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European Journal of Immunology

Marco De Zuani, Chiara Dal Secco, Barbara Frossi
The human gut harbours a wide range of microorganisms that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their host. A dysregulation of the microbial composition can lead to the development or exacerbation of gastrointestinal disorders. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that mast cells (MCs) play a role in host-microbiota communication, modulating the mutual influence between the host and its microbiota through changes in their activation state. The ability of some bacteria to specifically affect MC functions and activation has been extensively studied, with different and sometimes conflicting results, while only little is known about MC-fungi interactions...
November 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Tal Pecht, Steffen Jung, Assaf Rudich
The involvement of macrophages in the pathogenesis of obesity has been recognized since 2003. Early studies mostly focused on the role of macrophages in adipose tissue and in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation. Lately, adipose tissue macrophages were shown to undergo intrinsic metabolic changes that affect their immune function (i.e. immunometabolism), corresponding to their unique properties along the range of pro- versus anti-inflammatory activity. In parallel, recent studies in mice revealed critical neuronal-macrophage interactions, both in the CNS and in peripheral tissues, including in white and brown adipose tissue...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Michał J Sobkowiak, Haleh Davanian, Robert Heymann, Anna Gibbs, Johanna Emgård, Joana Dias, Soo Aleman, Carina Krüger-Weiner, Markus Moll, Annelie Tjernlund, Edwin Leeansyah, Margaret Sällberg-Chen, Johan K Sandberg
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional T lymphocytes defined by their innate-like characteristics and broad antimicrobial responsiveness. Whether MAIT cells are part of the tissue-resident defense in the oral mucosal barrier is unknown. Here, we found MAIT cells present in the buccal mucosa, with a tendency to cluster near the basement membrane, and located in both epithelium and the underlying connective tissue. Overall MAIT cell levels were similar in the mucosa compared to peripheral blood, in contrast to conventional T cells that showed an altered representation of CD4 and CD8 subsets...
October 29, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Diana C Yánez, Hemant Sahni, Susan Ross, Anisha Solanki, Ching-In Lau, Eleftheria Papaioannou, Alessandro Barbarulo, Rebecca Powell, Ulrike C Lange, David J Adams, Martino Barenco, Masahiro Ono, Fulvio D'Acquisto, Anna L Furmanski, Tessa Crompton
The interferon-inducible transmembrane (Ifitm/Fragilis) genes encode homologous proteins that are induced by IFNs. Here we show that IFITM proteins regulate murine CD4 T-helper cell differentiation. Ifitm2 and Ifitm3 are expressed in wild-type (WT) CD4 T-cells. On activation, Ifitm3 was downregulated and Ifitm2 was upregulated. Resting Ifitm-family-deficient CD4 T-cells had higher expression of Th1-associated genes than WT and purified naive Ifitm-family-deficient CD4 T-cells differentiated more efficiently to Th1, whereas Th2-differentiation was inhibited...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Nikolett Lupsa, Barbara Érsek, Andor Horváth, András Bencsik, Eszter Lajkó, Pálma Silló, Ádám Oszvald, Zoltán Wiener, Péter Reményi, Gábor Mikala, Tamás Masszi, Edit I Buzás, Zoltán Pós
This study sought to identify novel CD8+ T cell homing markers by studying acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD), typically involving increased T cell homing to the skin and gut. FACS-sorted skin-homing (CD8β+/CLA+), gut-homing (CD8β+/integrinβ7+), and reference (CD8β+/CLA-/integrinβ7-) T cells were compared in patients affected by cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal aGVHD. Microarray analysis, Q-PCR and flow cytometry revealed increased expression of peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16) in skin-homing CD8+ T cells...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Timm Weber, Jane Seagal, Wiebke Winkler, Tristan Wirtz, Van Trung Chu, Klaus Rajewsky
The germinal center reaction is essential for efficient humoral immunity, but it can also give rise to B cell lymphomas. Cre/loxP-mediated conditional gene knock-out or knock-in can be used for the genetic manipulation of germinal center B cells in vivo. Here we present a novel allele, Cγ1-CreERT2, that allows for timed activation of Cre recombinase in a small fraction of germinal center B cells. This allele will be useful to study normal and malignant germinal center B cell development in vivo. This article is protected by copyright...
