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Physiologia Plantarum

Robert D Hoffmann, Lene Irene Olsen, Chukwuebuka Vincent Ezike, Jesper Torbøl Pedersen, Raffaele Manstretta, Rosa L Lopez-Marques, Michael Palmgren
Plasma membrane H+ -ATPase pumps build up the electrochemical H+ gradients that energize most other transport processes into and out of plant cells through channel proteins and secondary active carriers. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AUTOINHIBITED PLASMA MEMBRANE H+ -ATPases AHA1, AHA2 and AHA7 are predominant in root epidermal cells. In contrast to other H+ -ATPases, we find that AHA7 is autoinhibited by a sequence present in the extracellular loop between transmembrane segments 7 and 8. Autoinhibition of pump activity was regulated by extracellular pH, suggesting negative feedback regulation of AHA7 during establishment of an H+ gradient...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ramamurthy Mahalingam, Phil Bregitzer
Drought and heat stress are two major abiotic stresses that tend to co-occur in nature. Recent climate change models predict that the frequency and duration of periods of high temperatures and moisture-deficits are on the rise and can be detrimental to crop production and hence a serious threat for global food security. In this study we examined the impact of short-term heat, drought and combined heat and drought stress on four barley varieties. These stresses were applied during vegetative stage or during heading stages...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jenny De Almeida, Ana Herrera, Wilmer Tezara
Cocoa grows under shade, but some cultivars develop successfully in full sunlight. In order to characterize the response to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of a Modern Criollo cocoa clone, gas exchange, photochemical activity and leaf traits, and their relation to growth were measured in seedlings growing in a greenhouse at three different values of PPFD, as well as in adults in full sunlight and shade in the field. Plants showed changes in physiological, biochemical, and morpho-anatomical traits in response to the different light conditions, and in the phenotypic plasticity of these variables...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Georgia Tooulakou, Dimosthenis Nikolopoulos, Elissavet Dotsika, Malvina G Orkoula, Christos G Kontoyannis, Georgios Liakopoulos, Maria I Klapa, George Karabourniotis
The functional role(s) of plant calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that crystals function as dynamic carbon pools whose decomposition could provide CO2 to photosynthesis when stomata are closed (e.g. under drought conditions) and CO2 starvation conditions may be created within the mesophyll. This biochemical process, named as 'alarm photosynthesis', can become crucial for plant survival under adverse conditions. Here we study crystal decomposition under controlled CO2 starvation conditions (either in the shoot or in the root) to obtain a better insight into the process of crystal formation and function...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sara Trevisan, Anna Rita Trentin, Rossella Ghisi, Antonio Masi, Silvia Quaggiotti
Nitrogen (N) is an indispensable nutrient for crops but its availability in agricultural soils is subject to considerable fluctuation. Plants have developed plastic responses to external N fluctuations in order to optimise their development. The coordinated action of nitric oxide and auxin seems to allow the cells of the transition zone (TZ) of the root apex of N-deprived maize to rapidly sense nitrate. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling might also have a role in this pathway, probably through a putative maize orthologue of UPBEAT1 (UPB1)...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ling Hu, Yunxiu Zhang, Haiyong Xia, Shoujin Fan, Jie Song, Xuemei Lv, Lingan Kong
Photosynthesis in non-foliar organs plays an important role in crop growth and productivity, and it has received considerable research attention in recent years. However, compared with the capability of photosynthetic CO2 fixation in leaves, the distinct attributes of photosynthesis in the non-foliar organs of wheat (a C3 species) are unclear. This review presents a comprehensive examination of the photosynthetic characteristics of non-foliar organs in wheat. Compared with leaves, non-foliar organs had a higher capacity to refix respired CO2 , higher tolerance to environmental stresses and slower terminal senescence after anthesis...
September 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Bhavesh Liladhar Jangale, Rakesh Shashikant Chaudhari, Abdul Azeez, Prafullachandra Vishnu Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra Sane, Bal Krishna
In tropics, combined stresses of drought and heat often reduce crop productivity in plants like Musa acuminata L. We compared responses of two contrasting banana genotypes, namely the drought-sensitive Grand Nain (GN; AAA genome) and drought tolerant Hill banana (HB; AAB genome) to individual drought, heat and their combination under controlled and field conditions. Drought and combined drought and heat treatments caused greater reduction in leaf relative water content and greater increase in ion leakage and H2 O2 content in GN plants, especially in early stages, while the responses were more pronounced in HB at later stages...
