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Biochimie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227171/arl3-subcellular-localization-and-its-suspected-role-in-autophagy
#1
Guanghong Luo, Yangyang Sun, Ruili Feng, Qinping Zhao, Tieqiao Wen
ADP-ribosylation factor-like3 (ARL3) is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins that plays important role in regulating Ciliary trafficking. It ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and tumor cell lines. However, the location and function of ARL3 in organelles are rarely known. In this study, we explored ARL3 subcellular localization in an all-round way in HEK293T, Neuro-2A and U251 cells by density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence. The results showed that ARL3 is expressed in most of organelles, and an iodixonal step gradient was further confirmed that ARL3 is mainly localized to the mitochondria, endosomes, lysosomes, and proteasome...
September 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223004/elucidating-paramylon-and-other-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-euglena-gracilis-kinetic-characterization-structure-and-cellular-localization-of-udp-glucose-pyrophosphorylase
#2
Robertino J Muchut, Rodrigo D Calloni, Fernando E Herrera, Sergio A Garay, Diego G Arias, Alberto A Iglesias, Sergio A Guerrero
Many oligo and polysaccharides (including paramylon) are critical in the Euglena gracilis life-cycle and they are synthesized by glycosyl transferases using UDP-glucose as a substrate. Herein, we report the molecular cloning of a gene putatively coding for a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EgrUDP-GlcPPase) in E. gracilis. After heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was characterized structural and functionally. Highly purified EgrUDP-GlcPPase exhibited a monomeric structure, able to catalyze synthesis of UDP-glucose with a Vmax of 3350 U...
September 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213522/paeonol-attenuates-ligation-induced-periodontitis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-osteoclastogenesis-via-regulating-nrf2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nfatc1-signaling-pathway
#3
Ji Li, Yanping Li, Shuang Pan, Lin Zhang, Lina He, Yumei Niu
Paeonol is a natural phenolic compound in Moutan Cortex with multiple biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Recent evidence has proven that persistent inflammation, oxidative stress, along with nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling dysfunction in periodontium are the possible causes of alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately lead to periodontitis. The present study was designed to explore the protective effects of paeonol on ligation-induced periodontitis in rats, and investigate the possible mechanism...
September 10, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201403/1-naphthyl-acetate-a-chromogenic-substrate-for-the-detection-of-erythrocyte-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#4
Sheemona Chowdhary, Rajasri Bhattacharyya, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a preferred biomarker for the detection of organophosphorus poisoning. Acetylthiocholine (ATCh) is the most popular substrate for the detection of AChE activity. However, oximolysis is a prominent feature with ATCh. In this context, we have searched alternative substrates for AChE using in silico tools for screening of a better substrate. The in silico approach was performed to understand the fitness and the Total Interaction Energy (TIE) of substrates for AChE. The alternative substrates for AChE were screened in terms of high Goldscore and favorable TIE in comparison to acetylcholine (ACh)-AChE complex and other relevant esterases...
September 7, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195051/structure-basis-of-the-improved-sweetness-and-thermostability-of-a-unique-double-sites-single-chain-sweet-tasting-protein-monellin-mnei-mutant
#5
Meng Zhao, Xiangqun Xu, Bo Liu
The sweet protein monellin has an intensely sweet potency but limited stability. We have identified a double-sites mutant (E2N/E23A) of the single-chain monellin (MNEI) with both improved sweetness (about 3-fold) and thermostability (10 °C). However, the structural basis of its superior properties remains elusive until now. Herein we report its crystal structure at a resolution 1.90 Å. Similar to the wild-type, E2N/E23A adopts a wedge-shaped structure consisting of a five-strand β-sheet partially "wrapped" around an α-helix...
September 6, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195052/identification-of-a-novel-member-of-2h-phosphoesterases-2-5-oligoadenylate-degrading-ribonuclease-from-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#6
Annika Lopp, Tõnu Reintamm, Anne Kuusksalu, Allan Olspert, Merike Kelve
Several genes of IFN-mediated pathways in vertebrates, among them the genes that participate in the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway, have been identified in C. gigas. In the present study, we identified genes, which encode proteins having 2',5'-oligoadenylate degrading activity in C. gigas. These proteins belong to the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily and have sequence similarity to the mammalian A kinase anchoring protein 7 (AKAP7) central domain, which is responsible for the 2',5'-phosphodiesterase (2',5'-PDE) activity...
September 5, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193856/selex-methods-on-the-road-to-protein-targeting-with-nucleic-acid-aptamers
#7
REVIEW
Payam Bayat, Rahim Nosrati, Mona Alibolandi, Houshang Rafatpanah, Khalil Abnous, Mostafa Khedri, Mohammad Ramezani
Systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an efficient method used to isolate high-affinity single stranded oligonucleotides from a large random sequence pool. These SELEX-derived oligonucleotides named aptamer, can be selected against a broad spectrum of target molecules including proteins, cells, microorganisms and chemical compounds. Like antibodies, aptamers have a great potential in interacting with and binding to their targets through structural recognition and are therefore called "chemical antibodies"...
