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Biochimie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630011/interplay-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-lipid-metabolism-during-virus-entry-and-assembly
#1
REVIEW
Muriel Lavie, Jean Dubuisson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic, leading to the development of liver diseases that range from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its medical importance, the HCV life cycle has been deeply characterized, and a unique feature of this virus is its interplay with lipids. Accordingly, all the steps of the virus life cycle are influenced by the host lipid metabolism. Indeed, due to their association with host lipoproteins, HCV particles have a unique lipid composition...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630010/borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-induces-lipid-mediator-production-during-lyme-arthritis
#2
Charles R Brown, Edward A Dennis
Experimental Lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. This makes experimental Lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of inflammatory disease...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630009/identification-of-two-frataxin-isoforms-in-zea-mays-structural-and-functional-studies
#3
Celeste Buchensky, Manuel Sánchez, Martin Carrillo, Oscar Palacios, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Domínguez-Vera, Maria V Busi, Sílvia Atrian, Maria A Pagani, Diego F Gomez-Casati
Frataxin is a ubiquitous protein that plays a role in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis and iron and heme metabolism, although its molecular functions are not entirely clear. In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes, frataxin is encoded by a single gene, and the protein localizes to mitochondria. Here we report the presence of two functional frataxin isoforms in Zea mays, ZmFH-1 and ZmFH-2. We confirmed our previous findings regarding plant frataxins: both proteins have dual localization in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies show some differences in the expression pattern, protection against oxidants and in the aggregation state of both isoforms, suggesting that the two frataxin homologs would play similar but not identical roles in plant cell metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630008/contribution-of-the-carbohydrate-binding-ability-of-vatairea-guianensis-lectin-to-induce-edematogenic-activity
#4
Gabriela F O Marques, Vinicius J S Osterne, Livia M Almeida, Luiz A C Brizeno, Vanir R Pinto-Junior, Mayara Q Santiago, Antonio H B Neco, Mario R L Mota, Luiz A G Souza, Kyria S Nascimento, Alana F Pires, Benildo S Cavada, Ana M S Assreuy
Vatairea guianensis lectin (VGL), Dalbergiae tribe, is a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc)/Galactose (Gal) lectin previously purified and characterized. In this work, we report its structural features, obtained from bioinformatics tools, and its inflammatory effect, obtained from a rat paw edema model. The VGL model was obtained by homology with the lectin of Vatairea macrocarpa (VML) as template, and we used it to demonstrate the common characteristics of legume lectins, such as the jellyroll motif and presence of a metal-binding site in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624527/significantly-altered-expression-of-mir-511-3p-and-its-target-akt3-has-negative-prognostic-value-in-human-prostate-cancer
#5
Fan Zhang, Zhongjun Wu
PURPOSE: In this study, we assessed the expression and functions of microRNA-511-3p (miR-511-3p) in human prostate cancer (CaP). METHODS: Gene expressions of miR-511-3p in CaP cells and human CaP tumors were assessed by qPCR. In VCaP and PC3 cells, miR-511-3p was overexpressed by lentivirus. The functions of miR-511-3p upregulation in regulating in vitro cancer proliferation, migration and in vivo cancer growth were assessed by MTT, transwell and transplantation assays, respectively...
June 14, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619677/i-motif-structures-in-long-cytosine-rich-sequences-found-upstream-of-the-promoter-region-of-the-smarca4-gene
#6
Sanae Benabou, Anna Aviñó, S Lyonnais, C González, Ramon Eritja, Anna De Juan, Raimundo Gargallo
Cytosine-rich oligonucleotides are capable of forming complex structures known as i-motif with increasingly studied biological properties. The study of sequences prone to form i-motifs located near the promoter region of genes may be difficult because these sequences not only contain repeats of cytosine tracts of disparate length but also these may be separated by loops of varied nature and length. In this work, the formation of an intramolecular i-motif structures by a long sequence located upstream of the promoter region of the SMARCA4 gene has been demonstrated...
June 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619676/peroxynitrite-modified-histone-as-a-pathophysiological-biomarker-in-autoimmune-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Md Asad Khan, Khursheed Alam, Md Zafaryab, M Moshahid A Rizvi
Under physiological conditions, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are produced continuously. However, excess of these radicals may damage biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. These reactive species have been implicated in many disease conditions including acute/chronic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neurodegenerative diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Peroxynitrite, an oxidant and nitrating molecule, formed in in vivo, when nitric oxide reacts with superoxide radical...
