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Physiologia Plantarum

Deepti Barnawal, Nidhi Bharti, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Alok Pandey, Chandan Singh Chanotiya, Alok Kalra
Abiotic stresses such as salt and drought represent adverse environmental conditions that significantly damage plant growth and agricultural productivity. In this study, the mechanism of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulated tolerance against abiotic stresses has been explored. Results suggest that PGPR strains, Arthrobacter protophormiae (SA3) and Dietzia natronolimnaea (STR1) can facilitate wheat crop in tolerating salt stress while Bacillus subtilis (LDR2) can provide tolerance to wheat crop against drought stress...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yu-Ching Tu, Wen-Shi Tsai, Jyuan-Yu Wei, Kai-Ya Chang, Chang-Ching Tien, Hui-Yu Hsiao, Shih-Feng Fu
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important crops worldwide and is severely affected by geminiviruses. Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV), belonging to the geminiviruses, was isolated in Taiwan and causes tremendous crop loss. The geminivirus-encoded C2 proteins are crucial for a successful interaction between the virus and host plants. However, the exact functions of the viral C2 protein of ToLCTWV have not been investigated. We analyzed the molecular function(s) of the C2 protein by transient or stable expression in tomato cv...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Arnold J Bloom, Petra Kameritsch
Rubisco, the enzyme that constitutes as much as half of the protein in a leaf, initiates either the photorespiratory pathway that supplies reductant for the assimilation of nitrate into amino acids or the C3 carbon fixation pathway that generates carbohydrates. The relative rates of these two pathways depend both on the relative extent to which O2 and CO2 occupies the active site of Rubisco and on whether manganese or magnesium is bound to the enzyme. This study quantified the activities of manganese and magnesium in isolated tobacco chloroplasts and the thermodynamics of binding of these metals to Rubisco purified from tobacco or a bacterium...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
H Marrou, J J Ricaute, M E Ghanem, J A Clavijo Michelangeli, L Ghaouti, I M Rao, T R Sinclair
Nitrogen accumulation in legumes is one of the main determinants of crop yield. Although N accumulation from symbiotic nitrogen fixation or N absorption from the soil has been widely investigated, there is no clear consensus on timing of the beginning of N accumulation and the termination of N accumulation, and the physiological events that may be associated with these two events. The analyses done in this study aimed at identifying the determinant of N accumulation in two grain legumes species. Nitrogen accumulation dynamics as well as mass accumulation and development stages were recorded in the field for several genotypes of common bean (Phaseaolus Vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) under different growing conditions...
August 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Xin Lu, Xiaofei Zhang, Hui Duan, Conglong Lian, Weilun Yin, Xinli Xia
Stress-responsive NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (SNAC) genes are being used to alter stress tolerance in Arabidopsis or grasses through genetic engineering. However, limited reports are available about the functional characteristics of SNAC in trees. In this study, three putative NAC proteins were identified from Populus euphratica. PeNAC034 and PeNAC045 were classified into the ATAF subgroup andPeNAC036 into the ANAC072 subgroup. These three SNAC transcription factors were localized in the nucleus and contained the transcription activation domain in their C-terminal...
August 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Wei Huang, Hong-Yu Ma, Ying Huang, Yan Li, Guang-Long Wang, Qian Jiang, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Chlorophyll (Chl) is essential for light harvesting and energy transduction in photosynthesis. A proper amount of Chl within plant cells is important to celery (Apium graveolens L.) yield and quality. Temperature stress is an influential abiotic stress affecting Chl biosynthesis and plant growth. There are limited proteomic studies regarding Chl accumulation under temperature stress in celery leaves. Here, the proteins from celery leaves under different temperature treatments (4 °C, 25 °C and 38 °C) were analyzed using a proteomic approach...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
João Henrique F Cavalcanti, Carla G S Quinhones, Peter Schertl, Danielle S Brito, Holger Eubel, Tatjana Hildebrandt, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Hans-Peter Braun, Wagner L Araújo
Plant respiration mostly depends on the activity of glycolysis and the oxidation of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to synthesize ATP. However, during stress situations plant cells also use amino acids as alternative substrates to donate electrons via the ETF/ETFQO complex to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). Given to this, here we investigated changes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture under carbohydrate starvation supplied with a range of amino acids...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Dariusz Stępiński, Maria Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka Wojtczak, Eva Domίnguez, Antonio Heredia, Katarzyna Popłońska
Cutinsomes, spherical nanoparticles containing cutin mono- and oligomers, are engaged in cuticle formation. Earlier they were revealed to participate in cuticle biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum fruit and Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary epidermis. Here transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunogold labelling with antibody against the cutinsomes were applied to aerial cotyledon epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana mature embryos. TEM as well as gold particles conjugated with the cutinsome antibody revealed these structures in the cytoplasm, near the plasmalemma, in the cell wall and incorporated into the cuticle...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Andrea Scartazza, Piero Picciarelli, Lorenzo Mariotti, Maurizio Curadi, Laura Barsanti, Paolo Gualtieri
β-1,3-glucans such as paramylon act as elicitors in plants, modifying the hormonal levels and the physiological responses. Plant hormones affect all phases of the plant life cycle and their responses to environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a root treatment with Euglena gracilis paramylon on xylem hormonal levels, photosynthetic performance and dehydration stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Paramylon granules were processed to obtain the linear fibrous structures capable to interact with tomato cell membrane...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
A Pompeiano, T Huarancca Reyes, T M Moles, M Villani, M Volterrani, L Guglielminetti, A Scartazza
Low oxygen conditions occur in grass sites due to high and frequent precipitation, poor soil quality, and over-irrigation followed by slow drainage. Three warm-season and one cool-season grasses were analyzed at metabolic level during a time-course experiment performed in a controlled anoxic environment. Prolonged oxygen depletion proved detrimental by leading to premature death to all the species, with the exception of seashore paspalum. Moreover, the anoxia tolerance observed in these grasses has been associated with slow use of carbohydrates, rather than with their relative abundance, which was more important than their antioxidant capacity...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Sun-Goo Hwang, Sandeep Chapagain, A-Reum Han, Yong Chan Park, Hyeon Mi Park, Yong Hwan Kim, Cheol Seong Jang
Arsenic (As) accumulation adversely affects the growth and productivity of plants and poses a serious threat to human health and food security. In this study, we identified one As-responsive Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligase gene from rice root tissues during As stress. We named it Oryza sativa Arsenic-Induced RING E3 ligase 2 (OsAIR2). Expression of OsAIR2 was induced under various abiotic stress conditions, including heat, salt, drought, and As exposure. Results of an in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that OsAIR2 possesses an E3 ligase activity...
