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Physiologia Plantarum

Janice A Lake, Heather J Walker, Duncan D Cameron, Barry H Lomax
Investigations were undertaken in the context of the potential environmental impact of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) transportation in the form of a hypothetical leak of extreme levels of CO2 into the soil environment and subsequent effects on plant physiology. Laboratory studies using purpose built soil chambers, separating and isolating the soil and aerial environments, were used to introduce high levels of CO2 gas exclusively into the rhizosphere. CO2 concentrations greater than 32% in the isolated soil environment revealed a previously unknown whole plant stomatal response...
October 25, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Chengchen Li, Caifeng Li, Haiyan Zhang, Hong Liao, Xiurong Wang
Induction of secreted and intracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs; EC is widely recognized as an adaptation of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. The secretion of PAPs plays important roles in P acquisition. However, little is known about the functions of intracellular PAP in plants and nodules. In this work, we identified a novel PAP gene GmPAP21 in soybean. Expression of GmPAP21 was induced by P limitation in nodules, roots and old leaves, and increased in roots with increasing duration of P starvation...
October 20, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Pan Li, Yan-Jie Li, Bo Wang, Hui-Min Yu, Qin Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Glycosyltransferase (GT) family-1, the biggest GT family in plants, typically participates in modification of small molecules and affects many aspects during plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, although some UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) of family-1 have been functionally characterized, functions of most UGTs remain unknown or fragmentary. Here, we report data for the arabidopsis UGT87A2, a stress-regulated glycosyltransferase. We found that UGT87A2 could be dramatically induced by salinity, osmotic stress, drought and ABA...
October 17, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Andrea Kakuszi, Katalin Solymosi, Béla Böddi
The maintenance but substantial transformation of plastids was found in lowermost hypocotyl segments of soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Magnum) during a 60-day cultivation period. Although the plants were grown under natural light-dark cycles, this hypocotyl segment was under full coverage of the soil in 5-7 cm depth, thus it was never exposed to light. The 4-day old plants were fully etiolated: amyloplasts, occasionally prolamellar bodies, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and protochlorophyll (Pchl) were found in the hypocotyls of these young seedlings...
October 13, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Berta Gallego, Soledad Martos, Catalina Cabot, Juan Barceló, Charlotte Poschenrieder
The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola - Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 μM), medium (12 μM), and high (102 μM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid, and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1...
October 13, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Franco Santin, Sneha Bhogale, Elisa Fantino, Carolina Grandellis, Anjan K Banerjee, Rita M Ulloa
Among the many factors that regulate potato tuberization, calcium and Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) play an important role. CDPK activity increases at the onset of tuber formation with StCDPK1 expression being strongly induced in swollen stolons. However, not much is known about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of StCDPK1 or its downstream targets in potato development. To elucidate further, we analyzed its expression in different tissues and stages of the life cycle. Histochemical analysis of StCDPK1::GUS plants demonstrated that StCDPK1 is strongly associated with the vascular system in stems, roots, during stolon to tuber transition, and in tuber sprouts...
October 7, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Lipika Bhattacharjee, Deepjyoti Singh, Janesh Kumar Gautam, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Protease inhibitors and their cognate proteases regulate growth, development and defense. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) constitute a large family of genes in most metazoans and plants. Drosophila NECROTIC (NEC) gene and its homologues in the mammalian system are well-characterized serpins, which play a role in regulating proteases that participate in cell death pathways. Though the Arabidopsis genome contains several serpin homologs, biological function is not known for most of them. Here we show that two Arabidopsis serpins, AtSRP4 and AtSRP5, are closest sequence homologue of Drosophila NEC protein, and are involved in stress-induced cell death and defense...
October 6, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Ricardo Cruz de Carvalho, Myriam Catalá, Cristina Branquinho, Jorge Marques da Silva, Eva Barreno
Desiccation tolerant (DT) organisms are able to withstand an extended loss of body water and rapidly resume metabolism upon rehydration. This ability, however, is strongly dependent on a slow dehydration rate. Fast dehydration affects membrane integrity leading to intracellular solute leakage upon rehydration and thereby impairs metabolism recovery. We test the hypothesis that the increased cell membrane damage and membrane permeability observed under fast dehydration, compared with slow dehydration, is related to an increase in lipid peroxidation...
