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Physiologia Plantarum

Wasim Ibrahim, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Can Zhang, Fangbin Cao, Shuijin Zhu, Feibo Wu
Soil salinity and drought are the two most common and frequently co-occurring abiotic stresses limiting cotton growth and productivity. However, physiological mechanisms of tolerance to such condition remain elusive. Greenhouse pot experiments were performed to study genotypic differences in response to single drought (4% soil moisture; D) and salinity (200 mM NaCl; S) stress and combined stresses (D+S) using two cotton genotypes Zhongmian 23 (salt-tolerant) and Zhongmian 41 (salt-sensitive). Our results showed that drought and salinity stresses, alone or in combination, caused significant reduction in plant growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in the two cotton genotypes, with the largest impact visible under combined stress...
July 13, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Kaisa Marjamaa, Kristiina Kruus
Lignocelluloses are abundant raw materials for production of fuels, chemicals and materials. The purpose of this paper is to review the enzyme-types and enzyme-technologies studied and applied in the processing of the lignocelluloses into different products. The enzymes here are mostly glycoside hydrolases, esterases and different redox enzymes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic polysaccharides to platform sugars has been widely studied leading to development of advanced commercial products for this purpose...
July 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hülya Torun
Greater crop losses can result from simultaneous exposure to a combination of drought, heat and salinity in the field. Salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic phytohormone, can affect a range of physiological and biochemical processes in plants and significantly impacts their resistance to these abiotic stresses. Despite numerous reports involving the positive effects of SA by applying each abiotic stress separately, the mechanism of SA-mediated adaptation to combined stresses remains elusive. This study, via a time-course analysis, investigated the role of SA on the roots of hulled and hulless (naked) barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
July 9, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yaping Zhou, Upama Sarker, Günter Neumann, Uwe Ludewig
White lupin cluster roots are specialized brush-like root structures that are formed in some species under phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions. They intensely secrete protons and organic acid anions for solubilization and acquisition of sparingly soluble phosphates. Phytohormones and sucrose modulate cluster root number, but the molecular mechanisms of cluster root formation have been elusive. Here, a novel peptide phytohormone was identified that affects cluster root development. It belongs to the C-terminally encoded peptide (CEP) family...
July 9, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Thorsten Hamann, Anna Kärkönen, Kirsten Krause
The greenhouse effect is in part caused by the use of fossil fuels for energy production. The effect in turn leads to climate change, which impairs food crop productivity due to increased biotic and abiotic stress. A major aim at the moment is to replace energy production from fossil fuels with more sustainable methods, which amongst others involve plant biomass as a starting material for energy production through fermentation and other applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
June 28, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Francisco Gasulla, Leonardo Casano, Alfredo Guéra
Lichens and their algal partners are desiccation-tolerant organisms and as such survive after the complete loss of water. This trait is the consequence of several physiological, biochemical and structural features, including specific mechanisms dissipating excess light to avoid photooxidative stress. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII; Fv /Fm ) is widely used as a sensitive indicator of photosynthetic performance and is calculated after complete relaxation in darkness of the fluorescence quenching associated with active light energy dissipation mechanisms...
June 27, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ana Luiza Dorigan de Matos Furlanetto, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Beatriz Ferrando, Tinna Stevnsner, Ian Max Møller
We evaluated the effect of global warming on Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, a critically endangered native tree of Southern Brazil, by studying the effects of short-term high-temperature treatment on cell viability, respiration and DNA repair of embryogenic cells. Compared with control cells grown at 25°C, cell viability was reduced by 40% after incubation at 30 and 37°C for 24 and 6h, respectively, while 2h at 40 and 42°C killed 95% of the cells. Cell respiration was unaffected at 30-37°C, but dramatically reduced after 2h at 42°C...
June 27, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sabine Rosner, Berthold Heinze, Tadeja Savi, Guillermina Dalla-Salda
More frequently occurring drought waves call for a deeper understanding of tree hydraulics and fast and easily applicable methods to measure drought stress. The aim of this study was to establish empirical relationships between the percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and the relative water loss (RWL) in woody stem axes with different P50 , i.e. the water potential that causes 50% conductivity loss. Branches and saplings of temperate conifer (Picea abies, Larix decidua) and angiosperm species (Acer campestre, Fagus sylvatica, Populus x canescens, Populus tremula, Sorbus torminalis) and trunk wood of mature P...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Craig Matthews, Muhammad Arshad, Abdelali Hannoufa
Heat stress and extreme temperatures negatively affect plant development by disrupting regular cell and biochemical functions, ultimately leading to reducing crop production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop grown world-wide as forage for livestock feed. Limiting the effects of abiotic stress by developing alfalfa cultivars that are stress tolerant would help mitigate losses to crop production. Members of the microRNA156 (miR156) family regulate the Squamosa Promoter-Binding Protein-like (SPL) genes that in turn impact plant growth and development by regulating downstream genes in response to various abiotic stresses...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Kexin Zhang, Lin Zhao, Xue Yang, Minmin Li, Jingzhe Sun, Kuo Wang, Yinghua Li, Yanhong Zheng, Yuheng Yao, Wenbin Li
The division and differentiation of cells are the basis of growth and development. Cytokinin plays an active role in cell growth division and differentiation. The Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV) family comprises transcription factors in plants and all contain both AP2 and B3-like domains. In this study, GmRAV1 (Glycine max), which belongs to the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, was isolated and functionally characterized. Subcellular localization showed that GmRAV1 was localized to the nucleus and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that GmRAV1 was induced by cytokinin...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jorge González-Villagra, Jerry D Cohen, Marjorie M Reyes-Díaz
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the physiological and biochemical mechanisms required to tolerate drought stress, which is considered as an important abiotic stress. It has been postulated that ABA might be involved in regulation of plant phenolic compounds biosynthesis, especially anthocyanins that accumulate in plants subjected to drought stress; however, the evidence for this postulate remains elusive. Therefore, we studied whether ABA is involved in phenolic compounds accumulation, especially anthocyanin biosynthesis, using drought stressed Aristotelia chilensis plants, an endemic berry in Chile...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Federica Brunoni, Karin Ljung, Catherine Bellini
The evolution of terrestrial plant life was made possible by the establishment of a root system, which enabled plants to migrate from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. During evolution, root organization has gradually progressed from a very simple to a highly hierarchical architecture. Roots are initiated during embryogenesis and branch afterwards through lateral root formation. Additionally, adventitious roots can be formed post-embryonically from aerial organs. Induction of adventitious roots forms the basis of the vegetative propagation via cuttings in horticulture, agriculture and forestry...
