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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427904/leishmania-donovani-tyrosyl-trna-synthetase-structure-in-complex-with-a-tyrosyl-adenylate-analog-and-comparisons-with-human-and-protozoan-counterparts
#1
Ximena Barros-Álvarez, Keshia M Kerchner, Cho Yeow Koh, Stewart Turley, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Ranae M Ranade, J Robert Gillespie, Zhongsheng Zhang, Christophe L M J Verlinde, Erkang Fan, Frederick S Buckner, Wim G J Hol
The crystal structure of Leishmania donovani tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (LdTyrRS) in complex with a nanobody and the tyrosyl adenylate analog TyrSA was determined at 2.75 Å resolution. Nanobodies are the variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies. The nanobody makes numerous crystal contacts and in addition reduces the flexibility of a loop of LdTyrRS. TyrSA is engaged in many interactions with active site residues occupying the tyrosine and adenine binding pockets. The LdTyrRS polypeptide chain consists of two pseudo-monomers, each consisting of two domains...
April 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408247/absence-of-pthrp-nuclear-localization-and-c-terminus-sequences-leads-to-abnormal-development-of-t-cells
#2
Kun-Zhi Jia, Shu-Lei Jin, Chun Yao, Rong Rong, Chong Wang, Pan Du, Wen-Hui Jiang, Xiao-Feng Huang, Qin-Gang Hu, Deng-Shun Miao, Zi-Chun Hua
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a ubiquitously expressed protein, is composed of four functional domains including N-terminus, mid region, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and C-terminus. Under the direction of NLS, PTHrP can enter cell nucleus from cytoplasm and stimulate mitogenesis. Although PTHrP is considered to have important developmental roles, the role of PTHrP NLS and C-terminus in developmental process remains unknown, especially in T-cell development. Here, we used a knock-in mouse model, which expresses a truncated form of PTHrP missing the NLS (87-107aa) and C-terminus (107-139aa) of the protein, to examine the role of PTHrP NLS and C-terminus in T-cell development...
April 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396016/differential-binding-and-activity-of-the-pore-forming-toxin-sticholysin-ii-in-model-membranes-containing-diverse-ceramide-derived-lipids
#3
Carmen Soto, Anaixis Del Valle, Pedro A Valiente, Uris Ros, María E Lanio, Ana M Hernández, Carlos Alvarez
Sticholysin II is a pore-forming toxin produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. The high affinity of actinoporins for sphingomyelin (SM)-containing membranes has been well documented. However, the molecular determinants that define this affinity have not been fully clarified. Here, we have examined the binding and permeabilizing activity of StII to different single and mixed lipidic systems by combining lipid monolayers, liposomes, and permeabilizing assays...
April 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396015/helix-69-of-e-coli-23s-ribosomal-rna-as-a-peptide-nucleic-acid-target
#4
Marta Kulik, Agnieszka Markowska-Zagrajek, Monika Wojciechowska, Renata Grzela, Tomasz Wituła, Joanna Trylska
A fragment of 23S ribosomal RNA (nucleotides 1906-1924 in E. coli), termed Helix 69, forms a hairpin that is essential for ribosome function. Helix 69 forms a conformationally flexible inter-subunit connection with helix 44 of 16S ribosomal RNA, and the nucleotide A1913 of Helix 69 influences decoding accuracy. Nucleotides U1911 and U1917 are post-transcriptionally modified with pseudouridines () and U1915 with 3-methyl-. We investigated Helix 69 as a target for a complementary synthetic oligonucleotide - peptide nucleic acid (PNA)...
April 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392407/actions-of-pgla-am1-and-its-a14k-and-a20k-analogues-and-their-therapeutic-potential-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#5
Bosede O Owolabi, Vishal Musale, Opeolu O Ojo, R Charlotte Moffett, Mary K McGahon, Tim M Curtis, J Michael Conlon, Peter R Flatt, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab
PGLa-AM1 (GMASKAGSVL(10)GKVAKVALKA(20)AL.NH2) was first identified in skin secretions of the frog Xenopus amieti (Pipidae) on the basis of its antimicrobial properties. PGLa-AM1 and its [A14K] and [A20K] analogues produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. In contrast, the [A3K] was cytotoxic at concentrations ≥ 30 nM. The potency and maximum rate of insulin release produced by the [A14K] and [A20K] peptides were significantly greater than produced by PGLa-AM1...
April 6, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385558/is-the-acid-base-catalytic-residue-mutation-in-%C3%AE-d-mannosidase-dtman-from-dictyoglomus-thermophilum-sufficient-enough-to-provide-thioglycoligase-activity
#6
Laure Guillotin, Nicolas Richet, Pierre Lafite, Richard Daniellou
Glycoside hydrolases can be turned into thioglycoligase by mutation of the acid/base catalytic carboxylate residue. These mutants have proven valuable to generate S-glycosides, however, few examples in literature have described efficient thioglycoligase activity, and even fewer the underlying molecular mechanism. DtMan, a GH2 family β-D-mannosidase from the thermophilic Dictyoglomus thermophilum was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein is highly specific for β-D-mannosides, and exhibits efficient catalysis constants coupled to thermostability...
