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Journal of Safety Research

Matthew A Taylor, Oliver Wirth, Marc Olvina, Alicia M Alvero
INTRODUCTION: The effects of training content consisting of examples and/or non-examples was studied on the acquisition of safety-related skills. METHOD: Participants (N=160) were randomly assigned to first receive computer-based training on office ergonomics that included either no examples of safe or at-risk postures, safe examples only, at-risk examples only, or both safe and at-risk examples. Participants then attempted to classify as safe or at-risk various postures depicted in short video clips and demonstrate with their own posture the range of safe postures...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Celeste Jacinto, Fernando P Santos, Carlos Guedes Soares, Sílvia A Silva
INTRODUCTION: This study assesses the reliability of the coding procedure for a set of variables belonging to the European Statistics of Accidents at Work (ESAW). The work focused on the Portuguese data and experience with the system. In Portugal, this task has been systematically carried out by GEP (the governmental Cabinet for Strategy and Planning), here defined as the "reference group" or "expert group." However, it is anticipated that this coding task will be performed by non-expert people, since paper-forms will be replaced by e-forms, similarly to what happened in a few EU countries...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Giannis Adamos, Eftihia Nathanail
INTRODUCTION: A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. METHOD: Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Fabius Steinberger, April Moeller, Ronald Schroeter
INTRODUCTION: Road crash statistics are evidence of the severe consequences resulting from human error, especially among young adult males. Drivers perform best and safest when they are adequately engaged in the driving task. Boredom and a lack of engagement in the driving task may cause risk taking and phone use. However, the antecedents to driver boredom, the subjective experience itself, as well as the coping strategies to combat boredom are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these aspects...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Audis Bethea, Damayanti Samanta, John A Willis, Franck C Lucente, Julton Tomanguillo Chumbe
INTRODUCTION: The surging popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) in the United States has caused an "epidemic of injuries and mortality." The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 99,600 injuries and 426 fatalities from ATV accidents in 2013. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between helmet use and positive toxicology screenings on outcomes in ATV accident victims. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center in southwestern West Virginia following an ATV accident between 2005 and 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
James Freeman, Elizabeth Szogi, Verity Truelove, Evelyn Vingilis
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Andrea H Okun, Rebecca J Guerin, Paul A Schulte
INTRODUCTION: Young workers (aged 15-24) suffer disproportionately from workplace injuries, with a nonfatal injury rate estimated to be two times higher than among workers age 25 or over. These workers make up approximately 9% of the U.S. workforce and studies have shown that nearly 80% of high school students work at some point during high school. Although young worker injuries are a pressing public health problem, the critical knowledge and skills needed to prepare youth for safe and healthy work are missing from most frameworks used to prepare the emerging U...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Sverre A Kvalheim, Øyvind Dahl
INTRODUCTION: Violations of safety rules and procedures are commonly identified as a causal factor in accidents in the oil and gas industry. Extensive knowledge on effective management practices related to improved compliance with safety procedures is therefore needed. Previous studies of the causal relationship between safety climate and safety compliance demonstrate that the propensity to act in accordance with prevailing rules and procedures is influenced to a large degree by workers' safety climate...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Elise Lagerstrom, Sheryl Magzamen, Lorann Stallones, David Gilkey, John Rosecrance
INTRODUCTION: Although there are hundreds of ATV-related deaths each year in the United States, contributing factors have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between factors contributing to ATV fatalities using the agent-host-environment epidemiological triangle. METHOD: Incident reports of ATV fatalities occurring between 2011 and 2013 were obtained from the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Amy Jewett, Ruth A Shults, Geeta Bhat
INTRODUCTION: Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. METHODS: We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license)...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Holly Billie, Carolyn E Crump, Robert J Letourneau, Bethany A West
PROBLEM: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death for American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) including AI/AN children. Child safety seats prevent injury and death among children in a motor-vehicle crash, yet use is low among AI/AN children. METHODS: To increase the use of child safety seats (CSS; car seats and booster seats), five tribal communities implemented evidence-based strategies from the Guide to Community Preventive Services during 2010-2014. Increased CSS use was evaluated through direct observational surveys and CSS event data...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang
