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Journal of Safety Research

Jonathan Downs, Ruth Shults, Bethany West
INTRODUCTION: Ignition interlocks are effective in reducing alcohol-impaired driving recidivism for all offenders, including first-time offenders. Despite their effectiveness, interlock use among persons convicted of driving while intoxicated from alcohol (DWI) remains low. This cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults assessed public support for requiring ignition interlocks for all convicted DWI offenders including first-time offenders. The goal was to update results from a similar 2010 survey in light of new state requirements and increased interlock installations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Mohamed M Naser, Adnan Zulkiple, Walid A Al Bargi, Nasradeen A Khalifa, Basil David Daniel
INTRODUCTION: There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Albert P C Chan, Francis K W Wong, Carol K H Hon, Sainan Lyu, Arshad Ali Javed
INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of ethnic minorities (EMs) have been employed in the construction industry to alleviate severe labor shortages in many countries. Unfortunately, statistics show that EMs have higher fatal and non-fatal occupational injury rates than their local counterparts. However, EMs are often underrepresented in safety climate (SC) research as they are difficult to reach and gauge their perception. A positive relationship has been widely found between SC and safety performance...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Darren Wishart, Klaire Somoray, Amanda Evenhuis
Introduction Within many industrialized countries, the leading cause of worker fatalities and serious injuries can be attributed to road trauma. In non-occupational research, high levels of sensation seeking personality, and specifically thrill and adventure seeking, have been associated with risky driving behaviors. In work driving literature, high organizational safety climate has been associated with reduced risky driving in work drivers. However, the extent that factors such as safety climate and thrill seeking interact in regard to work driving safety remains unclear, and the current research examined this interaction...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
David W Eby, Lisa J Molnar, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier, James M Lepkowski, Gwen Bergen
INTRODUCTION: Although the number of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) fatalities has declined over the past several years, AID continues to be a serious public health problem. The purpose of this effort was to gain a better understanding of the U.S. driving population's perceptions and thoughts about the impacts of lowering the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) driving standard below.08% on AID, health, and other outcomes. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to a nationally representative sample of licensed drivers in the U...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Farzana Sathar, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Hanna-Andrea Rother, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Chemical hazard communication is intended to alert users of the potential hazards of chemicals. Hazard information needs to be understood and recalled. Recall of hazard communication is critical when the written form of the information is not available at the time it is required. METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigating associations between recall of chemical safety information on labels amongst 402 participants including 315 workers and 87 consumers in two provinces of South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Eric R Teoh, David G Kidd
INTRODUCTION: Automated driving represents both challenges and opportunities in highway safety. Google has been developing self-driving cars and testing them under employee supervision on public roads since 2009. These vehicles have been involved in several crashes, and it is of interest how this testing program compares to human drivers in terms of safety. METHODS: Google car crashes were coded by type and severity based on narratives released by Google. Crash rates per million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were computed for crashes deemed severe enough to be reportable to police...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jessica J Davis, Elizabeth G Conlon
INTRODUCTION: Driving self-regulation is considered a means through which older drivers can compensate for perceived declines in driving skill or more general feelings of discomfort on the road. One form of driving self-regulation is situational avoidance, the purposeful avoidance of situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. This study aimed to validate the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ, Davis, Conlon, Ownsworth, & Morrissey, 2016) and identify the point on the scale at which drivers practicing compensatory avoidance behavior could be distinguished from those whose driving is unrestricted, or who are avoiding situations for other, non-compensatory reasons (e...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Michael A Flynn, Brenna Keller, Sheli C DeLaney