April 3, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365364/ganglioside-and-related-sphingolipid-profiles-are-altered-in-a-cellular-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Anastasia Noel, Sabrina Ingrand, Laurence Barrier
Sphingolipid-related issues are increasingly discussed to contribute to the neuropathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, gangliosides and related-sphingolipids (ceramides, neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelins) were analyzed in neuroglioma (H4) cells expressing the Swedish mutation of the human amyloid precursor protein (H4APPsw) and compared with those of wild-type control H4 cells. These cells were chosen since H4APPsw cells were previously reported to reproduce well some essential features of AD...
March 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363791/inhibition-of-long-noncoding-rna-bdnf-as-rescues-cell-death-and-apoptosis-in-hypoxia-reoxygenation-damaged-murine-cardiomyocyte
#8
Rong Zhao, Xin Wang, Tianhong Yu, Qunli Wang, Xiaoyu Yang, Jianhui Sun
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte damage in vitro bears many similarities to myocardial infraction in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) BDNF-AS has functional role in rescuing H/R-induced damage in cardiomyocyte in vitro. METHOD: Murine neonatal cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro, and treated with either long (Hypoxia (L)) or short (Hypoxia (S)) H/R conditions. Viability and TUNEL assays were conducted to assess cardiomyocyte death or apoptosis...
March 28, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351672/redesigning-ph-optimum-of-geobacillus-sp-tf16-endoxylanase-through-in-silico-designed-dna-swapping-strategy
#9
Ugur Uzuner, Sabriye Canakci, Kadriye Inan Bektas, Merve Tuncel, Ali Osman Belduz
Thermoalkaliphilic xylanases are highly desired and of great importance due to their vast potential in paper pulp and bleaching processes. Here, we report rapid, cost-effective, and result-oriented combinatorial potential of in silico DNA swapping strategy to engineer the pH optimum of industrially crucial enzymes, particularly engineering of Geobacillus sp. TF16 endoxylanase for alkaline environments. The 3D structures of Geobacillus sp. TF16 and donor Bacillus halodurans C-125 endoxylanases were firstly predicted, analyzed, and compared for their similarities before any in silico design of mutants...
March 25, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344038/structural-insights-into-the-substrate-recognition-and-reaction-specificity-of-the-plp-dependent-fold-type-i-isoleucine-2-epimerase-from-lactobacillus-buchneri
#10
Rida Awad, Pierre Gans, Jean-Baptiste Reiser
The isoleucine 2-epimerase from Lactobacillus buchneri has been previously identified and characterized to catalyze the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent racemization and epimerization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids from L- to D-form and vice versa, in particular isoleucine. In this study, crystal structures of both native and PLP-complex forms of this racemase are presented at 2.6 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures show that the protein belongs to the fold-type I subgroup of PLP-dependent enzymes and is very close to aminobutyrate aminotransferases family, as it has been suspected because of their sequence homology...
March 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341551/augmenting-the-cytotoxicity-of-oleic-acid-protein-complexes-potential-of-target-specific-antibodies
#11
Mehboob Hoque, Jyoti Gupta, M Saleemuddin
HAMLET (Human Alpha-Lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells), a complex of oleic acid (OA) with partially unfolded human α-lactalbumin, shows remarkable toxicity towards a spectrum of tumor cells as well as few differentiated cells including mammalian erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes, for this reason, have been used as convenient model cells to study toxic properties of the OA complexes. The toxicity of HAMLET-like complexes, prepared using immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) isolated from the sera of rabbits immunized with human erythrocytes as well as those unimmunized, towards the red cells was investigated...
March 21, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341550/sphingosine-s-role-in-epithelial-host-defense-a-natural-antimicrobial-and-novel-therapeutic
#12
Grace E Martin, Ryan M Boudreau, Caroline Couch, Katrin Anne Becker, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Erich Gulbins, Aaron Seitz
Sphingosine is a natural sphingolipid found in membranes of all eukaryotic cells. In addition to its functions in cell signaling, sphingosine has broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. Sphingosine's role as an antimicrobial is important in tissues such as the skin and respiratory epithelium. Reduction in the normal sphingosine level is associated with problems related to infection susceptibility. Exogenous sphingosine may, therefore, be an effective antimicrobial therapeutic. Inhaled nebulized sphingosine has been shown to be effective at both preventing and treating pneumonia in multiple mouse models...
March 21, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322928/a-temperature-responsive-gene-in-sorghum-encodes-a-glycine-rich-protein-that-interacts-with-calmodulin
#13
Supreet Singh, Amardeep Singh Virdi, Rajdeep Jaswal, Mrinalini Chawla, Sanjay Kapoor, Samar B Mohapatra, Narayanan Manoj, Ashwani Pareek, Sanjay Kumar, Prabhjeet Singh
Imposition of different biotic and abiotic stress conditions results in an increase in intracellular levels of Ca(2+) which is sensed by various sensor proteins. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the best studied transducers of Ca(2+) signals. CaM undergoes conformational changes upon binding to Ca(2+) and interacts with different types of proteins, thereby, regulating their activities. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of a sorghum cDNA encoding a protein (SbGRBP) that shows homology to glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins...
