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Biochimie

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919786/increasing-in-cysteine-proteinase-b-expression-and-enzymatic-activity-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-first-evidence-of-modulation-during-morphological-transition
#1
Cinthia Bernardes Gomes, Franklin Souza da Silva, Karen Dos Santos Charret, Bernardo Acácio Santini Pereira, Léa Cysne Finkelstein, Raquel Santos de Souza, Luzia Monteiro de Castro Côrtes, Mirian Claudia Souza Pereira, Francisco Odêncio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carlos Roberto Alves
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis presents adaptive protease-dependent mechanisms, as cysteine proteinases B (CPB). This work focuses on the expression of three cpb gene isoforms and CPB enzymatic activity during the parasite differentiation. Relative expression levels of LbrM.08.0810 gene was assessed, showing a higher quantity of transcripts in the logarithmic promastigotes phase than in the stationary promastigotes phase (> 1.5 times). The cbp gene tends to decrease during acid pH shock and increases when the temperature rises (> 1...
December 2, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916647/ppars-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Kim H H Liss, Brian N Finck
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver pathology ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Without intervention it can progress to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given its close association with obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased dramatically worldwide. Currently, there are no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of NAFLD and although lifestyle modifications with appropriate diet and exercise have been shown to be beneficial, this has been difficult to achieve and sustain for the majority of patients...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916646/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Ravikumar Manickam, Walter Wahli
More than two decades of studying peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has led to an understanding of their implications in various physiological processes that are key for health and disease. All three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are activated by a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, eicosanoids and phospholipids, and regulate a spectrum of genes involved in development, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation and differentiation of many cell types in different tissues...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916645/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-human-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Rolf Müller
The nuclear receptor factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARβ/δ) can regulate its target genes by transcriptional activation or repression through both ligand-dependent and independent mechanism as well as by interactions with other transcription factors. PPARβ/δ exerts essential regulatory functions in intermediary metabolism that have been elucidated in detail, but clearly also plays a role in inflammation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cancer-associated processes, which is, however, mechanistically only partly understood...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916644/targeted-mitochondrial-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-the-fine-line-between-death-and-metabolic-health
#5
REVIEW
Mario Ost, Susanne Keipert, Susanne Klaus
In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916643/homeostatic-effects-of-exercise-and-sleep-on-metabolic-processes-in-mice-with-an-overexpressed-skeletal-muscle-clock
#6
Allison J Brager, Lydia Heemstra, Raman Bhambra, J Christopher Ehlen, Karyn A Esser, Ketema N Paul, Colleen M Novak
Brain and muscle-ARNT-like factor (Bmal1/BMAL1) is an essential transcriptional/translational factor of circadian clocks. Loss of function of Bmal1/BMAL1 is highly disruptive to physiological and behavioral processes. In light of these previous findings, we examined if transgenic overexpression of Bmal1/BMAL1 in skeletal muscle could alter metabolic processes. First, we characterized in vivo and ex vivo metabolic phenotypes of muscle overexpressed mice (male and female) compared to wild-type littermates (WT)...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916642/magnetic-hyperthermia-and-ph-responsive-effective-drug-delivery-to-the-sub-cellular-level-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-by-modified-cofe2o4-nanoparticles
#7
Yunok Oh, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Junghwan Oh
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively utilized in a wide range of biomedical applications including magnetic hyperthermia agent. To improve the efficiency of the MNPs in therapeutic applications, in this study, we have synthesized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and its surface was further functionalized with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The anticancer agent, Doxorubucin (DOX) was conjugated with CoFe2O4@DMSA nanoparticle to evaluate the combined effects of thermotherapy and chemotherapy...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916641/ucp1-the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-of-brown-adipocyte-a-personal-contribution-and-a-historical-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Ricquier
The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916640/ppar-agonists-could-tissue-targeting-pave-the-way
#9
Anne Bugge, Dorte Holst
Over the last couple of decades, the PPAR family of transcription factors has received much attention from the pharmaceutical industry due to their profound ability to improve glucose and lipid metabolism upon agonist activation. However, more recently the interest in these nuclear receptors has faded because several clinical trials have shown that it is difficult to develop a ligand that significantly ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders without concomitantly inducing unacceptable side-effects...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914902/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-functions
#10
Farida Djouad, Natacha Ipseiz, Patricia Luz-Crawford, Carina Scholtysek, Gerhard Krönke, Christian Jorgensen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as key regulators of physiological and immunological processes. Recently, one of their members PPARβ/δ has been identified as major player in the maintenance of bone homeostasis, by promoting Wnt signalling activity in osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). PPARβ/δ not only controls the fate of MSC but also regulates their immunosuppressive properties by directly modulating their NF-κB activity. In this review, we discuss how the regulation of PPARβ/δ provides an innovative strategy for an optimisation of MSC-based therapy...
November 30, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894947/strategies-to-identify-natural-antisense-transcripts
#11
REVIEW
Yulong Sun, Dijie Li, Ru Zhang, Shang Peng, Ge Zhang, Tuanming Yang, Airong Qian
Natural antisense transcripts, originally considered as transcriptional noises arising from so-called "junk DNA", are recently recognized as important modulators for gene regulation. They are prevalent in nearly all realms of life and have been found to modulate gene expression positively or negatively. By affecting almost all stages of gene expression range from pre-transcriptional, transcriptional and post-transcriptional to translation, NATs are fundamentally involved in various biological processes. However, compared to increasing huge data from transcriptional analysis especially high-throughput sequencing technologies (such as RNA-seq), limited functional NATs (around 70) are so far reported, which hinder our advanced comprehensive understanding for this field...
