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Biochimie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807562/targeting-signal-transducers-and-activators-of-transcription-stat-in-human-cancer-by-dietary-polyphenolic-antioxidants
#1
REVIEW
Hamed Amani, Marjan Ajami, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi, Maria Daglia, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Kasi Pandima Devi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Over the course of the last three decades, a large body of evidence has shown that polyphenols, the secondary metabolites occurring in plant foods and beverages, exert protective effects due to their antioxidant activity mediated through different mechanisms ranging from direct radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, to the capacity to inhibit pro-oxidant enzymes and to target specific cell-signalling pathways. In the last decade, dietary components, and polyphenols in particular have gained considerable attention as chemopreventive agents against different types of cancer...
August 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807561/mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-intact-francisella-bacteria-identifies-lipid-a-structure-remodeling-in-response-to-acidic-ph-stress
#2
Camille B Robert, Michael Thomson, Alain Vercellone, Francesca Gardner, Robert K Ernst, Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Jérôme Nigou
Structural modification of lipid A, the lipid anchor of LPS, is one of the strategies used by Gram-negative bacteria to evade host innate immunity. Francisella tularensis is a human pathogen that infects and replicates within phagocytic cells. It produces an atypical lipid A, whose structure precludes an efficient recognition by both innate immune players, TLR4 and cationic antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, a recent report indicates that the lipid A of Francisella (LVS vaccinal strain) undergoes polar modifications when bacteria are grown in human macrophages as compared to in broth...
August 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804003/effect-and-proposed-mechanism-of-vitamin-c-modulating-amino-acid-regulation-of-autophagic-proteolysis
#3
Md Razaul Karim, Motoni Kadowaki
Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process, induced under nutrient starvation. Failure of autophagy has been recognized as a contributor to aging and multiple age related neurodegenerative diseases. Improving autophagy is a beneficial anti-aging strategy, however very few physiological regulators have been identified. Here, we demonstrate that vitamin C is a nutritional stimulator of autophagy. Supplementation of fresh hepatocytes with vitamin C increased autophagic proteolysis significantly in the presence of amino acids in a dose- and time-dependent manner, although no effect was observed in the absence of amino acids...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804002/a-novel-glycoside-hydrolase-family-97-enzyme-bifunctional-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidase-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#4
Asako Kikuchi, Masayuki Okuyama, Koji Kato, Shohei Osaki, Min Ma, Yuya Kumagai, Kana Matsunaga, Patcharapa Klahan, Takayoshi Tagami, Min Yao, Atsuo Kimura
Glycoside hydrolase family 97 (GH97) is one of the most interesting glycosidase families, which contains inverting and retaining glycosidases. Currently, only two enzyme types, α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, are registered in the carbohydrate active enzyme database as GH97 function-known proteins. To explore new specificities, BT3661 and BT3664, which have distinct amino acid sequences when compared with that of GH97 α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, were characterized in this study...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804001/production-of-trans-and-conjugated-fatty-acids-in-dairy-ruminants-and-their-putative-effects-on-human-health-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Anne Ferlay, Laurence Bernard, Annabelle Meynadier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère
Consumption of milk and dairy products is important in Western industrialised countries. Fat content is an important constituent contributing to the nutritional quality of milk and dairy products. In order to improve the health of consumers, there is high interest in improving their fatty acid (FA) composition, which depends principally on rumen and mammary metabolism. This paper reviews the lipid metabolism in ruminants, with a particular focus on the production of trans and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) in the rumen...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804000/the-mechanics-of-dna-loops-bridged-by-proteins-unveiled-by-single-molecule-experiments
#6
REVIEW
Catherine Tardin
Protein-induced DNA bridging and looping is a common mechanism for various and essential processes in bacterial chromosomes. This mechanism is preserved despite the very different bacterial conditions and their expected influence on the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the bridge formation and stability. Over the last two decades, single-molecule techniques carried out on in vitro DNA systems have yielded valuable results which, in combination with theoretical works, have clarified the effects of different parameters of nucleoprotein complexes on the protein-induced DNA bridging and looping process...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803999/growth-arrest-and-morphological-changes-triggered-by-emodin-on-trypanosoma-cruzi-epimastigotes-cultivated-in-axenic-medium