March 18, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322927/pathogenic-and-immunosuppressive-properties-of-mycobacterial-phenolic-glycolipids
#14
Reid Oldenburg, Caroline Demangel
Phenolic glycolipids (PGL) are polyketide synthase products that are uniquely produced by a subset of pathogenic mycobacteria and are displayed at the bacterial cell surface, in a strategic position to interfere with host immune cells. Their expression has been associated with enhanced mycobacterial virulence in vivo, and suppression of the inflammatory responses of host phagocytes in vitro. In this review, we will present our current understanding of the mode of operation of PGL, along with functional evidence that demonstrates the evolutionary advantage conferred by PGL production for host cell invasion, intracellular persistence and evasion of host immune and bactericidal responses...
March 18, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322926/caffeine-inhibition-of-glut1-is-dependent-on-the-activation-state-of-the-transporter
#15
Leesha K Gunnink, Brianna M Busscher, Jeremy A Wodarek, Kylee A Rosette, Lauren E Strohbehn, Brendan D Looyenga, Larry L Louters
Caffeine has been shown to be a robust uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose uptake in erythrocytes. It preferentially binds to the nucleotide-binding site on GLUT1 in its tetrameric form and mimics the inhibitory action of ATP. Here we demonstrate that caffeine is also a dose-dependent, uncompetitive inhibitor of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in L929 fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on 2DG uptake in these cells was reversible with a rapid onset and was additive to the competitive inhibitory effects of glucose itself, confirming that caffeine does not interfere with glucose binding...
March 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322930/engineered-domain-swapping-indicates-context-dependent-functional-role-of-rna-g-quadruplexes
#16
Debmalya Bhattacharyya, Mark J Morris, Prakash Kharel, Gayan Mirihana Arachchilage, Katy M Fedeli, Soumitra Basu
RNA domain swapping typically demonstrates conservation of the native function of the domain in a non-native context. In contrast, we employed RNA engineering to demonstrate deviation of G-quadruplex (GQ) function that is contingent upon its context dependent location, which is opposite to their native functional role. Known translation repressing RNA GQs were engineered into human VEGF IRES A replacing the endogenous GQ domain essential for translation. Alternatively, the translation inhibitory GQ motif within the 5'-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA was replaced with two known GQ motifs that are essential for translation...
March 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322929/exogenous-h2s-prevents-high-glucose-induced-damage-to-osteoblasts-through-regulation-of-katp-channels
#17
Yuanyuan Liu, Jianyong Liu, Xin Li, Fantao Wang, Xin Xu, Chunling Wang
Association between diabetes and osteoporosis has been extensively investigated. However, whether the effects of H2S on osteoblast function under high glucose (HG) condition relate to ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels is unclear. To investigate the effects of H2S on the proliferation, apoptosis, and mineralization of osteoblasts under HG condition, and to observe whether H2S exert this effect through the KATP channels. Primary osteoblasts (POBs) were obtained from the calvaria of Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were pre-treated with 400 μmol/L NaHS (a H2S donor), and/or 0...
March 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315381/alfa-helix-to-beta-sheet-transition-in-long-chain-poly-l-lysine-formation-of-alfa-helical-fibrils-by-poly-l-lysine
#18
Katarzyna Cieślik-Boczula
The temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine (PLL), accompanied by the gauche-to-trans isomerization of CH2 groups in the hydrocarbon side chains of Lys amino acid residues, and formation of β-sheet as well as α-helix fibrillar aggregates of PLL have been studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a low-temperature alkaline water solution or in a methanol-rich water mixture, the secondary structure of PLL is represented by α-helical conformations with unordered and gauche-rich hydrocarbon side chains...
March 14, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315380/primary-structures-and-partial-toxicological-characterization-of-two-phospholipases-a2-from-micrurus-mipartitus-and-micrurus-dumerilii-coral-snake-venoms
#19
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Bruno Lomonte
Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA2s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA2s: MmipPLA2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia...
March 14, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302473/quantitative-relationship-between-chemical-properties-and-bioactivities-of-anti-microrna-oligonucleotides-targeted-to-tumor-associated-microrna-21
#20
Koji Nagahama, Kenta Iseda, Daichi Kawano, Junji Kawakami
Synthetic anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) are promising drug candidates to inactivate disease-related microRNAs because of their sequence-specific binding to their targets and the variety of chemical modifications available. Over the last decade, the qualitative relationships between the chemical properties of AMOs and bioactivity (inactivation of their target miRNAs) have been studied to enhance their bioactivity. On the other hand, in real-world drug development, drugs must be designed case-by-case, taking many factors into account...
March 13, 2017: Biochimie
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