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Physiologia Plantarum

Yael Hacham, Ifat Matityahu, Rachel Amir
Methionine is an essential amino acid whose low level limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ- SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared to wild-type plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes...
February 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Chithra S, Jasim B, Jyothis Mathew, Radhakrishnan E K
Endophytic fungi have been reported to have the acquired ability to synthesize host plant specific medicinal natural products. Many fungi with such properties have been characterized and optimized for the conditions which favor maximal production of desired products. However, the inherent plant colonization property of promising endophytic fungi is least studied. Exploiting the transgenome functioning of these fungi have immense applications to add beneficial features to non-host plants. In the present study, endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp...
February 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Konstantin Chekanov, Alexandr Feoktistov, Elena Lobakova
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, due to a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae...
February 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Fátima Míguez, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, José-María Becerril, José-Ignacio García-Plazaola
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery...
February 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Md Qussen Akhtar, Nida Qamar, Pallavi Yadav, Pallavi Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M...
February 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sigridur Dalmannsdottir, Marit Jørgensen, Marcin Rapacz, Liv Østrem, Arild Larsen, Rolf Rødven, Odd Arne Rognli
The effect of variable autumn temperatures in combination with decreasing irradiance and daylength on photosynthesis, growth cessation and freezing tolerance was investigated in northern- and southern-adapted populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and timothy (Phleum pratense) intended for use in regions at northern high latitudes. Plants were subjected to three different acclimation temperatures; 12 °C, 6 °C and 9/3 °C (day/night) for four weeks, followed by one week of cold acclimation at 2 °C under natural light conditions...
February 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiaodong Xie, Guangyong Qin, Ping Si, Zhaopeng Luo, Junping Gao, Xia Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Pan Wei, Qingyou Xia, Fucheng Lin, Jun Yang
The plant-specific PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins have been well characterized in many plant species, where they are crucial in the regulation of auxin transport in various aspects of plant development. However, little is known about the exact roles of the PIN genes during plant development in Nicotiana species. This study investigated the PIN genes in tobacco (N. tabacum) and in two ancestral species (N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis). Genome-wide analysis of the N. tabacum genome identified 20 genes of the PIN family...
January 27, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Eva Hellmann, Christine Swinka, Alexander Heyl
Genetic screens are a common tool to identify new modulators in a defined context, e.g. hormonal response or environmental stress. However, most screens are either in vitro or laborious and time-and-space inefficient. Here we present a novel in planta screening approach that shortens the time from the actual screening process to the identification of a new modulator and simultaneously reduces space requirements and costs. The basic features of this screening approach are the creation of luciferase reporter plants which enable a non-invasive readout in a streamlined multiplate reader process, the transformation of those plants with an inducible, Gateway™-compatible expression vector, and a screening setup, in which whole plants at the seedling stage are screened in 96 multiwell plates in the first transformed generation without the use of an expensive CCD camera system...
January 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Qinqin Chen, Fangfang Niu, Jingli Yan, Bisi Chen, Feifei Wu, Xiaohua Guo, Bo Yang, Yuan-Qing Jiang
The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) transcription factor gene family is plant-specific and plays diverse roles in development and responses to abiotic stresses and pathogen challenge. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) or canola is an important oil crop worldwide, however, the function of NAC genes in it remains largely elusive. Here, we identified and characterized the NAC56 gene isolated from oilseed rape. Expression of BnaNAC56 was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), methyl viologen (MV) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, but repressed by cold...
January 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Anju Manandhar, Thomas R Sinclair, Thomas W Rufty, Michel E Ghanem
Drought can result in severely decreased leaf area development, which impacts plant growth and yield. However, rarely is leaf emergence or leaf expansion separated to resolve the relative sensitivity to water deficit of these two processes. Experiments were undertaken to impose drought over approximately 2 weeks for eight cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes grown in pots under controlled environmental conditions. Daily measures of phyllochron index (leaf emergence) and leaf area increase (leaf expansion) were obtained...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Jared J Stewart, Stephanie K Polutchko, William W Adams, Christopher M Cohu, Coleman A Wenzl, Barbara Demmig-Adams
This study addressed whether the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana can adjust foliar phloem and xylem anatomy both differentially and in parallel. In plants acclimated to hot versus cool temperature, foliar minor vein xylem-to-phloem ratio was greater, whereas xylem and phloem responded concomitantly to growth light intensity. Across all growth conditions, xylem anatomy correlated with transpiration rate, while phloem anatomy correlated with photosynthetic capacity for two plant lines (wildtype Col-0 and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant) irrespective of tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Erola Fenollosa, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Marta Pintó-Marijuan
Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain)...