September 5, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179647/biological-relevance-of-double-lipoxygenase-products-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-especially-within-blood-vessels-and-brain
#8
REVIEW
Michel Guichardant, Evelyne Véricel, Michel Lagarde
The double lipoxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is possible with PUFA having at least three methylene-interrupted double bonds. Several PUFA of the omega-3/n-3 and -6 families may be converted through this route, and the products show interesting inhibitory effects on blood platelet function and cyclooxygenase activities. This review focuses on two main omega-3 PUFA of nutritional interest, namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6n-3) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA/18:3n-3). The chemical configuration of the double lipoxygenase end-product from DHA (protectin DX) is compared with that of protectin D1 which is produced through a mono-lipoxygenation step followed by an epoxidation and epoxide hydrolysis process...
September 1, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176264/current-trends-in-oxysterols-related-sterols
#9
EDITORIAL
Giulio G Muccioli, Gérard Lizard, Luigi Iuliano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176265/znf224-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-axl-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#10
Gaetano Sodaro, Giancarlo Blasio, Federica Fiorentino, Patrick Auberger, Paola Costanzo, Elena Cesaro
ZNF224 is a KRAB-zinc finger transcription factor that exerts a key tumor suppressive role in chronic myelogenous leukemia. In this study, we identify the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a novel target of ZNF224 transcriptional repression activity. Axl overexpression is found in many types of cancer and is frequently associated with drug resistance. Interestingly, we also found that sensitivity to imatinib can be partly restored in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by ZNF224 overexpression and the resulting suppression of Axl expression...
August 31, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171884/photoactivatable-oligonucleotide-probes-to-trap-single-stranded-dna-binding-proteins-updating-the-potential-of-4-thiothymidine-from-a-comparative-study
#11
Tom Gérard-Hirne, Frédéric Thiebaut, Emmanuelle Sachon, Alexandre Désert, Thierry Drujon, Vincent Guérineau, Benoît Y Michel, Rachid Benhida, Stéphane Coulon, Carole Saintomé, Dominique Guianvarc'h
Photoaffinity labeling (PAL) in combination with recent developments in mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for studying nucleic acid-protein interactions, enabling crosslinking of both partners through covalent bond formation. Such a strategy requires a preliminary study of the most judicious photoreactive group to crosslink efficiently with the target protein. In this study, we report a survey of three different photoreactive nucleobases (including a guanine functionalized with a benzophenone or a diazirine and the zero-length agent 4-thiothymine) incorporated in 30-mer oligonucleotides (ODN) containing a biotin moiety for selective trapping and enrichment of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB)...
August 29, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144499/mir-487a-promotes-progression-of-gastric-cancer-by-targeting-tia1
#12
Xuefeng Yang, Mingda Wang, Bohao Lin, Dongjie Yao, Jin Li, Xianchun Tang, Sanhua Li, Yun Liu, Rui Xie, Shouyang Yu
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies as well as the third leading cause for cancer-related death. Molecular basis of GC are essential and critical for its therapeutic treatment, but still remain poorly understood. T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) extensively involves in cancer progression, whereas its role and regulation mechanism in GC have not been revealed. In the present study, we found that TIA-1 protein level was down-regulated in GC tissues and TIA1 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of GC cells...
August 23, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142366/ablation-of-dj-1-impairs-brown-fat-function-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Allwin Jennifa Silvester, Kanikkai Raja Aseer, Jong Won Yun
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DJ-1 deficiency on brown adipose tissue (BAT) function in mice. DJ-1 knockout (KO) mouse models and wild-type littermates placed on a normal diet or high-fat diet were utilized to demonstrate the direct consequences of DJ-1 deletion on BAT characteristics, thermogenic ability, lipid metabolism, and microenvironment regulation. Global DJ-1 KO mice had defective brown adipose tissue activity culminating in a profound whitening of BAT. Despite aberrations in inactive BAT associated with greater lipid accretion, decreased sympathetic activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced vascularity, and autophagy activation, we found that the body weight and energy balance were unaffected in male mice depleted of DJ-1...
August 22, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107216/cyp46a1-protects-against-nmda-mediated-excitotoxicity-in-huntington-s-disease-analysis-of-lipid-raft-content
#14
Lydie Boussicault, Radhia Kacher, Antonin Lamazière, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Sandrine Betuing, Marie-Claude Potier
Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (mHtt) protein leading to degeneration of striatal neurons. Excitotoxicity, consecutive to overstimulation of N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has a pivotal role in many neurological disorders including HD. Mutant Htt causes enhanced NMDA sensitivity, alteration of NMDAR expression and localization in neurons. Excitotoxic events initiate neuronal death in numerous ways, including activation of apoptotic cascades...