October 5, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Hao Sun, Jia Guo, Yaoke Duan, Tiantian Zhang, Heqiang Huo, Haijun Gong
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely grown cucurbitaceous vegetable that exhibits a relatively high capacity for silicon (Si) accumulation, but the molecular mechanism for silicon uptake remains to be clarified. Here we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a gene encoding a silicon transporter in cucumber (cv. Mch-4). CsLsi1 shares 55.70 and 90.63% homology with the Lsi1s of a monocot and dicot, rice (Oryza sativa) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), respectively. CsLsi1 was predominantly expressed in the roots, and application of exogenous silicon suppressed its expression...
October 4, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Ashley B Martel, Mirwais M Qaderi
Studies have been mounting in support of the finding that plants release aerobic methane (CH4 ), and that these emissions are increased by both short-term and long-term environmental stress. It remains unknown whether or not they are affected by variation in light quantity and quality, whether emissions change over time, and whether they are influenced by physiological parameters. Light is the primary energy source of plants, and therefore an important regulator of plant growth and development. Both shade-intolerant sunflower and shade-tolerant chrysanthemum were investigated for the release of aerobic CH4 emissions, using either low or high light intensity, and varying light quality, including control, low or normal red:far-red ratio (R:FR), and low or high levels of blue, to discern the relationship between light and CH4 emissions...
September 22, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Pasqualina Woodrow, Loredana F Ciarmiello, Maria Grazia Annunziata, Severina Pacifico, Federica Iannuzzi, Antonio Mirto, D'Amelia Luisa, Dell'Aversana Emilia, Simona Piccolella, Amodio Fuggi, Petronia Carillo
Durum wheat plants are extremely sensitive to drought and salinity during seedling and early development stages. Their responses to stresses have been extensively studied to provide new metabolic targets and improving the tolerance to adverse environments. However, most of these studies have been performed in growth chambers under low light (300-350 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PAR, LL). However, in nature plants have to face frequent fluctuations of light intensities that often exceed their photosynthetic capacity (900-2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) )...
September 21, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Laura V Junker, Ingo Ensminger
Rapid developments in remote-sensing of vegetation and high-throughput precision plant phenotyping promise a range of real-life applications using leaf optical properties for non-destructive assessment of plant performance. Use of leaf optical properties for assessing plant performance requires the ability to use photosynthetic pigments as proxies for physiological properties and the ability to detect these pigments fast, reliably and at low cost. We describe a simple and cost-effective protocol for the rapid analysis of chlorophylls, carotenoids and tocopherols using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
September 12, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Zsolt Gulyás, Livia Simon-Sarkadi, Eszter Badics, Aliz Novák, Zsuzsanna Mednyánszky, Gabriella Szalai, Gábor Galiba, Gábor Kocsy
Abiotic stresses induce oxidative stress, which modifies the level of several metabolites including amino acids. The redox control of free amino acid profile was monitored in wild type and ascorbate or glutathione deficient mutant Arabidopsis plants before and after hydroponic treatment with various redox agents. Both mutations and treatments modified the size and redox state of the ascorbate (AsA) and/or glutathione (GSH) pools. The total free amino acid content was increased by AsA, GSH and H2 O2 in all 3 genotypes and a very large (3-fold) increase was observed in the GSH-deficient pad2-1 mutant after GSH treatment compared to the untreated wild type plants...
September 8, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Jinhua Zuo, Qing Wang, Cong Han, Zheng Ju, Dongyan Cao, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Lipu Gao
Plant genomes encode diverse small RNA classes that function in distinct gene-silencing pathways. To elucidate the intricate regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in response to chilling injury in tomato fruit, the deep sequencing and bioinformatic methods were combined to decipher the small RNAs landscape in the control and chilling injured groups. Except for the known miRNAs and ta-siRNAs, 85 novel miRNAs and 5 ta-siRNAs members belonging to 3 TAS families (TAS5, TAS9 and TAS10) were identified, 34 putative phased small RNAs and 740 cis/trans-natural antisense small-interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) were also found in our results which enriched the tomato small RNAs repository...
