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Journal of Safety Research

Lynda S Robson, Selahadin Ibrahim, Sheilah Hogg-Johnson, Ivan A Steenstra, Dwayne Van Eerd, Benjamin C Amick
INTRODUCTION: OHS management audits are one means of obtaining data that may serve as leading indicators. The measurement properties of such data are therefore important. This study used data from Workwell audit program in Ontario, a Canadian province. The audit instrument consisted of 122 items related to 17 OHS management elements. The study sought answers regarding (a) the ability of audit-based scores to predict workers' compensation claims outcomes, (b) structural characteristics of the data in relation to the organization of the audit instrument, and (c) internal consistency of items within audit elements...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Athanasios Theofilatos
INTRODUCTION: The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Wen Hu
INTRODUCTION: In November 2010 and October 2013, Utah increased speed limits on sections of rural interstates from 75 to 80mph. Effects on vehicle speeds and speed variance were examined. METHODS: Speeds were measured in May 2010 and May 2014 within the new 80mph zones, and at a nearby spillover site and at more distant control sites where speed limits remained 75mph. Log-linear regression models estimated percentage changes in speed variance and mean speeds for passenger vehicles and large trucks associated with the speed limit increase...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Matthew O'Connell, Kristin Delgado, Amie Lawrence, Mavis Kung, Esteban Tristan
INTRODUCTION: A growing body of applied research has identified certain psychological traits that are predictive of worker safety. However, most of these studies suffer from an overreliance on common method bias caused by self-report measures of both: (a) personal factors such as personality traits; and (b) outcomes such as safety behaviors and injuries. METHOD: This study utilized archival data from 796 employees at a large U.S. automobile manufacturer. Data were gathered on a pre-employment assessment, SecureFit®, that measured key personality characteristics such as conscientiousness, locus of control, and risk taking...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jessica S Jermakian, Shan Bao, Mary Lynn Buonarosa, James R Sayer, Charles M Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Crash warning systems have been shown to provide safety benefits, but no studies have examined how teenagers respond. This study sought to find out whether young, inexperienced drivers change behavior in response to warnings. METHODS: Forty 16-17 year-olds drove an instrumented vehicle equipped with a system that warned for lane departures and potential rear-end and lane change/merge crashes. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, and their driving was monitored for 14weeks during 2011-12...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Clark Calabrese, Bianka Mejia, Catherine A McInnis, Megan France, Eric Nadler, Thomas G Raslear
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine how time of day affects injury risk of railroad maintenance of way employees and signalmen (roadway workers). Railroads reported 15,654 serious roadway worker injuries between 1997 and 2014. Roadway workers primarily work outdoors on or near railroad tracks and frequently encounter hazardous conditions. To avoid closing an active rail line during peak hours, railroads sometimes require roadway workers to work at night. Previous studies of roadway worker injury have not adequately accounted for exposure to time of day effects, nor have they investigated the human factors issues contributing to roadway worker injury...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Matteo Picchio, Jan C van Ours
INTRODUCTION: From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. METHOD: We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance against work related accidents. We estimated linear models for a measure of the severity of the workplace accident...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Myeonghyeon Kim, Seung-Young Kho, Dong-Kyu Kim
INTRODUCTION: The high percentage of fatalities in pedestrian-involved crashes is a critical social problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing injury severity in pedestrian crashes by examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the regions where crashes occurred. METHOD: To understand the correlation between the unobserved characteristics of pedestrian crashes in a defined region, we apply a hierarchical ordered model, in which we set crash characteristics as lower-level variables and municipality characteristics as upper-level...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Nils Lubbe
INTRODUCTION: Forward Collision Warning (FCW) can be effective in directing driver attention towards a conflict and thereby aid in preventing or mitigating collisions. FCW systems aiming at pedestrian protection have been introduced onto the market, yet an assessment of their safety benefits depends on the accurate modeling of driver reactions when the system is activated. This study contributes by quantifying brake reaction time and brake behavior (deceleration levels and jerk) to compare the effectiveness of an audio-visual warning only, an added haptic brake pulse warning, and an added Head-Up Display in reducing the frequency of collisions with pedestrians...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Michael F Ballesteros, Kevin Webb, Roderick J McClure