#7
Ana R De Lima, Karem Noris-Suárez, Antonio Bretaña, Victor T Contreras, Maria C Navarro, Luis Pérez-Ybarra, José Bubis
Emodin is an anthraquinone obtained from Rheum palmatum rootstocks. Here we tested the cytotoxic effects of emodin on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, as well as the morphological changes that were induced by this compound in the parasite. Emodin was permeable and blocked in vitro cell division of T. cruzi epimastigotes in axenic medium, causing growth arrest in a dose-dependent but reversible manner. Emodin-exposed epimastigotes underwent duplication of organelles, such as the nucleus, kinetoplast and flagellum, but were incapable of completing cytokinesis...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778719/circadian-control-of-metabolism-and-pathological-consequences-of-clock-perturbations
#8
REVIEW
Alicia Mayeuf-Louchart, Mathilde Zecchin, Bart Staels, Hélène Duez
Most organisms have developed an autonomous time-keeping system that generates self-sustained daily fluctuations in behavior and physiological processes. These biological clocks are reset every day by light to adjust physiology to the day/night cycle generated by the rotation of the Earth. Clocks present in organs involved in glucose and lipid metabolism such as the liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas are also reset by feeding cues which permits the local integration of systemic and nutritional signals to switch fuel production and utilization according to the feeding/fasting cycle...
August 2, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778718/residue-specific-effects-of-human-islet-polypeptide-amyloid-on-self-assembly-and-on-cell-toxicity
#9
Lucie Khemtemourian, Ghislaine Guillemain, Fabienne Foufelle, J Antoinette Killian
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized histopathologically by the presence of fibrillary amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the 37-residue pancreatic hormone, is the major constituent of these amyloid deposits. The propensity of IAPP to form amyloid fibrils is strongly dependent on its primary sequence. An intriguing example is His at residue 18. Although H18 is located outside the amyloidogenic region, it has been suggested that this residue and its charge state play an important role in the kinetics of conformational changes and fibril formation as well as in mediating cell toxicity...
August 1, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778717/tmprss2-a-potential-target-for-treatment-of-influenza-virus-and-coronavirus-infections
#10
Li Wen Shen, Hui Juan Mao, Yan Ling Wu, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Wen Zhang
Influenza virus and coronavirus epidemics or pandemics have occurred in succession worldwide throughout the early 21st century. These epidemics or pandemics pose a major threat to human health. Here, we outline a critical role of the host cell protease TMPRSS2 in influenza virus and coronavirus infections and highlight an antiviral therapeutic strategy targeting TMPRSS2.
August 1, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760717/nanog-suppresses-the-expression-of-vasa-by-directly-regulating-nlk1-in-the-early-zebrafish-embryo
#11
Yanhua Liu, Weiwei Xue, Lin Zhu, Ding Ye, Xiaoqin Zhu, Huannan Wang, Yonghua Sun, Fengjiao Deng
Nanog is a homeodomain transcription factor that is essential for maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In the present study, we demonstrate that zebrafish Nanog (zNanog) directly binds to the promoter region of zebrafish nlk1 (znlk1) by ChIP-Seq analysis and that it up-regulates the expression of znlk1 in fibroblast-like embryonic cells of Danio rerio (ZEM-2S cells) and in zebrafish embryos at 30% epiboly both at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, compared with control (MO-C) embryos at 30% epiboly, the mRNA and protein expression of vasa and the numbers of vasa-positive cells were increased in embryos injected with zNanog morpholino (MO-zNanog)...
July 28, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751219/structural-studies-with-bnsp-7-reveal-an-atypical-oligomeric-conformation-compared-to-phospholipases-a2-like-toxins
#12
Lino Fernando G de Lima, Rafael J Borges, Maria Alejandra Viviescas, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes
There are 2.5 million cases of snakebite per year and approximately 100,000 at 150,000 deaths. Thus, it is considered an important public health problem by the World Health Organization. Snakes from the Bothrops genus may cause severe local effects in the victims, so it is important to develop inhibitors to treat local effects in patients. In addition, approximately 30 different species of bothropic snakes have been described that may present differences in their venom composition. Small structural differences in the venom proteins may result in different ligands binding...
