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Physiologia Plantarum

Aakash Chawade, Rita Armoniené, Gunilla Berg, Gintaras Brazauskas, Gunilla Frostgård, Mulatu Geleta, Andrii Gorash, Tina Henriksson, Kristiina Himanen, Anne Ingver, Eva Johansson, Lise Nistrup Jørgensen, Mati Koppel, Reine Koppel, Pirjo Makela, Rodomiro Ortiz, Wieslaw Podyma, Thomas Roitsch, Antanas Ronis, Jan T Svensson, Pernilla Vallenback, Martin Weih
Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region...
March 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jian-Ping An, Ji-Fang Yao, Rui-Rui Xu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
It is known that ethylene signaling is involved in the regulation of salt stress response. However, the molecular mechanism on ethylene-regulated salt stress tolerance remains largely unclear. In this study, an apple NAC (NAM ATAF CUC) transcription factor, MdNAC047, was isolated and functionally characterized to be involved in ethylene-modulated salt tolerance. MdNAC047 gene was significantly induced by salt treatment and its overexpression conferred increased tolerance to salt stress and facilitated the release of ethylene...
March 12, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Gerhard C Rossouw, Katja Šuklje, Jason P Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire, Bruno P Holzapfel
Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of véraison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25% of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jiang Wang, Norman Hüner, Lining Tian
The small monocot plant Brachypodium distachyon is rapidly emerging as a powerful model system to study questions unique to the monocot crops. An extensive BLAST search was carried to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT2 genes in the fully sequenced Brachypodium genome. Seven genes encoding putative high-affinity nitrate transporters (BdNRT2) were identified. Transcriptional analysis of individual BdNRT2 gene under various nitrogen sources and levels in the wild-type and a T-DNA mutant of BdNRT2...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Courtney D Giles, Alan E Richardson, Barbara J Cade-Menun, Malika M Mezeli, Lawrie K Brown, Daniel Menezes-Blackburn, Tegan Darch, Martin Sa Blackwell, Charles A Shand, Marc I Stutter, Renate Wendler, Patricia Cooper, David G Lumsdon, Catherine Wearing, Hao Zhang, Philip M Haygarth, Timothy S George
Citrate and phytase root exudates contribute to improved phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) when both exudates are produced in a P deficient soil. To test the importance of root intermingling in the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates, Nicotiana tabacum plant-lines with constitutive expression of heterologous citrate (Cit) or fungal phytase (Phy) exudation traits were grown under two root treatments (roots separated or intermingled) and in two soils with contrasting soil P availability...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Cécilia Gallardo, Bárbara Hufnagel, Célia Casset, Carine Alcon, Fanny Garcia, Fanchon Divol, Laurence Marquès, Patrick Doumas, Benjamin Péret
Cluster root (CR) is one of the most spectacular plant developmental adaptations to hostile environment. It can be found in a few species from a dozen botanical families, including white lupin (Lupinus albus) in the Fabaceae family. These amazing structures are produced in phosphate-deprived conditions and are made of hundreds of short roots also known as rootlets. White lupin is the only crop bearing CRs and is considered as the model species for CR studies. However, little information is available on CRs atypical development, including the molecular events that trigger their formation...
March 1, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Zhonghua Bian, Qichang Yang, Tao Li, Ruifeng Cheng, Yvonne Barnett, Chungui Lu
Red and blue light are the most important light spectra for driving photosynthesis to produce adequate crop yield. It is also believed that green light may contribute to adaptations to growth. However, the effects of green light, which can trigger specific and necessary responses of plant growth, have been underestimated in the past. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was exposed to different continuous light (CL) conditions for 48 h by a combination of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) supplemented with or without green LEDs, in an environmental-controlled growth chamber...
March 1, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Zsuzsanna Kolbert
Both strigolactones (SLs) and nitric oxide (NO) are regulatory signals with diverse roles during plant development and stress responses. This review aims to discuss the so far available data regarding SLs-NO interplay in plant systems. The majority of the few articles dealing with SL-NO interplay focuses on the root system and it seems that NO can be an upstream negative regulator of SL biosynthesis or an upstream positive regulator of SL signaling depending on the nutrient supply. From the so far published results it is clear that NO modifies the activity of target proteins involved in SL biosynthesis or signaling which may be a physiologically relevant interaction...