June 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610775/cytotoxic-effect-of-a-novel-naphthylchalcone-against-multiple-cancer-cells-focusing-on-hematologic-malignancies
#8
Mariana Franzoni Maioral, Camila do Nascimento Bodack, Natália Marceli Stefanes, Álisson Bigolin, Alessandra Mascarello, Louise Domeneghini Chiaradia-Delatorre, Rosendo Augusto Yunes, Ricardo José Nunes, Maria Cláudia Santos-Silva
Chalcones are natural compounds described in the literature by its several properties including cytotoxic activity against several tumor types. Considering that the search for new chemotherapeutic agents is still necessary, the aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic mechanisms involved in cell death induced by a synthetic chalcone (A23) on different tumor cells. Chalcone A23 reduced the cell viability of twelve tumor cell lines in a concentration and time dependent manner and it was more cytotoxic against acute leukemia cells...
June 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600135/human-dna-cytosine-5-methyltransferases-a-functional-and-structural-perspective-for-epigenetic-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Grégoire Rondelet, Johan Wouters
Epigenetic modifications modulate chromatin states to regulate gene expression. Among them, DNA methylation and histone modifications play a crucial role in the establishment of the epigenome. In cancer, these epigenetic events may act in concert to repress tumor suppressor genes or promote transcription of oncogenes and genes up-regulated by oncoproteins. In the context of cancer initiation and progression, recruitment of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases to specific genomic regions is mainly mediated by histone epigenetic marks, transcription factors and co-regulators as part of a dynamic process...
June 6, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595901/purification-process-for-mufa-and-pufa-based-monoacylglycerols-from-edible-oils
#10
M J González-Fernández, R P Ramos-Bueno, I Rodríguez-García, J L Guil-Guerrero
Important health benefits have been attributed to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) due to their various physiological functions, owing to which they become candidates for use as functional foods in order to prevent the onset of certain diseases such as colon cancer. In this work, six edible oils, namely: olive, linseed, sunflower, evening primrose, DHASCO(®) and ARASCO(®) have been processed to obtain different MUFA- and PUFA- based MAGs. First, the oils were hydrolyzed by means of an enzymatic process using porcine pancreatic lipase and then the reaction products were fractionated by using a liquid chromatography column containing silica gel as stationary phase in order to purify the MAGs-enriched fraction...
June 5, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587792/breaking-fat-how-mycobacteria-and-other-intracellular-pathogens-manipulate-host-lipid-droplets
#11
REVIEW
Caroline Barisch, Thierry Soldati
Tuberculosis (Tb) is a lung infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). With one third of the world population latently infected, it represents the most prevalent bacterial infectious diseases worldwide. Typically, persistence is linked to so-called "dormant" slow-growing bacteria, which have a low metabolic rate and a reduced response to antibiotic treatments. However, dormant bacteria regain growth and virulence when the immune system is weakened, leading again to the active form of the disease...
June 3, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571979/impact-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-small-intestinal-physiology-before-and-after-the-onset-of-obesity
#12
REVIEW
João Ricardo Araújo, Julie Tomas, Christiane Brenner, Philippe J Sansonetti
The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins...
May 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571978/functional-effects-of-diphosphomimetic-mutations-at-cabl-mediated-phosphorylation-sites-on-rad51-recombinase-activity
#13
Brendan Alligand, Magali Le Breton, Damien Marquis, François Vallette, Fabrice Fleury
Homologous Recombination enables faithful repair of the deleterious double strand breaks of DNA. This pathway relies on Rad51 to catalyze homologous DNA strand exchange. Rad51 is known to be phosphorylated in a sequential manner on Y315 and then on Y54, but the effect of such phosphorylation on Rad51 function remains poorly understood. We have developed a phosphomimetic model in order to study all the phosphorylation states. With the purified phosphomimetic proteins we performed in vitro assays to determine the activity of Rad51...
May 29, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559201/dysregulated-mir-127-5p-contributes-to-type-ii-collagen-degradation-by-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinase-13-in-human-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
Wen-Bin Hua, Xing-Huo Wu, Yu-Kun Zhang, Yu Song, Ji Tu, Liang Kang, Kang-Cheng Zhao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Wei Liu, Zeng-Wu Shao, Shu-Hua Yang, Cao Yang
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic disease associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 is a major enzyme that mediates the degradation of ECM components. MMP-13 has been predicted to be a potential target of miR-127-5p. However, the exact function of miR-127-5p in IDD is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to evaluate the correlation between miR-127-5p level and the degeneration of human intervertebral discs and explore the potential mechanisms...
May 27, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554572/electrospray-ionization-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-provides-novel-insights-into-the-pattern-and-activity-of-fetal-hippocampus-gangliosides
#15
Mirela Sarbu, Željka Vukelic, David E Clemmer, Alina D Zamfir
Gangliosides (GGs), a particular class of glycosphingolipids ubiquitously found in tissues and body fluids, exhibit the highest expression in the central nervous system, especially in brain. GGs are involved in crucial processes, such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, growth and proliferation. For these reasons, efforts are constantly invested into development and refinement of specific methods for GG analysis. We have recently shown that ion mobility separation (IMS) mass spectrometry (MS) has the capability to provide consistent compositional and structural information on GGs at high sensitivity, resolution and mass accuracy...
