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Biochimie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787793/chlorogenic-acid-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-liver-injuries-through-scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Hyunjin Kim, Jeong Hoon Pan, Sung Hwan Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park
The key role of oxidative stress in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been established by the large body of evidence from previous studies. Excessive consumption of ethanol induces the production of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver, such as superoxide, H2 O2 , and hydroxyl radical. These products activate oxidant-sensitive signaling cascades and modulators of apoptosis. Because ROS accumulation is closely related to ALD, a number of studies have investigated the benefits of antioxidants...
May 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782891/review-article-a-translational-view-of-cells-secretome-analysis-from-untargeted-proteomic-to-potential-circulating-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Sandra I Anjo, Bruno Manadas
The identification of circulating biomarkers capable of being used as routine for diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and therapeutic monitoring is still the major aim at clinical proteomics. However, the direct search in blood samples or other clinical relevant biofluids is frequently associated with technical limitations that makes the biomarker discovery process extremely difficult when using these types of samples. In this sense, the use of different approaches, such as the analysis of cells' secretomes, can be an important and promising complementary method for the identification and pre-selection of potential circulating biomarkers...
May 18, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#3
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775634/the-direction-of-protein-evolution-is-destined-by-the-stability
#4
Natsuko Ota, Ryo Kurahashi, Satoshi Sano, Kazufumi Takano
Protein evolution is potentially governed by protein stability. Here, we investigated the relationship between protein evolution and stability through the random mutational drift of a thermophilic bacterial protein, an esterase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Aac-Est), at high and low temperatures. In the first random mutation of Aac-Est, few proteins exhibit increased activity at 65°C, indicating that the wild-type (WT) Aac-Est is located on the peak of a mountain in a fitness landscape for activity at high temperature...
May 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751083/the-amyloidogenicity-of-a-c-terminal-region-of-tdp-43-implicated-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-can-be-affected-by-anions-acetylation-and-homodimerization
#5
Archana Prasad, Vishwanath Sivalingam, Vidhya Bharathi, Amandeep Girdhar, Basant K Patel
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated, and ubiquitinated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) as inclusion deposits in neuronal cells. Recently, amyloid-like fibrillar aggregates of TDP-43 have been reported from several ALS patients. The C-terminal region of TDP-43 is central to TDP-43's pathological aggregation and most of the familial ALS mutations in the encoding TARDBP gene are located in this domain. Also, aberrant proteolytic cleavages of TDP-43 produce cytotoxic C-terminal fragments of ∼15-35 kDa...
May 8, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751082/chromatography-of-oxysterols
#6
REVIEW
Irundika H K Dias, Steven R Wilson, Hanne Roberg-Larsen
Oxysterols play important roles in development and diseases, but can be highly challenging to analyze. To ensure satisfactory measurements, oxysterols must typically be separated with chromatography prior to detection. Here, we will devote attention to the chromatography of oxysterols, focusing on gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. We will present the role of stationary phases, mobile phases, and dimensions and geometries of particles/columns. We discuss how these parameters may affect the chromatography, regarding factors such as speed and resolution...
May 8, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746893/importance-of-genetic-background-of-oxysterol-signaling-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
P Holy, A Kloudova, P Soucek
Oxysterols, oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol, are formed in the human body or ingested. Experimental evidence suggests that due to their diverse functions, e.g. modulating the activity of receptors such as liver X receptors, oxysterol-binding and metabolizing proteins, and several ATP binding cassette transporters, oxysterols may contribute to a number of human disorders including cancer. Genetic variability of oxysterol pathways represents another side of this process, affecting carcinogenesis and cancer progression...
May 7, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733879/bioinformatics-analyses-and-in-vitro-evidence-for-five-and-six-stacked-g-quadruplex-forming-sequences
#8
Martin Bartas, Václav Brázda, Václav Karlický, Jiří Červeň, Petr Pečinka
Quadruplexes are noncanonical DNA structures that arise in guanine rich loci and have important biological functions. Classically, quadruplexes contain four stacked intramolecular G-tetrads. Surprisingly, although some algorithms allow searching for longer than 4G tracts for quadruplex formation, these have not yet been systematically studied. Therefore, we analyzed the human genome for sequences that are predicted to adopt stacked intramolecular G-tetrads with greater than four stacks. The data provide evidence for numerous G-quadruplexes that contain five or six stacked intramolecular G-tetrads...