September 6, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Jiye Rhee, Tomoaki Horie, Shizuka Sasano, Yoshiki Nakahara, Maki Katsuhara
A barley (Hordeum vulgare) plasma membrane type aquaporin, HvPIP2;5, was identified as an H2 O2 permeable aquaporin among 21 barley and rice PIPs examined in the heterologous expression system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four TIPs were also detected as H2 O2 -transporting aquaporins among 15 barley and rice TIPs. Influx of H2 O2 into yeast cells expressing HvPIP2;5 was determined with a florescent-dye-based assay. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that the expression of HvPIP2;5 protein was ubiquitous in root tissues, and was also weakly observed in leaf epidermal cells and cells in the vascular bundle...
September 6, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiaolong Liu, Xia Li, Chen Zhang, Chuanchao Dai, Jiayu Zhou, Chenggang Ren, Jinfei Zhang
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC has important functions in C4 photosynthesis and biosynthesis of intermediate metabolites. In this study, the drought resistance of C4-PEPC-expressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa, line PC) plants was assessed using simulated drought conditions [i.e. polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 treatment]. The dry weight of PC plants was higher than that of wild-type (WT) plants following treatment with 15% PEG-6000 for 16 days. Furthermore, the water use efficiency, relative water content and proline content in PC plants were higher than those of WT plants, as were C4-PEPC activity and transcript levels following treatment with 5% PEG-6000 for 2 h...
September 4, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Neelam S Sangwan, Lokesh K Narnoliya, Neha Singh, Shilpi Bansal, Bhawana Mishra, Rajender Singh Sangwan
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) is one of the most important aromatic plants and is well known for its diverse perfumery uses. Its economic importance is due to presence of fragrance rich essential oil of its foliage. The essential oil is a mixture of various volatile phytochemicals which are mainly terpenes (isoprenoids) in nature. In this study, genes related to isoprenoid biosynthesis (DXS, DXR and HMGR) were isolated, cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Further, the first gene of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), was made full length by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy...
August 31, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Zeina Daher, Ghislaine Recorbet, Katalin Solymosi, Stefanie Wienkoop, Arnaud Mounier, Dominique Morandi, Jeannine Lherminier, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot, Benoît Schoefs
During arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, arbuscule-containing root cortex cells display a proliferation of plastids, a feature usually ascribed to an increased plant anabolism despite the lack of studies focusing on purified root plastids. In this study, we investigated mycorrhiza-induced changes in plastidic pathways by performing a label-free comparative subcellular quantitative proteomic analysis targeted on plastid-enriched fractions isolated from Medicago truncatula roots, coupled to a cytological analysis of plastid structure...
August 25, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Yanhui Chen, Yangyang Han, Xiangzhu Kong, Hanhan Kang, Yuanqing Ren, Wei Wang
High salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses that limit crop growth. Expansins are cell wall proteins that regulate plant development and abiotic stress tolerance by mediating cell wall expansion. We studied the function of a wheat expansin gene, TaEXPA2, in salt stress tolerance by overexpressing it in tobacco. Overexpression of TaEXPA2 enhanced the salt stress tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants as indicated by the presence of higher germination rates, longer root length, more lateral roots, higher survival rates, and more green leaves under salt stress than in the wild type (WT)...
August 22, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Martín D Ré, Carla Gonzalez, Mariela R Escobar, María Laura Sossi, Estela M Valle, Silvana B Boggio
Plants have the largest number of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) (15-42 kDa) among eukaryotes, but little is known about their function in vivo. They accumulate in response to different stresses, and specific sHsps are also expressed during developmental processes such as seed development, germination, and ripening. The presence of organelle-specific sHsps appears to be unique to plants. The sHsps expression is regulated by heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). In this work, it was explored the role of sHsps in the chilling injury of tomato fruit...
August 22, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
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