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S Vincenzetti, S Pucciarelli, Y Huang, M Ricciutelli, C Lambertucci, R Volpini, G Scuppa, L Soverchia, M Ubaldi, V Polzonetti
Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. Neuropathic pain has a dynamic and complex aetiology and gives heterogeneous symptoms across patients; therefore, it represents an important clinical challenge. Current pharmacological treatment includes tricyclic antidepressant serotonin-noradrenaline uptake inhibitors such as duloxetine, pregabalin, and gabapentin. However, these drugs do not show efficacy in all patients suffering from neuropathic pain...
January 10, 2019: Biochimie
Sung Hwan Kim, In Sup Kil, Oh-Shin Kwon, Boem Sik Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park
The potent cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause various diseases, however, it may also serve as a powerful chemotherapeutic strategy capable of killing cancer cells. Oxalomalate (OMA, α-hydroxy-β-oxalosuccinic acid), a tricarboxylic acid intermediate, is a well-known competitive inhibitor of two classes of NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) isoenzymes, which serve as the major antioxidants and redox regulators in the mitochondria and cytosol. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of OMA in melanoma and elucidated the associated underlying mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo models...
January 9, 2019: Biochimie
Knud Larsen, Carina Henriksen, Kaja Kjær Kristensen, Jamal Momeni, Leila Farajzadeh
Na+ /K+ -ATPase is responsible for maintaining electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ , which is essential for a variety of cellular functions including neuronal activity. The α-subunit of the Na+ /K+ -ATPase is composed of four different polypeptides (α1-α4) encoded by different genes. Na,K-ATPase α4, encoded by the ATP1A4 gene, is expressed in testis and in male germ cells of humans, rats and mice. The α4 polypeptide has an important role in sperm motility, and is essential for male fertility. Here we present the RT-PCR cloning and characterization of the porcine ATP1A4 cDNA coding for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase polypeptide α4...
January 8, 2019: Biochimie
Seyed Mahdi Hosseiniyan Khatibi, Fatemeh Zununi Vahed, Simin Sharifi, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja, Sepideh Zununi Vahed
From the halophilic bacteria to human, cells have to survive under the stresses of harsh environments. Hyperosmotic stress is a process that triggers cell shrinkage, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis and it potentially contributes to a number of human diseases. Remarkably, by high salts and organic solutes concentrations, a variety of organisms struggle with these conditions. Different strategies have been developed for cellular osmotic adaptations among which organic osmolyte synthesis/accumulation is a conserved once...
January 7, 2019: Biochimie
Richard Y Cao, Hongchao Zheng, Damian Redfearn, Jian Yang
Half a decade ago, transmembrane protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) was found to be cleaved as a novel myokine irisin, which burst into prominence for browning of white adipose tissue during exercise. However, FNDC5, the precursor of irisin, has been paid relatively little attention compared with irisin despite evidence that FNDC5 is associated with the metabolic syndrome, which accounts for one-fourth of the world's adult population and contributes to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...
January 3, 2019: Biochimie
Suveena Ranzil, David W Walker, Anthony J Borg, Euan M Wallace, Peter R Ebeling, Padma Murthi
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complex disorder of human pregnancy that leads to poor health outcomes in offspring. These range from immediate risks such as perinatal morbidity and stillbirths, to long-term complications including severe neurodevelopmental problems. Despite its relatively high global prevalence, the aetiology of FGR and its complications is not currently well understood. We now know that serotonin (5-HT) is synthesised in the placenta and is crucial for early fetal forebrain development in mice...
December 31, 2018: Biochimie
Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Konstantin M Boyko, Alena Yu Nikolaeva, Yulia S Zeifman, Tatiana V Rakitina, Dmitry A Suplatov, Vladimir O Popov
The high catalytic efficiency of enzymes under reaction conditions is one of the main goals in biocatalysis. Despite the dramatic progress in the development of more efficient biocatalysts by protein design, the search for natural enzymes with useful properties remains a promising strategy. The PLP-dependent transaminases represent a group of industrially important enzymes due to their ability to stereoselectively transfer amino groups between diverse substrates; however, the complex mechanism of substrate recognition and conversion makes the design of transaminases a challenging task...
December 29, 2018: Biochimie
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Mohammed M Alanazi, Abdullah A Aldossari, Fawaz Alasmari
Sepsis often leads to complications such as acute kidney injury (AKI) which is reported to range from 30-50% in critically ill patients. Dendritic (DCs) and neutrophils play a decisive role in the advancement of AKI through release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) respectively. Both of these processes are assumed to be controlled by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signaling in DCs and neutrophils. However, the role of Syk signaling in these immune cells in sepsis-induced AKI has not been investigated...
