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Physiologia Plantarum

Lasse Tarvainen, Martina Lutz, Mats Räntfors, Torgny Näsholm, Göran Wallin
A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that Vcmax and Jmax exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability...
July 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Gerhard C Rossouw, Beverley A Orchard, Katja Šuklje, Jason P Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire, Bruno P Holzapfel
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) roots and leaves represent major carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) sources, either as recent assimilates, or mobilized from labile or storage pools. This study examined the response of root and leaf primary metabolism following defoliation treatments applied to fruiting vines during ripening. The objective was to link alterations in root and leaf metabolism to carbohydrate and N source functioning under conditions of increased fruit sink demand. Potted grapevine leaf area was adjusted near the start of véraison to 25 primary leaves per vine compared to 100 leaves for the control...
July 10, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Lin-Shan Ye, Qin Zhang, Hui Pan, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang, Qing-Bo Yu
In higher plants, chloroplasts carry out many important functions, and normal chloroplast development is required for embryogenesis. Numerous chloroplast-targeted proteins involved in embryogenesis have been identified. Nevertheless, their functions remain unclear. In this study, a chloroplast-localized protein, EMB2738, was reported to be involved in Arabidopsis embryogenesis. EMB2738 knockout led to defective embryos, and the embryo development in emb2738 s was interrupted after the globular stage. Complementation experiments identified the AT3G12080 locus as EMB2738...
July 4, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Elizabeth Vaca, Claire Behrens, Tiju Theccanat, Jun-Yong Choe, John V Dean
Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone involved in a number of physiological responses including both local and systemic resistance of plants to pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA is glucosylated to form either SA 2-O-β-D-glucose (SAG) or SA glucose ester (SGE). In the present study, we show that SAG accumulates in the vacuole of Arabidopsis, while the majority of SGE was located outside the vacuole. The uptake of SAG by vacuolar membrane-enriched vesicles isolated from Arabidopsis was stimulated by the addition of MgATP and was inhibited by both vanadate (ABC transporter inhibitor) and bafilomycin A1 (vacuolar H(+) -ATPase inhibitor), suggesting that SAG uptake involves both an ABC transporter and H(+) -antiporter...
June 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Rana Adeel Ahmad, Lars Dietzel
Regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting involves all major thylakoid membrane complexes. One important factor is the proton motive force (pmf) driving ATP production. Its ΔpH component regulates the high energy quenching. Potassium ions largely contribute to the formation of the electric field (ΔΨ). ΔΨ and ΔpH partially compensate each other to form pmf. Whilst in plants considerable progress has been made in analyzing the interplay of H(+) and K(+) gradients, in diatoms knowledge in this field is still scarce...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yunxiang Wang, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Zhiping Deng, Jinhua Zuo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that could act as ceRNAs (Competing endogenous RNAs) to terminate the mRNA targets' suppression of miRNAs. To elucidate the intricate regulatory roles of circRNAs in the ethylene pathway in tomato fruit, deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were performed. After strict screening, a total of 318 circRNAs were identified. Among these circRNAs, 282 were significantly differentially expressed among wild type and sense-/antisense-LeERF1 transgenic tomato fruits...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Renée M Marchin, Tarryn L Turnbull, Audrey I Deheinzelin, Mark A Adams
Plant survival in many ecosystems requires tolerance of large radiation loads, unreliable water supply, and suboptimal soil fertility. We hypothesized that increased production of neutral lipids (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in plant leaves is a mechanism for dissipating excess radiation energy. In a greenhouse experiment, we combined drought and shade treatments and examined responses among four species differing in life form, habitat, and drought- and shade-tolerance. We also present a lipid extraction protocol suitable for sclerophyllous leaves of native Australian trees (e...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Hitoshi Nakamoto, Kouji Kojima
GroELs which are prokaryotic members of the chaperonin/Hsp60 family are molecular chaperones of which Escherichia coli GroEL is a model for subsequent research. The majority of bacterial species including E. coli and Bacillus subtilis have only one essential groEL gene that forms an operon with the co-chaperone groES gene.
June 9, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Anthony Digrado, Aurélie Bachy, Ahsan Mozaffar, Niels Schoon, Filippo Bussotti, Crist Amelynck, Anne-Catherine Dalcq, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Marc Aubinet, Bernard Heinesch, Patrick du Jardin, Pierre Delaplace
Several experiments have highlighted the complexity of stress interactions involved in plant response. The impact in field conditions of combined environmental constraints on the mechanisms involved in plant photosynthetic response, however, remains understudied. In a long-term field study performed in a managed grassland, we investigated the photosynthetic apparatus response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to environmental constraints and its ability to recover and acclimatize. Frequent field measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) were made in order to determine the photosynthetic performance response of a population of L...
June 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ingrid H Michelson, Pär K Ingvarsson, Kathryn M Robinson, Erik Edlund, Maria E Eriksson, Ove Nilsson, Stefan Jansson
Autumn senescence in mature aspens, grown under natural conditions, is initiated at almost the same date every year. The mechanism of such precise timing is not understood but we have previously shown that the signal must be derived from light. We studied variation in bud set and autumn senescence in a collection of 116 natural Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula) genotypes, from twelve populations in Sweden and planted in one northern and one southern common garden, to test the hypothesis that onset of autumn senescence is triggered by day length...