October 25, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Samuel W Du, Tanvi Arkatkar, Holly M Jacobs, David J Rawlings, Shaun W Jackson
Age-associated B cells (ABC), a novel subset of activated B cells defined by CD11b and CD11c expression, have been linked with both protective anti-viral responses and the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmunity. Expression of the TH 1 lineage transcription factor T-bet has been identified as a defining feature of ABC biology, with B cell-intrinsic expression of this transcription factor proposed to be required for ABC formation. In contrast to this model, we report that Tbx21 (encoding T-bet)-deficient B cells upregulate CD11b and CD11c surface expression in vitro in response to integrated TLR and cytokine signals...
October 24, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Ai Ing Lim, James P Di Santo
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a family of innate effector cells including NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and distinct ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 subsets that produce IFN-γ, IL-5/IL-13, and IL-17A/IL-22, respectively. ILCs accumulate at mucosal sites and can promote the first-line defense against infection. ILCs are also implicated in tissue repair and can either pre-empt, or alternatively, exacerbate inflammation. Studies in mice have identified ILC precursors in fetal liver and adult BM that have diverse lineage potential...
October 23, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Anna Uri, Fred Lühder, Thomas Kerkau, Niklas Beyersdorf
Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) together with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are routinely used as second-line treatment for hematological malignancies. Mature T cells in the graft crucially mediate a Graft versus Leukemia (GvL) response, but also attack healthy tissues in the recipient leading to potentially life-threatening acute Graft versus Host Disease (aGvHD). Using inducible CD28 knock-out C57BL/6 mice as T cell donors we have now assessed whether CD28 costimulation of donor CD4+ and/ or CD8+ T cells is required for an efficient GvL effect after allogeneic T cell transplantation into BALB/c recipients...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Susan Farmand, Bernhard Kremer, Monika Häffner, Katrin Pütsep, Peter Bergman, Mikael Sundin, Henrike Ritterbusch, Maximilian Seidl, Marie Follo, Philipp Henneke, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
The autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), caused by mutations in STAT3, is a rare primary immunodeficiency that predisposes to mucocutaneous candidiasis and staphylococcal skin and lung infections. This infection phenotype is suggestive of defects in neutrophils, but data on neutrophil functions in HIES are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to functionally characterize neutrophils in STAT3-deficient HIES patients and to analyze whether the patients` eosinophilia affects the neutrophil phenotype in S...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Rinal Sahputra, Juan Carlos Yam-Puc, Ari Waisman, Werner Muller, Kathryn J Else
The IgMi mouse fails to secrete antibodies or class switch its BCR from IgM. Our study reveals that other cellular compartments, including B-cell subsets, DC subsets, GC B cells and TFH cells are perturbed in the IgMi mouse, thus presenting important additional considerations when using the mouse to explore the role of secreted antibody.
