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Physiologia Plantarum

Cornelia Spetea, Andrei Herdean, Guillaume Allorent, Luca Carraretto, Giovanni Finazzi, Ildikò Szabo
In natural variable environments, plants rapidly adjust photosynthesis for optimal balance between light absorption and utilization. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ion fluxes across the chloroplast thylakoid membrane play an important role in this regulation, by affecting the proton motive force, and consequently photosynthesis and thylakoid membrane ultrastructure. This minireview presents an update on the thylakoid ion channels and transporters characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana as being involved in these processes, as well as an outlook at the evolutionary conservation of their functions in other photosynthetic organisms...
March 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Thomas Roach, Theresa Baur, Wolfgang Stöggl, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
High light causes photosystem II to generate singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can react with membrane lipids, releasing reactive electrophile species (RES), such as acrolein. To investigate how RES may contribute to light stress responses, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was high light-treated in photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions and also in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere to elevate ROS production. The responses were compared to exogenous acrolein. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher in photoautotrophic cells, as a consequence of a more de-epoxidized state of the xanthophyll cycle pool and more LHCSR3 protein, showing that photosynthesis was under more pressure than in mixotrophic cells...
March 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ming-Chao Liu, De-Liang Kong, Xiu-Rong Lu, Kai Huang, Shuo Wang, Wei-Bin Wang, Bo Qu, Yu-Long Feng
The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China...
March 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Susann Schaller-Laudel, Dariusz Latowski, Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska, Kazimierz Strzałka, Sebastian Daum, Kirsten Bacia, Christian Wilhelm, Reimund Goss
The study investigated the effect of the thylakoid membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the structure of two algal light-harvesting complexes (LHC). In contrast to higher plants whose thylakoid membranes are characterized by an enrichment of the neutral galactolipids MGDG and DGDG, both the green alga Mantoniella squamata and the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contain membranes with a high content of the negatively charged lipids SQDG and PG...
March 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Claudia Pirone, Libero Gurrieri, Ivan Gaiba, Alessio Adamiano, Francesco Valle, Paolo Trost, Francesca Sparla
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes three glucan, water dikinases. Glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1; EC and phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD; EC are chloroplastic enzymes, while glucan, water dikinase 2 (GWD2) is cytosolic. Both GWDs and PWD catalyze the addition of phosphate groups to amylopectin chains at the surface of starch granules, changing its physicochemical properties. As a result, GWD1 and PWD have a positive effect on transitory starch degradation at night. Because of its cytosolic localization, GWD2 does not have the same effect...
March 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Daisuke Takagi, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Hitomi Hanawa, Tomohito Mabuchi, Ginga Shimakawa, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Chikahiro Miyake
In land plants, photosystem (PS) I photoinhibition limits carbon fixation and causes growth defects. In addition, recovery from PSI photoinhibition takes much longer than PSII photoinhibition when the PSI core-complex is degraded by oxidative damage. Accordingly, PSI photoinhibition should be avoided in land plants, and land plants should have evolved mechanisms to prevent PSI photoinhibition. However, such protection mechanisms have not yet been identified, and it remains unclear whether all land plants suffer from PSI photoinhibition in the same way...
March 10, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Jennifer Senkler, Michael Senkler, Hans-Peter Braun
The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) has a molecular mass of about 1000 kDa and includes 40-50 subunits in animals, fungi and plants. It is composed of a membrane arm and a peripheral arm and has a conserved L-like shape in all species investigated. However, in plants and possibly some protists it has a second peripheral domain which is attached to the membrane arm on its matrix exposed side at a central position. The extra domain includes proteins resembling prokaryotic gamma-type carbonic anhydrases...
March 6, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Daria V Vetoshkina, Boris N Ivanov, Ivan I Proskuryakov, Maria M Borisova-Mubarakshina
Light-dependent oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain, i.e. the Mehler reaction, has been studied using isolated pea thylakoids. The role of the plastoquinone pool in the Mehler reaction was investigated in the presence of DNP-INT, the inhibitor of plastohydroquinone oxidation by cytochrome b6/f complex. Oxygen reduction rate in the presence of DNP-INT was higher than in the absence of the inhibitor in low light at pH 6.5 and 7.6, showing that the capacity of the plastoquinone pool to reduce molecular oxygen in this case exceeded that of the entire electron transfer chain...