June 19, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yuefei Li, Yong Fan, Yang Jiao, Jie Wu, Zhen Zhang, Xiaolei Yu, Ying Ma
The yellow leafy head of Brassica rapa is known to be tasty and nutritional. Therefore, the heading stage of leaf development is critical to realize high yield and economic benefits. A widely planted commercial cultivar of Brassica rapa ("Qiubao", deep yellow leafy head) was used to conduct transcriptome analysis. The results showed that the yellowing of the inner leaf was likely induced by the predominant β-carotene biosynthesis pathway due to the upregulated gene GGPP and PSY, and the downregulated gene CrtL-e, NCED4 and DWARF-27...
June 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sundaravelpandian Kalaipandian, Gang-Ping Xue, Anne L Rae, Donna Glassop, Graham D Bonnett, Lynne C McIntyre
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is a universal messenger that mediates intracellular responses to extracellular stimuli in living organisms. Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) are the important Ca2+ sensors in plants that decode Ca2+ -signatures to execute downstream intracellular level responses. Several studies indicate the interlinking of Ca2+ and sugar signalling in plants, however, no genes have been functionally characterized to provide molecular evidence. Our study found that expression of TaCML20 was significantly correlated with water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations in recombinant inbred lines in wheat...
June 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sen Rao, Yanyou Wu, Rui Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Francesco Mignolli, Maria L Vidoz, Piero Picciarelli, Lorenzo Mariotti
In tomato, auxin and gibberellins (GAs) interact with each other to drive fruit growth and development. While the role of auxin in directing GA biosynthesis and signal is already known, very little information has been obtained about GA-mediated control of auxin signalling and response. Interestingly, we show that GA3 is able to modify the expression of several auxin signalling genes in the partial auxin-insensitive diageotropica (dgt) mutant, suggesting that GAs may override the control of DGT on auxin signal...
June 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
E Hernández-Montes, M Tomás, J M Escalona, J Bota, H Medrano
Respiration processes are well recognized as fundamental for the plant carbon balance, but little attention has been paid to the relationships among respiration rates, environment and genetic variability. This can be of particular interest to understand differences in net carbon balances in crops as grapevines. Night respiration (Rn ) and its associated growth (Rg ) and maintenance (Rm ) components were evaluated during leaf expansion in two grapevine cultivars (Tempranillo cv. and Garnacha cv.) that differ in their plant growth pattern and carbon balance...
June 9, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Alberto Pizarro, Carmen Díaz-Sala
Adventitious root formation is a process in which roots are induced, from determined or differentiated cells that have not been specified to develop a root, at positions where they do not normally occur during development. In forest tree species, a decline in the capacity to form adventitious roots from similar cell types in stem cuttings is associated with tree age and maturity. This decline limits the success of vegetative propagation of selected adult trees. The joint action of local signals and a dynamic cascade of regulatory changes in gene expression, resulting in stereotypical cell division patterns, regulate cell fate changes that enable a somatic differentiated cell to reactivate meristem programs towards the induction of an adventitious root meristem...
June 9, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hiroyuki Shimono, Motohiko Kondo, John R Evans
We investigated the fate of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) absorbed by roots or internally produced by respiration using gas exchange and stable isotopic labelling. CO2 efflux from detached leaves supplied with bicarbonate/CO2 solutions was followed over six cycles. CO2 effluxes were detected when bicarbonate solution at high pH was used, corresponding to 71~85% of the expected efflux. No CO2 efflux was detected when CO2 solutions at low pH were used but CO2 efflux was subsequently detected as soon as bicarbonate solutions at high pH were supplied...
June 8, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jan K Schjoerring, Jian Feng Ma, Nicolaus von Wirén
This special issue of Physiologia Plantarum has been prepared to publish some of the highlights presented at the XVIII International Plant Nutrition Colloquium (IPNC), which took place during 19-24 August, 2017 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The meeting was organized by University of Copenhagen. Close to 600 participants from more than 50 different countries participated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 1, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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