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Journal of Personality Assessment

Tycho J Dekkers, Naomi R J van Bergen, Brenda R J Jansen
Sensation seeking is a trait that predicts a wide range of real-life risk behavior, such as substance abuse and gambling problems. Sensation seeking is often assessed with the Sensation Seeking Scale. Several adaptations of this questionnaire have been made, for example, to abbreviate it and to make it suitable for children. However, studies on sensation seeking in children are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate sensation seeking in children (N = 158, M age = 11.4 years). The Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (BSSS-C) was translated into Dutch and psychometric properties were examined...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
David Preece, Rodrigo Becerra, Guillermo Campitelli
The Perth Emotional Reactivity Scale (PERS) is a 30-item self-report measure of trait levels of emotional reactivity. In this article, we examine the psychometric properties of the PERS subscale and composite scores in an adult community sample (N = 428), and develop an 18-item short form of the measure (PERS-S). The PERS and PERS-S are designed to assess the typical ease of activation, intensity, and duration of one's emotional responses, and do so for positive and negative emotions separately. Our confirmatory factor analyses supported that the PERS and PERS-S both had the same theoretically congruent factor structure, and that all subscale and composite scores displayed high internal consistency reliability...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Irene M J Orbons, Gina Rossi, Roel Verheul, Mirjam J A Schoutrop, Jan L L Derksen, Daniel L Segal, Sebastiaan P J van Alphen
The goal of this study was to evaluate the continuity across the Section II personality disorders (PDs) and the proposed Section III model of PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a ). More specifically, we analyzed association between the DSM-5 Section III pathological trait facets and Section II PDs among 110 Dutch adults (M age = 35.8 years, range = 19-60 years) receiving mental health care. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders to all participants...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Thomas A Widiger, Bo Bach, Michael Chmielewski, Lee Anna Clark, Colin DeYoung, Christopher J Hopwood, Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, Joshua D Miller, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Christopher J Patrick, Aaron L Pincus, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, David Watson, Mark H Waugh, Aidan G C Wright, Johannes Zimmermann, R Michael Bagby, David C Cicero, Christopher C Conway, Barbara De Clercq, Anna R Docherty, Nicholas R Eaton, Kelsie T Forbush, J D Haltigan, Masha Y Ivanova, Robert D Latzman, Donald R Lynam, Kristian E Markon, Ulrich Reininghaus, Katherine M Thomas
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM-5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Alexander P Christensen, Katherine N Cotter, Paul J Silvia
Openness to Experience is a complex trait, the taxonomic structure of which has been widely debated. Previous research has provided greater clarity of its lower order structure by synthesizing facets across several scales related to Openness to Experience. In this study, we take a finer grained approach by investigating the item-level relations of four Openness to Experience inventories (Big Five Aspects Scale, HEXACO-100, NEO PI-3, and Woo et al.'s Openness to Experience Inventory), using a network science approach, which allowed items to form an emergent taxonomy of facets and aspects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Ephrem Fernandez, Yilma Woldgabreal, Deepan Guharajan, Andrew Day, Vasiliki Kiageri, Nirvana Ramtahal
The veracity of self-report is often questioned, especially in anger, which is particularly susceptible to socially desirability bias (SDB). However, could tests of SDB be themselves susceptible to bias? This study aimed to replicate the inverse correlation between a common test of SDB and a test of anger, to deconstruct this relationship according to anger-related versus non-anger-related items, and to reevaluate factor structure and reliability of the SDB test. More than 200 students were administered the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Version [M-C1(10)] and the Anger Parameters Scale (APS)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Seth Margolis, Eric Schwitzgebel, Daniel J Ozer, Sonja Lyubomirsky
The Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) has been the dominant measure of life satisfaction since its creation more than 30 years ago. We sought to develop an improved measure that includes indirect indicators of life satisfaction (e.g., wishing to change one's life) to increase the bandwidth of the measure and account for acquiescence bias. In 3 studies, we developed a 6-item measure of life satisfaction, the Riverside Life Satisfaction Scale, and obtained reliability and validity evidence...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Emily A Dowgwillo, Michael J Roche, Aaron L Pincus
Criterion A of the alternative model of personality disorders (AMPD) involves the assessment of impairments in self and self in relation to other functioning and can be assessed using the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). This study uses responses to a self-report version of the LPFS (AMPD-CAS) from 248 college students to examine the interpersonal implications of AMPD personality impairments using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) as a nomological net. Results suggest that AMPD-CAS self-impairments are related to problems of low communion and interpersonal distress and do not appear to tap expected interpersonal problems of low agency...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Guillaume Durand
Although highly debated, the notion of the existence of an adaptive side to psychopathy is supported by some researchers. Currently, 2 instruments assessing psychopathic traits include an adaptive component, which might not cover the full spectrum of adaptive psychopathic traits. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ; Durand, 2017 ) is a 41-item self-reported instrument assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. In this study, I investigated in 2 samples (N = 263 and N = 262) the incremental validity of the DAPTQ over the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF) and the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using multiple criterion measures...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Joni L Mihura, George Bombel, Nicolae Dumitrascu, Manali Roy, Emily A Meadows
This article documents and discusses the importance of using a formal systematic approach to validating psychological tests. To illustrate, results are presented from a systematic review of the validity findings cited in the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) test manual, originally conducted during the manuscript review process for Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel's (2013) CS meta-analyses. Our review documents (a) the degree to which the CS test manual reports validity findings for each test variable, (b) whether these findings are publicly accessible or unpublished studies coordinated by the test developer, and (c) the presence and nature of data discrepancies between the CS test manual and the cited source...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
