholas S Ialongo
Research suggests that neighborhood risks are associated with internalizing symptoms for adolescents high on temperament characteristics related to the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). However, it is unclear whether newer conceptualizations of the BIS distinguishing fear from anxiety operate similarly. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the BIS attenuates community violence exposure effects on externalizing problems. The current study examined whether the BIS or the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) moderated associations between community violence exposure and internalizing and externalizing problems...
February 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alexis M Garcia, Paulo A Graziano, Katie C Hart
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2...
February 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sarah L Anderson, Yao Zheng, Robert J McMahon
Despite strong evidence of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and substance use, it is unclear how callous-unemotional (CU) traits predict substance use over and above CD symptoms, and their potential interaction. This study used data from 753 participants followed from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits predicted the onset of cigarette use, alcohol misuse, and a substance use composite at grade 7 only when no CD symptoms were present. Among those without CD symptoms, boys showed greater change in the odds of using cigarettes, and were more likely to misuse alcohol or use any substance at grade 7 than girls...
February 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Jenna M Armstrong, Caitlyn R Owens, Mary E Haskett
The link between youth homelessness and mental health functioning was examined using state population-representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. The moderating role of victimization and perceived teacher support also was examined. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that homelessness was associated with greater mental health challenges, more victimization, and less teacher support. The association between homelessness and mental health was not moderated by perceived teacher support...
February 14, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Dominika A Winiarski, Melissa L Engel, Niranjan S Karnik, Patricia A Brennan
Early life stress (ELS) has been implicated in the development of aggression, though the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study tested associations between ELS, callousness, and stress reactivity in the prediction of school-age and persistent early childhood aggression. A longitudinal sample of 185 mother-child dyads completed a lab visit and mothers completed an online follow-up when children were preschool-aged and school-aged, respectively. Physiological and behavioral measures of stress reactivity were collected during the preschool period...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Abbe Garcia, Kristen Benito, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children under 8 years of age, referred to as early-onset OCD, has similar features to OCD in older children, including moderate to severe symptoms, impairment, and significant comorbidity. Family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) has been found efficacious in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in children ages 5-8 years with OCD; however, its effectiveness on reducing comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this same population has yet to be demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Dorcas N Magai, Jamil A Malik, Hans M Koot
Emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) during childhood and adolescence are a common concern for parents and mental health stakeholders. However, little has been documented about their prevalence in Kenyan children and adolescents. This study aimed to close this gap. The study included Child Behavior Checklist reports from 1022 Kenyan parents on their children (ages 6-18 years) and Youth Self-Reports from 533 adolescents (ages 12-18) living in Kenya's Central Province. EBP in Kenya are highly prevalent compared to multi-cultural standards for parent reports, with 27 and 17% scoring in the borderline and clinical range, respectively...
January 31, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
Adolescents with social anxiety disorder (SAD) often present distorted beliefs related to expected social rejection, coupled with avoidance of social stimuli including interpersonal interactions and others' gaze. Social communication (SC) deficits, often seen in SAD, may play a role in avoidance of social stimuli. The present study evaluated whether SC impairment uniquely contributes to diminished or heightened attention to social stimuli. Gaze patterns to social stimuli were examined in a sample of 41 adolescents with SAD (12-16 years of age; 68% female)...
January 30, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Leah Feinberg, Caroline Kerns, Donna B Pincus, Jonathan S Comer
Studies point to parental experiential avoidance (EA) as a potential correlate of maladaptive parenting behaviors associated with child anxiety. However, research has not examined the relationship between EA and parental accommodation of child anxiety, nor the extent to which parental negative beliefs about child anxiety help explain such a relationship. In a sample of mothers (N = 45) of anxious and non-anxious children, the present study investigated the potential link between maternal EA and accommodation of child anxiety and whether this link may be indirectly accounted for via maternal negative beliefs about child anxiety...
January 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Harmony Rhoades, Joshua A Rusow, David Bond, Amy Lanteigne, Anthony Fulginiti, Jeremy T Goldbach
LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline...
January 10, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
K Ensink, N Godbout, N Bigras, J Lampron, S Sabourin, L Normandin
The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the course of sexualized behavior problems (SBP) over 2 years in a sample comprised of 104 children aged 2-12, including 62 children with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Parents completed questionnaires assessing SBP, internalizing and externalizing difficulties at baseline, as well as 2 years later. In more than half (56.7%) of children with clinically significant SBP at baseline, sexualized behaviors persisted and remained at a clinically significant level over time...
January 6, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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