February 26, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Romina Martínez-Rubio, José Luis Acebes, Antonio Encina, Anna Kärkönen
Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells habituated to a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) have a modified cell wall, in which the reduction in the cellulose content is compensated by a network of highly cross-linked feruloylated arabinoxylans and the deposition of lignin-like polymers. For both arabinoxylan cross-linking and lignin polymerization, class III peroxidases (POXs) have been demonstrated to have a prominent role. For the first time, a comparative study of POX activity and isoforms in control and cellulose-impaired cells has been addressed, also taking into account their cellular distribution in different compartments...
February 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Amnon Cochavi, Jhonthan Ephrath, Hanan Eizenberg, Shimon Rachmilevitch
The parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca infests tomato, a crop plant that is commonly cultivated in semi-arid environments, where tomato may be subject to salt stress. Since the relationship between the two stresses - salinity and parasitism - has been poorly investigated in tomato, the effects of P. aegyptiaca parasitism on tomato growing under moderate salinity were examined. Tomatoes were grown with regular or saline water irrigation (3 and 45 mM Cl- , respectively) in soils infested with P. aegyptiaca. The infested plants accumulated higher levels of sodium and chloride ions in the roots, shoots and leaves (old and young) under both salinity levels vs non-infected plants...
February 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Aingeru Calderón, Antonio Sánchez-Guerrero, Ana Ortiz-Espín, Isabel Martínez-Alcalá, Daymi Camejo, Ana Jiménez, Francisca Sevilla
In a changing environment, plants are able to acclimate to the new conditions by regulating their metabolism through the antioxidant and redox systems involved in the stress response. Here we studied a mitochondrial thioredoxin in wild type (WT) Arabidopis thaliana and two Attrxo1 mutant lines grown in the absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. Compared to WT plants, no evident phenotype was observed in the mutant plants in control condition, although they had higher number of stomata, loss of water, nitric oxide and carbonyl protein contents as well as higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes than WT plants...
February 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hiroki Inahashi, Israt Jahan Shelley, Takaki Yamauchi, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Misuzu Takahashi-Nosaka, Maya Matsunami, Atsushi Ogawa, Yusaku Noda, Yoshiaki Inukai
Auxin flow is important for different root developmental processes such as root formation, emergence, elongation and gravitropism. However, the detailed information about the mechanisms regulating the auxin flow is less well understood in rice. We characterized the auxin transport-related mutants, Ospin-formed2-1 (Ospin2-1) and Ospin2-2, which exhibited curly root phenotypes and altered lateral root-formation patterns in rice. The OsPIN2 gene encodes a member of the auxin-efflux carrier proteins that possibly regulates the basipetal auxin flow from the root tip towards the root-elongation zone...
February 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Dorien Van de Wouwer, Wout Boerjan, Bartel Vanholme
Global warming and the consequent climate change is one of the major environmental challenges we are facing today. The driving force behind the rise in temperature is our fossil-based economy, which releases massive amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission, we need to scale down our dependency on fossil resources, implying that we need other sources for energy and chemicals to feed our economy. Here, plants have an important role to play; by means of photosynthesis, plants capture solar energy to split water and fix carbon derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide...
February 12, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Anna Abrahão, Megan H Ryan, Etienne Laliberté, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
During long-term ecosystem development and its associated decline in soil phosphorus (P) availability, the abundance of mycorrhizal plant species declines at the expense of non-mycorrhizal species with root specialisations for P-acquisition, such as massive exudation of carboxylates. Leaf manganese (Mn) concentration has been suggested as a proxy for such a strategy, Mn concentration being higher in non-mycorrhizal plants that release carboxylates than in mycorrhizal plants. Shifts in nitrogen (N)-acquisition strategies also occur; nodulation in legumes is expected at low N availability, when sufficient P is available...
