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Physiologia Plantarum

Itay Cohen, Tal Rapaport, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Under natural conditions, plants are regularly exposed to combinations of stress factors. A common example is the conjunction between nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess light. The combined effect of stress factors is often ignored in studies using controlled conditions, possibly resulting in misleading conclusions. To address this issue, the current study examined the physiological behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana under the effect of varying nitrogen levels and light intensities. The joint influence of low N and excess light had an adverse effect on plant growth, chlorophyll and anthocyanin concentrations, photochemical capacity, and the abundance of proteins involved in carbon assimilation and anti-oxidative metabolism...
May 22, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Mateusz Dyda, Iwona Wąsek, Mirosław Tyrka, Maria Wędzony, Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda
Microdochium nivale is a fungal pathogen that causes yield losses of cereals during winter. Cold hardening under light conditions induces genotype-dependent resistance of a plant to infection. We aim to show how photosystem II (PSII) regulation contributes to plant resistance. Using mapping population of triticale doubled haploid lines, three M. nivale strains and different infection assays, we demonstrate that plants that maintain a higher maximum quantum efficiency of PSII show less leaf damage upon infection...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Rong Zhou, Lingpeng Kong, Zhen Wu, Eva Rosenqvist, Yinlei Wang, Liping Zhao, Tongmin Zhao, Carl-Otto Ottosen
In nature, crops encounter a combination of abiotic stresses that severely limit yield. Our aim was to dynamically expose the changes of tomatoes' physiological parameters to drought, heat and their combination and thereby clarify the relationship between the responses to single and combined stress. We studied the effect of single and combined drought and heat stresses on the shoot and root of two tomato cultivars (Sufen No.14 as CV1; Jinlingmeiyu as CV2). After being exposed to combined stress for six days, the dry weight of shoot and root significantly decreased...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres, Patricia Coello, Eleazar Martínez-Barajas
Legume seed development represents a high demand for energy and metabolic resources to support the massive synthesis of starch and proteins. However, embryo growth occurs in an environment with reduced O2 that forces the plant to adapt its metabolic activities to maximize efficient energy use. SNF1-related protein kinase1 (SnRK1) is a master metabolic regulator needed for cells adaptation to conditions that reduce energy availability, and its activity is needed for the successful development of seeds. In bean embryo extracts, SnRK1 can be separated by anion exchange chromatography into two pools: one where the catalytic subunit is phosphorylated (SnRK1-p) and another with reduced phosphorylation (SnRK1-np)...
May 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Md Rezaul Islam, Baohua Feng, Tingting Chen, Weimeng Fu, Caixia Zhang, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
Heat stress at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiotic stage leads to pollen sterility in rice, in which the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sugar homeostasis are always adversely affected. This damage is reversed by abscisic acid (ABA), but the mechanisms underlying the interactions among the ABA, sugar metabolism, ROS and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in rice spikelets under heat stress are unclear. Two rice genotypes, Zhefu802 (a recurrent parent) and fgl (its near-isogenic line) were subjected to heat stress of 40°C after pre-foliage sprayed with ABA and its biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone at the meiotic stage of PMC...
May 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Tetsuya Ishikawa, Sergey Shabala
Control of xylem Na+ loading has often been named as the essential components of salinity tolerance mechanism. However, it is less clear to what extent the difference in this trait may determine differential salinity tolerance between species. In this study barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. CM72) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Dongjin) plants were grown under two levels of salinity. Na+ and K+ concentrations in the xylem sap, and shoot and root tissues were measured at different time points after stress onset. Salt-exposed rice plants prevented xylem Na+ loading for several days, but failed to control this process in the longer term, ultimately resulting in a massive Na+ shoot loading...
May 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Shuai Tang, Ningmei Chen, Buerbatu Song, Junqing He, Yijun Zhou, Matthew A Jenks, Xiaojing Xu
The plant cuticle is a complex structure composed primarily of wax and cutin, but also contains cutan, glycerolipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, and proteins. The cuticle plays an important protective role as barrier between plants and their environment. In this paper, 4-week old leaves produced either on the rosette or on the inflorescence stem of the model extremophyte Thellungiella salsuginea were examined using scanning electron microscopy, cuticle permeability assays, and chemical composition analysis...
May 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Wayne Parrott
The advent of genome-edited products that are nearing commercialization in agriculture has highlighted that the USA biotechnology regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances. Of the three agencies that regulate engineered crops and animals for agriculture, only one has indicated how it will regulate edited plants. The Food and Drug Administration can regulate any plant, but has not indicated if it will single out edited plants. The United States Department of Agriculture currently has no authority over edited plants when the edit is a deletion or does not contain any added DNA from a plant pest...
May 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Marc Carriquí, Cyril Douthe, Arántzazu Molins, Jaume Flexas
Mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), a key photosynthetic trait, is strongly constrained by leaf anatomy. Leaf anatomical parameters such as cell wall thickness and chloroplast area exposed to the mesophyll intercellular airspace have been demonstrated to determine gm in species with diverging phylogeny, leaf structure and ontogeny. However, the potential implication of leaf anatomy, especially chloroplast movement, on the short-term response of gm to rapid changes (i.e. seconds to minutes) under different environmental conditions (CO2 , light or temperature) has not been examined...
May 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Stefan Jansson
With the advent of gene editing, it has become clearer than ever before that the legislation surrounding genetically modified organisms (Directive 2001/18/EG) is severely outdated.