December 29, 2018: Biochimie
Tõnu Reintamm, Kerli Vallmann, Kaidi Kolk, Mailis Päri, Annika Lopp, Nele Aas-Valleriani, Merike Kelve
Previously we had discovered unusual enzymatic activity in the marine sponge Axinella polypoides, ATP N-glycosidase (Reintamm et al, 2003). We show here that the Ephydatia muelleri mRNA encoding protein with PNP_UDP_1 (phosphorylase superfamily) signature is the secreted ATP N-glycosidase. The functionality of the protein was established by recombinant expression in Pichia pastoris. In addition to the enzymatic domain, the full-length protein contains the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain belonging to the subfamily SCP_HrTT-1 (cd05559) of the SCP (sperm coating protein) superfamily (cl00133)...
December 28, 2018: Biochimie
Anastasia S Ochkasova, Maria I Meschaninova, Aliya G Venyaminova, Anton V Ivanov, Dmitri M Graifer, Galina G Karpova
The small subunit ribosomal protein uS3 is a critically important player in the ribosome-mRNA interactions during translation and has numerous functions not directly related to protein synthesis in eukaryotes. A peculiar feature of the human uS3 protein is the ability of its fragment 55-64 exposed on the 40S subunit surface near the mRNA entry channel to form cross-links with 3'-terminal dialdehyde derivatives of various unstructured RNAs and with abasic sites in single-stranded DNAs. Here we showed that the ability of the above uS3 fragment to cross-link to abasic sites in DNAs is inherent only in mature cytoplasmic 40S subunits, but not nuclear pre-40S particles, which implies that it may be relevant to the ribosome-mRNA interplay...
December 27, 2018: Biochimie
Annika Koponen, Amita Arora, Kohta Takahashi, Henriikka Kentala, Annukka Kivelä, Eeva Jääskeläinen, Johan Peränen, Pentti Somerharju, Elina Ikonen, Tapani Viitala, Vesa M Olkkonen
ORP2 is a sterol-binding protein with documented functions in lipid and glucose metabolism, Akt signaling, steroidogenesis, cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Here we investigate the interactions of ORP2 with phosphoinositides (PIPs) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), its affinity for cholesterol with a pull-down assay, and its capacity to transfer sterol in vitro. Moreover, we determine the effects of wild-type (wt) ORP2 and a mutant with attenuated PIP binding, ORP2(mHHK), on the subcellular distribution of cholesterol, and analyze the interaction of ORP2 with the related cholesterol transporter ORP1L...
December 24, 2018: Biochimie
Alexey Novikov, Nico Marr, Martine Caroff
A dozen species of human and animal pathogens have been described to date in the Bordetella genus, with the majority being respiratory tract pathogens. Bordetella avium lipopolysaccharides have been shown to be important virulence factors for this bird pathogen. B. hinzii is closely related to the B. avium species, but has also been isolated from humans. B. trematum is associated to ear and blood infections in humans. Its lipid A structure, the biological active moiety of LPS, was found to be closely related to those of B...
December 19, 2018: Biochimie
Haiou Zheng, Qian Guo, Xuzhuo Duan, Zhen Xu, Qingchao Wang
The increased apoptosis plays an important role in bacterial invasion. In addition, LPS can induce inflammation and apoptosis of leukocytes via the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective role of L-arginine (L-Arg) against the apoptosis of fish leukocytes in vitro. The results of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and TUNEL assay indicated that L-Arg significantly alleviated the apoptosis of fish leukocytes induced by LPS at 24 h and 72 h post incubation (hpi)...
December 19, 2018: Biochimie
Natalia E Fedorova, Yana Yu Chernoryzh, Galina R Vinogradskaya, Svetlana S Emelyanova, Larisa E Zavalyshina, Kirill I Yurlov, Natalia F Zakirova, Valery N Verbenko, Sergey N Kochetkov, Alla A Kushch, Alexander V Ivanov
Leukemic cells from different patients exhibit different sensitivity to anticancer drugs including doxorubicin (DOX). Resistance to chemotherapy decreases efficacy of the treatment and promotes cancer recurrence and metastases. One of the approaches to overcome drug resistance includes E2F1-mediated regulation of the р73 protein that belongs to the р53 family. Its ΔNp73 isoform exhibits pro-oncogenic effects, and TAp73 - anti-oncogenic effects. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), often found in tumors, suppresses pro-apoptotic pathways and E2F1/p73 in particular...