September 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jing-Pu Tian, Zhi-Yao Ma, Kai-Ge Zhao, Jie Zhang, Lin Xiang, Long-Qing Chen
Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox L.) is an important ornamental plant in China with a pleasant floral scent. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying differences in the fragrances among genotypes of this plant, we analyzed floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two different genotypes: SW001, which has little to no fragrance, and the scented genotype H29. The major VOCs in H29 were linalool, trans-β-ocimene, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, and methyl benzoate. The most important aroma-active compound in H29, linalool, was emitted at a low concentration in SW001, which had markedly higher levels of trans-β-ocimene than H29...
September 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ricardo Nilo-Poyanco, Paula Vizoso, Dayan Sanhueza, Iván Balic, Claudio Meneses, L Ariel Orellana, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
Chilling injury represents a major constrain for crops productivity. Prunus persica, one of the most relevant rosacea crops, have early season varieties that are resistant to chilling injury, in contrast to late season varieties, which display chilling symptoms such as mealiness (dry, sandy fruit mesocarp) after prolonged storage at chilling temperatures. To uncover the molecular processes related to the ability of early varieties to withstand mealiness, postharvest and genome-wide RNA-seq assessments were performed in two early and two late varieties...
September 11, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Liu Cong, Rongrong Yue, Huibin Wang, Jianlong Liu, Rui Zhai, Jie Yang, Meng Wu, Min Si, Haiqi Zhang, Chengquan Yang, Lingfei Xu, Zhigang Wang
Parthenocarpy, the productions of seedless fruit without pollination or fertilization, is a potentially desirable trait in many commercially grown fruits, especially in pear, which is self-incompatible. Phytohormones play important roles in fruit set, a process crucial for parthenocarpy. In this study, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an artificially synthesized plant growth regulator with functions similar to auxin, was found to induce parthenocarpy in pear. Histological observations revealed that 2,4-D promoted cell division and expansion, which increased cortex thickness, but the effect was weakened by paclobutrazol (PAC), a gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor...
September 11, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Aditya Banerjee, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Aryadeep Roychoudhury
Karrikins (KARs) are unique butenolides derived as a by-product of incomplete combustion during wildfire. Some receptive plant species respond to KARs in the form of accelerated germination. These molecules originate from stress to mediate tolerance against different sub-optimal conditions like oxidative stress, drought and low light intensity (shade stress). KARs promote seed germination, seedling establishment and ecological diversity by accelerating the abundance of selective communities of plants. The signaling pathway is closely related, yet unique from strigolactones (SLs)...
September 11, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Shuyang Zhen, Mark Haidekker, Marc W van Iersel
Linear electron transport depends on balanced excitation of photosystem I and II. Far-red light preferentially excites photosystem I (PSI) and can enhance the photosynthetic efficiency when combined with light that over-excites photosystem II (PSII). The efficiency of different wavelengths of far-red light at exciting PSI was quantified by measuring the change in quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII ) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) under red/blue light with narrowband far-red light added (from 678 to 752 nm, obtained using laser diodes)...
September 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Qingwu Meng, Erik S Runkle
Photoperiodic lighting can promote flowering of long-day plants (LDPs) and inhibit flowering of short-day plants (SDPs). Red (R) and far-red (FR) light regulate flowering through phytochromes, whereas blue light does so primarily through cryptochromes. In contrast, the role of green light in photoperiodic regulation of flowering has been inconsistent in previous studies. We grew four LDP species (two petunia cultivars, ageratum, snapdragon, and Arabidopsis) and two SDP species (three chrysanthemum cultivars and marigold) in a greenhouse under truncated 9-h short days with or without 7-hour day-extension lighting from green light (peak = 521 nm) at 0, 2, 13, or 25 μmol m-2 s-1 or R+white (W)+FR light at 2 μmol m-2 s-1 ...
September 6, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Guiyan Yang, Shuwen Chen, Dapei Li, Xiangqian Gao, Liyuan Su, Shaobing Peng, MeiZhi Zhai
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important plant proteins involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. A gene from Juglans regia, JrGSTTau1 was previously cloned and functionally characterized as an enzyme involved in improving cold tolerance in plants. To clarify the functional mechanism of JrGSTTau1 and its role in stress response, here, the JrGSTTau1 promoter including the up-stream regulators was examined using yeast one-hybrid together with transient expression assays, and the osmotic stress response ability was confirmed by comparing with wild type (WT) plants...
