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Physiologia Plantarum

Marie Garavillon-Tournayre, Aurélie Gousset-Dupont, Florian Gautier, Pierrick Benoit, Pierre Conchon, Romain Souchal, David Lopez, Gilles Petel, Jean-Stéphane Venisse, Catherine Bastien, Philippe Label, Boris Fumanal
Climate change is expected to increase drought frequency and intensity what will threaten plant growth and survival. In such fluctuating environments, perennial plants respond with hydraulic and biomass adjustments, resulting in either tolerant or avoidant strategies. Plant's response to stress relies on their phenotypic plasticity. Our goal was to explore physiology of young Populus nigra in the context of a time-limited and progressive water deficit in regard with their growth and stress response strategies...
September 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Goh Kar Mun, Matthew Dickinson, Christina V Supramaniam
Lignification of the plant cell wall could serve as the first line of defence against pathogen attack, but the molecular mechanisms of virulence and disease between oil palm and Ganoderma boninense is poorly understood. This study presents the biochemical, histochemical, enzymology and gene expression evidences of enhanced lignin biosynthesis in young oil palm as a response to G. boninense (GBLS strain). Comparative studies with control (T1), wounded (T2) and infected (T3) oil palm plantlets showed significant accumulation of total lignin content and monolignol derivatives (syringaldehyde and vanillin)...
September 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sara I Zandalinas, Damián Balfagón, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Plants grown in natural environment are regularly subjected to different combinations of abiotic stresses. Recent studies revealed that citrus plants subjected to a combination of severe drought and high temperatures displayed specific physiological, hormonal, molecular and metabolic responses. In the present study, we have performed a long-term experiment combining moderate drought and heat in Cleopatra mandarin to evaluate the impact of the stress-sequence, intensity and duration. Our results support previous observation of high sensitivity of Cleopatra mandarin to abiotic stresses that include high temperatures...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Dongyue Zhu, Wenyuan Chu, Yujiao Wang, Hanwei Yan, Chen Zhu, Xiang Yan
Previous studies have shown that the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins in several plants play a key part in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the SCPL genes in poplar. We identified 57 SCPL genes and divided into 3 subfamilies, which were unevenly distributed on 19 poplar chromosomes. Gene structure indicated that SCPL genes contain more introns, and motifs of each subfamily were relatively conserved. There were a total of 14 pairs of paralogs, with six pairs of these paralogs generated by segmental duplication and one generated by tandem duplication...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Prachi Jain, Christine von Toerne, Christian Lindermayr, Satish C Bhatla
Nitric oxide (NO) and various reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in cells in normal growth conditions and their enhanced production under stress conditions, are responsible for a variety of biochemical aberrations. Present findings demonstrate that sunflower seedling roots exhibit high sensitivity to salt stress in terms of nitrite accumulation. A significant reduction in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is evident in response to salt stress. Restoration of GSNOR activity with dithioerythritol (DTT) shows that the enzyme is reversibly inhibited under conditions of 120 mM NaCl...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Kouichi Soga, Chiaki Yamazaki, Motoshi Kamada, Naoki Tanigawa, Haruo Kasahara, Sachiko Yano, Kei H Kojo, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Takehide Kato, Takashi Hashimoto, Toshihisa Kotake, Kazuyuki Wakabayashi, Takayuki Hoson
We carried out a space experiment, denoted as Aniso Tubule, to examine the effects of microgravity on the growth anisotropy and cortical microtubule dynamics in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, using lines in which microtubules are visualized by labelling tubulin or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) with green fluorescent protein (GFP). In all lines, GFP-tubulin6 (TUB6)-, basic proline-rich protein1 (BPP1)-GFP- and spira1-like3 (SP1L3)-GFP-expressing using a constitutive promoter, and spiral2 (SPR2)-GFP- and GFP-65 kDa MAP-1 (MAP65-1)-expressing using a native promoter, the length of hypocotyls grown under microgravity conditions in space was longer than that grown at 1 g conditions on the ground...