May 4, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730302/sabellastarte-magnifica-carboxypetidase-inhibitor-the-first-kunitz-inhibitor-simultaneously-interacting-with-carboxypeptidases-and-serine-proteases
#9
Mey Ling Reytor González, Maday Alonso-Del-Rivero Antigua, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Petr Kuzmič, José Ricardo Pires
Multi-domain inhibitors capable to block the activity of different classes of proteases are not very common in nature. However, these kinds of molecules are attractive systems for biomedical or biotechnological applications, where two or more different targets need to be neutralized. SmCI, the Sabellastarte magnifica Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor, is a tri-domain BPTI-Kunitz inhibitor capable to inhibit serine proteases and A-like metallocarboxypeptidases. The BPTI-Kunitz family of proteins includes voltage gated channel blockers and inhibitors of serine proteases...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730301/phosphorylation-induced-conformational-changes-of-photoactivated-rhodopsin-probed-by-fluorescent-labeling-at-cys-140-and-cys-316
#10
Sheerly Rodríguez, May-Li Silva, Gustavo Benaím, José Bubis
In order to monitor conformational changes following photoactivation and phosphorylation of bovine rhodopsin, the two reactive sulfhydryl groups at Cys140 and Cys316 were specifically labeled with the monobromobimane (mBBr) fluorophore. Although alterations in conformation after light exposure of rhodopsin were not detected by fluorescence excitation scans (300-450 nm) of the mBBr-labeled protein, the fluorescence signal was reduced ∼ 90% in samples containing photoactivated phosphorhodopsin. Predominant labeling at either Cys140 or Cys316 in light-activated and phosphorylated rhodopsin merely generated a decrease of ∼ 38% and 28%, respectively, in the fluorescence excitation intensity...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730300/unusual-interaction-of-human-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-ape1-with-abasic-sites-via-the-schiff-base-dependent-mechanism
#11
Ekaterina S Ilina, Svetlana N Khodyreva, Olga I Lavrik
Clustered apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are more cytotoxic than isolated AP lesions because double strand breaks (DSB) can be formed during repair of closely positioned bistranded AP sites. Formation of DSB due to simultaneous cleavage of bistranded AP sites may be regulated by proteins specifically interacting with this complex lesion. A set of AP DNA duplexes containing AP sites in both strands in different mutual orientation (BS-AP DNAs) was used for search in the extracts of human cells proteins specifically recognizing clustered AP sites...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730299/plasma-oxysterol-profiling-in-children-reveals-24-hydroxycholesterol-as-a-potential-marker-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
S Grayaa, C Zerbinati, M Messedi, I HadjKacem, M Chtourou, D Ben Touhemi, M Naifar, H Ayadi, F Ayedi, L Iuliano
Cholesterol and its oxygenated metabolites, such as oxysterols, are intensively investigated as potential players in the pathophysiology of brain disorder. Altered oxysterol levels have been described in patients with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. Recent studies have shown that Autism Spectrum Disorders are associated with disruption of cholesterol metabolism...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730298/exploring-the-biophysical-properties-of-phytosterols-in-the-plasma-membrane-for-novel-cancer-prevention-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Omar Fakih, Didem Sanver, David Kane, James L Thorne
Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730297/biological-and-regulatory-roles-of-acid-induced-small-rna-ryec-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#14
Daniel Ryan, Mohana Mukherjee, Ritu Nayak, Ria Dutta, Mrutyunjay Suar
Salmonella Typhimurium is an enteric pathogen that has evolved masterful strategies to enable survival under stress conditions both within and outside a host. The acid tolerance response (ATR) is one such mechanism that enhances the viability of acid adapted bacteria to lethal pH levels. While numerous studies exist on the protein coding components of this response, there is very little data on the roles of small RNAs (sRNAs). These non-coding RNA molecules have recently been shown to play roles as regulators of bacterial stress response and virulence pathways...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709509/notch3-is-involved-in-adipogenesis-of-human-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cells
#15
Demi A Sandel, Mengcheng Liu, Ngozi Ogbonnaya, Jamie J Newman
Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have tremendous therapeutic potential and the ability to offer insight into human development and disease. Here we subject human ASCs to siRNA-mediated knockdown of Notch3 cultured under both self-renewing and adipogenic differentiation conditions. Self-renewal was monitored by assessing viability and proliferation rates through staining and alamarBlue assays, respectively. Adipogenesis was measured through Oil-Red O staining, western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR that determined expression levels of multipotency and adipogenic markers over time...