May 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Huan Zhang, Caizhe Pan, Shaohan Gu, Qiaomei Ma, Yiqing Zhang, Xin Li, Kai Shi
Climate changes such as heat waves often affect plant growth and pose a growing threat to natural and agricultural ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 can mitigate the negative effects of heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. We examined the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and temperature on the generation of the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and stomatal movement characteristics associated with heat tolerance in tomato seedlings grown under two CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol-1 ) and two temperatures (25 and 42°C)...
May 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Craig C Brelsford, Luis O Morales, Jakub Nezval, Titta K Kotilainen, Saara M Hartikainen, Pedro J Aphalo, T Matthew Robson
We studied how plants acclimated to growing conditions that included combinations of blue light and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, and whether their growing environment affected their photosynthetic capacity during and after a brief period of acute high light (as might happen during an under-canopy sunfleck). Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta wild-type were compared with mutants lacking functional blue-light-and-UV photoreceptors: phototropin 1PHOT1, cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) and UV RESISTANT LOCUS 8 (uvr8)...
April 28, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Nils Hennion, Mickael Durand, Cécile Vriet, Joan Doidy, Laurence Maurousset, Rémi Lemoine, Nathalie Pourtau
In plants, root is a typical sink organ that relies exclusively on the import of sugar from the aerial parts. Sucrose is delivered by the phloem to the most distant root tips and, en route to the tip, is used by the different root tissues for metabolism and storage. Besides, a certain portion of this carbon is exuded in the rhizosphere, supplied to beneficial microorganisms and diverted by parasitic microbes. The transport of sugars towards these numerous sinks either occurs symplastically through cell connections (plasmodesmata) or is apoplastically mediated through membrane transporters (MST, SUT/SUC and SWEET) that control monosaccharide and sucrose fluxes...
April 28, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yu-Fan Guo, Wei Shan, Shu-Min Liang, Chao-Jie Wu, Wei Wei, Jian-Ye Chen, Wang-Jin Lu, Jian-Fei Kuang
Banana fruit (Musa acuminate L.) ripening is a complex genetically process affected by multiple phytohormones and expression of various genes. However, whether plant hormone brassinosteroid (BR) is involved in this process remains obscure. In this work, three genes that encode BR core signaling components Brassinazole Resistant (BZR) proteins, namely MaBZR1 to MaBZR3, were characterized from banana fruit. MaBZR1-MaBZR3 exhibited both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization and behaved as transcription inhibitors...
April 28, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sara Posé, Susan E Marcus, J Paul Knox
Antibody-based approaches have been used to study cell wall architecture and modifications during the ripening process of two important fleshy fruit crops: tomato and strawberry. Cell wall polymers in both unripe and ripe fruits have been sequentially solubilized and fractions analysed with sets of monoclonal antibodies focusing on the pectic polysaccharides. We demonstrate the specific detection of the LM26 branched galactan epitope, associated with rhamnogalacturonan-I, in cell walls of ripe strawberry fruit...
April 24, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Merle Tränkner, Ershad Tavakol, Bálint Jákli
Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are mineral nutrients that are required in large quantities by plants. Both elements critically contribute to the process of photosynthesis and the subsequent long-distance transport of photoassimilates. If K or Mg are not present in sufficient quantities in photosynthetic tissues, complex interactions of anatomical, physiological and biochemical responses result in a reduction of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. As a consequence, excessive production of reactive oxygen species causes photooxidation of the photosynthetic apparatus and cause an up-regulation of photoprotective mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Franz W R Hippler, Veronica L Dovis, Rodrigo M Boaretto, Jose A Quaggio, Ricardo A Azevedo, Lorraine E Williams, Dirceu Mattos
Antioxidant enzymatic responses in Citrus leaves under Cu-induced stress depends on rootstock genotypes. However, there is a lack of information about how woody plants recover growth capacity after exposure to elevated Cu and whether growth is affected by the redistribution of the metal to new vegetative parts and consequently whether photosynthesis is affected. Therefore, the biomass of plants and Cu concentrations in new leaf flushes were determined in young citrus trees grafted onto contrasting rootstocks [Swingle citrumelo (SW) and Rangpur lime (RL)]...
April 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Keach Murakami, Yasuomi Ibaraki
Time courses of photochemical reflectance index (PRI) of an attached cucumber leaf during a dark-light transition were compared to those of photochemical yields of photosystem II (YII ) to discuss the feasibility of PRI imaging for estimating the efficiency of photosynthetic light use. YII and PRI were simultaneously evaluated with a pulse-amplitude modulation chlorophyll fluorometer and a low-cost imaging system consisted of digital cameras and band-pass filters, respectively. YII decreased immediately after the transition and then increased under various photon flux densities...
April 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
May Sann Aung, Takanori Kobayashi, Hiroshi Masuda, Naoko K Nishizawa
Iron is essential for virtually all organisms but is toxic when present in excess. To acquire the proper amount of iron, plants induce expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation in response to low iron availability. Two iron-binding ubiquitin ligases, OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2, negatively regulate such iron deficiency responses in rice (Oryza sativa). Transgenic rice plants with repressed expression of OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 (HRZ knockdown lines) are tolerant to low iron availability and accumulate iron in shoots and seeds under both iron-sufficient and -deficient conditions without a growth penalty...
April 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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