December 19, 2018: Biochimie
Shuangshuang Wei, Yechun Pei, Yuerong Wang, Huai Guan, Yonglin Huang, Tian Xing, Rodney W Johnson, Dayong Wang
Keap1 is deemed as a suppressor of Nrf2 in cytoplasm by sequestrating Nrf2 to proteolysis as an adapter of the Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In the study, it was proposed that post-translational modification might affect the interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1, and the profiles of the phosphorylation of amino acid residues of Keap1 and its effects on the binding of Keap1 to Nrf2 was investigated. A mass spectrometry analysis revealed that S53 and S293 were phosphorylated upon an oxidative stress. Using Keap1 proteins with amino acid residues mutated to glutamate to simulate the introduction of a negative charge by phosphorylation, it was found that a potential phosphorylation of S53 affected Keap1-Nrf2 binding in the pull-down assay, and induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay...
December 18, 2018: Biochimie
Huynh Nhu Mai, Garima Sharma, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Dae-Joong Kim, Duc Toan Pham, Quynh Dieu Trinh, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung Yeol Nah, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Cocaine, an addictive drug, is known to induce hepatotoxicity via oxidative damage and proapoptosis. Since p53, a tumor suppressor gene, plays a major role in inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, we examined the role of p53 inhibition against cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity. Cocaine treatment significantly increased oxidative parameters (i.e., reactive oxygen species, 4-hydroxylnonenal, and protein carbonyl) in the liver of wild type (WT) mice. We found that the pharmacological (i.e. pifithrin-α) and genetic (i...
December 18, 2018: Biochimie
B Arumugam, M Vishal, S Shreya, D Malavika, V Rajpriya, Z He, N C Partridge, N Selvamurugan
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) acts as a regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling. Runx2, an essential transcription factor in bone, is required for osteoblast differentiation. Noncoding RNAs such as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression in osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the effects of PTH on osteoblast differentiation via Runx2, lncRNA, and miRNA expression in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human osteoblastic cells (MG63)...
December 15, 2018: Biochimie
Juliana T Clemente-Napimoga, Maria A S M Silva, Sylvia N C Peres, Alexandre H P Lopes, Claudia F Lossio, Messias V Oliveira, Vinicius J S Osterne, Kyria S Nascimento, Henrique B Abdalla, Juliana M Teixeira, Benildo S Cavada, Marcelo H Napimoga
Inflammation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissues are the most common cause of pain conditions associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a tissue and/or neural damage, the inflammatory response is characterized by plasma extravasation and leukocytes infiltration in the TMJ tissues, which in turn, release inflammatory cytokines cascades responsible for inflammatory pain. Lectins are glycoproteins widely distributed in nature that may exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. This study demonstrated by molecular docking and MM/PBSA that the lectin from Dioclea violacea (DVL) interacts favorably with α-methyl-D-mannoside, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and core1-sialyl-Lewis X which are associated with leukocytes migration during an inflammatory response...
December 14, 2018: Biochimie
Codjo Hountondji, Jean-Bernard Créchet, Mayo Tanaka, Mieko Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Nakayama, Blanche Aguida, Konstantin Bulygin, Jean Cognet, Galina Karpova, Soria Baouz
The GGQ minidomain of the ribosomal protein eL42 was previously shown to contact the CCA-arm of P-site bound tRNA in human ribosome, indicating a possible involvement of the protein in the catalytic activity. Here, using Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) cells, we demonstrate that the GGQ minidomain and neighboring region of eL42 is critical for the ribosomal function. Mutant eL42 proteins containing amino acid substitutions within or adjacent to the GGQ minidomain failed to complement the function of wild-type eL42, and expression of the mutant eL42 proteins led to severe growth defects...
December 11, 2018: Biochimie
Yongliang Jiang, Yumin Zhou, Gongyong Peng, Heshen Tian, Dan Pan, Lei Liu, Xing Yang, Chao Li, Wen Li, Ling Chen, Pixin Ran, Aiguo Dai
The present study was designed to explore the role of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) in nicotine-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its underlying mechanism. In this study, the expression and localization of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAchR) in lung tissues were determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to examine the mRNA expression levels of α5-nAchR and TRPC3 in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs)...
December 11, 2018: Biochimie
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