September 6, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Elena De Zio, Dalila Trupiano, Michal Karady, Ioanna Antoniadi, Antonio Montagnoli, Mattia Terzaghi, Donato Chiatante, Karin Ljung, Gabriella S Scippa
Mechanical forces induced by bending are able to trigger an asymmetrical response in Populus nigra L. woody taproots. This response includes the recruitment of new lateral roots on the convex side and the deposition of reaction wood (RW) on the opposite concave side. Since these responses seem to be induced by asymmetric activity and differentiation of cambium cells, in the present work, we investigated how mechanical forces could influence the activation of specific phytohormone signaling pathways on the two sides of the vascular cambium...
September 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Manuel Nieves-Cordones, Reyes Ródenas, Alberto Lara, Vicente Martínez, Francisco Rubio
Potassium (K+ ) is a macronutrient known for its high mobility and positive charge which allows efficient and fast control of the electrical balance and osmotic potential in plant cells. Such features allow K+ to remarkably contribute to plant stress adaptation. Some agricultural lands are deficient in K+ , imposing a stress that reduces crop yield and makes fertilization a common practice. However, individual stress conditions in the field are rare and crops usually face a combination of different stresses...
September 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Vesa Havurinne, Heta Mattila, Mikko Antinluoma, Esa Tyystjärvi
Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a powerful tool for estimating photosynthetic efficiency, but there are still unanswered questions that hinder the use of its full potential. The present results describe a caveat in estimation of photosynthetic performance with so-called rapid light curves with pulse amplitude modulation fluorometers. Rapid light curves of microalgae show a severe decrease in photosynthetic performance in high light, although a similar decrease cannot be seen with other methods. We show that this decrease cannot be assigned to energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching or photoinhibition or to the geometry of the algal sample...
September 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Pious Thomas, Mukta Agrawal, Chikkanahally B Bharathkumar
The study was envisaged to assess the extent of normally uncultivable endophytic bacteria in field papaya plants and in vitro established cultures adopting cultivation versus molecular analysis and microscopy. Surface sterilized axillary shoot-buds of papaya 'Arka Surya' revealed high bacterial diversity as per 16S rRNA metagene amplicon sequencing (six phyla, 10 classes, 21 families) with an abundance of Pseudomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), which also formed a common contaminant for in vitro cultured field-explants...
September 3, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sowmya Handenahally Reddy, Sumanth Kumar Kambalimath, Rajesh Kumar Singhal, Manjunath K Chikkakariyappa, Raveendran Muthurajan, Mavinahalli P Rajanna, Rohini Sreevathsa, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Trilochan Mohapatra, Sarala Neelamraju, Viswanathan Chinnuswamy, S Gopal Krishnan, Ashok K Singh, Nagendra K Singh, Rameshwar P Sharma, Sreeman M Sheshshayee
Understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms of trait diversity is crucial for crop improvement to achieve drought adaptation. Root traits such as high biomass and/or deep rootedness are undoubtedly important drought adaptive traits. The major aim of this investigation was to functionally characterize a set of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS)-induced rice mutants for root traits. We report the identification of a high root biomass mutant through a novel screening strategy for yield and Δ13 C measurements...
September 3, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Akie Kobayashi, Hye-Jeong Kim, Yuta Tomita, Yutaka Miyazawa, Nobuharu Fujii, Sachiko Yano, Chiaki Yamazaki, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Sachiko Miyabayashi, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Hideyuki Takahashi
Plants exhibit helical growth movements known as circumnutation in growing organs. Some studies indicate that circumnutation involves the gravitropic response, but this notion is a matter of debate. Here, using the agravitropic rice mutant lazy1 and space-grown rice seedlings, we found that circumnutation was reduced or lost during agravitropic growth in coleoptiles. Coleoptiles of wild-type rice exhibited circumnutation in the dark, with vigorous oscillatory movements during their growth. The gravitropic responses in lazy1 coleoptiles differed depending on the growth stage, with gravitropic responses detected during early growth and agravitropism during later growth...
August 29, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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