February 8, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hsiang-Wen Chen, Staffan Persson, Markus Grebe, Heather E McFarlane
The plant cell wall surrounds and protects cells. To divide, plant cells must synthesize a new cell wall to separate the two daughter cells. The cell plate is a transient polysaccharide-based compartment that grows between daughter cells and gives rise to the new cell wall. Cellulose constitutes a key component of the cell wall, and mutants with defects in cellulose synthesis commonly share phenotypes with cytokinesis-defective mutants. However, despite the importance of cellulose in the cell plate and the daughter cell wall, many open questions remain regarding the timing and regulation of cellulose synthesis during cell division...
February 8, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Keitaro Tawaraya, Soichiro Honda, Weiguo Cheng, Masaru Chuba, Yozo Okazaki, Kazuki Saito, Akira Oikawa, Hayato Maruyama, Jun Wasaki, Tadao Wagatsuma
Recycling of P from P-containing metabolites is an adaptive strategy of plants to overcome soil P deficiency. This study was aimed at demonstrating differences in lipid remodelling between low-P-tolerant and -sensitive rice cultivars using lipidome profiling. The rice cultivars Akamai (low-P-tolerant) and Koshihikari (sensitive) were grown in a culture solution with [2 mg·L-1 (+P)] or without (-P) phosphate for 21 and 28 days after transplantation. Upper and lower leaves were collected. Lipids were extracted from the leaves and their composition was analysed by LC-MS...
February 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Konrad Neugebauer, Martin R Broadley, Hamed A El-Serehy, Timothy S George, James W McNicol, Milton Ferreira de Moraes, Philip J White
The ionome is defined as the elemental composition of a subcellular structure, cell, tissue, organ or organism. The subset of the ionome comprising mineral nutrients is termed the functional ionome. A 'standard functional ionome' of leaves of an 'average' angiosperm, defined as the nutrient composition of leaves when growth is not limited by mineral nutrients, is presented and can be used to compare the effects of environment and genetics on plant nutrition. The leaf ionome of a plant is influenced by interactions between its environment and genetics...
February 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Thierry Allario, Aude Tixier, Hosam Awad, Cedric Lemaire, Nicole Brunel, Eric Badel, Têtè Sévérien Barigah, Jean-Louis Julien, Pierre Peyret, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Herve Cochard, Stephane Herbette
While the xylem hydraulic properties, such as vulnerability to cavitation (VC), are of paramount importance in drought resistance, their genetic determinants remain unexplored. There is evidence that pectins and their methylation pattern are involved, but the detail of their involvement and the corresponding genes need to be clarified. We analysed the hydraulic properties of the 35S::PME1 transgenic aspen that ectopically under- or over-express a xylem-abundant pectin methyl esterase, PtxtPME1. We also produced and analyzed 4CL1::PGII transgenic poplars expressing a fungal polygalacturonase, AnPGII, under the control of the Ptxa4CL1 promoter that is active in the developing xylem after xylem cell expansion...
February 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Walter Zegada-Lizarazu, Gianni Della Rocca, Mauro Centritto, Andrea Parenti, Andrea Monti
Studies at the root level and how the root-shoot interactions may influence the whole crop performance of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) under limited water conditions are largely missing. In the present study, we illustrate the effects of water stress on some phenotypic traits at the root-shoot levels of two giant reed genotypes (from Morocco and Northern Italy), that were reported to have different adaptive hydraulic stem conductivities despite the limited genetic variability of the species. The trial was carried out in one cubic meter rhizotrons (1 x 1 x 1 m) for two consecutive growing seasons...
February 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Aurora Gitto, Wieland Fricke
The cellular and molecular basis of a reduction in root water uptake in plants exposed to heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) is poorly studied. The aim of the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) was to test whether any reduction in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in response to Zn treatment is accompanied by a reduction in cell Lp and gene expression level of aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. Plants were grown in the presence of 0.25 μM, (control), 0.1 mM and 1 mM Zn in the root medium and analysed when they were 16-18 d old...
January 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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