September 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yuri Yoshida, Koji Miyamoto, Hisakazu Yamane, Yoko Nishizawa, Eiichi Minami, Hideaki Nojiri, Kazunori Okada
Phytocassanes and momilactones are known as major diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs), characterized by abundant production and antimicrobial activity and their biosynthetic genes are clustered in rice genomes. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor OsTGAP1 is known to act as a regulator of the coordinated production of DPs in cultured rice cells, but the in planta functions of OsTGAP1 remain largely unknown. Here, we present evidence on the biological function of OsTGAP1 in planta. In wild-type plants, OsTGAP1 is abundantly expressed in roots compared to that in shoots...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ian R Willick, Rachid Lahlali, Perumal Vijayan, David Muir, Chithra Karunakaran, Karen K Tanino
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the largest cereal crop grown in Western Canada where drought during late vegetative and seed filling stages affects plant development and yield. To identify new physio-chemical markers associated with drought tolerance, epidermal characteristics of the flag leaf of two wheat cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance were investigated. The drought resistant 'Stettler' had a lower drought susceptibility index, greater harvest index, and water use efficiency than the susceptible 'Superb'...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Qingquan Han, Haifeng Song, Yanni Yang, Hao Jiang, Sheng Zhang
Potassium (K) deficiency causes a series of physiological and metabolic disorders in plants, and dioecious species exhibit different responses based on gender. Our previous morphological and physiological observations indicated that Populus cathayana males were more tolerant to K(+) deficiency than females. To continue this work, comparative transcriptome analyses were carried out to investigate sexually differential expressed genes (DEGs) in this study. The results indicate that 10 weeks of K(+) deficiency result in 111 and 181 DEGs in males and females, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Kirk Overmyer, Katariina Vuorinen, Mikael Brosché
Plants live in a world where they are challenged by abiotic and biotic stresses. In response to unfavorable conditions or an acute challenge like a pathogen attack, plants employ various signaling pathways that regulate expression of defense genes and other mechanisms to provide resistance or stress adaptation. Identification of the regulatory steps in defense signaling has seen much progress in recent years. Many of the identified signaling pathways show interactions with each other, exemplified by the modulation of the jasmonic acid response by salicylic acid...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sylvia Lindberg, Albert Premkumar, Ulla Rasmussen, Alexander Schulz, Ida Lager
Besides hydrolysing different membrane phospholipids, plant phospholipases D and molecular species of their byproducts phosphatidic acids (PLDs/PAs) are involved in diverse cellular events such as membrane-cytoskeleton dynamics, hormone regulation and biotic and/or abiotic stress responses at cellular or subcellular levels. Among the twelve Arabidopsis PLD genes, PLDζ1 and PLDζ2 uniquely possess Ca(2+) -independent phox (PX) and pleckstrin (PH) homology domains. Here, we report that mutants deficient in these PLDs, pldζ1 and pldζ2, show differential sensitivities to hypoxia stimulus...
August 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Eodie Claverie, Felicien Meunier, Mathieu Javaux, Walid Sadok
Increasing evidence suggests that in crops, nocturnal water use could represent 30% of daytime water consumption particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. This raises the questions of whether nocturnal transpiration rates (TRN ) are i) less influenced by drought than daytime TR (TRD ), ii) increased by higher nocturnal vapor pressure deficit (VPDN ) which prevails in such environments, and iii) involved in crop drought tolerance. In this investigation, we addressed those questions by subjecting two wheat genotypes differing in drought tolerance to progressive soil drying under two long-term VPDN regimes imposed under naturally fluctuating conditions...
August 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Minna M Koskela, Käthe M Dahlström, Guillermina Goñi, Nina Lehtimäki, Markus Nurmi, Adrian Velazquez-Campoy, Guy Hanke, Bettina Bölter, Tiina A Salminen, Milagros Medina, Paula Mulo
Plastidic ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductases (FNRs; EC: together with bacterial type FNRs (FPRs) form the plant-type FNR family. Members of this group contain a two-domain scaffold that forms the basis of an extended superfamily of FAD dependent oxidoreductases. In the present study, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana At1g15140 (FERREDOXIN-NADP(+) OXIDOREDUCTASE -LIKE, FNRL) is an FAD-containing NADPH dependent oxidoreductase present in the chloroplast stroma. Determination of the kinetic parameters using the DCPIP NADPH-dependent diaphorase assay revealed that the reaction catalysed by a recombinant FNRL protein followed a saturation Michaelis-Menten profile on the NADPH concentration with kcat = 3...