INTRODUCTION: With more diversity in the workforce, companies are producing PPE such as hard hats, safety glasses, coveralls, foot protection, and safety harnesses for a larger range of body shapes and sizes. However, gray literature reports suggest that barriers exist to getting alternate sized PPE from the manufacturer to the workers who need it. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which alternative-sized PPE is marketed. METHOD: A web-based review of seven major manufacturers of PPE was conducted to determine: (a) whether or not they offer alternative-sized products, (b) if these products are clearly labeled, and (c) if images used to display PPE are representative of a diverse workforce...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Allan F Williams
This is the sixth in a series of reviews of research on graduated driver licensing (GDL) published in the Journal of Safety Research, the present review covering the period mid-2012 through 2016. In the two decades since GDL programs began to be introduced on a widespread basis in the United States, a vast amount of research has been published. The current review discusses recent research and the present state of knowledge on the following topics: characteristics of the novice driver population; effects of GDL on crashes for ages 16-19; the learner and intermediate periods; night and passenger restrictions; cellphone laws; GDL for older novices; enforcement of GDL rules; and programs attempting to influence GDL compliance and safe driving practices in general...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Bing Wang, Chao Wu, Bo Shi, Lang Huang
INTRODUCTION: In safety management (SM), it is important to make an effective safety decision based on the reliable and sufficient safety-related information. However, many SM failures in organizations occur for a lack of the necessary safety-related information for safety decision-making. Since facts are the important basis and foundation for decision-making, more efforts to seek the best evidence relevant to a particular SM problem would lead to a more effective SM solution. Therefore, the new paradigm for decision-making named "evidence-based practice (EBP)" can hold important implications for SM, because it uses the current best evidence for effective decision-making...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jingru Gao, Gary A Davis
INTRODUCTION: The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Raha Hamzeie, Peter T Savolainen, Timothy J Gates
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates how speed limits affect driver speed selection, as well as the related crash risk, while controlling for various confounding factors such as traffic volumes and roadway geometry. Data from a naturalistic driving study are used to examine how driver speed selection varies among freeways with different posted speed limits, as well as how the likelihood of crash/near-crash events change with respect to mean speed and standard deviation. METHOD: Regression models are estimated to assess three measures of interest: the average speed of vehicles during the time preceding crash/near-crash and baseline (i...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Jianqing Wu, Hao Xu
INTRODUCTION: Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. METHOD: A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Yi G Glaser, Feng Guo, Youjia Fang, Bing Deng, Jonathan Hankey
PROBLEM: Mopeds are a popular transportation mode in Europe and Asia. Moped-related traffic accidents account for a large proportion of crash fatalities. To develop moped-related crash countermeasures, it is important to understand the characteristics of moped-related conflicts. METHOD: Naturalistic driving study data were collected in Shanghai, China from 36 car drivers. The data included 2,878h and 78,296km driven from 13,149 trips. Moped-car conflicts were identified and examined from the passenger car driver's perspective using kinematic trigger algorithms and manual video reduction...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Bo Wang, Shauna Hallmark, Peter Savolainen, Jing Dong
INTRODUCTION: Prior research has shown the probability of a crash occurring on horizontal curves to be significantly higher than on similar tangent segments, and a disproportionally higher number of curve-related crashes occurred in rural areas. Challenges arise when analyzing the safety of horizontal curves due to imprecision in integrating information as to the temporal and spatial characteristics of each crash with specific curves. METHODS: The second Strategic Highway Research Program(SHRP 2) conducted a large-scale naturalistic driving study (NDS),which provides a unique opportunity to better understand the contributing factors leading to crash or near-crash events...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Pnina Gershon, Chunming Zhu, Sheila G Klauer, Tom Dingus, Bruce Simons-Morton
INTRODUCTION: Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Yuan Wang, Shan Bao, Wenjun Du, Zhirui Ye, James R Sayer
INTRODUCTION: Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. METHOD: Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Andrej Ivanco
INTRODUCTION: Modern automobiles are going through a paradigm shift, where the driver may no longer be needed to drive the vehicle. As the self-driving vehicles are making their way to public roads the automakers have to ensure the naturalistic driving feel to gain drivers' confidence and accelerate adoption rates. METHOD: This paper filters and analyzes a subset of radar data collected from SHRP2 with focus on characterizing the naturalistic headway distance with respect to the vehicle speed...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Helen Loeb, Jinyong Kim, Kristy Arbogast, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne Cross, Judith Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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