November 25, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894946/the-emerging-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-in-gallbladder-cancer-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Akanksha Khandelwal, Akshay Malhotra, Manju Jain, Karen M Vasquez, Aklank Jain
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common and aggressive form of biliary tract carcinoma with an alarmingly low 5-year survival rate. Despite its high mortality rate, the underlying mechanisms of GBC pathogenesis are not completely understood. Recently, from a growing volume of literature, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression and appear to play vital roles in many human cancers. To date, a number of lncRNAs have been implicated in GBC, but their potential roles in GBC have not been systematically examined...
November 25, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889568/fosb-regulates-expression-of-mir-22-during-pma-induced-differentiation-of-k562-cells-to-megakaryocytes
#13
Hafiz M Ahmad, Pamchui Muiwo, Rohini Muthuswami, Alok Bhattacharya
Expression of many miRNAs is altered in different cancers and these changes are thought to play a key role in formation and progression of cancer. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) a number of miRNAs are known to be down regulated as compared to normal cells. In this report we have investigated the mechanism of this down regulation by using PMA induced differentiation of CML cell line K562 to megakaryocytes as an experimental system. On treatment with PMA, expression of many down regulated miRNAs including miR-22 is induced...
November 23, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856189/n-linked-glycans-are-an-important-component-of-the-processive-machinery-of-cellobiohydrolases
#14
Alexander V Gusakov, Anna S Dotsenko, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Arkady P Sinitsyn
Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs), belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7 (GH6 and GH7), are the major components of cellulase systems of filamentous fungi involved in biodegradation of cellulose in nature. Previous studies demonstrated that N-linked glycans in the catalytic domains of GH7 CBHs significantly affect the enzyme activity against cellulosic substrates. The influence of N-linked glycans on the activity and processivity of recombinant GH6 CBH II from Penicillium verruculosum (PvCel6A) was studied using site-directed mutagenesis of the respective Asn residues...
November 14, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840085/lowering-the-overall-charge-on-tmpyp4-improves-its-selectivity-for-g-quadruplex-dna
#15
Thomas L Ruan, Supriya J Davis, Barrett M Powell, Cole P Harbeck, Jan Habdas, Piotr Habdas, Liliya A Yatsunyk
Ligands that stabilize non-canonical DNA structures called G-quadruplexes (GQs) might have applications in medicine as anti-cancer agents, due to the involvement of GQ DNA in a variety of cancer-related biological processes. Five derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4), where N-methylpyridyl group is replaced with phenyl (4P3), 4-aminophenyl (PN3M), 4-phenylamidoproline (PL3M), or 4-carboxyphenyl (PC3M and P2C2M) were investigated for their interactions with human telomeric DNA (Tel22) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays, and UV-visible and circular dichroism spectroscopies in K(+) buffer...
November 10, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833038/characterization-of-glutathione-peroxidase-diversity-in-the-symbiotic-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis
#16
Alexis Pey, Thamilla Zamoum, Richard Christen, Pierre-Laurent Merle, Paola Furla
Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress...
November 7, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825805/humanku70-protein-binds-hairpin-rna-and-double-stranded-dna-through-two-different-sites
#17
Andrey N Anisenko, Ekaterina S Knyazhanskaya, Timofey S Zatsepin, Marina B Gottikh
Human protein Ku usually functions in the cell as a complex of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80. The Ku heterodimer plays a key role in the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway by specifically recognizing the DNA ends at the site of the lesion. The binding of the Ku heterodimer to DNA has been well-studied, and its interactions with RNA have been also described. However, Ku70 subunit is known to have independent DNA binding capability, which is less characterized. RNA binding properties of Ku70 have not been yet specially studied...
November 4, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825804/a-comparative-study-of-fibrillation-kinetics-of-two-homologous-proteins-under-identical-solution-condition
#18
Ankur P Chaudhary, Neha H Vispute, Vaibhav Kumar Shukla, Basir Ahmad
Human lysozyme is homologous in the three-dimensional structure to hen lysozyme and the latter is commonly used to understand folding and amyloid aggregation pathway of the former. The fibrillation of the two proteins is known to occur via partial unfolding. A work dedicated to comparing the aggregation-prone conformations and their subsequent conversion into amyloid-like fibrils in an identical condition is not available. This has provided an opportunity to compare the fibrillation behaviors of the two homologous proteins under identical solution condition...
November 4, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794497/ucp1-a-sophisticated-energy-valve
#19
REVIEW
Martin Klingenberg
This review focuses on the biochemical work of UCP1 starting from the early observation by Ricquier and Kader in 1976. We entered this field in 1980 with the isolation of native UCP1 and then reported the amino acid sequence structure discovering a strong homology to the ADP/ATP carrier. With the isolated native UCP1 we studied structural and functional features, in particular the complex characteristics of nucleotide binding. A strong pH dependence of binding and herein the differences between diphopho- and triphopho-nucleotides were observed, resulting in the identification of residues which control binding site access by their H(+) dissociation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771370/novel-non-%C3%AE-lactam-inhibitor-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-tem-171-based-on-acylated-phenoxyaniline
#20
V G Grigorenko, I P Andreeva, M Yu Rubtsova, I M Deygen, R L Antipin, A G Majouga, A M Egorov, D A Beshnova, J Kallio, C Hackenberg, V S Lamzin
The microbial resistance to antibiotics is a genuine global threat. Consequently, a search of new inhibitors remains of acute importance due to the increasing spread of multidrug resistance. Here we present a new type of non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor PA-34 based on natural phenoxyaniline, identified using computer-assisted screening of scaffolds related to those of known low-affinity inhibitors. The compound displays reversible competitive inhibition of bacterial β-lactamase TEM-171, with a Ki of 88 μM...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
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