April 27, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705134/increase-in-liver-cytosolic-lipases-activities-and-vldl-tag-secretion-rate-do-not-prevent-the-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-cafeteria-diet-fed-rats
#16
Anderson Fernandes de Melo, Carolina Campos Lima Moreira, Camila Ferreira Sales, Thiago Rentz, Helena Fonseca Raposo, Maria Antonieta Rissato Garófalo, Leida Maria Botion, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Helena Coutinho Franco de Oliveira, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
We have previously shown that the cafeteria diet increases body fat mass, triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin plasma levels, glucose uptake by white and brown adipose tissues, as well as the sympathetic activity to both adipose tissues in Wistar rats. The metabolic pathways responsible for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were examined in cafeteria diet-fed rats. After 3 weeks offering cafeteria diet, we evaluated: (i) activity of the sympathetic nervous system by norepinephrine turnover rates; (ii) de novo fatty acid synthesis in vivo using 3H2O; (iii) secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG secretion measuring serum TAG levels after administration of lipase lipoprotein inhibitor, (iv) liver cytosolic lipases activity and (v) liver mRNA expression of enzymes involved in lipids secretion and oxidation by RT-PCR...
April 26, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705133/determination-of-the-binding-properties-of-p-cresyl-glucuronide-to-human-serum-albumin
#17
Dan Yi, Elisa Bernardes Monteiro, Stéphane Chambert, Hédi A Soula, Julio B Daleprane, Christophe O Soulage
p-Cresyl glucuronide (p-CG) is a by-product of tyrosine metabolism that accumulates in patients with end-stage renal disease. p-CG binding to human serum albumin in physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.40) was studied by ultrafiltration (MWCO 10 kDa) and data were analyzed assuming one binding site. The estimated value of the association constant was 2.77×103  M-1 and a maximal stoichiometry of 3.80 mol per mole. At a concentration relevant for end-stage renal patients, p-CG was 23% bound to albumin...
April 26, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705132/ophiopogonin-d-improves-osteointegration-of-titanium-alloy-implants-under-diabetic-conditions-by-inhibition-of-ros-overproduction-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#18
Xiang-Yu Ma, Xin-Xin Wen, Xiao-Jiang Yang, Da-Peng Zhou, Qiong Wu, Ya-Fei Feng, Hai-Jiao Ding, Wei Lei, Hai-Long Yu, Bing Liu, Liang-Bi Xiang, Tian-Sheng Wang
A high failure rate of titanium implants in diabetic patients has been indicated in clinical evidences. Excessive oxidative stress at the bone-implant interface plays an important role in the impaired osteointegration under diabetic conditions. While the underlying mechanisms remain unknown and the targeted treatments are urgently needed. Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), isolated from Chinese herbal Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, is generally reported to be a potent antioxidant agent. In the present study, we hypothesized that OP-D exerted promotive effects on osteointegration against oxidative stress, and investigated the underlying mechanisms associated with alteration of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway...
April 26, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704538/in-vitro-oxidized-hdl-and-hdl-from-type-2-diabetes-patients-have-reduced-ability-to-efflux-oxysterols-from-thp-1-macrophages
#19
Yinan Chena, Maud Arnal-Levron, Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Carole Knibbe, Philippe Moulin, Céline Luquain-Costaz, Isabelle Delton
Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) that are enriched in products of lipid peroxidation including oxysterols have been shown to induce cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity therefore accelerating atheroma plaque formation. Upon oxLDL exposure of THP-1 macrophages, intracellular oxidation of LDL derived-cholesterol as well as endogenous cholesterol was increased. The oxysterols intracellularly produced were efficiently exported to HDL whereas apolipoprotein A1 was inefficient. These findings prompted us to investigate the consequences of modification of HDL by oxidation and glycation as observed in type 2 diabetes with respect to oxysterol and cholesterol efflux...
April 26, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702182/cellular-mechanism-of-resistance-of-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-against-apoptosis-induction-by-russell-s-viper-venom-l-amino-acid-oxidase-rusvinoxidase
#20
Ashis K Mukherjee, Anthony J Saviola, Stephen P Mackessy
The present study highlights the cellular mechanism of resistance in human adenocarcinoma (Colo-205) cells against apoptosis induction by Rusvinoxidase, an L-amino acid oxidase purified from Russell's Viper venom (RVV). The significantly lower cytotoxicity as well as apoptotic activity of Rusvinoxidase towards Colo-205 cells (compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells) is correlated with lower depletion of cellular glutathione content and increased down-regulation of catalase activity of Colo-205 cells following Rusvinoxidase treatment...
April 24, 2018: Biochimie
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