June 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Haimiao Wang, Yinglong Chen, Wei Hu, Shanshan Wang, John L Snider, Zhiguo Zhou
Short-term waterlogging and chronic elevated temperature occur concomitantly in the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growing season. While previous research about co-occurring waterlogging and elevated temperature has focused primarily on cotton fiber, no studies have investigated carbohydrate metabolism of the subtending leaf (a major source leaf for boll development) cross-acclimation to aforementioned stressors. To address this, plants were exposed to ambient (31.6/26.5°C) and elevated (34.1/29.0°C) temperatures during the whole flowering and boll formation stage, and waterlogging (0, 3, 6 days) beginning on the day of anthesis...
June 5, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Kazuyuki Wakabayashi, Kouichi Soga, Takayuki Hoson, Toshihisa Kotake, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Takashi Yamazaki, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Motoshi Kamada
We investigated the effects of microgravity environment on growth and plant hormone levels in dark-grown rice shoots cultivated in artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions on the International Space Station (ISS). Growth of microgravity-grown shoots was comparable to that of 1 g-grown shoots. Endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in shoots remained constant, while those of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs) decreased during the cultivation period under both conditions...
June 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega, Francisco M Del Amor
The increase in the ambient concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is producing climate events that can compromise crop survival. However, high CO2 concentrations are sometimes able to mitigate certain stresses such as salinity or drought. In this experiment, the effects of waterlogging and CO2 are studied in combination to elucidate the eventual response in sweet cherry trees. For this purpose, four sweet cherry cultivars ('Burlat', 'Cashmere', 'Lapins, and 'New Star') were grafted on a typically hypoxia-tolerant rootstock ('Mariana 2624') and were submitted to waterlogging for 7 days at either ambient CO2 concentration (400 µmol mol(-1) ) or at elevated CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1) )...
June 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Pierre Cardol, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of photosynthetic electron and proton transports and their regulation in plants and algae in response to changes in environmental conditions is an important issue for fundamental research on photosynthesis, and may extend even to practical applications by identifying important sites for improvement of photosynthesis. The significance and often centrality of regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic electron transport is well established for processes in plant acclimation...
May 26, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Yi Xu, Patrick Burgess, Bingru Huang
The objective of this study was to investigate transcriptomic changes and molecular factors regulated by cytokinins that may contribute to improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) overexpressing adenine isopentenyltransferase (ipt). Wild-type (WT) and ipt-transgenic plants were maintained well irrigated or exposed to 21 d of drought stress in growth chambers. Transcriptomic analysis conducted by RNA-seq revealed 661 and 648 up-regulated and 764 and 862 down-regulated drought-responsive genes (DRGs) in the WT and ipt-transgenic plants, respectively, under drought stress using adjusted p-value of 0...
May 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Huangai Bi, Peipei Liu, Zhensheng Jiang, Xizhen Ai
Rubisco activase (RCA) is an important enzyme that can catalyze the carboxylation and oxygenation activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which is involved in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Here, we studied the effects of changes in RCA activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, as well as the chilling tolerance of RCA overexpressing transgenic cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. CsRCA overexpression increased the plant height, leaf area and dry matter, and decreased the root/top ratio in transgenic cucumber plants compared with the wild type (WT) plants...
May 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Daria V Dibrova, Daria N Shalaeva, Michael Y Galperin, Armen Y Mulkidjanian
The cytochrome bc complexes are involved in Q-cycling; they oxidize membrane quinols by high-potential electron acceptors, such as cytochromes or plastocyanin, and generate transmembrane proton gradient. In several prokaryotic lineages, and also in plant chloroplasts, the catalytic core of the cytochrome bc complexes is built of a four-helical cytochrome b that contains three hemes, a three-helical subunit IV, and an iron-sulfur Rieske protein (cytochrome b6 f-type complexes). In other prokaryotic lineages, and also in mitochondria, the cytochrome b subunit is fused with subunit IV, yielding a seven- or eight-helical cytochrome b with only two hemes (cytochrome bc1 -type complexes)...
May 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Thi Thuy Trang Le, Brett Williams, Sagadevan Mundree
Osmotin is a key protein associated with abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. In this study, an osmotin from the resurrection plant Tripogon loliiformis (TlOsm) was characterized and functionally analyzed under abiotic stress conditions in T. loliiformis as well as in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Oryza sativa (rice) plants. Real-time PCR analysis on mixed elicitor cDNA libraries from T. loliiformis showed that TlOsm was upregulated a thousand-fold during the early stages of osmotic stresses (cold, drought, and salinity) in both shoots and roots but down-regulated in shoots during heat stress...
May 3, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Biao Gong, Yanyan Yan, Dan Wen, Qinghua Shi
The beneficial effects of melatonin on abiotic stress have been demonstrated in several plants. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathway of melatonin involved in the plant stress response. Here, we manipulated the melatonin levels in tomato plants through a chemical approach. The roles of melatonin in stress tolerance were studied by assessing the symptoms, chlorophyll fluorescence and stress-responsive gene expression. Moreover, both chemical and genetic approaches were used to study the roles of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in melatonin-induced signal transduction in tomato plants...
May 2, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Moses Kwame Aidoo, Tal Sherman, Naftali Lazarovitch, Aaron Fait, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, differing in their response to chilling, were exposed to three levels of root-zone temperatures. Gas exchange, shoot and root phenology, and the pattern of change of the central metabolites and secondary metabolites caffeate and benzoate in the leaves and roots were profiled. Low root-zone temperature significantly inhibited gaseous exchange, with a greater effect on the sensitive commercial pepper hybrid (Canon) than on the new hybrid bred to enhance abiotic stress tolerance (S103)...
April 26, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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