January 5, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Hanan El Aou-Ouad, Alicia Pou, Magdalena Tomàs, Rafael Montero, Miquel Ribas-Carbo, Hipólito Medrano, Josefina Bota
Water limitation is one of the major threats affecting grapevine production. Thus, improving water use efficiency (WUE) is crucial for a sustainable viticulture industry in Mediterranean regions. Under field conditions, water stress is often combined with viral infections since those are present in major grape-growing areas worldwide. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is one of the most important viruses, affecting grapevines. Indeed, the optimization of water use in a real context of virus infection is an important topic that needs to be understood...
January 3, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sara I Zandalinas, Ron Mittler, Damián Balfagón, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Under field conditions crops are routinely subjected to a number of different abiotic stress factors simultaneously. Recent studies revealed that the response of plants to a combination of different abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from simply studying each of the different stresses applied individually. These studies have also identified specific regulatory transcripts, combinations of metabolites and proteins, and physiological responses that are unique to specific stress combinations, highlighting the importance of studying abiotic stress combination in plants...
January 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Scarlett Trimborn, Silke Thoms, Tina Brenneis, Jasmin Pascale Heiden, Sara Beszteri, Kai Bischof
To better understand the impact of ocean acidification (OA) and changes in light availability on Southern Ocean phytoplankton physiology, we investigated the effects of pCO2 (380 and 800 µatm) in combination with low and high irradiance (20 or 50 and 200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) on growth, particulate organic carbon (POC) fixation and photophysiology in the three ecologically relevant species Chaetoceros debilis, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Phaeocystis antarctica. Irrespective of the light scenario, neither growth nor POC per cell was stimulated by OA in any of the tested species and the two diatoms even displayed negative responses in growth (e...
December 25, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Anna Podgórska, Maria Burian, Anna M Rychter, Allan G Rasmusson, Bożena Szal
Plants can assimilate nitrogen from soil pools of both ammonium and nitrate, and the relative levels of these two nitrogen sources are highly variable in soil. Long-term ammonium nutrition is known to cause damage to Arabidopsis that has been linked to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Using hydroponic cultures, we analysed the consequences of rapid shifts between nitrate and ammonium nutrition. This did not induce growth retardation, showing that Arabidopsis can compensate for the changes in redox metabolism associated with the variations in nitrogen redox status...
December 23, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Sara Margarita Garza-Aguilar, Aurora Lara-Núñez, Elpidio García Ramírez, Jorge M Vázquez-Ramos
Maize CycD3;1 associates to CDKA or CDKB1;1 proteins during germination and the complexes formed develop kinase activity. These complexes appear to vary in size as germination proceeds, suggesting association to different sets of proteins. CycD3;1 and associated CDK proteins respond to phytohormones and sucrose. Results revealed a reduction in the CycD3;1 protein amount along germination in the presence of IAA or ABA, although in the latter protein levels recover at the end of germination. While the levels of CDKA increase with IAA, they decrease with ABA...
December 20, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Ana Luengo Escobar, Miren Alberdi, Patricio Acevedo, Mariana Machado, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Despite the Montreal protocol and the eventual recovery of the ozone layer over Antarctica, there are still concerns about increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. UV-B induces physiological, biochemical and morphological stress responses in plants, which are species-specific and different even for closely related cultivars. In woody plant species, understanding of long-term mechanisms to cope with UV-B-induced stress is limited. Therefore, a greenhouse UV-B daily course simulation was performed for 21 days with two blueberry cultivars (Legacy and Bluegold) under UV-BBE irradiance doses of 0, 0...
December 10, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Miguel Ángel Macho-Rivero, Juan José Camacho-Cristóbal, María Begoña Herrera-Rodríguez, Maren Müller, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Agustín González-Fontes
Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment...
December 9, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Lin Li, Sheng Shu, Qing Xu, Ya-Hong An, Jin Sun, Shi-Rong Guo
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), two important signalling molecules, are stimulated in plants by abiotic stresses. In this study, we investigated the role of NO and its interplay with H2 O2 in the response of self-grafted and salt-tolerant pumpkin-grafted (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) cucumber seedlings to 80 mM Ca(NO3 )2 stress. Endogenous NO and H2 O2 production in self-grafted seedlings increased in a time-dependent manner, reaching maximum levels after 24 h of Ca(NO3 )2 stress. In contrast, a transient increase in NO production, accompanied by H2 O2 accumulation, was observed at 2 h in rootstock-grafted plants...
December 9, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
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