August 11, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102932/a-chronic-lps-induced-low-grade-inflammation-fails-to-reproduce-in-lean-mice-the-impairment-of-preference-for-oily-solution-found-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Arnaud Bernard, Déborah Ancel, Patricia Passilly-Degrace, Jean-François Landrier, Laurent Lagrost, Philippe Besnard
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with a decreased oral fat detection in rodents. This alteration has been explained by an impairment of the lipid-mediated signaling in taste bud cells (TBC). However, factors responsible for this defect remain elusive. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids is known to elicit a metabolic inflammation by promoting intestinal permeation to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Gram-negative bacteria-derived endotoxins. To determine whether a local inflammation of the gustatory tissue might explain the obese-induced impairment of the oro-sensory detection of lipids, mice were subjected to a DIO protocol...
August 10, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102931/exploring-receptor-selectivity-of-the-chimeric-relaxin-family-peptide-r3-i5-by-incorporating-unnatural-amino-acids
#16
Jia-Hui Wang, Meng-Jun Hu, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xia Shao, Cai-Hong Lv, Ya-Li Liu, Zeng-Guang Xu, Zhan-Yun Guo
Relaxin family peptides perform a variety of biological functions by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely RXFP1-4. Our recent study demonstrated that selectivity of the chimeric relaxin family peptide R3/I5 towards the homologous RXFP3 and RXFP4 can be modulated by replacement of the highly conserved nonchiral B23Gly or B24Gly with some natural l-amino acids. To investigate the mechanism of this modulating effect, in the present study we incorporated unnatural amino acids into the B23 or B24 position of a semi-synthetic R3/I5 that was prepared by a novel sortase-catalysed ligation approach using synthetic relaxin-3 B-chain and recombinant INSL5 A-chain...
August 10, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098371/potential-effects-of-metformin-in-dna-ber-system-based-on-oxidative-status-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Irem Dogan Turacli, Tuba Candar, Emine Berrin Yuksel, Sebnem Kalay, Ali Kemal Oguz, Selda Demirtas
Metformin is used to reduce hyperglycemia that induces energetic stress and leads to reduction in gluconeogenesis. Also, metformin inhibits complex I in oxidative phosphorylation, thereby decreasing cellular ATP levels. Activation of AMPK by the reduced ATP levels can induce inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activate p53-mediated DNA repair. DNA polymerase-β and XRCC1 function to repair DNA damages in the BER (base excision repair) system. In type 2 diabetes patients, metformin can enhance AMPK activation therefore suppress oxidative stress...
August 8, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096372/irradiation-by-%C3%AE-rays-reduces-the-level-of-h3s10-phosphorylation-and-weakens-the-g2-phase-dependent-interaction-between-h3s10-phosphorylation-and-%C3%AE-h2ax
#18
Eva Bártová, Gabriela Lochmanová, Soňa Legartová, Jana Suchánková, Radek Fedr, Jana Krejčí, Zbyněk Zdráhal
Histone posttranslational modifications regulate diverse nuclear functions, including DNA repair. Here, we use mass spectrometry, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and advanced confocal microscopy in order to show radiation-specific changes in the histone signature. We studied wild-type mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mESCs with a depletion of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which plays a role in DNA repair. Irradiation by γ-rays increased the S139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX but reduced the level of the H3K9-R17 peptide, which contains S10 phosphorylation (H3S10ph)...
August 8, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096371/effect-of-a-c-end-rule-modification-on-antitumor-activity-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-1
#19
Fanwen Wang, Caoying Xu, Renhao Peng, Bin Li, Xutong Shen, Heng Zheng, Xingzhen Lao
Thymosin α1 (Tα1), a hormone containing 28 amino acids, has been approved in several cancer therapies, but the lack of tumor-targeting hinders its full use in tumor treatment. We designed a new peptide by connecting Tα1 and RGDR, generating a product, Tα1-RGDR, where RGDR is located in the C-end with both tumor-homing and cell internalizing properties (C-end rule peptides, a consensus R/KXXR/K motif). This work aimed to study the antitumor and immunological activities of Tα1-RGDR, and its differences compared with the wild-type Tα1...
August 8, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092248/n-terminal-phosphorylation-of-glutaminase-c-decreases-its-enzymatic-activity-and-cancer-cell-migration
#20
Carolline Fernanda Rodrigues Ascenção, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna Nagampalli, Zeyaul Islam, Matheus Pinto Pinheiro, Larissa Menezes Dos Reis, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Carolina Aparecida de Guzzi Cassago, Daniela Campos Granato, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Sandra Martha Gomes Dias
The mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase C (GAC) is produced by the alternative splicing of the GLS gene. Compared to the other GLS isoform, the kidney-type glutaminase (KGA), GAC is more enzymatically efficient and of particular importance for cancer cell growth. Although its catalytic mechanism is well understood, little is known about how post-translational modifications can impact GAC function. Here, we identified by mass spectrometry a phosphorylated serine at the GLS N-terminal domain (at position 95) and investigated its role on regulating GAC activity...
August 6, 2018: Biochimie
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