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Journal of Safety Research

Keith W Easterling, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid pain reliever overdose is a major public health issue in the United States. To characterize the location of drug-related deaths, we examined fatal prescription opioid and illicit drug-related deaths reported in 12 states. METHODS: Data are from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Medical examiners or coroners in 12 states (MA, MD, ME, NH, NM, OK, OR, RI, UT, VA, VT, WV) reported details of state-wide drug-related mortality during 2008-2010...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Elizabeth R Burns, Judy A Stevens, Robin Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to estimate the incidence, average cost, and total direct medical costs for fatal and non-fatal fall injuries in hospital, ED, and out-patient settings among U.S. adults aged 65 or older in 2012, by sex and age group and to report total direct medical costs for falls inflated to 2015 dollars. METHOD: Incidence data came from the 2012 National Vital Statistics System, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2012 Health Care Utilization Program National Emergency Department Sample, and 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Under the connected vehicle environment, vehicles will be able to exchange traffic information with roadway infrastructure and other vehicles. With such information, collision warning systems (CWSs) will be able to warn drivers with potentially hazardous situations within or out of sight and reduce collision accidents. The lead time of warning messages is a crucial factor in determining the effectiveness of CWSs in the prevention of traffic accidents. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand the effects of lead time on driving behaviors and explore the optimal lead time in various collision scenarios...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Saeid R Dindarloo, Jonisha P Pollard, Elnaz Siami-Irdemoosa
INTRODUCTION: Off-road trucks are one of the major sources of equipment-related accidents in the U.S. mining industries. A systematic analysis of all off-road truck-related accidents, injuries, and illnesses, which are reported and published by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), is expected to provide practical insights for identifying the accident patterns and trends in the available raw database. Therefore, appropriate safety management measures can be administered and implemented based on these accident patterns/trends...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Ward Vanlaar, Marisela Mainegra Hing, Steve Brown, Heather McAteer, Jennifer Crain, Steven McFaull
INTRODUCTION: The goals of this study were to analyze possible trends of fatal and serious injuries related to vulnerable road users in Canada (pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists) from 1990 to 2012 and the role of alcohol and drugs in these cases. Drugs have rarely been documented with respect to vulnerable road users. METHOD: The Traffic Injury Research Foundation's National Fatality and Serious Injury Databases and the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program databases were used...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Bhaven Naik, Li-Wei Tung, Shanshan Zhao, Aemal J Khattak
INTRODUCTION: The focus of this paper is on illustrating the feasibility of aggregating data from disparate sources to investigate the relationship between single-vehicle truck crash injury severity and detailed weather conditions. Specifically, this paper presents: (a) a methodology that combines detailed 15-min weather station data with crash and roadway data, and (b) an empirical investigation of the effects of weather on crash-related injury severities of single-vehicle truck crashes...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Carl Bonander, Linda Beckman, Staffan Janson, Carolina Jernbro
INTRODUCTION: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Angela H Eichelberger, Anne T McCartt
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-impaired driving (DUI) persists as a substantial problem, yet detailed data on DUI enforcement practices are rarely collected. The present study surveyed state and local law enforcement agencies about their DUI enforcement activities. METHOD: Telephone interviews were conducted with law enforcement liaisons in state highway safety offices. Officers from a nationally representative sample of municipal, county, and state law enforcement agencies were also interviewed about their agency's DUI enforcement activities, including the types of enforcement, frequency of use, and whether activities were publicized...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Juneyoung Park, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Although many researchers have estimated the crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of prior studies that have explored the variation of CMFs. Thus, the main objectives of this study are: (a) to estimate CMFs for the installation of different types of roadside barriers, and (b) to determine the changes of safety effects for different crash types, severities, and conditions. METHOD: Two observational before-after analyses (i...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Ja K Gu, Luenda E Charles, Michael E Andrew, Claudia C Ma, Tara A Hartley, John M Violanti, Cecil M Burchfiel
INTRODUCTION: Studies have reported associations between obesity and injury in a single occupation or industry. Our study estimated the prevalence of work-site injuries and investigated the association between obesity and work-site injury in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. METHODS: Self-reported weight, height, and injuries within the previous three months were collected annually for U.S. workers in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2004-2012...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Kaigang Li, Bruce Simons-Morton, Benjamin Gee, Ralph Hingson
INTRODUCTION: Driving while impaired (DWI) increases the risk of a motor vehicle crash by impairing performance. Few studies have examined the prevalence and predictors of marijuana, alcohol, and drug-specific DWI among emerging adults. METHODS: The data from wave 3 (W3, high school seniors, 2012, N=2407) and wave 4 (W4, one year after high school, N=2178) of the NEXT Generation Health Study with a nationally representative cohort. W4 DWI (≥1day of past 30days) was specified for alcohol-specific, marijuana-specific, alcohol/marijuana-combined, illicit drug-related DWI...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Jack Short, Brian Caulfield
