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Kseniya A Akulich, Pavel G Sinitcyn, Desislava S Makeeva, Dmitry E Andreev, Ilya M Terenin, Aleksandra S Anisimova, Ivan N Shatsky, Sergey E Dmitriev
Short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are the most prevalent cis-acting regulatory elements in the mammalian transcriptome which can orchestrate mRNA translation. Apart from being "passive roadblocks" that decrease expression of the main coding regions, particular uORFs can serve as specific sensors for changing conditions, thus regulating translation in response to cell stress. Here we report a novel uORF-based regulatory mechanism that is employed under conditions of hyperosmotic stress by at least two human mRNAs, coding for translation reinitiation/recycling factor eIF2D and E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2...
November 9, 2018: Biochimie
António Salgado, Jeffrey Gimble, Bruno Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Biochimie
Justine Masson
The expression of serotonin (5-HT) in the retina was first reported in the sixties. The detection of vesicular monoamine transporter and serotonin receptors in several retinal cells confirm that 5-HT is playing a neuromodulatory role in this structure. Whereas signaling pathways activated by 5-HT receptor binding has been poorly investigated so far, numerous data demonstrated that 5-HT is involved in retinal physiology, retinal physiopathology and photoreceptor survival.
November 9, 2018: Biochimie
Amirsaeed Sabeti Aghabozorgi, Amirhossein Bahreyni, Atena Soleimani, Afsane Bahrami, Majid Khazaei, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of solid tumors in the world with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Most cases of CRCs are initiated by inactivating mutations in a tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), leading to constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes the roles of somatic and germline mutations of the APC gene in hereditary as well as sporadic forms of CRC. We also discuss the diagnostic and prognostic value of the APC gene in the pathogenesis of CRC for a better understanding of CRC disease...
November 8, 2018: Biochimie
Sumirtha Balaratnam, Madara Hettiarachchilage, Nicole West, Helen Piontkivska, Soumitra Basu
The piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, mostly 24-32 nucleotides in length. The piRNAs are not known to have any conserved secondary structure or sequence motifs. Using bioinformatics analysis, we discovered the presence of putative G-quadruplex (GQ) forming sequences in human piRNAs. We studied human piR-48164/piR-GQ containing potential GQ forming sequence and using biochemical and biophysical techniques confirmed its ability to form a GQ. Using EMSA, we discovered that formation of GQ structure led to inhibition of the piRNA binding to HIWI-PAZ domain as well as complementary base pairing to a target RNA...
November 8, 2018: Biochimie
Jaison Jeevanandam, Kaushik Pal, Michael K Danquah
Viruses are considered as natural nanomaterials as they are in the size range of 20 to 500 nm with a genetical material either DNA or RNA, which is surrounded by a protein coat capsid. Recently, the field of virus nanotechnology is gaining significant attention among researchers. Attention is given to the utilization of viruses as a nanomaterial for medical, biotechnology and energy applications. Removal of genetic material from the viral capsid creates empty capsid for drug incorporation and coating the capsid protein crystals with antibodies, enzymes or aptamers will enhance their targeted drug deliver efficiency...
November 5, 2018: Biochimie
Shrish Kumar Pandey, Saveg Yadav, Yugal Goel, Sukh Mahendra Singh
Neoplastic cells display altered biosynthetic and bioenergetic machinery to support cell survival. Therefore, cancer cells optimally utilize all available fuel resources to pump their highly upregulated metabolic pathways. While glucose is the main carbon source, transformed cells also utilize other molecules, which can be utilized in metabolic pathways, designated as alternative fuels. Acetate is one of such alternative metabolic fuels, which is mainly consumed in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, studies demonstrate the contradictory effects of acetate on tumor cell survival...
November 1, 2018: Biochimie
Yan Li, Wanqiu Zhao, Haixu Wang, Chen Chen, Dongmei Zhou, Shengnan Li, Xiaohong Zhang, Haibo Zhao, Dangxia Zhou, Biliang Chen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and has a prevalence of 1 in 15 women worldwide. This study aims to investigate the role of lncRNA SRA in the pathological processes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Twenty five-day old female C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg dehydroepiandrosterone for 20 days to induce PCOS. Lentivirus containing lncRNA SRA-specific shRNA was subcapsularly injected into the ovaries of PCOS mice...