August 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Karin Stensjö, Konstantinos Vavitsas, Taina Tyystjärvi
Sustainable production of biofuels and other valuable compounds is one of our future challenges. One tempting possibility is to use photosynthetic cyanobacteria as production factories. Currently, tools for genetic engineering of cyanobacteria are yet not good enough to exploit the full potential of cyanobacteria. A wide variety of expression systems will be required to adjust both the expression of heterologous enzyme(s) and metabolic routes to the best possible balance, allowing the optimal production of a particular substance...
August 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Lasse Tarvainen, Martina Lutz, Mats Räntfors, Torgny Näsholm, Göran Wallin
A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that Vcmax and Jmax exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability...
July 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Gerhard C Rossouw, Beverley A Orchard, Katja Šuklje, Jason P Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire, Bruno P Holzapfel
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) roots and leaves represent major carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) sources, either as recent assimilates, or mobilized from labile or storage pools. This study examined the response of root and leaf primary metabolism following defoliation treatments applied to fruiting vines during ripening. The objective was to link alterations in root and leaf metabolism to carbohydrate and N source functioning under conditions of increased fruit sink demand. Potted grapevine leaf area was adjusted near the start of véraison to 25 primary leaves per vine compared to 100 leaves for the control...
July 10, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Lin-Shan Ye, Qin Zhang, Hui Pan, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang, Qing-Bo Yu
In higher plants, chloroplasts carry out many important functions, and normal chloroplast development is required for embryogenesis. Numerous chloroplast-targeted proteins involved in embryogenesis have been identified. Nevertheless, their functions remain unclear. In this study, a chloroplast-localized protein, EMB2738, was reported to be involved in Arabidopsis embryogenesis. EMB2738 knockout led to defective embryos, and the embryo development in emb2738 s was interrupted after the globular stage. Complementation experiments identified the AT3G12080 locus as EMB2738...
July 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Elizabeth Vaca, Claire Behrens, Tiju Theccanat, Jun-Yong Choe, John V Dean
Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone involved in a number of physiological responses including both local and systemic resistance of plants to pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA is glucosylated to form either SA 2-O-β-D-glucose (SAG) or SA glucose ester (SGE). In the present study, we show that SAG accumulates in the vacuole of Arabidopsis, while the majority of SGE was located outside the vacuole. The uptake of SAG by vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles isolated from Arabidopsis was stimulated by the addition of MgATP and was inhibited by both vanadate (ABC transporter inhibitor) and bafilomycin A1 (vacuolar H(+) -ATPase inhibitor), suggesting that SAG uptake involves both an ABC transporter and H(+) -antiporter...
June 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Rana A Ahmad, Lars Dietzel
Regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting involves all major thylakoid membrane complexes. One important factor is the proton motive force (pmf) driving ATP production. Its proton gradient (ΔpH) component regulates the high energy quenching. Potassium ions largely contribute to the formation of the electric field (ΔΨ). ΔΨ and ΔpH partially compensate each other to form pmf. Whilst in plants considerable progress has been made in analyzing the interplay of H(+) and K(+) gradients, in diatoms knowledge in this field is still scarce...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yunxiang Wang, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Zhiping Deng, Jinhua Zuo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that could act as ceRNAs (Competing endogenous RNAs) to terminate the mRNA targets' suppression of miRNAs. To elucidate the intricate regulatory roles of circRNAs in the ethylene pathway in tomato fruit, deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were performed. After strict screening, a total of 318 circRNAs were identified. Among these circRNAs, 282 were significantly differentially expressed among wild type and sense-/antisense-LeERF1 transgenic tomato fruits...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Renée M Marchin, Tarryn L Turnbull, Audrey I Deheinzelin, Mark A Adams
Plant survival in many ecosystems requires tolerance of large radiation loads, unreliable water supply, and suboptimal soil fertility. We hypothesized that increased production of neutral lipids (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in plant leaves is a mechanism for dissipating excess radiation energy. In a greenhouse experiment, we combined drought and shade treatments and examined responses among four species differing in life form, habitat, and drought- and shade-tolerance. We also present a lipid extraction protocol suitable for sclerophyllous leaves of native Australian trees (e...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Hitoshi Nakamoto, Kouji Kojima
GroELs which are prokaryotic members of the chaperonin/Hsp60 family are molecular chaperones of which Escherichia coli GroEL is a model for subsequent research. The majority of bacterial species including E. coli and Bacillus subtilis have only one essential groEL gene that forms an operon with the co-chaperone groES gene.
June 9, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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