INTRODUCTION: The study of non-fatal road traffic injuries is growing in importance. Since there are rarely comprehensive injury datasets, it is necessary to combine different sources to obtain better estimates on the extent and nature of the problem. Record linkage is one such technique. METHOD: In this study, anonymized datasets from three separate sources of injury data in Ireland: hospitals, police, and injury claims are linked using probabilistic and deterministic linkage techniques...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Debra Houry, Grant Baldwin
This guideline provides recommendations for primary care providers who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. The guideline addresses: (a) when to initiate or continue opioids for chronic pain; (b) opioid selection, dosage, duration, follow-up, and discontinuation; and (c) assessing risk and addressing harms of opioid use. This guideline is intended to improve communication between providers and patients about the risks and benefits of opioid therapy for chronic pain, improve the safety and effectiveness of pain treatment, and reduce the risks associated with long-term opioid therapy, including abuse, dependence, overdose, and death (Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Gaurav Nanda, Kathleen M Grattan, MyDzung T Chu, Letitia K Davis, Mark R Lehto
INTRODUCTION: Studies on autocoding injury data have found that machine learning algorithms perform well for categories that occur frequently but often struggle with rare categories. Therefore, manual coding, although resource-intensive, cannot be eliminated. We propose a Bayesian decision support system to autocode a large portion of the data, filter cases for manual review, and assist human coders by presenting them top k prediction choices and a confusion matrix of predictions from Bayesian models...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Hamed Ahangari, Carol Atkinson-Palombo, Norman W Garrick
INTRODUCTION: In January 2015, the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) announced that the official target of the federal government transportation safety policy was zero deaths. Having a better understanding of traffic fatality trends of various age cohorts-and to what extent the US is lagging other countries-is a crucial first step to identifying policies that may help the USDOT achieve its goal. METHOD: In this paper we analyze fatality rates for different age cohorts in developed countries to better understand how road traffic fatality patterns vary across countries by age cohort...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Geetha M Waehrer, Ted R Miller, Delia Hendrie, Deborah M Galvin
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the effects of employee assistance programs (EAPs) on occupational injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multivariate regressions probed a unique data set that linked establishment information about workplace anti-drug programs in 1988 with occupational injury rates for 1405 establishments. RESULTS: EAPs were associated with a significant reduction in both no-lost-work and lost-work injuries, especially in the manufacturing and transportation, communication and public utilities industries (TCPU)...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Cher Carney, Karisa K Harland, Daniel V McGehee
INTRODUCTION: While teen driver distraction is cited as a leading cause of crashes, especially rear-end crashes, little information is available regarding its true prevalence. The majority of distraction studies rely on data derived from police reports, which provide limited information regarding driver distraction. METHOD: This study examined over 400 teen driver rear-end crashes captured by in-vehicle event recorders. A secondary data analysis was conducted, paying specific attention to driver behaviors, eyes-off-road time, and response times to lead-vehicle braking...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
António Couto, Marco Amorim, Sara Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: The most common measurement for road accidents relies in police reports; however, there is a high portion of underreporting and misclassification, mainly concerning elderly causalities, urban accidents, slightly injured, users of two-wheeled vehicles, and car occupants. METHODS: In order to assess these issues, road accidents occurring in the Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal, covering a 6-year period (2006-2011) were analyzed based on police and hospital datasets...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Ed Wood, Stacy Salomonsen-Sautel
INTRODUCTION: There are limited studies that measure the prevalence of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) based upon impairment measures because most prevalence studies are based on drug tests. The aim of this study was to provide the first estimate of DUID prevalence in Colorado using data collected by Colorado law enforcement officers in vehicular homicide (VH) and vehicular assault (VA) cases, and reported in court records. METHODS: The four research questions of this study were answered by completing independent t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests, Pearson chi-square analyses or Fisher's exact tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst
INTRODUCTION: While safety knowledge and safety motivation are well-established predictors of safety participation, less is known about the impact of leadership styles on these relationships. METHOD: The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the positive relationships between safety knowledge and motivation and safety participation are contingent on transformational and passive forms of safety leadership. RESULTS: Using multilevel modeling with a sample of 171 employees nested in 40 workgroups, we found that transformational safety leadership strengthened the safety knowledge-participation relationship, whereas passive leadership weakened the safety motivation-participation relationship...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
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