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Physiologia Plantarum

Ji Hyea Lee, Jeongyeo Lee, HyeRan Kim, Won Byoung Chae, Sun-Ju Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Man-Ho Oh
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight...
January 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yongfeng Lou, Huayu Sun, Sining Wang, Hao Xu, Lichao Li, Hansheng Zhao, Zhimin Gao
Higher plants have an array of photoprotection mechanisms alleviating the harmful effects of light. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is one of the photoprotective mechanisms, which dissipates the excess of light energy absorbed in the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) into thermal energy. The PsbS (photosystem II subunit S), a member of the LHC family thought to be present exclusively in higher plants, is supposed to activate NPQ through interactions with antenna proteins. However, the roles of PsbS in bamboo remain unclear...
January 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Aina E Prinzenberg, Marcela Víquez-Zamora, Jeremy Harbinson, Pim Lindhout, Sjaak van Heusden
Physiology and genetics are tightly interrelated. Understanding the genetic basis of a physiological trait such as the quantum yield of the photosystem II, or photosynthetic responses to environmental changes will benefit the understanding of these processes. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging "CF", the quantum yield of photosystem II can be determined rapidly, precisely and non-invasively. In this article, the genetic control and variation in the steady-state quantum yield of PSII "ΦPSII " is analysed for diploid potato plants...
January 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yongliang Liu, Yanli Song, Shaohua Zeng, Barunava Patra, Ling Yuan, Ying Wang
As compatible solute, glycine betaine (GB) plays a significant role in salinity tolerance in GB accumulating plants. Solanaceous crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) are salt sensitive and naturally GB non-accumulators. In Solanaceae, only the Lycium genus was recorded as halophytes in China, and several Lycium species have been reported as GB accumulators. The last biosynthetic step of GB is catalyzed by aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activities...
January 3, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Robyn E Goacher, Erick J Braham, Courtney L Michienzi, Robert M Flick, Alexander F Yakunin, Emma R Master
The modification and degradation of lignin play a vital role in carbon cycling as well as production of biofuels and bioproducts. The possibility of using bacterial laccases for the oxidation of lignin offers a route to utilize existing industrial protein expression techniques. However, bacterial laccases are most frequently studied on small model compounds that do not capture the complexity of lignocellulosic materials. This work studied the action of laccases from Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium (EC 1...
December 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Akane Okamoto-Nakazato
To understand the action mechanism of Yieldin (YLD) on the regulation of the yield threshold (Y), one of the critical parameters of cell wall extension, YLD was extracted from the cell walls of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) hypocotyls and the hemagglutinin (HA) as well as the glycosidase activity of the protein was measured. Sedimentation assays using trypsinated rabbit erythrocytes showed that YLD possessed HA activity at pH 7. The digestion assays using 4-nitrophenyl (pNP) glycopyranosides as artificial substrates showed that YLD liberated galactose residues from pNP alpha- D-galactopyranoside mainly at pH 4...
December 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Matthias Karadar, Gilbert Neuner, Ilse Kranner, Andreas Holzinger, Othmar Buchner
In the 20th century, annual mean temperatures in the European Alps rose by almost 1 K and are predicted to rise further, increasing the impact of temperature on alpine plants. The role of light in the heat hardening of plants is still not fully understood. Here, the alpine dwarf shrub Vaccinium gaultherioides was exposed in situ to controlled short-term heat spells (150 min with leaf temperatures 43-49°C) and long-term heat waves (7 d, 30°C) under different irradiation intensities. Lethal leaf temperatures (LT50 ) were calculated...
December 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Silit Lazare, Asdrubal Burgos, Yariv Brotman, Michele Zaccai
Large bulbs of Lilium longiflorum have an obligatory cold requirement to flower. Bulb cooling is widely used to induce and accelerate flowering. However, in-depth investigations of the effect of bulb cooling on major landmarks of plant development are lacking. It has been demonstrated that low temperature induces carbohydrate degradation, yet integrative studies on metabolic changes occurring in the bulb are not available. We detected that cold exposure mainly hastened bulb sprouting, rather than floral transition or blooming...
December 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Nuoendagula, Yukiko Tsuji, Naoki Takata, Shingo Sakamoto, Akiko Nakagawa-Izumi, Toru Taniguchi, John Ralph, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Shinya Kajita
We previously succeeded to enhance formation of wood in transgenic poplar plants by overexpressing SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 from Oryza sativa (OsSWN1), a transcription factor master regulator of secondary cell wall formation in rice, under control of the fiber preferential NST3/SND1 promoter from Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants had an increased cell wall thickness and cell wall density of individual cells in the secondary xylem of stems as well as an increased wood density. OsSWN1 triggers the induction of polysaccharide and lignin biosynthetic gene expressions, however resulting in no significant impact on the lignin content in the transgenic plants...