INTRODUCTION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS(TM)) to meet the data needs of injury practitioners. In 2015, CDC completed a Portfolio Review of this system to inform its future development. METHODS: Evaluation questions addressed utilization, technology and innovation, data sources, and tools and training. Data were collected through environmental scans, a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, a web search, and stakeholder interviews...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Gwen Bergen, Bethany A West, Feijun Luo, Donna C Bird, Katherine Freund, Richard H Fortinsky, Loren Staplin
PROBLEM: Motor-vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of injury death for adults aged 65-84years in 2014. Some older drivers choose to self-regulate their driving to maintain mobility while reducing driving risk, yet the process remains poorly understood. METHODS: Data from 729 older adults (aged ≥60years) who joined an older adult ride service program between April 1, 2010 and November 8, 2013 were analyzed to define and describe classes of driving self-regulation...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Christopher DePesa, Toby Raybould, Shelley Hurwitz, Jarone Lee, Alice Gervasini, George C Velmahos, Peter T Masiakos, Haytham M A Kaafarani
OBJECTIVE: We recently demonstrated that the 2007 Massachusetts Graduated Driving Licensing (GDL) law decreased the rate of motor vehicle crashes in teenage drivers. To better understand this decrease, we sought to examine the law's impact on the issuance of driving licenses and traffic citations to teenage drivers. METHODS: Citation and license data were obtained from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Census data were obtained from the Census Data Center...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Anders Pousette, Pernilla Larsman, Mats Eklöf, Marianne Törner
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety climate/culture is attracting increasing research interest, but there is little research on its relation with organizational climates regarding other target domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare. METHOD: The climates were assessed using two questionnaires: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
David G Kidd, Mary Lynn Buonarosa
INTRODUCTION: Negative reinforcement from crash warnings may reduce the likelihood that drivers engage in distracted driving. Alternatively, drivers may compensate for the perceived safety benefit of crash warnings by engaging in distractions more frequently, especially at higher speeds. The purpose of this study was to examine whether warning feedback from an integrated vehicle-based safety system affected the likelihood that various secondary behaviors were present among drivers ages 16-17, 20-30, 40-50, and 60-70...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Yuting Chen, Brenda McCabe, Douglas Hyatt
INTRODUCTION: The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Qing Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee, Naveen Eluru
INTRODUCTION: Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs)...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Sijun Shen, David M Neyens
INTRODUCTION: With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. METHOD: In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Wen Hu, Jessica B Cicchino
INTRODUCTION: This study updates estimates of effects of activating red light cameras and offers a first look at effects of turning them off. METHOD: Among 117 large U.S. cities with more than 200,000 residents in 2014, trends in citywide per capita rates of fatal red light running crashes and of all fatal crashes at signalized intersections were compared between 57 cities that initiated camera programs during 1992-2014 and 33 cities without cameras to examine effects of activating camera programs...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Dyani Juanita Saxby, Gerald Matthews, Catherine Neubauer
INTRODUCTION: Voice communication may enhance performance during monotonous, potentially fatiguing driving conditions (Atchley & Chan, 2011); however, it is unclear whether safety benefits of conversation are outweighed by costs. The present study tested whether personalized conversations intended to simulate hands-free cell phone conversation may counter objective and subjective fatigue effects elicited by vehicle automation. METHOD: A passive fatigue state (Desmond & Hancock, 2001), characterized by disengagement from the task, was induced using full vehicle automation prior to drivers resuming full control over the driving simulator...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Inmaculada Silla, Joaquin Navajas, G Kenneth Koves
INTRODUCTION: A safety-conscious work environment allows high-reliability organizations to be proactive regarding safety and enables employees to feel free to report any concern without fear of retaliation. Currently, research on the antecedents to safety-conscious work environments is scarce. METHOD: Structural equation modeling was applied to test the mediating role of employee communication satisfaction in the relationship between constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment in several nuclear power plants...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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