INTRODUCTION: This study sets out to investigate the interactive effect on injury severity of driver-vehicle units in two-vehicle crashes. METHOD: A Bayesian hierarchical ordered logit model is proposed to relate the variation and correlation of injury severity of drivers involved in two-vehicle crashes to the factors of both driver-vehicle units and the crash configurations. A total of 6417 crash records with 12,834 vehicles involved in Florida are used for model calibration...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Amy Jewett, Laurie F Beck, Christopher Taylor, Grant Baldwin
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, injuries to bicyclists accounted for 925 fatalities and 493,884 nonfatal, emergency department-treated injuries in the United States. Bicyclist deaths increased by 19% from 2010 to 2013. The greatest risk of death and disability to bicyclists is head injuries. The objective of this study was to provide estimates of prevalence and associated factors of bicycle riding and helmet use among children and adults in the United States. METHOD: CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles survey...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Keith W Easterling, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid pain reliever overdose is a major public health issue in the United States. To characterize the location of drug-related deaths, we examined fatal prescription opioid and illicit drug-related deaths reported in 12 states. METHODS: Data are from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Medical examiners or coroners in 12 states (MA, MD, ME, NH, NM, OK, OR, RI, UT, VA, VT, WV) reported details of state-wide drug-related mortality during 2008-2010...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Elizabeth R Burns, Judy A Stevens, Robin Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to estimate the incidence, average cost, and total direct medical costs for fatal and non-fatal fall injuries in hospital, ED, and out-patient settings among U.S. adults aged 65 or older in 2012, by sex and age group and to report total direct medical costs for falls inflated to 2015 dollars. METHOD: Incidence data came from the 2012 National Vital Statistics System, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2012 Health Care Utilization Program National Emergency Department Sample, and 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Under the connected vehicle environment, vehicles will be able to exchange traffic information with roadway infrastructure and other vehicles. With such information, collision warning systems (CWSs) will be able to warn drivers with potentially hazardous situations within or out of sight and reduce collision accidents. The lead time of warning messages is a crucial factor in determining the effectiveness of CWSs in the prevention of traffic accidents. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand the effects of lead time on driving behaviors and explore the optimal lead time in various collision scenarios...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Saeid R Dindarloo, Jonisha P Pollard, Elnaz Siami-Irdemoosa
INTRODUCTION: Off-road trucks are one of the major sources of equipment-related accidents in the U.S. mining industries. A systematic analysis of all off-road truck-related accidents, injuries, and illnesses, which are reported and published by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), is expected to provide practical insights for identifying the accident patterns and trends in the available raw database. Therefore, appropriate safety management measures can be administered and implemented based on these accident patterns/trends...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Ward Vanlaar, Marisela Mainegra Hing, Steve Brown, Heather McAteer, Jennifer Crain, Steven McFaull
INTRODUCTION: The goals of this study were to analyze possible trends of fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada (pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists) from 1990 to 2012 and the role of alcohol and drugs in these cases. Drugs have rarely been documented with respect to vulnerable road users. METHOD: The Traffic Injury Research Foundation's National Fatality and Serious Injury Databases and the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program databases were used...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Bhaven Naik, Li-Wei Tung, Shanshan Zhao, Aemal J Khattak
INTRODUCTION: The focus of this paper is on illustrating the feasibility of aggregating data from disparate sources to investigate the relationship between single-vehicle truck crash injury severity and detailed weather conditions. Specifically, this paper presents: (a) a methodology that combines detailed 15-min weather station data with crash and roadway data, and (b) an empirical investigation of the effects of weather on crash-related injury severities of single-vehicle truck crashes...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Carl Bonander, Linda Beckman, Staffan Janson, Carolina Jernbro
INTRODUCTION: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
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