May 26, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554571/activity-modulation-of-the-oligopeptidase-b-from-serratia-proteamaculans-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-amino-acid-residues-surrounding-catalytic-triad-histidine
#16
Anna G Mikhailova, Tatiana V Rakitina, Vladimir I Timofeev, David M Karlinsky, Dmitry A Korzhenevskiy, Yulia К Agapova, Anna V Vlaskina, Marina V Ovchinnikova, Valentina A Gorlenko, Lev D Rumsh
Oligopeptidase B (OpdB; EC 3.4.21.83) is a trypsin-like peptidase belonging to the family of serine prolyl oligopeptidases; two-domain structure of the enzyme includes C-terminal peptidase catalytic domain and N-terminal seven-bladed β-propeller domain. Importance of the interface between these domains and particularly of the 5 salt bridges for enzyme activity was established for protozoan OpdBs. However, these salt bridges are not conserved in γ -proteobacterial OpdBs including the peptidase from Serratia proteamaculans (PSP)...
May 26, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552397/morin-attenuates-diethylnitrosamine-induced-rat-liver-fibrosis-and-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-by-co-ordinated-regulation-of-hippo-yap-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling
#17
Perumal NaveenKumar, Perumal MadanKumar, Halagowder Devaraj, Sivasithamparam NiranjaliDevaraj
Despite great progress in understanding the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during liver fibrosis, therapeutic approaches to inhibit HSC activation remain very limited. Recent reports highlight Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as critical regulators of HSC activation and henceforth a compound targeting Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad pathways would be a potential anti-fibrotic candidate. Morin, a dietary flavonoid, was earlier reported to inhibit HSC proliferation and induction of apoptosis of cultured HSCs, mainly by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling, but its effect on Hippo/Yap and TGF-β1/Smad pathways was not determined...
May 25, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552396/the-effect-of-histone-acetyl-transferase-inhibitor-trichostatin-a-on-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transcriptome
#18
Artur Gurgul, Jolanta Opiela, Klaudia Pawlina, Tomasz Szmatoła, Michał Bochenek, Monika Bugno-Poniewierska
The use of histone acetyl-transferase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) for epigenetic transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whose nuclei will be transferred into enucleated oocytes, is a novel approach in research involving somatic cell cloning of pigs and other mammalian species. Although the effectiveness of TSA in cloning applications was confirmed, processes and mechanisms underlying achieved effects are not yet fully understood, especially for pig MSCs. To contribute to this knowledge, in this study we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis using high-throughput sequencing of pig bone-marrow derived MSCs, both treated and untreated with TSA, and evaluated the effect of TSA administration on their transcription profile after 24 h of in vitro culture...
May 25, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549840/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-mediated-pathophysiological-effect-of-hiv-1-tat-protein
#19
REVIEW
Bruno Beaumelle, Petra Tóth, Olfat A Malak, Christophe Chopard, Gildas Loussouarn, Nicolas Vitale
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells actively release the transcriptional activator (Tat) viral protein that is required for efficient HIV gene transcription. Extracellular Tat is able to enter uninfected cells. We recently reported that internalized Tat escapes endosomes to reach the cytosol and is then recruited to the plasma membrane by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). As a consequence, Tat strongly impairs different critical cellular functions in several cell types. Here we will review recent evidences showing that Tat, by affecting the interaction of key cellular effectors with PtdIns(4,5)P2, blocks exocytosis from neuroendocrine cells, perturbs the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis cycle, prevents efficient phagocytosis by macrophages, and alters potassium channel activity in cardiac cells...
May 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545955/the-up-regulation-of-phosphofructokinase1-pfk1-protein-during-chemically-induced-hypoxia-is-mediated-by-the-hypoxia-responsive-internal-ribosome-entry-site-ires-element-present-in-its-5-untranslated-region
#20
Rehana Ismail, Mahboob Ul Hussain
PURPOSE: Astrocytes cope-up the hypoxia conditions by up regulating the activity of the enzymes catalyzing the irreversible steps of the glycolytic pathway. The phosphofructokinase1 (PFK1), which converts fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate, is the major regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. For this purpose, we investigated the expression regulation of the PFK1 during chemically induced hypoxia. PRINCIPAL RESULT: After 48 hours of the chemically induced hypoxia induction of the C6 glioma cells, the PFK1 protein depicted strong up regulation, with no appreciable change in its mRNA levels...
May 22, 2017: Biochimie
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