March 3, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sana Khan, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Jyotshna, Karuna Shanker, Feroz Khan, Laiq Ur Rahman
The quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QPT) is a key enzyme that converts quinolinic acid into nicotinic acid mononucleotide. The QPT gene plays an essential role in the pyridine nucleotide cycle as well as in the biosynthetic pathway of the alkaloid nicotine. However, a clear role for QPT is yet to be characterized to validate the actual function of this gene in planta. In the present study, an RNAi approach was used to reveal the functional role of QPT. Transformation and analysis of the hairy roots of the Nicotiana leaf explants was used, followed by plant regeneration and analysis...
March 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Reyes Ródenas, Manuel Francisco García-Legaz, Elvira López-Gómez, Vicente Martínez, Francisco Rubio, M Ángeles Botella
Regulation of essential macronutrients acquisition by plants in response to their availability is a key process for plant adaptation to changing environments. Here we show in tomato and Arabidopsis plants that when they are subjected to NO3(-) , PO4(3)(-) and SO4(2)(-) deprivation, low-affinity K(+) uptake and K(+) translocation to the shoot are reduced. In parallel, these nutritional deficiencies produce reductions in the messenger levels of the genes encoding the main systems for low-affinity K(+) uptake and K(+) translocation, i...
February 28, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yael Hacham, Ifat Matityahu, Rachel Amir
Methionine is an essential amino acid whose low level limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ- SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared to wild-type plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes...
February 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Chithra S, Jasim B, Jyothis Mathew, Radhakrishnan E K
Endophytic fungi have been reported to have the acquired ability to synthesize host plant specific medicinal natural products. Many fungi with such properties have been characterized and optimized for the conditions which favor maximal production of desired products. However, the inherent plant colonization property of promising endophytic fungi is least studied. Exploiting the transgenome functioning of these fungi have immense applications to add beneficial features to non-host plants. In the present study, endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp...
February 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Konstantin Chekanov, Alexandr Feoktistov, Elena Lobakova
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, due to a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae...
February 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Fátima Míguez, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, José-María Becerril, José-Ignacio García-Plazaola
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery...
February 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Md Qussen Akhtar, Nida Qamar, Pallavi Yadav, Pallavi Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M...
February 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sigridur Dalmannsdottir, Marit Jørgensen, Marcin Rapacz, Liv Østrem, Arild Larsen, Rolf Rødven, Odd Arne Rognli
The effect of variable autumn temperatures in combination with decreasing irradiance and daylength on photosynthesis, growth cessation and freezing tolerance was investigated in northern- and southern-adapted populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and timothy (Phleum pratense) intended for use in regions at northern high latitudes. Plants were subjected to three different acclimation temperatures; 12 °C, 6 °C and 9/3 °C (day/night) for four weeks, followed by one week of cold acclimation at 2 °C under natural light conditions...
February 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiaodong Xie, Guangyong Qin, Ping Si, Zhaopeng Luo, Junping Gao, Xia Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Pan Wei, Qingyou Xia, Fucheng Lin, Jun Yang
The plant-specific PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins have been well characterized in many plant species, where they are crucial in the regulation of auxin transport in various aspects of plant development. However, little is known about the exact roles of the PIN genes during plant development in Nicotiana species. This study investigated the PIN genes in tobacco (N. tabacum) and in two ancestral species (N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis). Genome-wide analysis of the N. tabacum genome identified 20 genes of the PIN family...
January 27, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Eva Hellmann, Christine Swinka, Alexander Heyl
Genetic screens are a common tool to identify new modulators in a defined context, e.g. hormonal response or environmental stress. However, most screens are either in vitro or laborious and time-and-space inefficient. Here we present a novel in planta screening approach that shortens the time from the actual screening process to the identification of a new modulator and simultaneously reduces space requirements and costs. The basic features of this screening approach are the creation of luciferase reporter plants which enable a non-invasive readout in a streamlined multiplate reader process, the transformation of those plants with an inducible, Gateway™-compatible expression vector, and a screening setup, in which whole plants at the seedling stage are screened in 96 multiwell plates in the first transformed generation without the use of an expensive CCD camera system...
January 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Qinqin Chen, Fangfang Niu, Jingli Yan, Bisi Chen, Feifei Wu, Xiaohua Guo, Bo Yang, Yuan-Qing Jiang
The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) transcription factor gene family is plant-specific and plays diverse roles in development and responses to abiotic stresses and pathogen challenge. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) or canola is an important oil crop worldwide, however, the function of NAC genes in it remains largely elusive. Here, we identified and characterized the NAC56 gene isolated from oilseed rape. Expression of BnaNAC56 was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), methyl viologen (MV) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, but repressed by cold...
January 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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