John D Mayer, Brendan Lortie, A T Panter, David R Caruso
Personal intelligence (PI) involves the ability to recognize, reason, and use information about personality to understand oneself and other people. Employees in two studies (Ns = 394, 482) completed the Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI; e.g., Mayer, Panter, & Caruso, 2017a) and assessments of workplace perception and behavior. Higher PI was associated with higher perceived workplace support and lower counterproductive work behavior. These relationships continued to hold after controlling for other key variables...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Margot M Williams, Richard Rogers, Allyson J Sharf, Colin A Ross
Accurate interpretations of psychological assessments rely heavily on forthright reporting. However, researchers and practitioners recognize that examinees can easily invalidate their test results by underreporting symptoms or overstating positive attributes. Rogers (2008) delineated two distinct but related forms of positive impression management (PIM): defensiveness (denying symptoms and psychological impairment) and social desirability (putting forth an exaggeratedly positive image). Although these two have often been combined in past research, this study sought to investigate each separately via a mixed within- and between-subjects simulation design...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Adrian Raine, Stepheni Uh
Despite its importance in society, there is virtually no standardized research on the personality trait of selfishness, in part due to the absence of an assessment instrument. The central aim of this study was to develop a brief (2-3 min) self-report personality measure of selfishness with three main subtypes: egocentric, adaptive, and pathological. Questionnaires were administered to an undergraduate sample, with replicability and generalizability tested on a community population. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of the three hypothesized forms of selfishness...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
William Ickes, Meghan Babcock, Tyler Hamby, Anna Park, Rebecca Robinson, Wyn Taylor
This study tested implications of the context switching perspective proposed by Hamby, Ickes, and Babcock ( 2016 ). Using trained raters to assess the amount of reframing required to interpret the meaning of the subsequent (second) item within all adjacent item pairs, we first established that this process variable could be measured reliably. Then, in the data for 18 personality measures drawn from 3 individual-difference domains, we found that the amount of reframing (i.e., context switching) needed to interpret successive items predicted both lower interitem correlations and a greater percentage of misresponders...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Sascha Müller, Morten Moshagen
Self-serving response distortions pose a threat to the validity of personality scales. A common approach to deal with this issue is to rely on impression management (IM) scales. More recently, the overclaiming technique (OCT) has been proposed as an alternative and arguably superior measure of such biases. In this study (N = 162), we tested these approaches in the context of self- and other-ratings using the HEXACO personality inventory. To the extent that the OCT and IM scales can be considered valid measures of response distortions, they are expected to account for inflated self-ratings in particular for those personality dimensions that are prone to socially desirable responding...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Thomas A Schmitt, Daniel A Sass, Wayne Chappelle, William Thompson
Despite the broad literature base on factor analysis best practices, research seeking to evaluate a measure's psychometric properties frequently fails to consider or follow these recommendations. This leads to incorrect factor structures, numerous and often overly complex competing factor models and, perhaps most harmful, biased model results. Our goal is to demonstrate a practical and actionable process for factor analysis through (a) an overview of six statistical and psychometric issues and approaches to be aware of, investigate, and report when engaging in factor structure validation, along with a flowchart for recommended procedures to understand latent factor structures; (b) demonstrating these issues to provide a summary of the updated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5) factor models and a rationale for validation; and (c) conducting a comprehensive statistical and psychometric validation of the PCL-5 factor structure to demonstrate all the issues we described earlier...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Michael C Ashton, Kibeom Lee
We examined the ability of several Big Five measures to account for variance in HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R) scales and vice versa. Some Big Five measures accounted for more variance in HEXACO Honesty-Humility than did others, but these differences were largely offset by opposing differences in accounting for variance in HEXACO Agreeableness and Emotionality. As a consequence, the various Big Five measures showed similarly large overall deficiencies in accounting for HEXACO scale variance, relative to variance accounted for in Big Five scales by HEXACO-PI-R scales...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Emanuele Preti, Rossella Di Pierro, Giulio Costantini, Ilaria M A Benzi, Chiara De Panfilis, Fabio Madeddu
We argue that clinical information related to an object-relations model of personality pathology can be used by untrained and clinically inexperienced students to rate personality-disordered patients on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). To do so, 73 clinically inexperienced undergraduate students were asked to assess personality functioning of 10 female inpatients using the LPFS from audio recordings of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). LPFS ratings showed acceptable interrater reliability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Christopher Joseph Pagano, Meghan Colleen Commins Blattner, Sara Kaplan-Levy
Growing evidence supports Therapeutic Assessment (TA), a collaborative and therapeutic approach to psychological assessment, as an effective method for enhancing motivation for and engagement with psychotherapy across a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. However, to date there are no known studies assessing the use of TA in child psychiatric inpatient settings. This article briefly reviews the structure of child and family TA, enumerates the challenges and risks associated with short-term inpatient stays, and proposes a path for integrating TA into these units as a way to enhance the quality of care and reduce the risk of rapid rehospitalization...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Jessica E Black
The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001 ), originally designed for use in clinical populations, has been used with increasing frequency as a measure of advanced social cognition in nonclinical samples (e.g., Domes, Heinriches, Michel, Berger, & Herpertz, 2007 ; Kidd & Castano, 2013 ; Mar, Oatley, Hirsh, de la Paz, & Peterson, 2006 ). The purpose of this research was to use item response theory to assess the ability of the RMET to detect differences at the high levels of theory of mind to be expected in neurotypical adults...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
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