August 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Moona Rahikainen, Sara Alegre, Andrea Trotta, Jesús Pascual, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi
Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and post-translational control of protein function, and therefore fundamental in determining physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Mikko Tikkanen, Steffen Grebe
Photosystem I (PSI) has evolved in anaerobic atmosphere conditions and until today remains susceptible to oxygen. To minimize the probability of damaging side reactions, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to control electron transfer, and PSI becomes inhibited only when malfunctions of these regulatory mechanisms occur. Due to the complicated induction of PSI photoinhibition, a detailed investigation of the process and following reactions are still largely missing. Here we introduce the theoretical framework and a novel method for an easy and controlled induction of PSI photoinhibition in vivo...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Deepti Barnawal, Nidhi Bharti, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Alok Pandey, Chandan Singh Chanotiya, Alok Kalra
Abiotic stresses such as salt and drought represent adverse environmental conditions that significantly damage plant growth and agricultural productivity. In this study, the mechanism of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulated tolerance against abiotic stresses has been explored. Results suggest that PGPR strains, Arthrobacter protophormiae (SA3) and Dietzia natronolimnaea (STR1) can facilitate wheat crop in tolerating salt stress while Bacillus subtilis (LDR2) can provide tolerance to wheat crop against drought stress...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yu-Ching Tu, Wen-Shi Tsai, Jyuan-Yu Wei, Kai-Ya Chang, Chang-Ching Tien, Hui-Yu Hsiao, Shih-Feng Fu
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important crops worldwide and is severely affected by geminiviruses. Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV), belonging to the geminiviruses, was isolated in Taiwan and causes tremendous crop loss. The geminivirus-encoded C2 proteins are crucial for a successful interaction between the virus and host plants. However, the exact functions of the viral C2 protein of ToLCTWV have not been investigated. We analyzed the molecular function(s) of the C2 protein by transient or stable expression in tomato cv...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Arnold J Bloom, Petra Kameritsch
Rubisco, the enzyme that constitutes as much as half of the protein in a leaf, initiates either the photorespiratory pathway that supplies reductant for the assimilation of nitrate into amino acids or the C3 carbon fixation pathway that generates carbohydrates. The relative rates of these two pathways depend both on the relative extent to which O2 and CO2 occupies the active site of Rubisco and on whether manganese or magnesium is bound to the enzyme. This study quantified the activities of manganese and magnesium in isolated tobacco chloroplasts and the thermodynamics of binding of these metals to Rubisco purified from tobacco or a bacterium...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
H Marrou, J J Ricaute, M E Ghanem, J A Clavijo Michelangeli, L Ghaouti, I M Rao, T R Sinclair
Nitrogen accumulation in legumes is one of the main determinants of crop yield. Although N accumulation from symbiotic nitrogen fixation or N absorption from the soil has been widely investigated, there is no clear consensus on timing of the beginning of N accumulation and the termination of N accumulation, and the physiological events that may be associated with these two events. The analyses done in this study aimed at identifying the determinant of N accumulation in two grain legumes species. Nitrogen accumulation dynamics as well as mass accumulation and development stages were recorded in the field for several genotypes of common bean (Phaseaolus Vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) under different growing conditions...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xin Lu, Xiaofei Zhang, Hui Duan, Conglong Lian, Weilun Yin, Xinli Xia
Stress-responsive NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (SNAC) genes are being used to alter stress tolerance in Arabidopsis or grasses through genetic engineering. However, limited reports are available about the functional characteristics of SNAC in trees. In this study, three putative NAC proteins were identified from Populus euphratica. PeNAC034 and PeNAC045 were classified into the ATAF subgroup andPeNAC036 into the ANAC072 subgroup. These three SNAC transcription factors were localized in the nucleus and contained the transcription activation domain in their C-terminal...
August 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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