July 24, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751218/brain-lipoprotein-lipase-as-a-regulator-of-energy-balance
#13
Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Christophe Magnan
The central nervous system is an essential actor in the control of the energy balance. Indeed, many signals of nervous (vagal afferent for example) or circulating (hormone, nutrients) origin converge towards the brain to inform it permanently of the energetic status of the organism. In turn, the brain sends information to the periphery (sympathetic vagal balance, thyroid or corticotropic axis) which allows a fine regulation of the energy fluxes by acting on the hepatic glucose production, the secretion of the pancreatic hormones (glucagon, insulin) or food behavior...
July 24, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728970/the-staphylococcus-aureus-fasii-bypass-escape-route-from-fasii-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Claire Morvan, David Halpern, Gérald Kénanian, Amit Pathania, Jamila Anba-Mondoloni, Gilles Lamberet, Alexandra Gruss, Karine Gloux
Antimicrobials targeting the fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway are being developed as alternative treatments for bacterial infections. Emergence of resistance to FASII inhibitors was mainly considered as a consequence of mutations in the FASII target genes. However, an alternative and efficient anti-FASII resistance strategy, called here FASII bypass, was uncovered. Bacteria that bypass FASII incorporate exogenous fatty acids in membrane lipids, and thus dispense with the need for FASII. This strategy is used by numerous Gram-positive low GC % bacteria, including streptococci, enterococci, and staphylococci...
July 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711685/misunderstandings-and-controversies-about-the-insulin-secreting-properties-of-antidiabetic-sulfonylureas
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Claude Henquin
After 60 years of use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic sulfonylureas remain a recommended option in current therapeutic charts. Their binding to sulfonylurea receptor-1, the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the plasma membrane of pancreatic β-cells, leads to closure of the channels, membrane depolarization and influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) triggers exocytosis of insulin granules. Sulfonylureas and glucose thus produce the same triggering signal but, unlike sulfonylureas, glucose does so via acceleration of β-cell metabolism...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711684/folding-of-the-silver-aptamer-in-a-dnazyme-probed-by-2-aminopurine-fluorescence
#16
Runjhun Saran, Lu Yao, Peter Hoang, Juewen Liu
The RNA-cleaving Ag10c DNAzyme was recently isolated via in vitro selection and it can bind two Ag(+) ions for activity. The Ag10c contains a well-defined Ag(+) binding aptamer as indicated by DMS footprinting. Since aptamer binding is often accompanied with conformational changes, we herein used 2-aminopurine (2AP) to probe its folding in the presence of Ag(+). The Ag10c was respectively labeled with 2AP at three different positions, both in the substrate strand and in the enzyme strand. Ag(+)-induced folding was observed at the substrate cleavage junction and the A9 position of the enzyme strand, consistent with aptamer binding...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668270/exogenous-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Jiangwei Yao, Charles O Rock
Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP...
June 28, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652019/sphingolipids-from-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
REVIEW
Thierry Fontaine
Sphingolipids (SPLs) are key components of the plasma membrane in yeast and filamentous fungi. These molecules are involved in a number of cellular processes, and particularly, SGLs are essential components of the highly polarized fungal growth where they are required for the formation of the polarisome organization at the hyphal apex. Aspergillus fumigatus, a human fungal pathogen, produce SGLs that are discriminated into neutral cerebrosides, glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors...
June 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630011/interplay-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-lipid-metabolism-during-virus-entry-and-assembly
#19
REVIEW
Muriel Lavie, Jean Dubuisson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic, leading to the development of liver diseases that range from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its medical importance, the HCV life cycle has been deeply characterized, and a unique feature of this virus is its interplay with lipids. Accordingly, all the steps of the virus life cycle are influenced by the host lipid metabolism. Indeed, due to their association with host lipoproteins, HCV particles have a unique lipid composition...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630010/borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-induces-lipid-mediator-production-during-lyme-arthritis
#20
Charles R Brown, Edward A Dennis
Experimental Lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. This makes experimental Lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of inflammatory disease...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
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