October 31, 2018: Biochimie
Yingying Zhang, Jielin Chen, Huangxian Ju, Jun Zhou
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are fascinating non-canonical nucleic acid structures that attract broad attention due to their vital roles in gene expression and various applications. G4s exhibit high structural polymorphism and high resolution techniques (NMR, Crystallography) are often required to unambiguously determine G4 topology. Fast and handy techniques such as UV and CD provide interesting structural information. Here, we monitored the thermal denaturation profiles (TDPs) of various G4s at different wavelengths by UV, and confirmed that all G4 topologies (parallel, antiparallel and hybrid) exhibited hyperchromism at 243 nm and hypochromism at 295 nm...
October 31, 2018: Biochimie
Jose T A Oliveira, Pedro F N Souza, Ilka M Vasconcelos, Lucas P Dias, Thiago F Martins, Mauricio F Van Tilburg, Maria I F Guedes, Daniele O B Sousa
The efficiency of current antimicrobial drugs is noticeably decreasing and thus the development of new treatments is necessary. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted great attention as promising candidates. Inspired on Mo-CBP3 , an antimicrobial protein from Moringa oleifera seeds, we designed and synthesized three AMPs named Mo-CBP3 -PepI, Mo-CBP3 -PepII, and Mo-CBP3 -PepIII. All these three peptides inhibited the growth of Candida species and pathogenic bacteria, penetrate into microbial cells, but none is hemolytic or toxic to human cells...
October 31, 2018: Biochimie
Alexey V Baldin, Alena N Grishina, Dmitry O Korolev, Ekaterina B Kuznetsova, Marina O Golovastova, Alexey S Kalpinskiy, Boris Y Alekseev, Andrey D Kaprin, Dmitry V Zinchenko, Lyudmila V Savvateeva, Vladimir A Varshavsky, Evgeni Yu Zernii, Andrey Z Vinarov, Alexandr V Bazhin, Pavel P Philippov, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second-most common uronephrological cancer. In the absence of specific symptoms, early diagnosis of RCC is challenging. Monitoring of the aberrant expression of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) and related autoantibody response is considered as a novel approach of RCC diagnostics. The aim of this study was to examine the aberrant expression of arrestin-1 in renal tumours, to investigate the possible epigenetic mechanism underlying arrestin-1 expression, and to assess the frequency of anti-arrestin-1 autoantibody response...
October 30, 2018: Biochimie
Tetsuya Masuda, Kyohei Okubo, Kazuki Murata, Bunzo Mikami, Michihiro Sugahara, Mamoru Suzuki, Piero Andrea Temussi, Fumito Tani
One of the sweetest proteins found in tropical fruits (with a threshold of 50 nM), thaumatin, is also used commercially as a sweetener. Our previous study successfully produced the sweetest thaumatin mutant (D21N), designated hyper-sweet thaumatin, which decreases the sweetness threshold to 31 nM. To investigate why the D21N mutant is sweeter than wild-type thaumatin, we compared the structure of the D21N mutant solved at a subatomic resolution of 0.93 Å with that of wild-type thaumatin determined at 0.90 Å...
October 30, 2018: Biochimie
Konstantin M Boyko, Timur N Baymukhametov, Yury M Chesnokov, Michael Hons, Sofya V Lushchekina, Petr V Konarev, Alexey V Lipkin, Alexandre L Vasiliev, Patrick Masson, Vladimir O Popov, Michail V Kovalchuk
Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an endogenous bioscavenger that hydrolyzes numerous medicamentous and poisonous esters and scavenges potent organophosphorus nerve agents. BChE is thus a marker for the diagnosis of OP poisoning. It is also considered a therapeutic target against Alzheimer's disease. Although the X-ray structure of a partially deglycosylated monomer of human BChE was solved 15 years ago, all attempts to determine the 3D structure of the natural full-length glycosylated tetrameric human BChE have been unsuccessful so far...