December 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiangbo Duan, Yang Yu, Huizi Duanmu, Chao Chen, Xiaoli Sun, Lei Cao, Qiang Li, Xiaodong Ding, Beidong Liu, Yanming Zhu
Alkaline stress is a major form of abiotic stress that severely inhibits plant growth and development, thus restricting crop productivity. However, little is known about how plants respond to alkali. In this study, a slow-type anion channel homologue 3 gene GsSLAH3 was isolated and functionally characterized. Bioinformatics analysis showed that GsSLAH3 protein contains ten transmembrane helices. Consistently, GsSLAH3 was found to locate on plasma membrane by transient expression in onion epidermal cells. In wild soybeans, GsSLAH3 expression was induced by NaHCO3 treatment, suggesting its involvement in plant response to alkaline stress...
December 15, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yun Yang, Yuan Cao, Hua-Quan Xu, Long Gao, Xue Guo, Xue-Qiong Liu, Li Zhang, Xue-Xin Zhang, Dan-Yang Wang
Forward genetic analysis, widely used to find new gene functions, benefits from the availability of mutants. At present, based on Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation technology, many transfer (T)-DNA transformants have been created. However, cloning their T-DNA insertion sites, which enables identification of the mutated genes, is still challenging. In this study, we improved adapter ligation-mediated PCR (A-PCR), which mainly utilizes the thermal asymmetric interlaced reaction and the degenerate-sequence-recognizing restriction endonucleases (TADE)...
December 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Bingbing Cai, Qiang Li, Fengjiao Liu, Huangai Bi, Xizhen Ai
In northern China, low temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses for tomato plants cultivated in solar-greenhouse in winter. We recently found that the expression and enzyme activity of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases in tomato (FBAs), which are important enzymes in the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC), were significantly altered in tomato seedlings subjected to heat/cold stresses. In order to study the role of FBA in photosynthesis and in regulating cold stress responses of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum), we transformed a tomato inbred line (FF) with RNA interference (RNAi) vector containing SlFBA7 reverse tandem repeat sequence...
December 12, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Geraint Parry, Sarah Jose
In July 2017 the Society for Experimental Biology hosted a symposium on New Breeding Technologies (NBTs) in Plant Sciences at the University of Gothenburg. This report summarises the major outcomes of this meeting. Delegates discussed both the technical and policy aspects of NBTs, with a focus on CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Li-Juan Zou, Xing-Guang Deng, Li-E Zhang, Tong Zhu, Wen-Rong Tan, Arfan Muhammad, Li-Jun Zhu, Chao Zhang, Da-Wei Zhang, Hong-Hui Lin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a crucial role in biotic stress responses. Here, we found that BR treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation, and a significant reduction of virus accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the plants pre-treated with NO scavenger (PTIO) or nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor (tungstate) were hardly generated NO generation and appeared to have the highest viral replication and suffer more damages. Furthermore, the antioxidant system and photosystem parameters were up-regulated in brassinolide (BL) - treated plants but down regulated in PTIO- or tungstate-treated plants, suggesting NO may be involved in BRs induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sylwia Głazowska, Emiko Murozuka, Daniel Pergament Persson, Pedro Humberto Castro, Jan K Schjoerring
Silicon (Si) has many beneficial effects in plants, especially for the survival of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, Si may negatively affect the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy purposes. Despite many studies, the regulation of Si distribution and deposition in plants remains to be fully understood. Here, we have identified the Brachypodium distachyon mutant low-silicon 1 (Bdlsi1-1), with impaired channelling function of the Si influx transporter BdLSI1, resulting in a substantial reduction of Si in shoots...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Damian Gruszka, Anna Janeczko, Michal Dziurka, Ewa Pociecha, Jozsef Fodor
Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Alireza Houshmandfar, Glenn J Fitzgerald, Garry O'Leary, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Andrew Fletcher, Michael Tausz
The impact of elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]) on crops often includes a decrease in their nutrient concentrations where reduced transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients has been suggested to play a role. We used two independent approaches, a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in the South Eastern wheat belt of Australia and a simulation study employing the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), to show that transpiration (mm) and nutrient uptake (g m-2 ) of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) in wheat are correlated under e[CO2 ], but that nutrient uptake per unit water transpired is higher under e[CO2 ] than under ambient [CO2 ] (a[CO2 ])...
December 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sebastian J Nintemann, Pascal Hunziker, Tonni Grube Andersen, Alexander Schulz, Meike Burow, Barbara Ann Halkier
Glucosinolates constitute the primary defense metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Indole and aliphatic glucosinolates, respectively biosynthesized from tryptophan and methionine, are known to serve distinct biological functions. Although all genes in the biosynthetic pathways have been identified and it is known where glucosinolates are stored, it has remained elusive where glucosinolates are produced at the cellular and tissue level. To understand how the spatial organization of the different glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways contributes to their distinct biological functions, we investigated the localization of enzymes of the pathways under constitutive and, for indole glucosinolates, also under induced conditions, by analyzing the spatial distribution of several fluorophore-tagged enzymes at the whole plant and the cellular level...
December 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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