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Alina Johansson, William A Nyberg, Maria Sjöstrand, Noah Moruzzi, Petra Bergman, Mohsen Khademi, Magnus Andersson, Fredrik Piehl, Per-Olof Berggren, Ruxandra Covacu, Maja Jagodic, Alexander Espinosa
Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the overexpression of type I IFN stimulated genes, and accumulating evidence indicate a role for type I IFNs in these diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms for this are still poorly understood. To explore the role of type I IFN regulated miRNAs in systemic autoimmune disease, we characterized cellular expression of miRNAs during both acute and chronic type I IFN responses. We identified a T cell-specific reduction of miR-31-5p levels, both after intramuscular injection of IFNβ and in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SjS)...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jiří Hrdý, Kateřina Vlasáková, Viktor Černý, Lenka Súkeníková, Olga Novotná, Petra Petrásková, Kristýna Boráková, Rája Lodinová-Žádníková, Libuše Kolářová, Ludmila Prokešová
The growing knowledge of the key role of microbiota in the maturation of neonatal immune system suggests that manipulation of microbiota could be exploited in hampering allergy development. In this study, Escherichia coli O83:K24:H31 (EcO83) was administered to newborns that were followed prospectively. Several immunological characteristics (cytokines, specific IgE, total T regulatory cells (Treg) and subpopulation of natural Treg (nTreg) and induced Treg (iTreg)) were tested in peripheral blood of eight year old children...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Mariko Takami, Christina Cunha, Shinichiro Motohashi, Toshinori Nakayama, Makio Iwashima
Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (tTregs) play pivotal roles in immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. A majority of tTregs are reactive to self-antigens and are constantly exposed to antigenic stimulation. Despite this continuous stimulation, tTreg and conventional T-cell populations remain balanced during homeostasis, but the mechanisms controlling this balance are unknown. We previously reported a form of activation-induced cell death, which is dependent on p53 (p53-induced CD28-dependent T-cell apoptosis, PICA)...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Lorenzo Moretta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Alba, Daniel Alberto Girón-Pérez, Héctor Romero-Ramírez, Rosana Pelayo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo
A novel cell population denominated IFN-γ-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) have been recently described. These cells are lymphocytes lacking B- or T- receptors, but they can be identified by the presence of B220+ CD38+ CD49b+ and low CD11c, among other cell surface markers. The main characteristics of IKDCs are the production of IFN-γ and the ability to spontaneously kill tumor cells. We found that this population increases in B6.MLR-Faslpr /J mice. Interestingly, IKDCs increase with age and are more abundant in mice older than 6 months onward...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Kari Högstrand, Alf Grandien
Increased expression of the oncogene MYC is a common feature of many B cell malignancies, however MYC overexpression by itself is not sufficient for transformation, and additional genetic events are required, although the exact nature of these remains unknown. In patients and in transgenic mouse models, oncogenic transformation may occur in B cells at various differentiation stages interacting with complex microenvironment. B cell oncogenesis often occurs after prolonged periods of time, making it difficult to accurately identify the genetic events required for transformation...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jonas Blume, Natalia Ziętara, Katrin Witzlau, Yanshan Liu, Oskar Ortiz Sanchez, Jacek Puchałka, Samantha J Winter, Heike Kunze-Schumacher, Namita Saran, Sandra Düber, Bishnudeo Roy, Siegfried Weiss, Christoph Klein, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcin Łyszkiewicz, Andreas Krueger
The interdependence of post-transcriptional gene regulation via miRNA and transcriptional regulatory networks in lymphocyte development is poorly understood. Here, we identified miR-191 as direct upstream modulator of a transcriptional module comprising the transcription factors Foxp1, E2A, and Egr1. Deletion as well as ectopic expression of miR-191 resulted in developmental arrest in B lineage cells, indicating that fine tuning of the combined expression levels of Foxp1, E2A, and Egr1, which in turn control somatic recombination and cytokine-driven expansion, constitutes a prerequisite for efficient B cell development...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Tokuju Okano, Hiroshi Ashida, Shiho Suzuki, Mikio Shoji, Koji Nakayama, Toshihiko Suzuki
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that has been considered to be one of the bacteria associated with progression of human periodontitis. Subgingival biofilms formed by bacteria, including P. gingivalis, induce chronic inflammation and activation of inflammasome in the gingival tissue. However, the mechanisms of P. gingivalis-triggering inflammasome activation and the role of bacteria-host interactions are controversial. In this study, we investigated the potential of P. gingivalis for triggering inflammasome activation in human cells and mouse models...
October 2, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Julie Tellier, Stephen L Nutt
Antibodies are an essential component of our immune system, underpinning the effectiveness of both the primary immune response to microbial pathogens and the protective and long-lived immunity against re-challenge. All antibodies are produced by relatively rare populations of plasmablasts and plasma cells, collectively termed antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). It is now apparent that ASCs are unique in the body in terms of their gene expression program and metabolic pathways that enable these cells to have an extraordinary rate of immunoglobulin gene transcription, translation, assembly and secretion...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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