October 29, 2018: Biochimie
Ajay Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Vidya Rattan, Vivekananda Jha, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
INTRODUCTION: Dental stem cells (DMSC) have been studied extensively since their early discovery. However, the data regarding osteogenic potential of DMSC with other cell types is sparse and the secretome proteins underlying these differences have not been explored. In this study, we have compared the osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DMSC with Bone Marrow Stem cells (BMSC) and reported the contribution of secretome proteins in controlling their differentiation. METHODS: Osteogenic potential of these stem cells was compared by mineralization assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, immunofluorescence of dentine sialo phosphoprotein (DSPP) & qPCR for osteogenic genes...
October 24, 2018: Biochimie
Silva Lilleorg, Kaspar Reier, Arto Pulk, Aivar Liiv, Triin Tammsalu, Lauri Peil, JamieH D Cate, Jaanus Remme
Ribosomes consist of many small proteins and few large RNA molecules. Both components are necessary for ribosome functioning during translation. According to widely accepted view, bacterial ribosomes contain always the same complement of ribosomal proteins. Comparative bacterial genomics data indicates that several ribosomal proteins are encoded by multiple paralogous genes suggesting structural heterogeneity of ribosomes. In E. coli, two r-proteins bL31 and bL36 are encoded by two genes: rpmE and ykgM encode bL31 protein paralogs bL31A and bL31B, and rpmJ and ykgO encode bL36 protein paralogs bL36A and bL36B respectively...
October 23, 2018: Biochimie
Won Sik Eum, Min Jea Shin, Chi Hern Lee, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyun Jung Kwon, Duk-Soo Kim, Oh Shin Kwon, Keun Wook Lee, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Dae Won Kim, Soo Young Choi
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of the brain and it is well known that the pathogenesis of PD is related to a number of risk factors including oxidative stress. Antioxidant 1 (ATOX1) protein plays a crucial role in various diseases as an antioxidant and chaperone. In this study, we determined whether Tat-ATOX1 could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ )-induced SH-SY5Y cell death and in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced animal model of PD...
October 21, 2018: Biochimie
Jiacai Hu, Hao Wu, Daochun Wang, Zhijie Yang, Junjun Dong
This study is designed to explore the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) plays a pathogenic role in uric acid nephropathy (UAN). The expressions of ANRIL, miR-122-5p, BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were determined in UAN patients and uric acid-treated HK-2 cells by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of BRCC3 and NLRP3 were examined by western blot. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were quantified by ELISA...
October 19, 2018: Biochimie
Pooja Chaudhary, Yogendra Kumar Sharma, Shivani Sharma, Som Nath Singh, Geetha Suryakumar
Chronic hypobaric hypoxia induced muscle atrophy results in decreased physical performance at high altitude. Curcumin has been shown to have muscle sparing effects under cachectic conditions. However, the protective effects of curcumin under chronic hypobaric hypoxia have not been studied till now. Therefore, the present study aims at evaluating the effects of curcumin administration on muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Control (C)-normoxia exposed, Control Treated (CT)-normoxia exposed and administered with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, Hypoxia (H)-exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 14 days and Hypoxia Treated (HT)-exposed to hypobaric hypoxia and administered with curcumin for 14 days...
October 19, 2018: Biochimie
Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel, Rosa María Bermúdez-Cruz
Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that usually parasitizes the small intestine of humans and many other vertebrates causing diarrheal disease throughout the world. Notably, Giardia despite minimization of most cellular systems shows different strategies to adapt to environmental conditions, evade the immune system and resist exposure to antimicrobial agents. Over the past years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to have a relevant role in the parasite's biology...
October 19, 2018: Biochimie
Alejandro M Armas, Manuel Balparda, Agustina Terenzi, Maria V Busi, Maria A Pagani, Diego F Gomez-Casati
Frataxin plays a key role in cellular iron homeostasis of different organisms. It is engaged in several activities at the FeS cluster assembly machinery and it is also involved in heme biosynthesis. In plants, two genes encoding ferrochelatases (FC1 and FC2) catalyze the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin IX in the last stage of heme synthesis in chloroplasts. Despite ferrochelatases are absent from other cell compartments, a remaining ferrochelatase activity has been observed in plant mitochondria. Here we analyze the possibility that frataxin acts as the iron donor to protoporphyrin IX for the synthesis of heme groups in plant mitochondria...
October 18, 2018: Biochimie
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